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MONTPELIER, VT.,, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 19, 1879.
GREEN MOUNTAIN FREEMAN,
Oftc In the Brick Block, Head of 8 tat Street.
1 50 If pid In sdvauc: otberwiu, 92.00.
Tariueut mar be wade by mall or otherwise to
II R. WH EE LOCK,
Editor aud Proprietor.
WEDNESDAY. MARCH 19, 1879.
LETTEKS ON' NATURAL HISTORY.
ltudinientarj Forms of Life,
nr Dn. Hiram A. Cutting.
Bioplasm, otherwise called protoplasm,
or germinal matter, is a transparent, color
less, glue-like, apparently structureless,
substance, even under the highest mag
nifying power. It exhibits these charac
teristics at every period of its existence.
It shows itself under all the tests known
to physical science to bo tho same wher
ever found, whether weaving plant or
animal. It is apparently the same when
making brain, muscle, nerve or bone, yet
In no way can those making nerve be
made to mako bone, or muscle; yet no
power of tho microscope shows auy differ
ent apw irance. They may exist in
masses less than one hundred thousandth
of an inch, or us largo as one two hund
redtli of an inch. They probably ncvor
have tho same form twice during their
existence, yet havo power of movement
and change. They absorb nutrient matter,
and instantaneously change this dead
matter into living, doing it by an unseen
process which no human science can irai
tato or explain. In this unexplainable
manner thoy feed, and thus in mystery
spin and weave threads of nerves, arteries,
veins, bones, in fact, all the mechanism ol
the system, throwing off formed and per
fect material. They also carry out tho de
sign, weaving in proper form, the plant or
animal, with every part completo, wind
ing the nerve spirally about a tendon, or
the muscle like spiral springs; increasing
in numbers themselves as they find work
to do until they fill up the whole subject,
rendering all complete. They are scat
tered through the tissues so that the dis
tance between them is scarcely more than
the breadth of themselves; thus constitut
ing at least one-fifth of the bulk of living
bodies. They are the sole agents by which
every living thing is made, so far ns
Though they increase by subdivision,
they doubtless differ sexually, as it is only
after the intermingling of these that mul
tiplication takes place, and their work
commences. After death they are resolved
into fibrin, allitiiuen, fatty matter and
salts, forming thus the spontaneously co
agulablo substance, on the diffusion of
which through the body, tho rigidity of
tho frame after death depends.
Such, in brief, is the description of the
most interesting, by far, of all the object
known to physical science. (For plates
and methods of observation I would refer
all to I!eal"s illustrations and descriptions.)
Every particle of matter that can be found
in any living being is ono of three kinds-
nutrient matter, living matter or formed
matter. Nutrient matter comes through
the cell wall and entering into the bio
plasm is there transformed into living
matter. 1 Sut you must not take tho cell
as the elementary part of the living tissue,
hut a naked mass of bioplasm. That is
tho elementary form ; all else from it
Nutrient material may pass through the
cell wall in animal tissues just as sap
passes through the intercellular substances
in vegetable tissues; the bioplast takes it.
and throws off formed material around its
quivering edges, and thus forms tho cell
wall ; and thus I might say weaves tin
tissue of animal or plant. Movement is
going on all the while, and while we see it
continuous, yet with a design, ns it makes
no mistake, wo feel that every change
must havo an adequate cause. The French
savans in science, say electricity and sun
light; but we say, standing back of all
directing the movements and laying out
the design, there is a power, fathomless,
unseen and omniscient, such as is ascribed
to God. Mere is found a set of bioplasts
weaving muscle, another nerve, and one
tendon; but there is no possible external
infiuenco that can make them exchange
offices with each other. We know they
are thus woven, wo know there must be a
cause. From the bioplast spindle Hows eff
formed matter; hero a miracle of muscle,
there a mirucle of tendon, there a miracle
of nerve. This goes on until tho foimed
material about them increases in thick
ness, at length it is too thick to admit nu
trient matter, and tho bioplast grows
smaller, and smaller, at length die and
drops away, the places of tho dead being
at once supplied by the living, which build
on after the pattern and design of tho
whole organization. Thus it goes on in
youth, in middle life, in old age, until
death puts an end to the wonderful work.
We have spoken of the parts, but in a
singlo nerve there is nrspenkable com
plexity. Let us stand with open eyes be
fore those revelations of Almighty God.
Here is a nerve wound spirally round
another fibre. How is it made to twine
about its trellis work? When that nerve
begins to bo formed thoso bioplasts are
near each other, they begin to throw off
formed material and push out shoulder to
shoulder, weaving on, marching still in
course, around the other fibre, with per
fect precision. Materialists say this is all
by molecular machinery. They speak of,
chemical properties ami allinilies. J hey
say this is transmutation of physical force.
it !, .k .1,.... .. o i.
J iJ iii-r u.tfc iiiuy nu mtyiiiLit i(
old aphorism "That tho clear is
true," " That all truth can bo made clear."
An intcllisrent direction is cloar and short,
. .i.!... ,. . ,.,
omcantuey u.s sor u is moiBMsityo llb,tjnc,l(.et ,,,, fiul.c
him lniengence, or meciianism; wiiicnr
Not only do tho mystic bioplasts know
enotich to coil one fibre around another,:"" victorious. 1 uey, at that lime, saw
, , ,, , , I, , .. , the necessity of not stopping halfway,
but they weave Iho whole complexity of uhoil)?ll ,Jore thlll lUJ0 "tom,MM.an
tho tissues togothor; so there is no clashing , clement had taken a strong hold in the
among the multitudinous parts ol llio 1 1 v -
ing organization. We see thoso changes
. i ?u .i .i, - ii i i- nr,
net-nanism." in tno naKea niopiust we
see changes going on and the question is,
what is an adequate cause of these
eoanges; God-gtven life, or mechanism ;
liaek of the bioplast we Cud nothing;
yet wo never find them without a first progress in the relorm of our politicians,
cause; without the sexual mingling before ; no'lsTU "-.2.
spoken of Various methods have been : w,ile tho last occupant of that exalted po
tried to produce life by spontaneous gen- silion is being feasted by tho crowned
eralion, hut it is to day settled that such
cannot be done ; but this theory has been
disproved and revived many times. Of
the doctrines of spontaneous generation I
will speak in my next.
About the Temperance Jinstion.
Written forllic Mini ltivcr Valley Lodge. I. O. of
The days of ignorance in regard to the
evils of intern pernme are, in a great
measure, among the things of the past.
Fifty years have wrought great changes
in the minds of till intelligent people in
relation to the use of alcoholic drinks, and
to make any startling revelations of the
evils of it is more than could he expected
irom any common munis; nut it seems a
necessity to constantly remind people of
what they already know to persuade them
to abandon habits lixed upon them.
