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3IONTPELIER, VT., WEDNESDAY, MAY 14, 1879.
WEDNESDAY, MAY 14. 1879.
LETTERS OX JiATURAL HISTOUT.
Cluster Cups on the Leaf.
lit Db.Hibam A. Ccttiso.
Tlic leaf may bo truly said to be the
lung of tlio plant. Through the stomnta
(minute holes) on tlio uuilur side of the
leaf, tlio plant obtains nourishment from
the atmosphere, which is as necessary to
(hem as our breath is to us.
Anything that clogs or injures the sto
niata of any plant directly injures (In
growth of that plant. This little fungi,
when the plant has become infested,
breaks through the epidermis, destroying
iiriny of the breathing poros (stomnta),
and also draws its own nourishment from
the life juices of tho plant it infests. Be
fore it breaks through tho under surface of
tho leaf, the infested leaf if closely ex
amined, will appear to be covered with
little clovations or pustules, paler at the
npex; these soon become ruptured, and
tho fungus pushes its head through the
opening, at tho samo time bursting by ra
diating fissures. Tlio teeth thus formed
resemble those of the peristomo of some
mosses. All around the orifice tho teeth,
or fringo, becomes recurved, and the
orange spores, (fungi seed), arc exposed,
crowded together within. At first, and in
fact while contained in the pcridium (cup),
these spores are connecteil together as n
string of beads, but when dispersed they
are scattered singly about tho orifice,
often mixed with colorless cells arising
from tlio partial breaking up of the teeth,
or fringe, of tho pcridium. Let us now
for a moment examine the manner in
which these cups aro distributed upon the
leaf. They are scattered without any ap
parent order over tho under surfaco, with
now and then one upon the upper surfaco,
but they nowhere touch each other, unless
at the margins of tho leaf, but then they
are never joined, only crowded. Gener
ally there is a space greater than tho width
of tho cups between them. The loaf is
not thickened by their growth, and the
upper surfaco gives you no indication of
what is going on beneath. If a leaf be
taken fresh, and the epidermis from the
under side be stripped off, as it is often
very easy to do, the orifices through which
tho fungi have burst will appear in irreg
ular holes, and the fungi will bo left root
ed still upon tho leaf, showing that they
are not confined to the surface, and thus
we seo why tho damage is so great to the
plant upon which they subsist.
Tho spores in this species are orange in
color, but variable both in size and form,
though tho majority aro comparatively
large. Each of those spores are capable
of reproducing the species, and if we com
pute two thousand cluster cups as occur
ring on each leaf, and many leaves have
double this number, and supposing each
cup to contain two hundred and fifty
thousand spores, which again is much
below tho actual number, then wo shall
have not less than live hundred millions
of reproductive bodies on ono infested
leaf, to furnish a crop of parasites for the
plants of the succeeding yoar. As we
thus so soon reckon by millions, our figures
and capacities fail in appreciating the
myriads of spores which compose the
orango dust produced from one infected
cluster of plants. Nor is this all, for it is
found that one of these spores is not only
capable of producing a plant, but is in
itself a bundle of vegetative spores, which
are exceedingly minute, and yet small as
they are, they have tho capability to pro
duce fresh crops of cluster cups.
Naturally enough, our loader will ore
this bo debating in Ills own mind how
these spores, which we have seen are shed
in such profusion, can enter tho tissues of
the plants which give subsequent evidence
of infection, a-i have described. In fact,
how tho yellow dust with which tho at
mosphere may bo filled to day can inocu
late tho young plants of next year. If one
or two of these spores are sprinkled upon
the cuticle which has been removed from
the leaf, as we h tve beforo indicated, it
will bo seen that they aro very mile
larger than the stomata, or breathing
pores, which stud the cuticle ; hence it is
clear they cannot gain admittance there
There remains but ono other portal to the
interior of tho plant, anil that is through
the extremities of tho roots. Here another
difficulty arises; for tlio spores are
large as the cells through which ihey
would there havo to pass. This difficulty
is however much lessened when we ro
member that these spores are a bundle of
infinite particles, each particle of which is
probably capable of infesting a plant;
Even under this consideration there is
much need of an active imagination, to
invent hypotheses, to cover the points upon
which we as yet know nothing definite
'The Rev. M. J. Berkeley proved many
years ago that the spores of bunt, for ex
ample, may be caused to infect all the
plants the seeds of which had been placed
in contact with them." Hut this did not
prove that the seeds absorbed them, as it
is probable tlmy did not, but they would
adhere to tho seed and thus bo conveyed to
the ground, where infection to the sprout
would be probable. Much has been done
to elucidate this mystery, but much re
mains a mystery still. No spores have
over been seen travorsing the tissues of
Tho stems and leaves of violets, sweet
scented an 1 scentless all alike, are often
distortod an l ruined altogether by a vari
ety of cluster cups; the stinging nettle
does not escape; the hardy dock, the use
ful currant, the wild geranium?, alike
feed with their juices fungi of this de
scription. A mayor of ono of the commune in
Fiance lately made the following, entry on
tho rcp-ister: "I, mayor of , found in
the forest yesterday a man by the name of
Kollm committing an act against tne laws.
I commanded him to surrender.wheronpon
he sot upon me, heaping me with insult
and contumely, calling me a ragmuffin, an
nss, a precious dolt and a scarecrow all
of which I certify to be true."
"Mj Child's Question."
" Papa, what made you fro to war?"
Said Jeonie, climbiu from a cbiir
l'iou my lap; " what did you fur?"
Aud theu she nuinred me like a tieir,
" 'Cause if you hadn't (rone you tee
You'd had two egt to tauter me "
Why child, I went because and the a
1 stopped to think. Of course 1 kuew;
I'd often told her brother Ben
When the recital thrilled nie tbroujrh.
Aud still she iiiyed, " what did you for?
Papa, what made you go to war?"
I looked abroad, the blacks were free,
But voiceless, voteless, filled with woe,
HI uvea of their masters seemed to bo
As much as twenty yean atro.
She said, " and what did Uncle Dorr
Get killed in frout of Richmond fur?"
A rifle-club went wheeling1 by;
I saw the murdered (J his holm's irhost;
I heard the Hamburg martyr's cry -
The rebel yell the vauutiuir boast;
I naw the mounds of pat rial dead;
" What made you K"?" niy Jennie said.
