Newspaper Page Text
CUMMINGS & HOSKIHS.
Term.. One oopj, per antrum,... fi.30
Ifpaldstrlotlr In odTanee '1.00
rot special terms to ClaU see second page.
Hates of Advertising-.
Short adrertlsoments, 74 cents per Inch for Arst inter-
ion. Eacu subsequent Insortion, SS centa per Inch. N.
shargo loss thin $1.00.
Favorable rates fur extcnslre and yearly adrortlsers
soajr M bad upon application to the pabllilieri.
BONO OF TUB IIUSKICRg.
Heap high the farmer's wintry hoard
Heap high the golden coral
No richer gilt hu antamn poured
From oat her lavish horn.
Let other lands, exulting glean ...
111 apple from the pine.
The erange from the glossy greon.
The cluster from the Tine.
We better lore tho hardy gift
Our rugged Tales bestow,
To cheer us when the storm shall drift
Oar harrcit Acids with snow.
Through Talcs of grass and meads of flowers
Our plows their furrows made,
Whllo o'er Ido hills the sun and showers
01 chaegful April played.
We dropped the seed o'er hill and plain,
Beneath the sun of May,
And frlghtenod from our sprouting grain
The rubbor crows away.
All through the long bright days of June
Its lcurcs grew strong and fair,
And wared In hot midsummer's noon
Its soft and yellow hair.
And now with autumn's moonlit eyos,
Its barrest time has come,
We pluck away its frosted loaves,
And bear the treasure home.
There, richer than the fablod gifts
Apollo showered of old,
Fair hands tho broken grain shall sift,
And knead Its meal of gold.
Let rapid Idlers loll la silk,
Around their costly board)
aire us tho bowl of samp and milk,
By homespun beauty poured.
Where'er the wide old kitchen hearth
Sends up its smoky curls,
Who will not thank the kindly earth,
And bless the farmer girls t
Then shame on all the proud and Tain,
Whose folly laughs to scorn
The blessings of our hardy grain,
Our wealth of golden corn.
And let the good old crop adorn
The hills oar fathers trod
BtlU lot ns for Ills golden corn
Bend up our thanks to Clod I
ja a. muntT.
I wish I was a printer,
I really do, Indeed 1
It sems to me that printers
Oet ererythlng they need
They get the largest and the best
Of orory thing that grows.
And getfrco Into circuses,
And othor kinds of shows
(Dy paying an cqulralcnt)
The biggest bug will speak to llicm,
No matter how thoy dross,
A shabby coat Is nothing.
If they own a printing press.
At ladles' fairs they're almost hugged,
By pretty girls who know
That thoy will praise up everything
That ladles hare to show. '
And thus they get a blow out free,
At OTery party feed.
And the reason Is bocause thoy wrlto,
And other people read.
(That's what's the matter.)
(incubus) A printer's
When docs a man keep his word? When
no one will take !t.
Tho nian who stolo a pairof boots tho oth
er day had a fit.
It is not round sentences, but pointed ones,
that are sure to stick in tho memory.
Tho man who can bo nothing but serious,
or nothing but merry, is but half a mnn.
If a Bedouin should lose his teeth, would
ho talk gum Arabic?
An Irish editor congratulates himself that
"half the lies told about him ain't tmo."
Capitol I'unishinont To bo shut up in tho
pantry with tho preserves, and tho cake-box.
Bad manuscript makes an editor think
somotimcs that ho keeps a house of correc
tion. A now plant lias lice n discovered by bota
nists. It received a namo an inch nnd threo
quarters longer than itsolf.
A nogro, on being examined, was asked If
his master was a trno Christian. "No, sir,
he is a politician," was tho reply.
Tho New York World, commenting on an
advertisement for a lost dog, In which ho Is
described ns A. 1, cays this is a mistake, tor
tho dog must have been K. 0.
A boy in a school wad reading tho sentence,
"Tho llghthouso is a landmark by day nnd a
beacon by night," and rendered it thus:
"Tho llghthouso is a landlord by day nnd a
deacon by night."
"Homo is tho placo for boys," said Spinks
to his eldest pride nnd joy. "Yes," said tho
youngest, dutifully j "Ilikotostny at homo
all the- time, but ma sends mo to school,"
A witness, in describing certain ovents,
said: "Tho person that I saw nt tho head of
tho stairs was a man with una eyo named
Jacob Wilklns." "What was tho namo of
his other eye?" spitefully asked the opposing
"Who was tho meokest man, my son?"
said tho superintendent of a toys' lilblo
class in this btnto. "Mosos, sir." "Very
well, my lxy; and who was tho mcokost
woman?" "l'loaso, sir, thoro novor was no
"My son," said a fond papa, who was look
ing over tho lesson his son had recited that
day, "how did you maiiugo wltcn your teach
cr asked you to spoil mctonipsychosis?" "Oh,
father," safd tho boy, "I just stood spell
bouiull" Thoy havo In Chicago two llov. Dr. l"i.t-
torsons, (both Itobcrts,) two Hov. Dr. Col
liers, (lx)th Itobcrts,) two Hov. Dr. Itartletts,
and two Hov. Dr. I'attons. Tho pcoplo
thero "pays their money and takes their
cholco," In tho matter of hearing these doc
Savannah lias a negro who ovidontly un
derstands military strntogy, I n an lncondla-
ryspcocii, ino other night, In which no was
excltodly clamorous for tho rights of tlio
UlaoKs, lio said that in tho ovont or a conlllet
botweon them nnd tho whitos, tho colored
servnnt girls in tho houses would set fire to
tho bods, tho whllo womon would fly for
their lives, nnd tliolr husbands and brothers
going to look after them would bu drawn
from tho fight, leaving miu iuy victory to tho
For tho Vkhmoxt Firms.