Sixty years ago it cost forty dollars for
alcoholic drinks at an ordination attended
by Dr. Lyman Beeehor. What a contrast
of then and now! nearly every clergy
man now preaching temperance. It is
oue of the wonders of the nineteenth cen
tury what a radical chango in the public
sentiment. It seems a littlu strange with
our boasted civilization I hat we should
have allowed this giant evil to get so
strong a hold upon us, while tho Moham
medan s creed prohibits tho use of wine,
and a portion of its more ardent followers
exclude opium, tobacco and coffee, while
wo aro swallowing down hundreds of
millions of dollars' worth every year of
ruinous compounds called rum, "gin, bran-
ly and wine.
The blood thirsty Turks have not
s'aiightored so many Christians in their
provinces, in tho last ten years, as alcohol
has in Christianized America. Is it any
worse to slaughter men. women and
children by tho sword than it is to torture
to Ucalli witb a slow poison? Nearly
every city and large villago in the land
lias its army of Turks who aro doing the
fearful work of exterminating sixty ihou-
ind of our citizens annually, under the
sanction of tho law, in three cases out of
rour, while we lilt up our hands in horror
at the sultan of Turkey and his subjects.
a ueiu were iwo words mat, were used
for wine in the Hebrew tonguo. and it is
claimed by many that one meant the grape
or me pure juice 01 u, and mo oilier icr
mented juice that would intoxicate.
Hence, where the uso was recommended,
it was the juice before fermentation, an. I
the command not to uso was after fermen
tation; and the nso of wine and these
milder beverages is one of the great evils
of to-day. and I fear a growing one. Beer
saloons and beer gardens are springing
up in nearly every city, village and ham
let. Immense wine cellars are being con
structed on tho l'acilie slope, orchards are
being cultivated in all the states where
they will grow, to a greaier extent than
ever before, while the market is overstock
ed with their fruit, and we fear that the
same way of utilizing theui will be prac
ticed in the future as in the past.
The late good lloraco Greeley reserved
a large space in the New York Tribune to
educate the people to the culture of grapes.
Does any one suppose that there has over
been such a demand for tho article of
grapes for diet as to continually urge upon
people the culture of grapes to a great
extent? There can be no doubt in any
one's mind as to what use grapes would be
put to as soon as the market is overstock
ed with them, as we see what becomes of
i ho apples as soon as the crop exceeds the
demand for food and culinary purpnsi.o.
Many may and do sty that the mild
drinks are harmless, lias any one a good
reason to give why alcohol is not jus', as
injurious in eider as it is in any other
form? You will sec tho-e same bloated
forms anil bleared eyes in the cider, wine
and beer drinkers as you will in the ruin,
gin and brandy drinkers; and I think in
many eases worse. The evil effects upon
the human system arc more visible! in beer
and cider localities than where stronger
beverages are used. It is no very rare
case that you meet men who look like
traveling cider barrels or beer casks.
Every particle of fluid taken into the
stomach passes through the system in the
blood, l'eople that u-e these mild bever
ages use them in larger quantities, and
thus are the vital powers more heavily
taxed to throw them off. There never has
been any real reason given why they are
not just as great physical evils as stronger
drinks. Many a man tint would u-e in
bis family from ono to six barrels of cider
in a year, and feed it out to his family,
would admit that it would be n great evil
to use the same amount of uleohol in any
other form. Why not get a half barrel
of rum, dilute it with water, put a little
acid into it, and feed it to your family
morning, noon and night, or any other
time that tho appetite craves it? Men who
habitually use cider soon aro not satislied
with it in its primitive state, but will add
something to it to make it more Intoxicat
ing, lhey lix up something good for
haying or for cold weather, or to drink
when they gel wet, and on a hundnd
other occasion, and these occasions come
nearly every day.
It is one of the most foolish theories
ever gotten up that intoxicating drinks
are any less corrupting in ono form than
another. It is a theory without a reason.
At least, we never heard of one that was
good for anything. It is a very r.uo case
that a cider drinker is satislied to use much
until after fermentation.
The financial evils of intemperance are
no small item. Many a family .idlers for
tho real necessaries" of life, who invest
their means in cider and run their chances
for food and clothing. It would not re
quire a very extensive search to find peo
pie who had several barrels of cider in
their cellars, but who had not a dollar to
buy the necessaries of life for their fami
lies, and perhaps hardly wood enough at
their doors to keep them warm through a
cold night? Is all this a necessity? Must
you and your family ho fed upon cider in
preference to all other things; or has cider
got so strong a hold of you that yom-appo
tite will starve and freeze out of house and
home? Does not beer havo the same effect
whore that is the prevailing beverage?
Is the man any worse who squanders his
money at the beer saloons than the man
who squanders it at the cider mill?
In the great beer drinking city of Cin
cinnati lucre is an infant asylum, and
children at the age of a year and a half
olit nave died there with delirium tie
mens; hut 1 suppose that if a post mor
I teui examination nau men held by some
?' "r Vermont jurymen that they would
"live pronounced tho cause of death
L-,u., ..j ,1..... .I....I I.. I 1......
known, as they decide lager beer
11 itlnn a few years afier the causo of
temperance began to bu agitated in the
ilJriusli islands they began to sn the
struggle ensued in the years of 18M and
j 181)0, but the total abstinence wing came
, Hearts oi ine people. About the year
18-io father Matthew Had succeded in get
ting five hundred and fifty thousand nigna
greater reformer than Francis Murphy,
j we cannot boast of carrying on all of this
KrelU wo,k of. reform. There ms been
greater effort in tho bouso of parliamen'
to Mppl.t,sg w P(lffio
i ihero has in tho halls of congress in these
United States. Still, we have made great
heads of (he old world, and as is very
well known, a feast thero means wine in
the bill of f ire. But still the ox-president
is not the only intemperate man who has
held or docs hold high and responsible
positions in our country. The closing
days of the last session should not soon be
forgotten by every well wisher of this fair
republic, when every member of one im
portant committee was so badly intoxi
cated that they were unable to do business,
with ono exception, and lie one of those
despised colored individuals. What a sad
commentary on our political honor! Is it
any wonder that there is bull-dozing in
Massachusetts or South Carolina? Is ii
any wonder that tho jwople's money is
being stolen by the cart load by credit
molielier rings, when we send that class of
men to make laws for us? It is not nec
essary to go so far away from homo as
Washington to find intemperance and all
the evils attending it. Neither have we
to look to the remote parts of the state for
it. It is currently reported by those who
should know, that thero are over thirty
places where intoxicating drinks aro sold
in the capital of our slate - a place of
about three thousand inhabitants; one rum
bole to every ono hundred inhabitants
dnen, women and children) selling in do
li anee of the law. Is not this a sad state
of afi'iirs? Is not every one of us respon
sible for this in. a measure? Cannot every
one of us do something towards stopping
so extensive a liquor traffic so near our
own doors? Is there not some ono who is
helping to support those vile places that
wo have an influence over, that we can
pcrsuado to bo temperance men? If so,
we arc not doing all we can for good. 1
venture to say that ten men of means and
influence can as effectually stop this traf
fic in this county as any other crime can
he suppressed. " There aro places where
intoxicating drinks aro not sold.