" My dear " I said- but nothing; more.
For, irlaucinir turouiru the Senate walls.
The rebel generals had the floor.
And ruled the nation's council halls !
" Papa," she urireil, " why did you iro?"
" My child," I said, " I do not know."
In the light of current political events,
and carefully noting the political tenden
cies of tho hour, how many veterans can
answor ' My Child's Question " to their
own satisfaction? For fourteen years a
continuous note of warning has been
sounded in tho cars of tho republican
north against tho advisability of advanc
ing ex-Union soldiers to prominent posi
tions in tho national government. It has
been persistently held out that such a
courso would be rightfully regarded an
unnecessary and irritating menace to tho
tender sensibilities ot the southern heart.
This argument has prevailed, and the
spirit of conciliation has demanded and
accomplished the retirement of many of
these men from prominent positions in the
national government. Tho result, if not
pleasing, is certainly instructive.
In the Senate of tho forty-sixth con
gress wo seo nineteen ex-rebel soldiers
against four ex-Union soldiers. I am no
advocate of nor believer in proscription for
past political offences when properlyatoned.
I care not.if the wliolo southern delegation
in congress consists of ex-rebel generals,
if they como there in tho right spirit, ac
knowledging and confirming the result of
tho war, as tlio whole country viewed that
result after Apponiatox; but I affirm my
honest belief that the whole southern dele
gation in tho forty-sixth congress regret
nothing of the war but its failure to estab
lish tho confederacy, and I ask any candid,
ihinkitig person first laying asido all
secondary considerations '.o closely and
carefully review tho course of tho south
ern delegation in tho forty-fifth congress,
and tell mo if ho can find by any not or
word of theirs ono particle of evidence
that they, as ono of tho combatants in a
terrible civil war, look upon themselves as
tho defcatod party, who are, by the liber
ality anil sufferance only of tho loyal
north holding their present positions? I
say every word and act of theirs in the
forty-fifth congress has been as of victors,
and not of vanquished.
In tins place 1 will not raise tho ques
tion of the purity of their motives in pre
cipitating a bloody and devastating civil
war, but merely take tlic lacts as thev
stand known to the world.
In 18GI tho south found it could no
longer absolutely control the national gov
ernment, and therefore, true to the spirit
of their own peculiar iustitutions, they
determined to destroy it, and to erect upon
its ruins a government ot race aristocracy,
as suited to their tastes.
For reasons not necessary to detail but
which most ex-Union soldiers aro likely to
remember they failed of their purpose.
mil to that failure they owe their present
position of almost absolute control in the
present national government. Certainly
in a rc-united country north and south in
respect of equality of rights aro on tho
same plane, so far as each respects and
boeys tlio constitution ami tlio laws, utter
disregard of these conditions places the
south for the time being in the ascend
ency in tho national government. To
right tins wrong by peaeelul and lawful
methods is now tho duty of republicans,
and I now submit tho question In whoso
hands aro tho best, interests of our govern
ment and people likely to be safest? Those
who have attempted to destroy that gov
ernment and failed, anil whoso only mani
fest regard at present is for that failure, or
those who in the hour of tho country's
greatest pen I prevented Us destruction
and preserved tho government, not only
lor us iricnus anil deicnder.-,, nut equally
for its enemies, anil for all mankind who
choose to come under its protection? For
my own part I will never fail to protest,
both by voice and vote, against permitting
the control of the government to pass into
tho hands of unrepentant rebels.
Although then but a mere boy, I remem
ber well tho echoes that reached my ears
in far-off Vermont, from the thirty-sixth
congress. Thf y aro simply being repro
duced to-day in the forty-sixth congress,
and many of the words como from the
samo southern lips, and evince the same
swaggering, domineering sprit; and this
very day the president and republican
minority are warned that they must sur
render thoir convictions and constitutional
rights to tho south, and permit reactionary
and vicious legislation, or by tho adoption
revolutionary lueiuoits tile wneels ol
government will be stooped, and the
whole country must stiller the conse
quences. I don't speak of the northern
wing of the democracy, for they havo no
voice in the matter. They have only to
vote ns the are told, and they will do it.
If a republican perchance protests against
this miserable farce, and mayhap tragedy
of legislation, here is his answer:
You aro a set of crazy fanatics, always
interfering to stir up sectional strife ami
hatred. Why don't you attend to your
own affairs ami let the south alone? They
are able to and capable of governing
themselves, and it is their rigbt. You
have enough to do to lako care of your
side of the house.
This is the same familiar cry we have
heard at any time this last thirty years.
And now wo will go back eighteen or
So long as the north consented to be
wholly subservient slave catchers and
general scavengers for the south all was
well. When it at last rose to protest in
earnest, and the south found the control of
the national government was surely lost
to them, what happened? There was
promptness and decision for you. The
south said: Our mission is to govern, and
if we can't rule the Uuion as it is, we will
destroy it, and have a government we can
rule. Ihe history of tlio years that lol
lowed is either a stupendous larco, an
illusion, or it is the record of a most
bloody civil war, the history of which is
branded in letters of fire upon tho memory
of every man who passed through its ter
ri bio scenes, nnd of every human being of
mature years who came within the sphere
of its blasting and deadly influence. At
the close of the war every northern man
belicvid that he understood what the strifo
had been for and what the result upon the
battlefield had finally settled.
What Union soldier feels to-day as he
did then upon that point, or feels the same
security in the result of the war that be
? Was ho wrong then in his
and conclusions, or is he wronc
, .uu,.ai.a mm vuuuiusiuus, or is no wronir
i ....... a L;iL . i. - . , . . . "
iHMni i-.tkuur me one or tuo otner is cer
tain. The difference is not reconcilable.
Hut my friend on the other sido breaks in
and says : O, do give us a rest from this
never-ending din about the war; and by
way of a change on his side gives us this
beautifully rounded sentiment, and pathet
ically begs us to "llury the melancholy
memories of the past;" asks us if wo
mean to go on waving tho " bloody shirt"
until we can stir up another war? Says
that is evidently what we are aiming at,
and that if we continue on our present
course that will be the result. I deny both
the premises nnd the conclusions in toto.