THE SEASON AND
lho last two or thrco days of April I
commenced putting !n my ccd by sowing
uitccn bushels of oats and tiro bushels of
wheat. On this land I also sowed craw and
clover sco 1, sowing thrco time as much eta
vet as Timothy. I bought Bixtv Dounds of
clover seed and half a bushel of Timothy,
nnd this quantity, mixed, needed about six
acres. I sowed, toward tho last of May
mno bushels mora of oats. 1 was told. dur.
ing tho summer and at harvest, that mj oats
Was tho best nlceo in town, in ll.n nLumr',
judgment. I harvested my wheat the first
wees in august, (i crauieu we aoro In ftmr
hours) and as tho weather was fine I cot it
very soon after binding it. It kept well in
the barn, and yielded twenty bushels at
thrashing. It was of tho Scotch fife variety,
and tho sect was raised by Thomas Uakcr,
oi uarton. My oats wcro injured by wet
weather whilo harvesting them, so that they
tu uurit m coior, anu some el them wcro
damp when thrashed. Thero was a loss of
probably twenty bushels by shelling in tho
held, yet tho thrashers measured mo out
thrco hundred and eighteen bushels of oats.
iuosi ot tneso are too white Bhoncn variety,
imported by tho Department ot Agriculture
Irom Hamburgh, aud distributed throughout
thfl country in small quantities. This is tho
third year I havo raised them, and I consid
cr them perfectly satisfactory. "They weigh
thirty-two pounds to the bushel. Somo of
them near tho road probably yielded seven.
ty-fivo bushels per aero. I havo sold about
sixty bushels for fifty cents per busheL
In justice to tho department of agricul
ture I ought to endeavor to persuade others
to sow them and mako them tho common oat
of tho country.
My thrashing was done by a machine
mado by A. W. Grav & Sons. Middle town.
Vt., and it is a very excellent machine. It
separates tho grain from lho Btraw and chsff
so that thero is but littlo wasted. It seems
very durable, as this machine has been in uso
two seasons before tho present and no lags
aro worn out and no new ones havo been re.
quired, or aro likely to bo required for two
or three years to come. In this respect it is
dificrent from the machines used hero in
years past, in which lags wcro continually
coming off and hindering the work whilo re
pairs wcro being made. The first day tweo
ty bushels of wheat and 107 bushels of oats
wero thrashed. Full half of theso were
damp, and therefore hard to thrash. Tho
second day before neon wo thrashed 151
oushcls of oats, and loaded tho machine.
My bill was nino dollars for 1 1-2 days'
work of two men, four horses and tho ma.
During my thrashing a neighbor farmer
criticized my management very freely bc
causo in filling my bay with.oaU I filled in
at one end when I expected to pitch out to
the machine from tho other end. Ho was
about right. Tho bay should bo filled so
that tho grain can bo pitched out where it
was pitched in; then the forkfuls
i ..ft i ... .
aro easily mica as we como to them. It is
cosier to movo a pile ot boards by taking the
top ono first, instead of tho bottom one.
Yet I think I got my grain in easier by Btor
ing it as I did, but it took nn extra hand to
get it out.
My corn, on 180 square rods of ground,
was tho so-called "improved Canada," that
received a premium of $10 for the best 100
cars raised in 1871. I expected that in
about ninety days I should have ripe com,
but it was certainly 105 days after planting
beforo I cut it up, and then it wni not fully
npo, and many cars wcro not glazed, but as
tho hills wcro but three feet i.part each way,
it may havo been too close, and its early ma-
turity prevented somewhat. As I cut it up
I put it in stooks or shocks each containing
sixteen hills, and thoso that aro woll bound
stand and euro woll and are in good condi
My potatoes, (1 1-2 acres,) are yielding a
small crop. Tho Brcczco nroliflo do not
lack in cumbers or soundness, but in sizo.
My other varieties, Jackson white, early
rose, Chili, and California, aro taken tho
samo way ; the tubers aro small and mostly
sound. Tho appearances aro that tho price
of potatoes will advaoco so that perhaps a
small crop will bo profitable, yet it is not
satisfactory. Tho student of vegetable
growth must seek tho reason for a small crop
of potatoes when every othor crop, grass and
grain is abovo tho average.
I share the good fortuno that is enjoyod
by all tho farmers in having abundanco of
fall feed. The growth of clover is rank and
wo do not heed tho admonitions of thoso
wllo say "keep every hoof out of tho mow
ing fields." Wo let them in and the cows
give a fino mess of rich milk..
If snow keeps oil thero will bo but littlo
fodder given to cattle from tho barns and I
feel suro wo shall havo a good crop of hay
next year, probably quito as good as If
tho aftermath had rotted upon tho ground,
Tho wot woather has provented my mow
ing about two acres of now rough meadow,
"hich I had intended to make usoful as soon
ok possible. It has been rocently cleared
and never mown, but it oases the self. re
preach of this failure to seo tho uncut hay,
and tho swaths, windrows and cooks left rot
ting in tho fiolds ot my fellow farmers.
Bo, considering the summer campaign end
ed, wo plan to do better another year,
Iraslurgh, Oct. 10,
.YotCM una Queries.
Peauuts liaised In Vermont.
"I send you a pea-nut plant with ripo
nuts upon it, grown in my cardco in St,
Johnsbury. Tho seeds were sown in a pot
tn may, ro-pottcu onco, anu put out tn Juno.
I know nothinc of the habits of tbo plant,
or tho kind of soil necessary to its growth.
Am of opinion from this one oxperiment
that It could bo much moro successfully
jjiunu man mo Bwcci potato.
. II. 8. Uhowmk,
St. Johmbury, Oct. 17."