Virieland, New Jersey, witli its ten
thousand inhabitants, pays less than one
tenth as much for its police force and its
overseer of the poor as the small town of
Warren pays for the support of the poor.
We sec ihe same results in Greeley, Col
orado, and other western towns where they
have adhered strictly to the prohibition of
intoxicating drinks. Is it not reasonable
to suppose tho same remedy would pro
duce like results in ther places? Neither
Viueland or Giecley is the garden of the
world. One is a sandy plain and tho other
a part of the great American desert, where
to raise tho poorest crop requires irriga
tion. In each of these places the poorest
of iis inhabitants arc not compelled to go
"Over tho hill to the poor house" with
their temperate habits. Neither do they
have lo coniribulu many of llieir hard
earned dollars to build jails and penitcn
tiaries, while wo meet tho tax sratherer
upon every corner, and continually gruni-
ble of hard limes, an a shall as long as we j
prefer to pay out our money to satisfy our
had habits, instead of Davinsr it out for the
benefit of morality; ten thousand dollars
paid out for a court house, while a small
sum asked for in the interest of morality
is paid with a frown.
l-'ifty years of temperance preaching has
not raised tho standard of morality so high
as to need no more of it. As soon as
strong drink destroys one generation an
other rises up to fill their places with their
hereditary appetites, and so the evils of
one generation are handed down to Ihe
next, aud the evil still marches on. It has
laken a large number of centuries to wipe
out the dark age of the world, and I fear
it will lake more lo abolish the effects ol
the drink triillic. l'erhaps there are no
people in the world whom wo look upon
with more distrust and dishonor than our
fellow citizens in Utah; and not but a few
places in the world where the climate is so
unfavorable for prosperity would be select
ed for a colony to locale. Still the Mor
mons tloiiri.-h to a wonderful degree in that
once barren valley. Is it reasonable to
suppose if the followers of Joseph Smith
ami Urigbam Young bad taken along the
till that it would not have starved them
out and driven lle-m to more fertile lands?
A people wilh temperate habits can sup
port several wives and numerous children,
w hile the drinking man raises up a fami
ly for the poor house and penitentiary.
Statistics of crime tell too plain a tale
to be refuted. In a lecture delivered by
fudge Davis in New York a short tune
ago, he cited tho following: A committee
of the commodious house of commons in
reporting in 1875, said that of twenty-eight
thousand two hundred and twenty-nine
cotumiiments to ihe goals during the three
previous years, Uvenly-ono thousand two
hundred and thirty-six were commuted lor
drunkenness or crimes perpetrated under
the influence of drink. The statistics of
crime show a similar ratio to that which
prevails in the mother country, and in the
dominion the report of tho mass state
board of charities in 1809 says tho pro
portion of crime traceable to this great
vice must be set down as heretofore lour
nttlis ino inspector ot state prisons in
the same year gave tho same proportion.
At the second point Judge Davis pro
ceeded to show by facts equally well au
thenticated lhat when, by any means, in
teniicrance is diminished, crime falls off
in tne s imo ratio. In Ireland, before the
close of October, iu 1738, Father Matlhew
had enrolled more than two hundred and
fifty thousand names on his pledges of
latal abstinence. Now note the statistics
of crime as given by Lord Marpelh, sec
retary for Ireland: In 1837 the entire num
ber of murders and murderous assaults
and other crimes against the person, of
various grades ol violence, was ono thou
sand two hundred and ninety-six; in 1838
ii was one thousand one hundred ami fifty
eight; in 18U'J it was ono thousand ninety
seven, and in 1840 it was only one hundred
and seventy-three. The persous impris
oned in ISridowell, tho principal city pris
on of ! ublin, fell off in one vcar from
ono hundred and thirty six to twenty-three,
and the Smithlicld prison actually closed
lor want oi occupants.
The figures show that under the prohi
bition law of Connecticut in 183 1 crime
decreased seventy five per cent. When
license was restored in 1873, crime inereas
cd fifty per cent in a singlo year. Under
the existing local option law in the cities
that havo voted against the traffic in li-
ouors, commitments for crime, in New
London, for example, and tho arrests have
averaged from thirty-five to fifiy per
month lor intoxication, but in JNovember
under the new law, thero were but six.
Volumes might bo written of statistic.
giving liko results, but it sccuh needless,
as it is only repeating what has been said
a thousand anil ono times before; hardly a
man, woman or child but has heard it over
and over again, but still the tide of intem
perance flows on; and slill the cry comes,
Mow are we to stein this fearful tide?
The scorns but. two ways ono is lo put the
drink beyond tho reach of thoso who use
it, and the other to placo man on a higher
moral plane, beyond tho roach of drink
People must bo educated lo know that
these milder drinks aro fireing tho appe
tite for something stronger. The fire once
kindled, although only with shavings, re
quires a constant feeding. These little-by-
iitties lire tno appetite lor more. Men
who are grumbling tho most about hard
tunes, and high taxes, and moneyed mo
nopolivs havo squandered their earnings
for strong drink; mon clothed in rags and
their families suffering for the ncoessarics
of life, many of them, have their cellars
woll stocked with cidor, or aro patronizing
beer saloons and rum shops, and making
tnemscives anu tueir lamilies paupers to
tax the community in which they reside"
and still are ready lo accuse their m-io-h
bors ot all tho evils thoy aro hair to.
. . -r,"
When will thoy ceo the evil of their way?
T f . r . i
t r wuv?
i lenr novel, an ui mem.
TIIK OLD (JAUTOUX.
In an ancieut church In the citv uf Koine.
Far up in the arau.l and lofty dome.
The master hand oran artist hal traced
A cartoon, which should never ll.ive been defjcel.
Tho sun that gtote through tho turret blinds
lla-1 lade 1 the colors an 1 marreil Iho lines;
And dual like a vail, gathered thick and fast.
And hid from 111-' reioiit the w-irk of the past.
And the thronging people who worship below,
And the priests who aro wont to c-iiiq and go
Ne'er dream, as they sjz.? on tho wall so high,
Ofthe rare beauties th.it hidden lie.
But a prater, one d ly, enwrapped in thought,
On the dingy wall nn outline caught.
And kTiicsicd that un ler ills dtiU and mold.
Lay the work of some of the aril Ha old.
And when ho had swept the dust away,
And freely let in Iho light of day,
The magic brush in hit skillful hand
Itetoitctied Willi life the pictures graud.
And thoy II ode l the clnpol with ra liaanj b.'Uht,
Till it eoemed almost liko a holy light;
And the people, delighted, lau.shc I and wept,
Tothlnit that the walls such a prim had kept.