I don't want nnotber war. I didn't like
the first one. I didn't go there for fun,
and I didn't see any fun after I got there;
oui uuiess i was men a continued idiot
there was a purpose in my going, nnd I
am seeking to have that purpose known
and understood. If it was not to preserve
our national government in its purity, its
unity and its entirety, then it was for
Hut to return to mv friend's natlietic
and touching request, I answer: Wo re-
puiiiicans ana ex-Union soldiors of the
north aro ready to ' llury the melancholy
memories of the past," whenever the south
shall have buried forever that snirit of
injustioe, intolerance nnd disregard of
personal and constitutional rights which
gave those terrible memories their birth,
life, growth and proportions.
If it is right that, through fraud and
every species of injustice tho control of
me national government should be sur
rendered to its sworn enemies, then I
submit that this lasting disgrace should
have been consummated in 1861. Then it
would have been humiliating now it
would bo infamous, But stop, they say:
You are counseling and predicting another
war. I am not, but am trying by rational
means to prevent its possibiliiy. Now
they give mo up in despair as a lunatic.
You, they say, are taking all this trouble
for nothing. This government is not
going to perdition just yet. All right ; I
don't think it is; but it has been mighty
near there once within my personal recol
lection; and in my opinion its prow is
turned in tho same direction again, and it
is my belief that the result will depend
entirely upon whether tho samo pilots aro
permitted at the helm who woie thoio
twenty years ago.
Now 1 am no alarmist, and ibis direful
result will not happen, and It will be pre
vented by that powerful, underlying, com
mon sense love of absolute justice and
devoted patriotism that find's n fining
resting place In the mind and heart of the
average American citizen. To this won
derful saving senso I pin my abiding faith
in the future of our nation, and I believe
it will be triumphant for generations yet
to come. Iiut 1 further believe this senti
ment has too great a tendency to sleep,
only asserting itself in times of supremo
peril. It needs to be stirred up occasion
ally, and it must bo not in fireworks and
bombast, for the purpose of electing some
third-rate politician to sorao petty otliee,
but as a fit subject of intelligent thought
and consideration. In fact, every citizen,
from the highest to the lowest, may make
the subject of good government a life
study with profit.
One excellent class of men went to the
war from pure and patriotic motives, and
servod their country woll ; came home with
the proud satisfaction of having done their
duty well in the hour of the nation's trial,
and and nnd then went quietly to sleep
and navo oeen asleep ever since. They
have helped to savo thoir country once,
and that is enough for them ; nnd if it
can't take care of itself now let it go to
the d 1. In such hands it would go
there soon enough.
If those principles of government to
maintain which cost the country a four
years' bloody civil strife aro worth the
price, they are worth prescrvinz by the
most watchful caro, and the savins is no
unmeaning one that " by eternal vigilance
alone can national liberty bo maintained."
Our duty, then, is to watch.
Hut I am asked what I am going to do
must not the majority rule? Certainly.
And in the first place I would see to it by
all lawful means that the majority in con
gress is not placed there by the actual
minority of votes, as is assuredly the case
with tho forty-sixth congress.
Well, then, why is it better the republi
can party should lie in tho majority? I
reply, That party has directed and con
trolled the government for eighteen years.
Its errors of omission and commission
have been many and serious, and the
country is now paying the penalty for
them. No political party ever escapes
mistakes. But it must bo remembered
that the republican party has carried the
country through a period such as no re
publican government ever passed through
before, and we are to-day as a govern
ment a united peoplo (that the Union is a
forced one us respects the south is their
fault alone), our nntiounl honor and in
tegrity untarnished, a national credit that
can borrow its millions at the very mini
mum of interest, a sound currency, and
egislalion (which only lacks enforcement
in the south) guaranteeing to every citizen,
white or black, absolute freedom, equal
rights, and due protection under the law
in tho exercise of all tho privileges of
freemen. Further than these most vita!
points wo need not go in this direction.
Iiut toll me to what extent these results
are due to tho voices and votes of our
present democratic majority in congress,
t here is no favoring answer. Our nation
al unity, our national honor, our national
credit, our national freedom of the ballot,
are all in spite of them and not by them.
We don t need many pictures lroin the
other side, but will commenco with the
southern craze of national rag money and
the wholesale repudiation of state and
national obligations. Who to-day are
endeavoring by every means in their
power to tear down and destroy the last
and only protection vouchsafed to the
purity of the ballot, a protection which
should guarantee to every voter for a rep
resentative in congress the right to freely
cast his vote according to the dictates of
Ills own conscience, and the assurance
that his vote will be counted tis cast ? To
what purpose this herculean effort to re
peal the federal election law? They cannot
show that by its enforcement one legal
voter has ever been deprived of his rightr
ful voice in any election. Do they oiler
anything as a substitute for the better pro
tection of freemen in their constitutional
rights? Let democrats answer. I know
their answer. I have often heard it. O,
bosh with your nonsense! You republi
cans make out your side to be all saints
and tho other side all sinners. Mot so.
Political parties are absolutely indispensa
ble to a republican government, but there
never was and there never will be a party
that has not within its lines men who for
their own personal gain will be recreant
to their prolessions, their principles and
their trusts; therefore our individual dutv
is to ally ourselves with that party whoso
foundation principles come the nearest to
our own conceptions of what will accom
plish the greatest good for the greatest
number under any existing circumstances.
F.qual rights and absolute justice to all
men for starting points, with what will
naturally follow tho observance of these
principles, is a good enough platform for
me to stand upon, but no party will over
be true to any such strict principles so
long as tne mass ot Its auuerouls are satis
fied to rest upon the declaration of high
sounding ana granauoquent princniles
whilo leaving the active management of
its affairs to professional politicians intent
only upon private gain, whilo they them
selves rest quietly upon their easv
couches, sleeping the sweet sleep of the
just. This is tho way governments go to
In the present status of political parties,
there is no room for tloubt which side to
tale. Our next duty is, to to think, talk,
And now to ' My Child's Question."
which has been toa long forgotten, my
answer is. We went to the war, to preserve
the Union ; we went to the ballot box, to
perpetuato it. lt us think upon those
things. Yours trulv.
E. L. Foster.
New York, March 20th, 1879.