Dr. Urowno's pca.nut plant is really quite
a curiosity, and tho nuts upon it aro as pood
s tho best. Tho wholo of tho Atlantic si
of North America has a tropical summer oil
mate, and consequently all tropical and sub
tropical plants can bo planted out of doors
during tho season between frost and frost,
and will mature if started early enough, or
it they do not requiro too lone a season,
ibis fact enables us to havo in our gardens
a wonderful variety of growth such as tho
tropics themselves cannot show, inasmuoh as,
whilo wo can grow tropical plants, they can
not grow, tho equally beautiful flora of tho
north. With a little skill we may have)
both, out of doors, for a considerable timo
every year, and under glass all the year
round. lho pea-nut plant is a small ono,
something like a bush bean, and has the cu
nous peculiarity, after blooming, of pushinc
its pods into tho ground and maturing them
tbcro. Tho crop is much increased by keep
ing tho ground friable, with a littlo hilling
occasionally. It requires a warm, light soil.
iV groat many pcoplo havo no distinct idea
how pea-nuts are produced, and a New York
nurseryman recently had an order from a
Now Jcrsoy diviuo for a Pea-nut tree. Ho
communicates tho fact to a New York
paper, and says: "Now, it is my candid
opinion that a pastor of a church who has
not seen enough of this world and its prod
ucts to bavo learned that pea-nuts do not
grow upon trees is not fit to guido souls
through this 'valo of tears to mansions in
the skies.' " Which recalls a '-littlo story,
When tho Hon. Lazarus Powell was canvas
sing the Stato of. Kentucky as a candidate
lor governor, ho stopped ono night with a
worthy farmer of tho Cumberland Moun
tains rcgiou, and was regaled at supper with
huckleberry pio. Mr. Powell took a great
fancy to this Comestible, and after eating
heartily remarked to tho farmer's wife,
"well, madam, that is the best pio I ever
ato in my life, but you inut vxcuso mo for
asking what kind of fruit it was made of."
Yt hat 1" exclaimed tho old lady, "up for
governor and don't know huckleberries I I
mistrust you ain.t Gain' for tho offico !"
"Will you, or any of tho readers of
the F-uomt, have tho kindness to inform mo
of tho cheapest, quickest and best way of
itl1Utn.. U . r i. ...
u. lilting uiu taig.iwu ui minimis as a iertll
izer for crops so as to save tho most impor
tant elements 7 How long will it tako for
them to undergo the necessary decomposi
tion, and in what manner should tho fertiliz
er bo applied 7 (J. S. S.
bMt tarnham, P. Q., Oct. 4."
The most important elements in a dead
animal for fertilizing purposes aro the ammo
nia of the soft parts and tho phosphorio acid
of tho bones. Tho animals, if larae. should
bo cut up, and tho pieces stratified with
earth, sods and other decomposable refuso.
Quick-lime sprinkled over the flesh will hast
en decomposition, which will go on more or
less rapidly according to tho season. Enough
earth should bo used to prevent tho escape
of all offensive odor, and tho heap should be
shoveled over occasionally and fresh earth
added if necessary. When tho flesh cleaves
from tho bones, tho latter may be removed
from the heap, diicd, burned, reduced to
powder and intermingled again with the
heap, which should bo kept moist, but not
alloT'a to bo leached by heavy rains. Ash
es aro not a good addition to this compost,
uuicss aq aDunuanco ot cartu is used, as
they set tho ammonia freo. Plaster has tho
contrary effect, absorbing and fixing tho am
monia. When thoroughly composted, this
mixturo is excellent to apply in tho hill for
corn, or to force garden vegetables liko cab
bages, tomatoes, peppers, fco.
What Is tin "Niter" of Staple HiiBarl
"I noticed somo timo since in tho
r armer that Professors Johnson and Col
lier found the 'niter' of rnaplo sugar to bo
malate of lime. I havo taken somo interest
in studying this subject, and cannot under
stand bow so solublo a salt as malato of lime
should bo precipitated from the sap so com
pletely in tno process ot boilioit it down in
to syrup. I somo timo ago sent a samplo of
mtor," whion 1 took from tho bottom of a
syrup vessel myself, to professor Sccly, of
iuioaicoury, anu no, alter microscopio exam
ination and analysis, pronounced it to bo
chiefly 'hgnino.' i.
at. Johmbury, Vet. 13."
Another Query about Ayrshlres.
"I wos much interested in Mr. Towle's
statements In roply to tho query about Ayr-
Bnircs ocing tiaru minora. His oxpenenco
anu ousorvanou on mis pqint aro valuable
Another thing I havo heard about the Ayr-
shires, 'important if true,' but not to their
prcjuuico, when rightly understood. It is
that the cream of their milk rises mora slow
ly than that of other breeds. An Avrshiro
brccdor told me that his Avrshiro milk, after
having been set tho usual timo and skimmed,
was rich onough to mako good cheeso. Ho
said tho causo whv somo neonle call
the Ayrshiro milk poor is because thov do
not understand this matter ; and also that it
ought to bo mixed with other and quicker
rising milk, especially that of Jersey cows.
Can Mr. Towle, or anybody else, givo us any
lacis ou una point I V. A. U.
Albany, Vt., Oct. 21."
lllack Hearted Appl Trees.
"I seo very often a remark about
black hearted trees,' as though thov woro
worthless, sure to dio young, or to produco
no fruit. Now I wtyit to question this, for
in grafting somo very thrifty and productive
trees, a part oi mom craos anu a part not,
I havo found a number of them black-heart
ed, though othorwiso I oould seo no differ-
enco. What do you, or others, know about
tho matter 7 Q. B,
JJarre, Oct. 8."