Soall around In tilis world of ours
Aro beautiful characters lan-er than ft iwoi,
Ity evil influences m tried and specked,
Or hidden away under cold neglect,
That need but tho touch of a helping linn 1,
And a pityin g love that will nn.lerMnnd,
To clear the rubbish and wrong away.
And raise to Hie life of (u.llesb day.
1 built my nnt by a pleasant stream
That glided on with a smile in Its gleam,
llrmging me gold lhat was sumless;
Ah mcl but the flooils citno drowning otic day
And swept mv nest with Its wealth away;
1 in tho world was homeless. I
1 built my nest in a gay green tree.
And the niinmer of life went merrily
Willi us I we wore birds ofa feutlicri
But the leaves soon fell, nn.l my pretty onos flew,
Ami through my nest the bittor winds blow;
Twas bare in the mildest weather.
1 built my ncsl under Una ven's high caves;
So lising of floods, no falling of leaves,
Can rock my heart's endeavor;
Waters may wash, and breezcB may blow.
In tho bosom of Itest I shall smile, 1 shall know
My rest is safe forever.
Mrs. Wilkin's- Duly.
Sho always tried to do It, she said, but
like the kitchen work of poor housekeep
ers, it was never done up Tim insisted
lint thero was morn than belonged to one
family ; Aunt 'Liz'beth took in a good deal
for other folks ; and once he slyly chalked
i sign upon the tront door, Duty Done
Here, lint then Tim had arrived at that
peculiar age when a boy has no rights
and is needed to run of errands, and a is
probably that duly his aunt's, not his
own interfered with his comfort even
more than that of older people.
In truih. Mrs. Wilkin's duty was not a
convenient article to have about the house.
It was a bristling aggressive affair, al
ways springing up unexpectedly like one
ofthe dogs so unaccountably "petted in
some households for their sole virtue of
being always in tho way. Moving for
ward, oue runs against the creature and it
growls; moving backward, one stei s upon
its tail and it snai ls. It lies on the back
piazza to be carefully stepped over in the
day time and disastrously stumbled over
at night; and haunts the front steps to
bark at every visitor coming in, and howl
after every member ol the laruiiy going
Mrs. Wilkin kept no dog, but her duty
sniffed an opportunity, and pounced out of
its hiding place, when there came a timid
knock at tbe dining room door in the
early morning, and its answering revealed
a small, quiet-faced, brown-robed figure
face and dress both past tbe freshness of
their youth currying a basket.
Good morning, Mrs. Wilkin.
Come in? questioned Mrs. Wilkin, with
only half an invitation in her voice.
The acceptance was a half one, like
wise. The little brown woman stepped in
uncertainly, and poised herself on the
outer edge of a chair neat est the door.
I called to see if you didn't want to buy
some knitted articles, or to engage some
work of that sort, she began in a gentle,
Well, I don't, interposed Mrs. Wilkin
very positively. I do all such work my
self. I didn't know. Many ladies haven't
time, and I'm glad to do it.
I suppose so, but I consider it my duty
to do all I can myself and set other folks
the example, whether they follow it or
not, nam Airs. Wilkin witli a slight ges
turn liko emptying her hands of responsi
bility. If I was iroin' to give out work at
all it would he some hard jobs that it
would be a help to be rid of, not the pick
and choice little easy things that I call
rest and not work; but then, I ain't so
particular as some, and so I do all kinds
A faint flush crossed the visitor's thin
face. She was quite sure that she hud
been called indolent and advised to go to
work and earn an honest living; the
words only had an uncomfortable sound :
so her lips kept their gentle, timid smile,
though they trembled a little, Sho held
first one hand in its thin cotton glove, and
then the other, to the lire; moved uneasily
lanced oown at her leet with a dim
thought that if they had always chosen
the smoothest path, it had yet been rough
cnougn to wear out nersuoes much taste
than sho could replace them ; and then
she aiose to go.
Wasn't you rather hard on her, 'Liz'
belh, asked Mr. Wilkin, with a regretful
glance toward the door as it closed.
Mrs. Wilkin returned to her seat at tbe
breakfast table and surveyed him over the
shining tin coffee-pot.
Hard on her? 1 told her what I do, and
if that pricks her conscience and makes
her uncomfortable, it's not mj fault. But
you needn't worry; she just said. Good
niornin . its sweet as ever. She's one of
the weak kind that can't be stirred up,
and haven't spunk enough lo say their
souls aro their own. I wonder what such
folks are good for; they will never make
tho world any better, that's sure They
haven't courage enough lo help put down
any evil if it is right under their noses;
they'd only stand and smile. The very
sight of 'em provokes me! I consider it
my duly to speak out when I see things
But then everybody ain't alike, 'Uz'
beth, interposed Mr. Wilkin.
Needn't tell me that! It's plain enough,
snapped Mrs. Wilkin. Just look at this
neighborhood peaoeable, orderly place
two years ago; and now there's a mill
started and all sorts of vagabonds brought
ueie 10 woi-k m it. ii i ii nail my way
they wouldn't have come; and now they're
here somebody ought to keep a watch on
'cm. But that's the trouble; there's so
many mild, easy folks who want to sit
still an' do the knittin' work ol life that
(hero's precious few loft lo take any caro
of tho good of socioty.
I don't see as the mill folks havo done
any mischief yet, 'Liz'beth.
Of course you don't see, and nobody
else sees ; but I know theros something
goin' on, when tho lower part of the mill
--that old empty store room back where
it can't be seen from the street is lighted
up two or three nights every week, said
Mrs. Wilkin, triumphantly. 1' ve watched
i i JiTa u. Zt i , .
! '"J ' f I In fTll l'h.' T
! H10 re. 8 ""' .aml eua f k !lllP''' in
ini-nnirn run i nar. r , ! ! .
'iZLC.T'r "...",, i " V'"" '.""'"
i..a . -r.." "'' .'"" " "".
body olsa docs. There may bo a gang of she had christened duty; she beoama in
tlueves or counterfeiters starting for all lerosled despite her uncomfortable sltua-
A suppressed giggle made Tim sudden
ly eotigh and put down his coffee cup.
Timothy! exclaimed his mini, severely.
If you can't drink coffee without doin' ii
so fast lhat you choke yoursolf, you'll
have lo go without it. I'll do mv best to
bring you up right, whatever comes of it.
Bringing up Tim in the way he should
go was one of Mrs. Wilkin's strong points
He was the son of her neice; and Belinda
had married in opposition to her aunt's
advice. Mrs. Wilkin protested and then
washed her bands of the whole matter
Bui when tho poor man was so inconsid
erate as to die and leave Iiclin.l i witb a
half dozen children just when she needed
bis help. Mrs. Wilkin's opinion of his
general slackness was verified. The family
was poor, of course. She didn't believe
in sending in many things self depend
ence was a duty-but she offered to tnke
Having the boy to raise makes mo more
careful about the morals of the whole
place, she said, returning to her original
subject; and ns for there being thieves
'round here, I've thought for some time
lhat the meat weal pretty f.tst from our
Don't now, 'Liz'lwth, I I'm sum no
obi's s'ole any, said Mr. Wilkin, wilh a
startled, uneasy look. You you couldn't
have counted the bams and everything.