A Picture ok the Nihilist 1)oin;s is
St. Fetersiiuhq. A universal feeling of
gloom prevails. Alter U o clock in the
evening, nobody is at liberty to show him
self in the street without a certificate, upon
which must oe written and nttestod tlic
place from which the bearer comes and to
which he is going. The measures are
stringent, but at the samo time the insecu
rity of St. Petersburg is daily on the in
crease Jvery day wo hear of grenades
exploded in the street. Happily there have
not been serious consequences. For the
present the intention of the nihilists is be
lieved to bo to keep tho police in a state of
constant excitement, and at last tire them
out or lull them to sleop with the idea that
tile danger is exaggerated. Ihey claim
that harsh measures and arrests aro pro
ducing discontent among many people
who, when tho time comes for a grand
attack on the government, will join the
revolutionists, un tne night between
Friday and Saturday, seditions placards
were found stuck up in the vicinity of the
tueatres, and al tlie corners ot the business
streets, and although the city police and
detectives at onco hurried up and tore
down tho manifestoes, they nevertheless
appeared anew, as though conjured forth
from tho walls by enchantment. Passers
by stopped to read tho bills, and in this
one night the police arrested over one
hundred ami fifty persons. Anions al)
thoso taken the police failed to find in a sin
gle case as much as a scrao of oaoer
which appeared to havo anything to do
with the proclamation. The secret bib
slicker.on the other hand, went on with his
work indefatigably, and the police could
not succeed in discovering; hiiu. The alarm
at last became so great that two companies
were marelied out and posted at tho en
trances to a number of houses in the
street, but when the guard had its attention
called to the right, bills were posted upon
the left, and after they had been torn down
on the left they again appeared on tile
right. Sinco the attempts on tho life of
tne czar, troops have been in readiness
day and night in every regiment, two
companies in marehinz order, cmiiuned
with ball cartridges and all the accessories
required for active operations. Batteries
stand ready horsed and mounted in the
barrack yards, and a squadron of every
cavalry regiment stands in constant read
iness to mount both day and night, divis
ions of Cossacks patrol tho streets. On
the 10th a peasant was arrested in whose
pockets were lound assignments for revo
lutionary troops. According to this docu
ment active operations were to commence
on the night between April lGtli and 17th
Instantly tho government made most ex-
tensive preparations for defence. Grand
Duke Nicholas took up his quarters, with
tits entire stall, in the ollices ot tho gener
al stall opposite the winter palace. In the
riding-school of the guards tho regiment
oi nussars oi me guards was quartered
while the barracks of tho I'avloff and
Prevbraicnski regiments were crammed
full of troops, and the whole artillery of
me guarus received orders to Hold itsell
in readiness for immediate action. The
troops continued several days and nighfc
in the places assigned them, but tho revo
lution did not break out. Probably the
whole story of an intended outbreak was
m intentional mystification. Letter of
April 22d in Voloijne (lu:elte.
Lite-Giving Vapors. A stranger
would imagine that a hospital for con
sumptives had been established at the
Belmont oil works when passing there on
a lino spring day. Sickly looking men,
more shadow than substance; sparsely
built females, and mothers with delicate
littlo ones may be seen passing up nnd
lown in iront ot tlio works, their mouths
continually open, as though they desired
to inhale all the by no means faairrant
vapors which proceed from the stills. Such
in fact is the reason for their presence in
the neighborhood. It is the theory that
the vapor gas from tho boiling oil is a
sure cure ior sore throat and lung dis
eases, and numbers go to 1I13 spot each
day. The employe of the works are
among the strongest advocates of the
theory. About fifty men are engaged al
the refinery, .and although they are sub
jected to all tho vicissitudes of the
weather, and work in the open air the
winter through, pulmonary complaints are
unknown among them. This is true also
of the four hundred people employed at
tho Standard works at Point Breeze. The
people in the vicinity of both refineries
also enjoy remarkably good health. It is
stated on good authority that some years
ago, when tlio small pox was raging in
tho city, tlio neighborluiod niljaccnfto the
refinery, which was then situated at Ues
tonville, was exempt from the contagion,
and that no signs of it appeared along
the streets under which were the drains
through which tho refuse from tlio stills
passed. Crude oil is also staled to bo a
good remedy for pulmonary complaints.
Formerly large numbers of consumptives
were in the habit of obtaining supplies
fiom tlio refineries, and some wonderful
stories aro told of individuals on the
brink of tho grave who havo been brought
back to the vigor of manhood by a close
application of the greasy, coffee-colored
liquid. Vhilatlclphiti liecord.
The Use ok Small Means. Tho use
of small savings has not been enough in
sisted upon. We havo had plenty of light
on co oieralion in labor and in expendi
tures, and there has been no end to the
wild schemes for making men wealthy by
short and easy methods, as bv a redistri
bution of property, tho limitless manufac
ture of paper money, etc. But the slow,
simple, old-fashioned plan of providing
for to-morrow's contingencies by setting
aside a portion of to-day's reeeiots. lias
fallen sadly into disuse. It is a tedious
business, and not at all in accord witli the
prevailing desiro to get rich all of a sud
den and with trifling exertion. Wo are
all familiar with tho calculation which
shows how much ten cents a day, or
twenty cents a day, laid aside and put out
at interest will amount to, twenty, thirty,
forty years henco. But we smile at the
figures as a mere freak of enthusiasts, and
squander every day upon insignificant en
joyments or out. of sheer carelessness
sums of money which, if saved, would
make the "rainy day," which lies some
where in waiting for most of us, a good
deal brighter than it is likely to be other
wise. It is nrobable the barri tiiii."
from which we are emorging, have helped
to teach this lesson, among others, and
that more peoplo than formerly will be
(iisoseu to test me utility 01 small savings.
It is bad enough, out of an income of
twenty pounds to spend twenty pounds
and make no provision for the future, but
the trouble Willi most of us has been that
we have been spending tho extra shilling
which was not ours to spend. Hence our
" settlements " at considerably less than
ono hundred cents on the dollar. Uncon
sidered Trifles, in Boston Journal,
I 111 UK IIH TUB CI.Ot'K.
Aud He Sftftf " HntTxr 1,1,1a lillilran tt mm mttii m.
and forhid tueinnot; lor ot siiL-ii la the ItiuMoui ot
What says the clock when it strike one ?
Watch, says Ule clock, oh, watch. little ono.
What says the clock when it strikes two t
I, ova Ood, little one. for Uod loves yon.
Tell me softly what It whispers at three.
It la," suffer little children to come uuto Me."
Then come, irentle lambs, aud wander no more.
Tia the voice of the Shepherd that calla you at four.
And.ob! let your youuir hearts with siaducss revive.