"Very littlo," is tho answer wo must mako
to Q. H.'s question. Wo havo mado tho
samo observation as ho, but wo think thero
may bo black hearts in applo trees from dif
ferent causes, somo injurious, somo not so,
Two winters aro many young trees wero
killed in their roots by tho frequent thawing
and froczing of tho ground from rainy weath
er that carried oil tbo snow. Examining
JOHHSBUJRY, FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 1,
trees that passed through this trial withou
dying, but wcro evidently much Injured, wo'
found that a black heart ran through not
only tho stem and branches, but down to the
ends of tho roots. Examining them again"
lost spring, wo found that this black heart
- T". no' Pro'on8cJ Into the new growth, and
during tho past season many of them havo
mado as thrifty a growth as trees that wcro
not injured at all. Whether thoy will live
ss long, and bear as well, remains to bo
seen. Hut it is certainly a fact, -as our ob
serving correspondent says, that many appar
ently healthy trees aro "black-hearted."
The "Cooper Market" Apple.
-"This is a fino red annle. much likod
in somo places, sod called hardy by many
nurserymen in their catalogues. Do you re
gard it as troo likely to stand tho winters
of northern Vermont? W. W. 0.
lratluryh, Oct. 20,"
Wo.havo tried this variety, and
variety, and find it
fully as lender as tho Daldwin ; consequent.
ly cannot adviso its being planted in cold re-
Stones In the Roll.
"Is it bettor for tho land to tako
stones out, or leavo them in 7
Geo. F. Suedo.
Waltham, Mast., Sept. 20."
For an orchard or a vineyard, leavo tho
stones In ; for a garden, tako them all out.
if possible ; and for ordinary tillage tako
out all that aro largo enough to be in' tho
way of thorough cultivation and tho hand
ling of crops.
CHEESE BUYERS AND SALESMEN.
From tho Utica, N. Y., Herald, we tako
tho proceedings of tho Littlo Falls cheoso
buyers and Balesmon, lately convened there.
Tho codo of rules for tho government of tho
board is as follows :
All persons, members of this Hoard of
Trade, aro entitled and, by voo of Septem
ber 9th, aro pledged to transact their busi
ness in tho rooms of this board.
All factories shall, on each salo day, reg
ister on tho boards their factories and tho
number of cheese, so far as they can, that
they intend offering for salo.
Lvery buyer shall havo a desk, at which
ho Bhall mako his settlements, so far as pos
Tho Board of Arbitration shall consist of
live members. A quorum shall Imj elected
It shall bo tho duty of this commtttuo to
arbitrate upon such questions as shall prop
erly como before them. Tho subjects of
short weight, what constitute) a sale, aud the
penalties of non-fulfilment by buyer or tell
er, and in general, any question between buy
er and seller shall bo regarded as properly
coming under the jurisdiction of this board.
Tho Board of Arbitration shall havo pow
er to mako rules and regulations, not incon
sistent with thoso governing bodies of liko
Tho purchases and sales that aro made
in tho Board of Trade rooms shall atone be
entitled to arbitration.
Tho city weighmastcr's certificate as to
short weights, shall bo regarded as authority,
and when rendered, shall bo considered fi
nal. In reference to skippered and damaged
cheese, tho certificate of buyers hero and in
Now York accompanying tho claim, shall bo
doomed conclusive ovideneo that such claim
It is tho sollcr's privilege to demand a
Tho abovo docs not in any way prohibit
tho buying and selling of cheeso during tho
other hours of the day.
On motion tho report was roccivoj, and
tho committee discharged.
On motion it was carried that tho hour
in which all business coming beforo tho board
shall bo transacted shall bo from 10 o'clock
A. MM to 5 p. u., instead of from 10 to 8, as
adopted at tho last mooting.
Ono of our dairymen, whoso butter has a
high reputation in this market, informs us,
thero has latterly been somo complaints
about it, tho causo of which bo for a timo
was unablo to discover, but finally traced it
to tho fumes of a coal-oil lamp used in light
ing tho milk-room. This shows tho oxtrcmo
sensitiveness of milk to tho least impurity of I
tho atmosphere, and its rapid power of ab
sorption. Tho difficulty was ontirely reme
died by putting in a tin ventilating tubo,
leading from tho .top of tho ohimnoy to tho
outsido of tho roof. Tho butter was not af.
forwards complainod of. Ho writes ns j "It
mayas well bo stereotyped, that it will not
do to uso a lamp in a dairy-houso, without
providing a way to carry off tho fumes."
ORIGIN OF CHESTER WHITE PIGS.
About 20 years ago a statement was pub-
llshod in tho Farm Journal to tho effoct that
Capt. James Jeffries, who tradod between
Liverpool, Eng., and Wilmington, Del., and
whoso homo was on a farm in Chester Ooun-
a., introducod two pigs from Bedford-
shire, Eng., and that from theso tho Chostcr
Whites aro descended. I always doubted this
theory of their origin, for tho reason that I
pretty well romembcr tho dovolopmontof tho
breed, and I never heard of tho Bedfordshiro
pigs until tho author of tho artiolo abovo al
ludctlta bought, I think, Capt. Jcffrics's
farm, and taking his statement about it,
gavo the world tho abovo history of their
origin, as tho Captain gavo it to him,
I distinctly rcmomber that about 40 years
ago, which was soma years boforo tho pit's of
uuestcr ana Delaware Counties wcro called
Chester Whiten, my father and somo of his
neighbors had tho Chincso pigs, or, as
wcro then sometimes called tho No-boned
pigs. Tlnsir characteristics may bo undor
stood by the following inoldent, of which I
eyewitness. On hojr-butchorlntr
day, whl h is, or used to be,
on a farm, aud the boys wet allowed to stay
ai nomo Irom school, tho neighbours
inviieu to assist, and smart aclivo fellows
. - o -
were in demand to catch and hold tho hogs
whilo ono skilled in the business, 'stuok' the
poor victim with a long knife that roached
ma area ot lho main artery. Tho pies of
Dclawaro County at that day woro generally
mrgo, coarso animals, thai yleldod a good
weight of pork, but required an immense
amount of grain to mako thorn fit for butch
ering. On such a day, after tho pen of pigs
had about all of them yielded to fate, two
men wcro sent to tho orchard with a wheel
tinvrAn. Ia t.B! ! . A. II , ... . .