No. 1 don't count, but I can miss 'em
for all that, affirmed Mrs. Wilkin decided
ly. I know there's more go than we use.
Anyway, it's no difference. I wouldn't,
'Liz belli there's plenty, yon see, more
than we want, advised Mr. Wilkin urgent
ly, but rather incoherently. Then he
caught lip his hat and started for Un
burn. Mrs. Wilkiu looked after him wilh pity
When you've more than you want your
self, leave it handy fpr somebody to steal!
Well, that's a new commandment, I do
Not so very new, noither.Aunt 'Liz'betb,
interposed Tim, stoutly. 'Cause the Bible
folks was told to be sum and leave some
of their harvest so the poor could come
and gel it. I read it niyseli; only it
wa-n t called stealing then, and was to be
handier than all stowed away in smoke
houses. Timothy! began Mrs Wilkin. But Tim
suddenly remembered lhat ihu chickens
were waiting for llieir breakfast and chose
to interpret tho exc lamation as an admo
nition in that direction.
Yes m, I'm goin' lo feed 'em right away,
he observed, seizing a basket of corn, and
darting through the door by which his
uncle had departed.
In truth it was not altogether easy to
mold Tim into the desired shaoc; there
wtts too much individuality about him.
Encasing him in Mrs. Wilkin's code of
manners was putting too large a boy into
too small a jacket ; he was always burst
ing out at the elbows or tearing off the
buttons. Mrs. Wilkin sighed at this new
evidence of tho number of things in the
world that neet led her attention; but En
gland never expected every man to do his
liitv more strongly than Mrs. Wilkm ex-
peded lo do hers
licit evening tho mysterious lights ap
peared again in tlic stop-loom of (he mill.
She could plainly see them, for just bo
yond her own back gate was an open field
sloping directly and steeply down to the
building The road afforded a public and
more circuitous mode of reaching it, but
from the hill-top the suspicious storeroom
was directly in range. Mrs. Wilkin de
termine I to tab" a m-.rn iboronirh olju-
valion than the kitchen window allowed,
and, throwing a shawl over her head, she
picked her way carefully down the icy
steps, and crossed the yard to the gate.
I'he snowy field lay white and glistening
in the moonlight, and standing in the
shellerins shadow of a post, she watched
the door below.
But before she discovered any one en
tering there she heard sounds in another
direction steps in the yard behind her.
What if she should prove beyond all doubt
til it her meat was stolen ami delect the
thief? Willi that quick thought she turn
ed her head cautiously. Yes, some one
tried the smoke-house door anil entered.
Breathlessly Mrs. Wilkin waited until the
figure reappeared, passed along in the
shade of ihe house, and then as it emerged
into ihe clear moonlight, she leaned eager
ly forward to catch a full sight of it. U
was easily recognized Mr. Wilkin, be
yond all question, stealing meat from his
The revelation was astounding. In her
astonishment Mrs. Wilkin incautiously
loosened her hold on the gtfte post, took a
step forward, and her feet slipped upon
the treacherous ground. She sat down
violently, and in an instant was speeding
rapidly down the hill toward her original
point of investigation. Kor once iho path
of duty was smooth before her entirely
too smooth and icy. Sho could not check
or guide her progress; her feet struck
wilh force again-t the mysterious door,
pushed it open, and she slid into a ball.
Thieves, gamblers, or whoever they were
sho musl not be discovered by them Unshed
through Mrs. Wilkin's mind more an in
slinct of self-preservation than a thought
and springing to her feet, she slipped
behind some boxes piled near her. The
noise attracted attention, and in a moment
the storeroom door was opened and a boy
Guess it's only tho door blew open;
don't catch good, he reported.
Lock it then, James, and bring iu tin;
key, said a voice from within; and to Mrs.
Wilkin's consternation the order was
obeyed, and sho was a prisoner.
The boy left tbe other door slightly njar
as he re-entered. A gleam of light shone
into the hall, and there were sounds from
the room b -yond -a scratching of pens,
and a woman's voice; it sounded wonder
fully like that of the little knitting woman,
directing and encouraging.
Well dune, Susan,
Now don't bo disheartened. Will. Of
course while you work in tho mill, and
can only study at night, you can't get
along just as some do who can go to
school all day; but what you learn may be
of more use to you. We care most for the
things that cost us trouble.
Thero woro a few simplo mathematical
problems, and then a reading, and the
words, spelled out with difficulty by some,
were Bible words.
Charity suffcrcth long and is kind.
Vauntcth not itself. Seekoth her own
Thinketh no evil. Beareth all things, be-
lievdh all things, hopelh all things.
It was easily understood. Mrs. Wilkin
leaned forward a little, and could peep
inio the room- Fifteen or twenty boys and
girls from the mill gathered into a night
school. Then those wonderful words read
so slowly and emphatically, seemed sud
denly to nssnme a new and deeper mean
ing than Mrs. Wilkin had ever thought of
their possessing somo tilings flo snow so
much more clearly in tho dark than in the
As tbe timid little woman, who would
have been friirhloned at her own volco in
any other audience as large, eipianieu in
her simple, gentle way Iho passage read,
it occurred to the listener outside that
some ono was keeping a sharp watch on
tiles mill people, after all, and that this
might be a better way of doing it than
would bo practiced by the police force. It
was a very informal school. One girl had
brought her best drees lhat the teacher
. . , , I
! , "'""'r T' t,yl?,S l
mittens for her brother.
might show her how to menu a rent m ic
knit a pur oi
has its thaws. Mrs. Wilkin had a heart
lovvn iiinlei- nil the eriisit of opinions that
The position was unpleasant. She did
not liko playing e ives droppr to this in
nocent gathering, but there seemed no
help for it. Sho could not escape through
the locked d.Hr; an I boldly revealing
herself, and explaining her absurd snspi
eions, and the remark ililu wiy in which
s'io bad eonio I here, was even more ihtin
her thought could en lure. So she kept
her place, hoping that when tbe punils
were dismissed she might slip out among
'hem unnoticed. But when the lesson
hour ended thev dep-n led slowly, by twos
anil threes, the open door flinging a Hood
of light out into the hall. At last ono lin
gered, ami Mrs Wilkin listened intently
is she caught his voice.
Now, Tim, s till the little kni'ting-wo-
inan, I like to have you come, you know
that, and I'll help you all I can. but you
really must tell your aunt about it.
Well, you see. I don t know what sho 11
say, beg in Tim irresolutely
istit that sliotililn t hinder you Irom do
ing your duty.