W hen it echoes so sweetly , " Clod bless you ," at five.
Aud remember at six. at the fadlDK of day.
That your life is a vapor that fadetli away.
And what says the clock when it strikes seven ?
Of such is the kluvdom-the kingdom of Ueaveu ?
And what says tho clock when it strikes eurht ?
Strive, strive to enter la at the beautiful Kate.
And louder, still louder. It calla you at nine,
. son. p-ive me that heart of thine.
Ad such be your voices, resp-msive at ten.
Hisauua in the blithest ! Ilusauna t Amen I
And loud let the chorus riuK out at eleven.
'Of such is the kingdom the kiuirilom of Heaven.
When the deep strokes at tuiduiKht the watch-word
M Li ! these are my Jewels, Itipw, these.' said the
Flooding the Sahara.
Two plans have been set before tho pub
lic with regard to the great project of
flooding the immense liasin 01 Sahara,
known as El Juf, which is now generally
conceded to ho tint bed of a former inland
sea. One of these plans is so far in actual
operation that preliminary surveys are
now in progress, under tho direction of
M. Ferdinand do Lesseps, to test the feasi
bility of cutting n canal from Cabes, on
the coast of Tunis, to let the waters of the
Mediterranean into tho great central de
pression. Reports from the surveying
parties aro very favorable. They find the
soil free from serious obstacles to engi
neering work, generally sand to a great
ilopth, resting on a calcareous foundation.
They entertain no doubt that the work can
bo more easily accomplished than the
excavation of the Suez canal.
The other plan is that of re-opening the
ancient outlet of tlio inland sea to the
Atlantic, at a place called Boca Grande, or
Great Mouth, and thus filling with water
tho vast depression of F.I Juf, which lies
far below ihe level of tho ocean. This
basin, irregular in shape, extends Irom
within twelve miles of tho sea-coast to as
far south as the regions of Azawad and
WaUla, to the north of Timbuctoo. The
greatest length of this depression is given at
about five hundred miles, and the greatest
breadth at about one hundred nnd twenty
miles, altogether covering an area of about
sixty thousand square miles. Tho breadth
ol LI Juf is much greater In tho south,
but towards the northwest it seems gradu
ally to get narrower, terminating in the
great channel which in former years
connected it with tho Atlantic ocean.
There cannot be any doubt but that El Juf
at one lime formed part of the Atlantic
ocean, and that the connection existed
within historic times seems clear enough.
Upon the cause which led to the drying up
of the 1 Juf sea tho classic writers
are not very clear. It is recorded by
Diodorus Sicultis that, according to an
cient) tradition, a lake called llespcri
des, in tho portion of Sahara now oc
cupied by El Juf, was suddenly dried
up. Arab traditions point out that several
depressions in the Sahara were covered
with water in A. I). Csl, but sinco tho
year 1200 tlio water gradually disappeared.
It Is clear from research and the physic
al character of the whole region that the
waters of El Juf disappeared by tho
gradual accumulation of sand across the
mouth of the channel which formed the
connection between it and the Atlantic
ocean, and which finally cut off the water
supply. Thus separated from the sea, the
vertical rays of the sun would soon reduce
tho El Juf to tho vast salt region it now
appears, aliens, peoples, and otlicr ma
rine remains are scattered throughout the
entiro district, bearing witness to iho fact
that its surface was covered at no remote
period by tho waves of the Atlantic. The
lied of the El Juf is said by the Arabs to
be much lower than the ocean. Accord
ing to the observations of Captain Riley
and others, it would appear to bo about
two hundred feet below the sea level a
statement in which the sailors of Canary,
who know the place, concur.
The Belta valley, supposed to have
formed the connection between the Allan-
tic ocean and El Juf, was placed by trav
elers to the south of Cape Juby, and
called by Ihe natives Sakiet El Ilamra, the
name of the Bella being unknown to
them. Boon Grande, or Great Mouth,
whicli forms tho entrance, has the appear
ance of a Gibraltar on a small scale. It is
formed between perpendicular rocks rising
to a height of about two hundred feet
above the sea, with a width of about two
miles anil a half, having a sand-bar across,
about thirty feet at the south end and ten
feet at lite north, and about three hundred
yards across. In stormy weather the
waves break furiou-ly against this bar.
Thoie is also a strong current setting con
tinually against the shore, which caused
the accumulation of sand that ullimatcly
scparated El Juf from the Atlantic. The
Sakiet El liamra channel appears to wid
en considerable inland ; a range of moun
tains at a long distance from tho shore
stretches from north to south, but opposito
tho Boca Grande there is almost a perpen
dicular break of about fifteen miles. Tho
r.f thla ..),..,, no) id c..i,l I, I-,,, inocnot,.,!
niLII IliailllU C.tlU. V,J'LIIU XbllJ, Till.,
traveled over many miles of it, says there
could be no doubt in the mind of any one
who should view it that the bank of this
yalley was worn by tho sea at a compara
tively modern period ; ho also states that
the channel was not more than ten miles
wide where ho passed it, but was very
broad within, and extended a great way
into the country, which seems clearly to
prove that this valley was tho northwest
extremity of iho great basin of El Juf,
which becamo narrower as ll approached
The importnnco of the advantages to bo
gained by the accomplishment of this vast
enterprise can hardly be overestimated.
Soudan has a population of about thirty
eight millions of the most intelligent and
energetic cf all the African races. They
have successively been brought under Ihe
influence of Carthaginian, Roman, Egyp
tian, and Mohammedan civilization. They
have formed themselves into independent
states, and possess numerous walled
towns of commercial importance They
have established laws and education, and
stamped out many of the worst forms of!
pagan suporslilion. They cultivato the i Work of Idleness. A striking exam
soil, and carry on several branches of pie of the sanitary effects on body and
manufacture with remarkable success. 1 mind of work as compared with idleness.
The people of Soudan receivo their supply 1 is given from tho records of the New
of European merchandise across the Saha-1 Jersey state prison. In 1874, when nil tho
ra from the ports of Morocco, Algeria, convicts wore employed, there were only
Tunis, nnd Tripoli a system of coin- three deaths. May 31, 1875, when thoy
munication Willi the outer world which . were all at work, only 21 out of 061 were
has existed for thousands of years. Car- jjlo bcoame of illness, and only five wore
avans prodeoding by any of thoso routes , insane. December 31, 1875, after six
can only make one journey a year, trav-1 months of idleness, 50 out of 117 were
ersing about two thousand miles of raoun-1 nnfit for work, 18 were insane, and there
tainom and difficult country before tho w(Jle thirteen deaths in the yoar. In 1S76
nearest market of soudan is roacneu.