.uviiugiu a imi urea (jama pie
.l il,... . o
mai naa laltcncu on apples and grass alono.
Tho littlo follow weighed less than 200 lbs.
and was so fat and round, and his less wero
so snort, tnat when ho was 'stuck' an opera
tion to which ho could offer very littlo resis
tance, ho rolled to tho foot of tho hill, a dis
of about 70 yards. My father was very
fond of all kinds of domesticated stock, and
was considered a successful grazier and
breeder, and his efforts, to improvo tho largo
and coarso breed of hogs by crossing with
tho China pigs aro within my own recollec
tion. What his noighbors were doing in the
samo direction at tho samo timo, I was
too yjung to know; but I do know that
my father was noted for having about
tho best pigs in his county. A) long
as ho lived, which was to 1845, ho had tho
best pigs that I saw anywhere better than
tho Derkshiro that wero first imported about
that timo. Tho pigs of Chester and Dcla
waro Counties wcro gradually improved from
about 1830 to tho timo vhcn thoy attracted
puouo attention and received tho namo of
During all this period of gradual improve
ment, I never heard tho namo of Bedford
shire or any other namo that might express
tho Knglish pigs imported by Capt. Jeffries,
and I know that tho China pigs wero ono of
tho elements of tho improvement, and havo
no reason to doubt that thoy wcro tho only
foreign clement. I never heard when they
camo to us, and who brought them, nor do
know to what extent thoy wcro distributed as
puro breeds among tho farmers of Chester
and Delaware Counties. Of course, overy.
body who bred pigs, took somo care to select
lho best-to breed from, and thco 'best' were
a cross of tho largo and ooirso nativo hog
with tho small and fino China hog. Breed
ers aimed to get the largo size of tho ono
combined with tho fino quality of the other,
and thoy appear to havo hit tho mark aimed
at. lho great demand for them, and tho
ease with which frauds could bo perpetrated,
havo flooded tho country with spurious an!
mals under that namo, but it is worthy of
note that hero no other breed of pigs has
over-maintained a reputation two years after
it was first puffed into pupular notice. An
impartial trial always reinstates tho homo
breed, no matter at what mortification and
loss to tho experimenter with foreign breeds.
-hLiwoon ItAnvKV, of Chester, Delaware.
Co., Pa., in Cuuntry Gentleman.
TIME OF GROWTH AND WEIGHT
A Saxon stock raiser writes : "In 1871
I sheared my Merino flock, after several
weeks pasturage, at tbo beginning of May,
and obtained an avcrago of eight and one
tenth pounds of unwashed wool, of eleven
months' growth. Thero wero 550 mothers,
280 firstlings, and 350 yearlings; to tho
last, therefore, wo can reckon not quito nino
pounds each. This year I put 100 yearling
wethers to stall feed, without referonco to
wool, took them oil on tho first of December,
and had them shorn in tho beginning of Jan
uary. This result was exactly soven and
nino-tenths pounds per head, of wool of only
eight months' growth. This is equal to near
ly eleven pounds for cloven months. This
leads to tho question whether tho shearing
weight of tho unwashed wool decreases so
notably by spring pasturage, or increases so
littlo in tho lato months of stall feeding; if
tho last, how far is this truo for tho cleaned
wool f Finally, for tho practical sido, what
is tho rational relation of valuo for unclean
cd wool shorn beforo pasturago, as compared
with that obtained after several weeks of
A HINT TO HORTICULTURAL
It is not a raro thing to find, among fruit
collections nt tho autumn fairs, many varie
ties of pears and apples which havo long been
discarded from tho list of kinds worthy of
cultivation, whilo sovcral others rank as only
middling or second rato. Still, sociotics
continuo to offor premiums for tho greatest
number. Tho conscqucuco is that tho fann
er who looks over tho tables hoping to get
hints which will assist him in making selec
tions for tbo now orchard ho purposes plant
ing, very soon becomes bowildcrcd, and re
turns to his homo no wiser than ho loft it.
Of lato years a fow of tho moro progres
siva associations havo mado inroads upon this
old and objcotionablo method, tho horticultu
ral Bocictioi of Pennsylvania and Massachu
setts leadiug off in tho reform, and tho hor
ticultural branch of tho New Jersey sooiety
followiug tn their wako. In tho latter state,
especially, lho plan, after a throo years' tri
al, has been found to work admirably, In
stead of giving all tho largo sums for oxtcn
slve lots of fruit exhibited by slnglo growers
(who aro usually nurserymen), tho plan is
now to offer inducements for dishes of certain
named approved kinds. This gives tho be
ginner a chance of seeing what varieties
practical fruit growers raiso either for mark,
et or homo uso. When tho tables of an an
nual exhibition aro covered by 600 plates,
presenting 100 growers, instead of two
thrco nurserymen, thon it w)ll pay ony'pnq
about to plant an orchard to carefully Inspect
mo collection, Tho mis,tako usually mado
uy persons who attempt fruit culturo in
largo way, Is in starting with too many
sinus an error which the method wo criti.
ciso has dono n great deal to perpetuate.
Whun nurserymen want to show their fruit
every facility should bo afforded them ; but
It is worse than unless for any local asscia.
tlon to offer premiums for lareo numbers of
kinds. Let tho officers of somo of tho sfhtd
societies, in making up their schedule this
tall, roviso and improve their llslfi. N.