Don't know about that, said Tim still
loubtfully. You see Aunt Liz'belh's got
in awful 'mount of duly of her own, and
it's such a particular kind that other folks
can t get much chance to do theirs only
when hers is nappin1. Why Uncle Iiciib
gives my mother lots of meat, but ho just
slips H oft and ilou't tell.
Well, if you don't know what is right
for yon, I do know what is right for nn,
said the little teacher wilh a quiet laugh;
tind I can't let you conio agiin until you
tell your aunt how you spend your even
ings. Mi s. Wilkiu nodded a vigorous approval,
but it was evident that Tim dep irtcd iu a
stale of dissatisfaction
There was a sound of a crutch lapping
on the floor, and Mrs. Wilkin remembered
that a little l imit brother bad sometimes
gone about wilh the knitting woman,
l hey two were left alone in the room, and
went around shaking out the fire, anil put
ting up b" oks and papers.
Only ten coins a week for each one
that's so little, said the boyish tones mus
ingly. Yes, but it isn't so very much that I can
teach them, answered lite littlu woman
humbly. And then it's all they can afford
iu pay, p air things! And you know we
began more for their sakes "than our own,
though we do need money. Courage,
though. Johnny! it all counts, and you
shad have your overcoat pretty soon now.
Besides, ibis is work thai blesses both
ways in what we give as well as what
If she could only pass that open door!
Irs. Wilkiu was growing benumbed by
standing sc long in the cold. Finally the
lights were extinguished, and the two
vtiinu out. Just then, fortunately, Johnny
remembered that lhey bad lelt a book be
hind them, and .is tho tincon-cious jailers
turned back the prisoner seized her op
portunity and escaped.
She was sitting alone by the lire when
Tim, who hail made his homeward route
sufficiently circuitous to include a call on
his mother, returned, lie sat down near
her, twisted his lingers uneasily, and Mrs.
Wilkin guess, d what was coming.
There's been -in evenin' school started
here, Aunt Liz'betb.
So I understand, responded Mrs. Wrilkin
Why, I thought began Tim with wi.lc
open eyes of surprise, and then checked
himself with the sudden reflection that it
inigbl not be wise to recall the conversa
tion of the morning. I'd like lo go to it
ihat is. 1 have been once or twice, he said.
Fact is, Aiml 'Liz'bcth, when wu lived
down ihe river, before you look me, there
wasn't any school for me lo go to, and so
I'm behind other fellers. Miss Kelsy she
makes 'riiliuietic so plain, and helps me
wilh writin', and so
YiMi might do worse, said Mrs. Wilkin,
briefly. Go if you want lo. Only one
thing, Timothy S.one, I won't have any
ten cent business about ii! Honest is hon
est, and it's worth more n ten cents a. week
to teach you anything, as know.
Tim forgot to lie a-toni-hed :it his
aunt's knowledge, au.l overlooked the re
flection upon himself, in the pleasure of
expressing a desire that he had cherished
secn-tly but hopelessly.
She wouldn't lake any more pay, 'cause
she'd want to serve all alike, but oh, Aunt
'Liz'betb, If I could just give her and
Johnny something nice for Christmas!
Humph! I'll think about it, answered
Mrs. Wilkin not disapprovingly.
'L'z'beth. began Mr. Wilkin, nervously,
the next morning, I wouldn't say nothing
lo nobody about thieves, or watching
them mill folks, if I was you.
I don't m-iin to, replied his wife, with
an odd pucker about her lips.
Well, I'm glad of it I realty am, said
Mr. Wilkin in a tone of great relief. 1
don't think anybody's stole anything, and
somehow it seems fo me as if our duty
now-a-days is a good ileal like it was
when them Israelites took Jericho only
just niarcliin' against the bit of wall that's
right iu front of ns, and leltin' our neigh
bor lake cue of what's in front of him. It
sort of seems that way, 'Liz both.
.Mrs. Wilkin did not answer, but she
look her revenge that evening, when Mr.
Wilkin was going out.
Keuben, she said quietly, if you see any
thieves 'round our smoke house, iust toll
im there's a couple chickens hanging
near the door, lhat I dressed a purpose.
It's natural that Belinda d like a ch ingo
of meat as well as other folks.
I'ltAiitit; Dons in the Philadelphia
Zoo. Among the contributions mentioned
in the second annual report are twenty
eight prairio dogs. In time these enter
prising little creature's burrowed out their
iiiclosiire under a wall fourteen feet deep,
and took pusses-ion ofa line slope of lasvn
near the superintendent's office in tbe old
Peiin mansion called "Solitude," and they
bravely held it until last fill, when the old
inclosurc was dug out and paved wilh
flags, and now it once more confines them.
To catch ilium ihe boles were lino. led, nnd
the poor creatures taken ns they came up,
half drowned. Their colony is one of the
most interesting things in the garden. At
any time almost you might see doz ms of
these active littlu animals popping in and
out of their holes, uttering their jieculiar
cry something liko the half-suppressed
baik ofthe dog to which probably they
owe their name. Their increase begins to
alarm the society. Something must bo
done, and it is very difficult to catch them.
Some new forming zoological garden
applied to tbe Fairmonnt Park institution
for prairie dogs. This was while they
held )ossession of thn lawn. Tho request
was most willingly granted, hut tho
catching required four men and about as
many days, and then only three or four
Thero is a popular belief iu thu west
that the burrowing owl, tho prairie dog,
and the rattlesnake live together in groat
harmony. It is probible that the snake
"invades the home of tho dog for the
purpose of fee ling upon tho young, while
the owl.M save itself Iho troiiblo of digging
iis own habitation, takes possession of iho
deserted burrows whioh are loft in the
gradual change of location continually
going on among the dogs." two burrow
ing owls wero oneo introduced Into
the inolosurs of Iho dogs at the
Philadalphia garden, nnd the result was a
desperate fight, in which tho owls were
finally killed, their wings having been
clipped so lhat they could not fly away.
This hardly shows harmony between the
two. The prairie dog and porcupine are
among tho animals that require no water.
M. Ilowhmd, in Harper's Mngarint for
Til T MlsiU AI. IIDUI'..
ly gran,li'.ithei'.:lo.-k was too hi-ll far ihe shelf
And it reaih"i f e ly feci lielow th i BJ . ;
n.l he uvd ti like rliminp-r,l to wind it lem
elf; While he sti.nl on tbe t.c of the.l.xir;
It ran like a i i e L,;-h t. se long yea. s V.o he was
to ii ;
Whin he il cd ii ran fi.tar llian bel'ue,
And every tiin.'-lhat.lK-.lH-aMl-t'.e.'iinc
The ot man swore.
The man who live I down :tt tlin c.enei of tl.c block
Willi a voice Hue a broad guagc li ismmii ;
He m ide a bass solo .l Mv (Ji-.tii.ttatiier's (Jinek ,'
An I he never sans anv oilier uin.;.