I These paths, formerly used by the mer-
chants of antiquity, now sorve the A rap
oaravans. Notwithstanding all theso difh
cullies, the annual value of the trade be
tween the northern ports and Soudan
amounts to about four millions dollars. An
easier mode of transit would evidently
lead to a large development of this trado.
The distance from Cape Juby to Tim
buctoo. on the Upper Niger, .is about
eight hundred miles of almost level coun
tiv. thus belno twelve hundred miles
shorter than the present routes
lino proioscd by Mr. Mackenzie there arc
no less man lorty-two stations, witn plenty
of water, lie thinks that caravans could
make three journeys a year by it with
greater case than one by tho present
roads. Therefore, without any outlay
whatever for roads, an annual trade of
twelve millions dollars would soon bn es
tablished. To attain this object all that is
necessary is to form a commercial station
at Port St. Bartholomew, Cape Juby,
where the climato is equal to that of
Maderia and Canary, obtain tho protection
of tho Berber chiefs of western Sahara
(under whose protection the present trade
is carried on), and place agents in the
principal towns on the road to Timbuctoo.
The road to central Africa would then be
practically opened to commerce through a
healthy country, and from a point within
nine days' sail of Etiroean shores.
With the Sahara Hooded direct naviga
tion with Europe would be established.
And thus will also be ocned a more ex
tensive market for American goods. We
have heard of the desert being made " to
blossom as tho rose;'' it is certainly a
fascinating idea that a vast and arid waste
is to be covered by a portion of the waters
of the mighty Atlantic. And if this open
ing up of tho interior of Africa to civiliz
ation and commerce is to alralish Ihe
African slave trade, with all its attendant
horrors, then do we most earnestly wish it
a hearty godspeed. Harper's We'tkhj.
Bees ox the Wing. When a swarm
leaves for the woods they are off before
you fairly know it. They drift away from
the hive in a wide spread and apparently
aimless concourse, then suddenly gather
up their skirts, draw together their forces,
anil away Ihey go, a humming, living vor
tex of bees, ihe queen apptrenily in the
center and tho mass revolving about her
a9 a pivot, over orchards and meadows,
across creeks and swamps, or woods and
deep valleys, straight for iho appointed
tree, slow at first, so that you can keep up
with them, but presently with a speed that
would tire a fox hound. In this fiight tho
individual bees do not move in right lines,
or straight lorward like a Hock ol birds.
but round and round like chatf in a whirl
wind; unitedly they form a whirling, re
volving, nebulous mass fifteen or twenty
feet across, that roes as straight as a pro
jectile to its mark. They are not partial
as to the kind of tree. pine, hemlock,
elm, birch, maplo, hickory, any tree with
a good cavity high up or low down. A
swarm of mine ran away from the new
patent hive I gave them, and took up their
quarters in the hollow trunk of an old
apple tree across an adjoining field. The
entrance was a mouse hole near the
ground. Another swarm in the neighbor
hood deserted their keeper anil went into
the cornice of an out-house that stood
amid evergreens in tho rear of a large
mansion. But there is no accounting for
tho tasto of bees, as Sampson found when
he discovered the swarm in the carcass
(or more probably the skeleton) of the lion
ho had slain. Juhii Burrowjlu, in Scrib
ncr for May.
Where it U,uxs Evehv Day. At
Para one day is like another. The morn
ings are cool and pleasant. From ten till
two tho heat increases rapidly, commonly
reaching 92s or 9:3" Fahrenheit. A littlo
later great black clouds appear in tho east
spreading rapidly over tho sky and turning
the intense blaro to a twilight darkness.
In a few minutes the rain comes pouring
down in great dense masses, Hooding
the streets, hiding vessels on the river,
drenching unlucky boatmen and their
passengers, anil then ero wo know it, the
shower has passed, and the sun looks down
brightly on tho freshened earth. Some
times the first shower is followed by
another and even a third; after that the
clouds disappear, or hang liko purple
curtains on the western horizon. By
sunset the ground is dry, and all nature is
This is the rule all tho year round : only
the wet season, extending from January
to May, is distinguished by moro copious
showers, sometimes lasting until evening,
Willi an occasional day or night of continu
ed rain, while in tho height of the dry
season, a week may pass without any
showers at all, but even then tho ground
is watered by tho heavy dews. Scrilmerys
What Makes Them Hum. Most boys
believe that the humming sound mado by
the telegraph wires is caused by the mes
sages hurrying along to their destination.
Most men believe that this sound is
caused by the vibration of the wire in tlio
wind. A writer in an Austrian journal,
however, calls attention to the fact that
one who gives closo observation to both
tho wire and sounds will find that tho lat
ter made themselves obvious likewise
when there is a total absence of wind ;
and in a quiet morning in winter, when
the wires appear covered with frost to the
thickness of a finger, they nevertheless
carry on lively vibrations and swinging,
while tho air Is totally quiet According
to this writer, therefore, tho vibrations are
duo, not to the wind, but to the changes of
atmospheric temperature, and especially
through the action of cold, as a lowering
of the temperature induces a shortening
of the wires, extending over Ihe whole
lensrth of tho conductor. A considerable
amount of friction is produced on the sup-
r,.tinrr I, olio llmo imliii'lnn- cmiml. hnlh in
1 r"ll"'ft ', ' O
i t0 Wires and tne poies
A Massachusetts teacher writes to tho
National Journal ot Education describing
an experiment in the school-room which
seems to bo successful. Instead of facing
his pupils he has his desk behind tliom,
and thus overlooks them to a great ad
vantage. The naughty littlo ones, not
knowing whon his eye is upon them, dare
not whisper and play. " They have," he
says, " so frequently como to grief in at
tempting to calculate chances, that they
havo concluded to mako a virtue of neces
sity, and givo up play in the school-room
as unprofitable, costing moro than it comes
to. Another decided ndvantage of this
system is that il completely isolates classes
reciting from tho rest of the school; the
recitation benches being in front of the
teacher's desk, between him and the
school, and tbo back of the pupils being
toward each other, communication by look
or sign is out of the question. Tho only
special rule made is that pupils should not
0nlv a few were btnv, and there were 2U
deaths. In 1877, when 500 out of 83o
were at work, there were only eight
deaths, nnd on December 31, there were
38 unfit for work. In January, 1879. with
the same number busy, there were 107 in
the hands of the doctor.