To bring into bearing, trees which havo
been neglected for a number of years, and
whiob aro now tall and thin with long whip
oranenca, somo ol these slender shoots mav
oo nent over and tastcned by tho upper ex
trcmily to tho baso without breaking. Ii
i . -
kept in this position for two years tho curved
part will, by tho end of that period, form
an auunaanco ot iruit spurs. Onco the
change from wood to fruit-bearine thero will
oo no uiuiculty m tho future. Another
method occasionally practiced is, to mako
hoop-polos of somo of tho small thin branch-
This can bo dono in tho spring or sum.
mcr by taking a shoot a foot or two in length
anu men bending it around in lho form of
. n 1. : -1 11 j . r-.
uiua.ug it, scu-iasicning. ouch rings
can bo formed rapidly and in any part of tho
ireo where thero aro phablo twigs. A year
later thero will bo fruit spurs on theso
shoots, and they will continuo to form from that
time forward. Two years ago this plan was
tcsteu oa a Vicar of Wmkfield troo. ten vcars
oiu that had never borno any fruit. Thi
year ii nas a nico and promisinr crop. Tho
plan has been tested on many other trees,
and in no case has it failed to bring about
tho desired result within thrco years. When
ono has a few years in tho garden it is in
torcsting to notice tho gradual transition.
New York Tribune.
It is a question with many whethor fruit
trees should havo a shallow or a deep setting,
vi mi us u seems clear that either cxtremo
is objoctionablo. But if wo aro to vary
towards cither, it should bo towards deep
setting, in shallow setting the roota will,
in a few years, become exposed to the heats
and colds of tho seasons, which must provo
injurious. vo nave observed that natural
trees strike their roots deep, whero tho soil
and subsoil will permit, and they aro seldom
much exposed in after years. Wo havo
seen largo forests, of tho heaviest timber in
tho west, whero wholo acres might bo search
od and not bo seen exposed. In shallow
soiled countries tho roots of" trees becomo
exposed. In our country wo think it evi
dent that tho roots want to go below direct
exposure to tho blasts of winter and tho suns
of summer. In a deep, well drained soil,
somewhat deep setting must bo best. Pro
bably it will not produoo fruit quito so quick,
nor quito so rapid a growth of tho trees, but
they will bo likely to live longer, and bo of
moro scrvico in tho end.
CHERRIES AND SPARROWS.
Tho following from tho Recite Horticult
in view of tho lato introduction of tho spar
row into this country, will bo of interest to
or readers :
Of all tho methods thus far imagined to
frighten lho sparrows, which ato, as is woll
known, tho worst enemies of tho cherry, nono
succeed completely. If ono employs a straw
man as Bcarcrow, it is not uncommon to
sco tho birds build their nests In his hat or
in other parts of his clothes; if ono uses
mirrors with two faces suspendod by rods,
they becomo accustomed to thorn 'in twenty
four hours' timo, nnd tho samo is true of
Tho following mothod has been communi
cated to mo by on old gardener, with whom
it has succeeded for forty years. First,
it is necessary to havo a bird of prey, stuffed,
with its wings extended. When tho earliest
fruit begins to color, hoist tho bird upon a
perch and placo it abovo tho Ireo so that
tho bird seems continually to balanco itsolf
above tho cherries. When tho scarecrow is
thus placed the birds aro so afraid of it thoy
retire in good ordor to tho neighboring trees
until tho bird is removed, after tho gather
ing of tho fruit.
TO GRASS A BANK.
A German method is: For each square
rod to bo planted, tako a half pound of lawn
grass seed, and mix it intimately and thor
oughly with sir oubio foot of good dry gar
den earth loam. This is placed in a tub.
and liquid manure, diluted with about two-
thirds of water, is added ond woll stirred in
so as to bring tho wholo to tho consistency of
mortar. uo siopo is to bo cleaned and
mado perfectly smooth, and then woll water
ed, after which tho pasto just raentionod is
to bo oppliod with a trowel, and mado oven
and thin as possible Should it crack by
exposure to tho air it is to bo again watered
and smoothed day by day, until tho grass
makes its appearance, whioh will bo in from
eight to fourteen days, and tho wholo decliv
ity will soon bo covered with a oloso carpet
A MINISTER'S FARM,
Hov, Sir. Murray's Country Home In Utill.
1118 8TA11I.ES HIS FAST HOUSES HIS mil
(From a UtttrfTOm OulldftrJ, ft., to BmIoh Jcutual.
Flvo milos away Is tho summer home of
Mr. Murray of tho Park street church. Hero
lio was born and hero lio has clioson to fix
his couutry location. Tho old liomu.t..n..i i.n
purchasod with about 300 acres, mid by a
liberal outlay ho proposes to nmko It a fa-
muUJ spot, lio Is a thoroucll mrrloulturtal.
nnd probably su good a horseman as Now
England can boast. Ho has no nrivnev
tills matter. Ho has mado tho horso a caro
nil study. Ho knows nil about brooding,
suocing nnu training urn animal. Hs neigh
borscoinoto him for ailvlco ami mnnnni
Tlio mansion nt Guilford Is tho old homestead
moiiornizcit. It Is a cozy box, In which com
fort nndolognnco blond land tho stablo !r
model of convcnicnco ami
"Stalls, woll ceiled nnd woll lighted carrlngo
nouses, narncss rooms tnat would suit a Now
xork millionaire, with apparatus for warm
ing, feeding nnd grooming on tho most mod
cm plans. Two thousand dollars would not
pay for tho putting up and tho imrnnhcrnalia
bfthostnblos, which aro In tho best stylo of
flir. Murrny is deservedly proud of his
liorscs. First In rank stands Nod. a full
horso. tWO VOfl.ru nlil. alrm.l liv T..r.M,.H Al.