He sang it uve.y moiaeng and he si.nj it in tin
uight, And he (tang it while the congreg ttton cried;
Cut his nick; lie: fltted hi--tiock-t..o tilit,
On the day he died.
Anil Hie handsome youeg man wli kui' tenor in.
Was also addicted to llic (line ;
ilo used lo pitch tti j air atijnt t.vunty ooluvcs
Than the ker-notoof the man i.i the maan.
His cracked notes pierce. thinngh die a, ue fl.-lds
Tilt Olympus colli. ln't sleep it lie Ii ie 1 ;
But great J.tvo: gave. i-io-ol'-:iis lialt-.-h-iv:.
And Ihe young man died.
There were forty million pcoptu in the laad of our
With voi.-es from a s.pie.ik to a roar,
And llieywarb lud that tune ihi viii'li the ends of the
In the church, in the ear and the Mine:
Till the old man's glio-t lesounht til- KHmp s of
And he tore at Ihe stlver-fl'.wl-.K liair:
And Iho old; man 1 wh -n.'V.ji-.he.liear.l lhat tune,
Would cavoit iin.l swear.
"We Ake Am. Cowakds in thk D.vkk."
A medical friend of ours who, many
yeais since, visited Paris under circum
stances most favorable to an entree lo a
most inti-resling circle that of ihe survi
vors and ci-devant supporters of the ' em
)irc' tells acapi'al story, as he heard it
related by the celebrated Gen. Kxeelm ins,
one of N)oleon's paladins. It was at a
dinner party, eomoseil of the survivors of
Waterloo, a few of the younger relatives,
and Iho cion of an ex-king, on a visit
from Ids home in America, and to whom
our friend owed his introduction to the
circle. Somo questions arose about
bravery, when the younger members of
the company wore electrified to hear the
venerable and heroic Eneelmaii" gravely
and seriously declare that men were ail
cowards in tho dark! The general smiled
at their expressions of dissent, remarked
lhat it was very like youth, and iroceeded
lo lell the following anecdote in supnirt of
his strange declaration: "There was a
young hot head in the emjifror's service,
who. burning lor action, and his duties fu
tile time affording no opportunity, at last
resolved to fight a duel, and, accordingly.
choosing to construe sonic remark or
other of an old an I superior officer into an
insult, challenged him. The old soldier,
waiving all considerations of rank, agreed
to meet the young man, but on t'-e follow
ing unusual terms: the lime should be
night, the place a room, in opposite cor
ners of which they were to stand ; the
seconds, having placed llieir men. were to
withdraw outside of the room, taking Ihe
candles with tfiem; the word should be
given from witkotn, when In; who had the
first lire should discharge his weapon, and
the seconds, bearing the lights, should im
mediately ru-h in. These strange condi
tions were aeceote-l. th time arrived, nnd
Ihu seconds jilaced the Jiarties ns agreed
upon, withdrawing immediately, nnd leav
ing their men in ihu dark. The word was
given, the fire was heard, the door was ro
nened, and thero stood the el. ler of tho
two upright in ihe corner, his adversary's
ball having entered the wall so close to
his bead that the escape seemed little less
tlnn miraculous. It was now the old
soldier's turn to lite. They were left again
in the dark, the word was again given
from ihe outside, nnd, instantaneously
with the discharge, tbe seconds rushed in
and found tho ehgllcnger prostrate upon
the floor, not having recovered himself
from h:s trick to avid I Ihe ball which, on
examination, it was found must have kill
ed him. The young man was covered wilh
confusion, nnd the seconds were over
whelming him wilh iho expression of
their scorn, when the veteran stopped
them. ' Not so fast, my young friends,'
said bo; 'you will grow wiser. Where
do you suppose I was at the first fire? Ou
mv hands and knees in the corner; hut,
ma foil I was up quicker than he! Par
dieti, wo we all cowards in tho dark!' It
was afterwards whisjiered to our friend
that the story was an actual fact, and the
elder of the parties was no oilier than tho
brave Kxcelmans himself."
Faintnfss and its Causes. Faintness
consists in a temporary failure of llio
activity of the heart; the blood, in conse
quence, is not )i'o)erly circulated. It
does m-t reach ihe head, and the patient
loses clearness of vision and color, and, if
not )-evenled, falls on the floor, where, or
even before reaching it, he recovers.
There is no convulsion, and, though he
can scarcely be said to be conscious, he is
not profoundly unconscious, so us not to
be able to be aroused, as happens in cj)i
lepsy. There are all degrees of faintness,
from merely feeling faint and looking
slighliy jialu to tha stato wo havo describ
ed ; and iu some eases the state of fainting
is hardly rceoverod from well before it
I recurs again and again, lor hours or Hays
together. We need hardly sav that tho
latler are altogether beyond the reach of
domestic medicino. What are the causes
of fainlnces? It is not very difficult to
describe these. Some jieojile are so easily
affected that they faint if they cut their
finger, or even if they see the cut linger of
another. All one can say ot such persons
is that their muscular fiber is noi strong,
and that their nerves are sensilivo. Tho
heart, which goes on for years circulating
the blood, is essentially a muscle. It is
weak in somo people, stronger in others,
As a rule.it is weaker in women and strong
erin men. Ileneo women faint mora rapid
ly than men. Whatever weakens tbe heart
and the muscles generally acts as a cause
of faintness. Close, foul air is a common
cause of faintness or of languidness. Any
thing which greatly affects tho nervous
system, such as had nows or tho sight of
something horrible or dis agreeable, will
sometimes cause fainting. But of all
causes of faintness, none is so 6crious ns
the loss of blood. Tho muscles, in order
to act well, must be supplied wilh blood;
and if the blood of tho body is lost if it
escapes, either from a vein opened pur
posoly, or from piles, or from the source
from which menstruation proceeds in
excessive quantity, then lamtuuss will
happen. The degree, of it will depend on
the constitution, and on tho amount of
blood lost. A loss of blood lhat would
scarcely be felt in one person will bo a
serious cause of faintness in another.
Sometimes frequent faintness arises from
becoming very fat, tho muscular system of
tho heart being impaired by latty dojxisit,
CimcU's Ilvucliohl Guide.
Woat You Will Not Be Sorry; Fob.
Yon will not bo sorry for hearing before
For thinking before speaking.
For holding an angry tongue.
For stonoius tbe ear to a tale-bearer.
For disbelieving most of tho ill reports
For being kind to tho distressed.
For boing patient toward evorybody.
For doing good to all men.
Vor asking pardon for all wrongs.
For spoaking evil of no one.
For being courteous to nil.
After all there is no ph asuro like the
tranquil pleasures of home. Fnraday.
Superficial knowledge of all kinds is 'be
perdition of women. Annie Jamrnon.