If young ladies thought as much of
beauty of heart as iboy do of face of
beauty 01 life, ns ot person, this world
would soon be a world of beauty, and of
happiness as much.
1'AI.MMl I IIB AMUKIX IV
BT MAlirfARBT J. PBCSTON.
We nean to do it : Some day, some day,
We mean to slat-ken this fevered rush
That is wearltur our very souls away.
And irrant to our jroaded hearts a hush
ThaOs holy eooiiirb to let them bear
The footsteps of aua-els drawing near.
W mean to do It: Oh, never doubt.
When the burden of daytime toil is o'er.
We'll sit and muse, wbile the stars come out.
As the patriarch eat at the open door
Of bis tent, with a heavenward Kaztntf rye,
To watch for the auele passimr by,
We've soen them afar at hih ntontide.
When tlercely the world's hot fl tshlnKS beat;
Vet never bare bidden them turn aside,
Aud tarry swbile lu couverse sweet :
ior prayed them to Hallow tbo cheer we spread.
To driuk of our wine , aud break our brea l.
We promised our hearts, that when the stross
01 the life-work reaches the longed for close,
When the weight that we groan with hinders letts.
We'll loosen our thoughts to such repose
As banishes care's disturbing dlu,
Aud then we will call the augels In.
The day wedreamld of comes at length,
When tired or every mocking nuest.
And broken in spirit and shorn of strength,
We drop, indeed, at the door of rest.
And wait and watch aa the day wanes on
But the angels we meant to call, are gone !
" Unper Fire." The first time a sol
dier goes into action he fancies tho shot
th-tl ho hears whizzing through thenir is
aimed at him. But if he is not hit at
first, he soon acquires a sort of fatalistic
feeling that ho never will bo. Tho eve of
a battle 111 i slit supposed to be a solemn
moment. I havo been at several eves
(says Mr. II Labouchere in his paper,
Truth.) and I never perceived the vestige
of solemnity, nor so far as I could per
ceivedid it strike any one that the next
day ho might be killed. The thoughts of
every one were concentrated first on sup
per, and then on finding a comparatively
comfortable placo to sleep. During a
hattlo all not engaged are simply bored.
If ever a hand-to-hand fight takes place,
it is due to some bungler being in com
mand on ono sido or the otlicr. Most of
the regiments engaged do not even see
ihe enemy. Attacking in column and
bayonet charges are a thing of tho past.
Shells and bullets are fired into n position
or tqicn troops advancing. The victory
is decided by artillery and breech-loader
firing. Those who can concentrate the
heaviest lire upon particular strategical
points to win. So mechanical is the
whole affair that it is an admitted axiom
that if one-third of the best regiment in
the world can bo put hors lie combat, the
remainder will execute a strategical
nianieuvro to tho roar.
What Iowa Girls are Tauoiit. At
the Iowa Agricultural College every jrirl
in the junior class has learned to make
good bread, weighing and measuring lior
ingredients, mixing, kneading and baking,
and regulating her firo. Each has also
been taught to make yeast nnd bake
biscuit, puddings, pies, and cake of various
kinds ; bow to cook a roast, broil a steak,
and make a fragrant cup of coffee; how to
stuff and roast a turkey, make oyster soup,
prepare stock for other soups, steam and
mash potatoes so they will melt in the
mouth, and, in short, to get up a first
class meal, combining both substantial
and fancy dishes in good style. Theory
and manual skill have gone hand in hand.
Vast stores of learning havo been accumu
lated in the arts of canning.proserving and
pickling fruits, and they havo taken prac
tical lessons in all the details of household
management, such as house-furnishing,
caro of beds nnd boding, washing and
ironing, care of tho sick, care of children,
etc. The girls, we aro informed, are also
thoroughly grounded in science, mathe
matics, and English literature; but this is
of slight moment compared with the
foregoing catalogue of virtues. If there is
anything that challenges tho unlimited
respect and devotion of tho masculine
mind it is ability in woman to well order
her own household. St. raid Pioneer
Tho business tact and economy of the
native Chinese merchants is such that they
aro gradually yet surely crowding the
English nnd American merchants out of
the foreign trade, which the latter aie
expected to monopolize upon the opening
of tho Oriental ports to the outside world.
The native agents, whom tlio foreigners
were obliged 10 employ as purchasers of
tea and other products, formed an organ
ization among themselves, added their
own commissions and got control of the
market. The sugar trade of Amoy and
Formosa, formerly the source of a hand
some income to a number of foreign
houses, has gone entirely into Chinese
hands. In Saigon, the capital of Cochin
China, tlio Chinese ship nearly all the
rice. There are more than one hundred
thousand Chinese in Singajiore and they
constantly increase, while tho Europeans
arc diminishing in numbers. They have
gained a foothold in Japan, In spite of
Dutch exclusiveness. Ihey aro trading
successfully in Manila, British Burmah,
Calcutta and oilier Indian cities, and at
the present rate of growth it will not be
long oeiore 1110 tinnese win euuuui tut:
whole foreign trade of their country, have
their own lines of steamers and manufac
ture everything needed for home con
sumption. A Check for One Cent. The Wash
ington correspondent of tho Philadelphia
Times writes : " The mucli-abusod George
C. Gorham, whoso spirits are of the light
est and whose friendships are of the
strongest, closed his accounts as secretary
of the Senate on Tuesday. After eleven
years' service, during which he has dis
bursed many millions for the United
States Senate is the most expensive body
on earth he closes his account for tho
first limo. It was found at the department
that thero was one cent owing him. In
an official letter, which had to be copied,
recorded, numbered, etc., the United
States treasurer notified Gorham of the
balance on settlement, and requested that
he would draw Ms check for the amount.
With the same precision ns though a mil
lion dollars was at stake the check was
drawn. A messenger conveyed it to the
treasury. Tho books were searched to
see if tlio amount was to Gorham's credit,
and then the cent was paid a groat, big
copper ono, which Gorham proposes to
keep for luck forever. It seems that had
had ho not drawn the balance it would
have zone on forevor among the liabilities
of the treasury. andooca8ioned any amount
of trouble to the clerks."