(.oallah.itout. of a Sherman Morgan mure.
iiiiscoitisromnrlcaulo for docility, beauty
buuBjiccu. xioisa uccp brown bay, with
goidcn uappios, mano nnd tai vorv l.liick-
His speed is wonderful at two vmi-s mM
Ho trotted to n wagon ono-quat tcr ofn mllo
In 43 seconds nnd repeated in 15 seconds. Ho
was utterly untrained nnd without shoes, nml
had not then boon driven 20 times. When
six weeks old ho cost $000; at 17 months old
$3000 was refused for him. Tho day ho
mnilo his great trot, tho sum of S7000 was re
fused. Tho nnimnl Is a perfect picture his
action Is superb and ho is so kind that a
clilltl can handlo him nnd so gcntlo that a
lauy can urivo him. Horsemen sav thn!
thero aro 820,000 In "Ned."
Tho famous Grcll nmro is a southern racer
and ono of tho finest saddlo horses in the
stato. On this horso Mr. MiniW "..ut.t
rido with a mad horso" was founded. Sho
Is a sorrel, and tho mother of sovcral colts of
great promise Xiio gipsy marc, nronounccd
mo gayest Horse on tlio mllldam, when Mr.
Murray held tho ribbons, is a Harry Clay
mavo by Black Hawk, a thorouchbrcd with
fino points, weighing about 000, with nthrec
minuto gait, untrained, nnd soven years old.
Noxt comes a gray maro, by a Sherman
Morgan out of a Messenger mare, 15J high,
iuuo pounds, a tremendous roadster, and un
trained, can trot in 30. Tho Hamblctonmn
marc, by ltcsdyk's old horse, blood bav. 7
years, with no training, of great speed nnd
nil tno marks of tho Hamblelonian stock
about him, is half brother to Doxtcr. And
finally Lady Thorno, Jr., comes out, a no
uio animal or great spirit and fino notion,
with more of Lady Thorno's movement than
any horso in tho country. Theso horses aro
all.trolters, and Mr. Murray has not a horso
on his farm that is not valuable, nor ono
from a filly to a draught horso that could bo
bought for a sum less than $500, and from
that up to $10,000.
in tno stable is Mr. Murray's rural studv.
ami it is Known as tlio Adirondack room. It
is plain as a barn, bare floors, rough book
cases, a pino swing tablo an iron camp-bed
anil riido chairs. Jn tilts lon tho imnllliir
cuy pastor works and writes when out of
lloston. boven rillos craco tho wnlla. Mr..
.Murray's target rillo holds tho nlaco of lion.
r. alio is a marksman that can at four rods
it tho bull's eyo iiro timos out of six. A
stag's head hangs over tho harness-room
door, which this lady brought down with her
rillo. Hut thero are other ornaments pis
tols, a book holding 17,500 flies, somo worth
$1 each; paddles that havo scon sorvica on
tho mountain lakes, rustic drinking cups,
lwlts, whistles, horns, bugles, drums and dog
whips. An agricultural library of ereat val-
no nnd completeness and a collection of books
ontho horso, mako up tho appointment sof this
rustic room. From tho littlo window of this
don, tho pcoplo of Guilford can seo tho light
twinklont 3 a. m as tho owner drives his
quill nnd works out somo of thoso burning
utterances that movo and charm lioston.
Mr. Murray is a nractlcal business
His largo farm of 300 acres, with its three
quarters of amilo frontago, its flvo farm
houses, all occupied : its seven barns, with
cattle, liorscs and workmen, aro all under
his personal supervision. Ho cuts 1000 tons
of hay; has oats nnd corn 1000 bushels at a
me. lako him all in all, tho nastor of
Park street church is ono of tho most ro
mnrknblo men of his day.
Tho necessity of keeping warm naturally
suggests fires. And why cannot wo hnvo
them earlier In tho fall? What is thero
about a lire that wo should shrink from It un
til its warmth becomes a necessity? Cost of
fuel has much to do with tho lato advont
or warm hearthstones, but thero nro other
luxuries which do not Alirhton us that aro
much moro costly and not nearly so woll
worth tho money that is paid for them.
Apart from Its healthfulnoss, or which so
much could bu said that wo will say nothing,
nro in mo lall is a luxury. Not only bo-
:iuso In tho mornings nnd o'vonings It solt-
ons tho In-door air. as tlio sun softens tho
r out-of-doors at noon, but becauso it sus-
gosts tlio Joys or wlntur at a timo when its
mlshlps nro not yet known; It gives us tho
rose without tho thorn. And ir wo are so
conditioned as to bu ablo to command a
ood fire never so sultablo as in tlio mildly
cold days of October aud November how
can wo reconcile It to our consciences to du
ny it to oursclvpsP Let us then bring
"Old wood to burn 1
Ay, bring tho liUl-iido booch
From nhcro the owlots moot anil scroecli,
Anil ravens croak
Tha cracking plna and cedar sweet i
Drlug, too, a clump of fragrant peat,
Dug 'neatli tlio torn
The knotted oak,
A fagot too, perhaps,
Whose bright flame, dancing, linking
Bhall light us to our drinking
While the ootlng sap
Shall make sweot nioslo to our thinking."
And even if wu havo tq omit tho pent,
nnd though tea shall All our drinking-cup let
havo tlio Rvo.Ilomc and Society, in
Dr. Itnlph Aullck, sou of Commodore Au-
llck of tho Unltod States navy, and brother
of Mrs. Robeson, died suddenly in Washing
ton, last wobk, with apoplexy, when a young
lady clerk In t,ho treasury dedurtmont camo
forwtnl and showed undoubted proofs of
having boon his wlfti for tlio past six months,
ho having beon secretly cinrrlcd to her. In
his will Dr. Aullok loft his wlfo 830.000. His
family havo taken logal stops to contest tho
. i .