Bosti-n will lie 250 years old September
7, 1880. and tho Mnrlhcr thinks it lime
lo preire for gloryfying iho birthday.
Tim elevvinn of Dr. Newman, of Eng
land, to the position of cardinal indicates
the vigorous policy of ihe new pope.
lJius IX. was limit, conservative, and
favored the iillramontancs. Pope Leo
di-penses honors wilh a more impartial
hand. The Conferring of tbe cardiualato
on Dr. Newman is likely to give no little
offence to the uitramomanes. The recip
ient was once an Episcopalian. lie
graduated at Oxford in 18i'), and for
several years held an academic jurat at
that institution For fourteen years he
was recior of St. Mary's church in lhat
place. When he was ii years of age. Dr.
N'ewman transferred his faith from the
Episcopal to Ihe K.nnan Catholic chinch.
In his new field he his distinguished
himself in matters of eiluoalion, and 'by
defending, in a celebrated letter, the
Vatican from Gladstone's attack. He is
now nearly four score years of age.
In Russia taxos are collected in Ibis
way: A peasant, representative of a dis
trict, cc.niprising fcveral villages, is
charged wilh the duty of collecting a cer
tain amount of money, nnd it is the busi
ness of ihe people lo distribute llio taxes
among themselves as lhey like ihe best.
For llio prompt collection, in the first
place, ihe representative is r S)onsible,
and in ease of tardiness he is imprisoned
for a week with common criminals, and
furnished wilh food at the cost of tin en
cents a day. A district is obbged to pay
for all iis members, whether they arc
actual residents, or havo gone elsewhere,
or arc in tbe army. In case a lax collector
Is unable to do his duly, he reports to Iho
authorities; then Ihe iolice appears armed
witb rods, and if tbe rods do not secure
the desired result, the properly of delin
quents is sold at auction.
A Belgian professor jiredicU another
deluge. At certain regularly recurving
intervals, he maintains, the waters of one
hemisphere) are suddenly precipitated
across the equator, and flood ihe ollnr.
The last of these deluges, which was that
of Noah's time, was from tho north.
Hence the great preponderance of heat in
the southern hemisphere, and of the gen
eral trend of the continents. The next
deluge will be from the south lo the north.
The cause, he argues, is tho alternate in
crease and deereaso of the ice caps at the
poles, and tho consequent cba ge of the
earth's equilibrium. Since 1248 the south
pole has been continually enlarging, while
the north polo has been iiropurlionately
diminishing, to-day the diameter of tho
southern glacier being about three thousand
miles and that of the northern fifteen
hundred. Tho accretions at the soti'h jiole
will eventuady destroy Ihu equilibrium
and cause a deluge.
Of Mr. Arthur O'Suatighiiessy, ono of
the younger British poets, and the son-in-law
of Dr. Westland Marston, an amus
ing story is told. Mr. O'Shanghnessy was
a proleao of Sir Kdward Buiwcr-Lyltoii,
who assisted in getting the jioet niointcd
to a jmsition in the natural history depart
ment of th" Kriiisli niueum. Ono day
the unfortunate O'Shamriiuessy accidental
ly sat down on a number of very rare
South American butterflies which had just
arrived at tho museum. Horrified, he
proceeded secretly and hurriedly to repair
damages, but being, in truth, rather igno
rant about butterflies and natural history
generally, he got (he pretty insects verv
much mixed up. gluing wrong wings ou
wrong bodies in the most reckless manner.
Great was the aslontstim -iit ol tho wise
men when lhey came to contemplate and
lassify tin- new contribution, ouch spe
cies were never seen nelore; me ms. ci
world and its history were revolutionized.
nd many were tbe discussions that occur-
ed before ill- O Shailgbnessy's awful
misdeed and skillful gluing were discover
ed. Then there was a very mad collec
tion of scientists, and the young man
would have been ilisiuisse I had not Bul
wer used his influence. Warned by his
blunder, Mr. O Sbaughenessy undertook
tho study of natural history, and thero is
now no one in tho museum better skilled
iu that department.
Avery nnd Hctfrick wero lounging in a
igar store kepi by Workings, in Ojiincy,
111. Workings remarked lhat business
was bad. but would be good if, through a
cotnilaint made by Dr. Piersoo, he had
not been prevented Irom selling liquor.
lie added, " I would enjoy killing that
loctor.'' "Would you?" responded
A very; " so would I. and ho went on to
explain that he hated Dr. Piersoii in con
seqnenco of un old quarrel. Ilettrick also
Bad a grudge against tne juiysician, w no
bad sued him for ayinent of a bill. The
tno talked ot tneir grievances, anil at
length seriously discussed tho murder of
tho man whom they mutually disliked.
I'hev wero in no hurry, however, and two
months elapsed before they were ready for
the crime. Then lhey hired a negro lo go
to Dr. Pierson's house in the night, and
lell him lhat his attendance was required
by a woman in a place several miles out
ofthe city. Pierson went, unsuspectingly.
and was waylaid and murdered hy his
three encmios The deed was for weeks a
profound mystery, as no moiivo could bo
bscovcred for killing a generally popular
man. llie exposure came turoiign ino
negro. Ins'ead of paying him ten dollars
for his service, according to promise, thu
murderers gave him a watch that they
had taken from tho doctor's pocket, and
which was found by the police where he
Tin: Elfxtisic Light. There seems to
lie good ground for tho assertion that Pro
fessor Moses G. Farmer, at present superin
tendent of the United States torpedo station
it Newport, li. 1., was tho lust man who
successlully demonstrated thu feasibility of
the electric light in this country, wo
havo received a jiamphlet which contains
a statement by Mr. Farmer, in which he
describes to some extent, the mechanism
bv which, as far back ns 1850, he produced
and maintained, at his residence iu Salem,
Mass., a beautiful electric light. His in
vention contained most of tbe features
iscribcd at a later day to the Edison light.
Ho succeeded perfectly in dividing aud
regulating the current, and in maintaining
as many or as few lamps as he desired.
Ihe light, be says, was " sou, luilu, agree
able to the eyo and moro delightful to
read or see by lhan any light ever seen
before." It, however, cost about four
limes as much as gas, the acids nnd zinc
used in tho battery involving it considora-
b e outlay whion is now obviated by tho
cheap electricity .famished hy the dynamo
eleetrio machine. lie is a man of great
inventive genius, and of much experience
and learning in many branches of elec
trical engineering. His opinion on the
gas question may be of service. lie
thinks that the electric light will bo widely
introduced; but Hint it will not displace
"as to a very large extent at once. He
thinks it may stimulate the use of gas for
beating purposes; and that it is probable
that more gas will be consumed, fivo
years hence, than now. For lighting
slroets, tunnels, work shops, factories ami
stores for display of merchandise, ho
thinks the eleotrlo light will be vastly
sujierior to gss, and cheaper; but lhat gas
stocks will ttill pay good dividends.