A Boston correspondent of the London
Guardian, a church of England organ.
who is evidently a littlo sensational,
writes: "The number of unemployed
clergy is becoming a publio scandal.
Mnifv of them with their families, are
reduced to the greatest distress. They are
forced to give up one place, and go almost
hat in hand, begging for some other
degraded in the sight of the community,
and. most of all, in tneir own eyes, uier
o-v in the east are writing to the west to
try nnd find something to do there ; clergy
from the west aro coming back to the
east to besiege worried and helpless bish
ops for vacant parishes here. And clergy,
both cast and west are beginning to talk
seriously of the necessity of giving np the
ministery and returaing to secular work
for the Bupport of their families."
Man can do many things, but there is
one thing he can't do he can't button on
a new collar, just after cutting his thumb
nails, without looking np in the air. Uos
The honest man who is out of debt and
has enough to eat and drink nnd wear, and
a place to sleep beneath a tight roof, be
longs to the aristocracy. With the smile
of God and a place lo labor, he has nothing
to desire save the crown that awaits tho
A publication of Ihe navy list for 1879
shows that out of 1608 officers loss than
one half are nt sea. Of iho rest 623 are
doing land service of one kind and another,
and about ono man in eight is doing noth
ing. Of those doing "sea service" a largo
share &iend their lime on vessels securely
anchored in the Mediterranean, where
their craft is usually undergoing re; airs.
An old darkey caught a two-pound
sucker ono day and was so well .-a irfio
wiih his work that he lay down for a nap
with the fish beside him the giai-t.
Another darkey came along presently,
picked up the sucki-r and left a half-pound
ono in its place. When the llrsl man and
brother woke up. tho lirt thinsr his eyes
sought was the fish, anil it took him ;orae
seconds to realize that t-omeibinu had
happened. Then turning his priz over
and examining it all round, he 1- mply
said, " Golly, how dat fish am shrunken!"
Maxims for Young Men-. Never be
idle. If your hinds cannot be usefully
employed, attend to the cultivation of your
Always speak tho truth.
Keep good company or none.
Make few promises.
Live up to your engagements.
Have no very intimate friends.
Keep your own secrets, if you have any.
When you speak to a person, look him
in the face.
Good company and good conversation
are the very sinews of virtue.
Good character is above all things else.
Never listen to looso or idlo conversa
tion. You had better be poisoned in your
blood than your principles.
Your charactor cannot bo essentially
injured except by your own acts.
The man who iives right and is right,
has more power by bis silenco than an
other has by his words. Character is liko
hells which ring out sweet music, and
which, when touched accidentally, even,
resound with sweet music.
A Bird That Turns Somersaults.
There's a pretty little bird that lives in
China, and is called the Forked Tailed
Parus. lie is about as big as a robin, and
he has a red beak, orange-colored throat,
green back, yellow legs, black tail, and
red-and-yellow wings. Nearly all the
colors are iu his dress, you see, and he is
a gay tellow.
But this bird has a trick known by no
other birds that ever I heard of. He turns
somersaults! Not only does he do this in
his free life onthtj trees, but also after ho
is caught nnd put into a cage. He just
throws his head tar back, and over he goes
touching tho bars of tho cage, and alight
ing upon his feet on the floor or on a
perch. He will do it over aud over a num
ber of times without stopping, as though
ho thought it great fun.
All his family havo the same trick, and
they aro called Tumblers. Tho peoplo of
China are fond of keeping them in cages
and seeing them tumble. Travelers often
have tried to bring them to our country,
but a sea voyage is not good for them, and
they are almost sure to die on tho way.
" Jack in-thc-Put pit," St. Nicholas for
Signs ov the Times. I am an old
man; yet in material things I have seen
the creation of a new world. I am con
The Sewing Machine,
The Steam Plow,
The Friction Match,
Tho Caloric Engine,
Tho California Gold Discoveries,
The Oil Well Discoveries,
The Electric Light,
The Telephone, etc., etc., etc.
Gentlemen conscrvatives.tiieso are some
of the fool-prints of material progre.s of
the present generation. Do you think tho
moral world will remain the samo as be
fore? that society will be unaffected by
these charges? If you do, let me call your
altention to the fact that this same genera
tion has seen the abolition of slavery on a
grand scale, the ascendancy of republican
America, the opening of China and Japan,
the institution of world's fairs, the spread
of the insurance system, and the agitation
for the freedom of women. And tho
march is steadily on, with accelerating
motion. What is its meaning? Where
will it end?
Agassiz and His Father. A story is
told of Agassiz, the great naturalist, which
wo believe, lias never, yet appeared in
His latuer destined mm lor a commerci
al life, and was impatient at his devotion
to frogs, snakes nnd fishes, iho latter,
especially, were objects of tho boy's at
tention. His vacations he spent in mak
ing journeys on foot through Europe, ex-
aming the different species of fresh-wa
If you can prove to me, said his
father, that you really know anvtbins
about science, I will consent that you shall
give up the career I have planned for
loung Agassiz, in nis next vacation,
being then eighteen, visited England,
taking with him a letter of introduction to
Sir Roderick Murchison.
You have been studying nature, said
the great man, bluntly. What havo you
The lad was timid, not sure at that
moment that he had learned anything. I
know a little about fishes.
Very well. There will bo a meeting of
the Royal Society to-night. I will take
you with me there.
All of the groat scientific savans cf
England belonged to this socioly. That
evening, when the business of the meeting
was over, Sir Roderick rose and said :
I have a young friend here from Swit
zerland, who thinks he knows something
about fishes ; how much, 1 have a fancy to
try. There is, under this cloth, a perfect
skeleton of a fish which existed long be
fore man. lie then gave nim the precise
locality in which it had been found, with
one or two othor facts concerning it. The
species to which tho specimen belonged
was, 01 course, extinct.
Can you sketch for me on the blackboard
your Idea ot this Unlit said sir Roder
Agassiz took up the chalk, hesitated a
moment, and then sketched rapidly a
skeleton fish. Sir Roderick held up tho
specimen. The portrait was correct in
every none and line. J. no grave old doc
tors burst into loud applause.
Sir, Agassiz said, on telling the story,
that was the proudest moment of my life
no. the happiest; for I knew, now, my
father would consent that I should give
my life to science. Youth's Companion.