Tho COl llor-StoilO of tho stato nrrlciiltni nl
collego at Uoverly, Cal was laid last week,
mid with a compotont forco of workmen tho
uuihiiiig is rapidly progresslmr. It Is to bo
of pressed brick, four stories high, 50 foot by
sou in sizo, nnu will probably bo tho finest
building In tho stato. Nearly 1000 trees Imvo
been set out upon thn grounds, tho residen
ces o,f tho professors nro under way, and it Is
oxpected that tho Institution will bo opened
In tho fall of 1873.
In Botitli Carolina it Is unlawful to allow
minors to play ton pins or billiards. This
law was not passed by tho carpet baggors.
We particularly dnirt tontributitnt to nliinn
vpon alt tuhjtcli inttrtiting to our lady rtaittl.
Tho'small moths so destructivo to cabi
nets, tapestry, clothes, carpets, furs, grains,
etc., aro called Tineans, and bolong to tho
natural order Lepidoptcra. Thoy havo four
membraneous wings covered with imbricated
scales, liko Qno powder as tho butterflies
and moths. Among theso aro the carpet
moth, Tinea Tapctzclla', the clothes moth,
T. vettianella, tho fur moth, T. Pellionella,
and lho hair moth, T, crinclla.
Tho Tineans, in tho winged Btato havo
four short, slender feodcrs, a thick tuft on
tho forehead, and narrow wings, which nro
deeply fringed. Thoy lay their eggs in crev
ices, under carpets, among clothes, and iu
furs in cabinets, wardrobes, and other places
not often used, after which thoy immediately
dio. They aro hatched in about fifteen days
'into moth-worms, which immediately begin
to gnaw whatever fabrlo is present, covering
themselves with tho fragments, and lining
them with their webs. Concealing them
selves within their burrows, tbey continuo
eating until full, when thoy ccoso, and re
main torpid during tho winter. Early in
tho spring tho larvoo change to chrysalids,
and in about twenty days after, transform
into moths, pair, and lay their eggs for fu
ture progeny. Theso moths aro noctural in
their habits, flying in tho evening. They do
not lay their eggs in material in constant uso
and thercforo wardrobes, drawers, chests,
etc., should bo frequently examined, and tho
contents aired, and beaten to dislodgo tho
eggs or lavtu
In old houses subject to their deprada-
tions, the cracks in closets, and other expos
ed places may bo brushed over with turpen
tine or other odorous substances. Sheets of
paper sprinkled with spirits of turpentino,
powdered camphor, shavings of Russia leath
er or tobacco, aro also preventives.
Chests and boxes of camphor wood, red
cedar and Spanish cedar, are obnoxious to
theso insects, and aro useful for preserving
It is said that tho cloth linings of car
riages, etc., may bo preserved from their dep
redations by being sponged on both sides
with a solution of corrosive sublimato in al
cohol, just strong enough so that it will not
bleach a black feather white. The insects
may also bo killed by fumigating with tobac
co smoke, or tho fumes of sulphur. Moths,
however, will give but littlo, if any troublo
to articles iu constant use. Western Rural.
A good soft soap soft soap is always mado
with potash) should contain from six to eight
per cent, of potash, and from 40 to 45 per
cent, of fat, tho remainder being water. It
is beat prepared by dissolving commercial
potash in water, to form a lyo that will float
egg considerably abovo tho surface.
This is brought to a boil, and for every
pound of potash used, about four pounds of
fat aro added. It is best to dissolvo only a
part of tho potash in tho water at first, and
to add tho fat to this diluto solution. After
it is all dissolved, then add the remainder of
tho potash, which serves to clarify it. When
wood ashes can bo obtained, tho lyo leached
from them may bo employed instead of tho
potash. Tho wholo mass should bo constant
ly stirred whilo it is boiling. Tho addition
of a littlo borax and resin does no harm, and
is of no particular uso. Soft soap may bo
mado without boiling, by simply putting tho
fat into tho lyo and allowing it to remain for
somo wcoks with occasional stirring, but it
does not mako so good an article as when it
boiled. If to ovcry threo pounds of potash
ono of soda is added, tho soap is rather firm
er. Tho concentrated lyo put up in tin cans
by tho Pennsylvania Salt Co., and Babbitt's
concentrated potash, both consist ofcaustio
soda, and will not make a first-rate soft soap,
mo proauct being simply a very wet hard
soap. Journal of Chemistry.
THE PEOPLE WHO MOURN FROM
When I meotthsm I recoil with moro hor
ror than over from crcpo and bombazino and
all that sort of nousenso. I beliove that
mourning of tho heart can bo carried on with
out any of thoso outward signs which strip
from us every vestigo of whito that might
not look comme ilfaut, and transform us for
six months into monuments of black woo.
Then tho voil shortens, a strip of whito ap
pears at tho neck ; tho voil is raised somo
what, and so thfi improvement goes. When
I soo tho pcoplo who havo just put away
fathor or mother, child, sister or brother, ap
pearing with whito collars and cuffs, I mako
up my mind that their grief is too great to
admit of mourning propensities. At Jack,
sou's, down town, when you enter, a solemn
clerk with doleful voico asks your wants.
"Deep mourning or light? Aro you a wid
ow?" You answer "No." Then another
clerk will say, a littlo moro cheerfully, "You
aro not a widow, and want light mourning
child or mother?" Whou you reach tho
mitigated couuter you find tho olerk thero
all "wreathed iu smiles." New York Let
ter. Monday aud Thursday aro tho fashionable
wedding days abroad, whilo in this country
Wodncsday seems to bo most preferred, per
haps on account of tho old rbymo which
Tuesday fur health,
Wednesday the best day fer gills
Thursday fur crosses,
Friday for losses,
Saturday no luckt all.
wifo is a liquor dealer's
Maryland, for the first timo in its history,
has a breach of promise suit.