Newspaper Page Text
-A-3sr ua-niaxjXjXXJK.A.Xj jjstjd fjjlxtjTst newspaper ipoip, piKra p.trp.AiiiSTS ozf the a-m3E3sr isaioxjjsr'r-A.iisr st-atib.
VOL. TIL-NO. 23:
ST. tfRSOft MAT ll, 1877.
WHOL NO. 335.
EGCtS FOR HATCHING.
From Arst-oless stoek of rfjrmontH
Leghorns, Dominique LGhnrmt
.IIIkcIcIImi Game Uanlame, at tl per
l do ten. EUUS from sumrlor l-eUIn
Sneka, at ft per doten. Fowls for sale. Alio one
pair each of Bui and White Uoehlns end Light Drah
mil to make room. Allpackodsocureto go any dis
XV. 1. 8WCTT1 St. JolllMbllrj", VI.
nririC! FOR IIATCIIINO, from my celohrated
iilU"ljrO lloudans, U. H. roliih, llolden Sebright
Mantams, $1.60 per riosen. Tekln or Cochin bantams,
si.ouper uosen. MyetocK 11 irom j. s. mcxneirs
Yardl. Imperial Pekln Ducks, $1 per iloi., from Pal
mer last Importation. White Carrier l'lgoons, f 10. per
Whtto-creitwl, Fantall and Jacobin I'liroons, i
per pair, from Burpee's Loll. My prlcei In
clude the belt package for eggs. I will tend
the Poultry World ono year to all that order tiro dos
en egjrs from my yards. Correspondence Solicited,
and lallafactlon siren to all. Address
c. ii. oAitrij.vrr.it, w. i:mi.iirRii, vt.
EGGS JTOR HATCHING.
FnOit Silver Spangled and Golden-Penelllod
Ilamburgs and White Kose Comb uantams. 1
took the flnt nremlum and meolal on Ham
burg! at Keene, Jan. 16th ami 19tb, 1S7C, and
' Orst on Bantams. Dec. mh.aitb.and lillt, 1876.
Kck Warranted true to A'ame.
EGG8 $1.80 per 13. Chicks Tor sale in the Fall.
II. E. IIOJtKV, BInrliMV, V. II.
EGGS FOIt HATCHING.
I can famish fresh eggi that will HATCH
rrom uioronoirinp; varieties: a. a. aim
B. llamhurga selected from J. U. McKecn'a
Brst premium stock, equal to any In New
England, $1,00 per dos., Light Brahma.
iwii , ii lutiu ftbWK. ...iai liar UUH V. HI I.
(lames, $1.50, White Leghorns. II.S0.
Idy stock Is all FIRST CLASS and most or It bred
from Brst premium stock. Address
1. W. .TIcKEr.N, So. Acwartli, IV. II.
JEGGS JTOJt HATCHING.
. From the poultry yards of Ueo. 8. Wheeler,
ZSk. New Ipswich, N. II., at the following prices,
sJrLfljr a setting of 13i llronia Turkey l u i
-a2ll'eklo Ducks, tJJSO-, Plymouth Rocks, 11. B.
ft. U ame Bantams, and Black Leghorns, $1.00 1 White
Leghorns, Brown Leghorns and L. Brahmas, $1.50.
Hare shewn Bronse Turkeys, Fekin Ducks, P. Hocks
and Black Leghorns, at several of the leading exhibi
tion this lessen, and bare taken 1st premium on each.
White Leghorns, Brown Leghorns, and L. Brahmas,
bare not been exhibited, but the stock Is Orst class.
All eggs sent out warranted new laid and to reach the
purchaser In good condition. Address all orders to
(ICO, s. AVIIKi:i.i;it, Now lpawlcli.lV.il.
Sites suitable for marking Cattle,
Sheep and Swine. Prices A Samples
free. Agents wanted. Address.
C. II. DANA. West Lebanon, N. II.
ItVr-UDfiED UUTTIIK AS ?IAIU IIY
Uniformly, without regard to season er climate. A
pamphlet, descriptive of this nowly-dlsoovered system
sent tree to any one sending address, with stamp to
veruioiti t nim .isiscimiw vu.
Bellows Falls, Vt.
Having had a large Experience, and
possessing all the facilities for ICnlnlng uiiil Jlo.
vliiff ItullilliiK' of all kinds In the best possl.
ble manner, the subscriber would sollelt a share of
such work. Work done by the day or Job, at hard
times prices. JOHN BARROW8, Hartlbrd, Vt.
Dry Oriuiud Hull tJiinno, StolO per cent.
Ammonlai 15 per cent. Bone rhotphate of Lime.
Half-Dry Fish Scrap, good quality. Also Superphos
phates and Pine Island lluano.
Address, Qtiluiiliititc fertilizer Co..
1JU177 180 State Street, New Haven, Conn
POLAND C JNA
PIGS ! PIGS !
iiki:i lMiur. iiv
L. H. MERRITT, HARTLAND, VT.
Yiiinu stock roit nai.i:.
lly tint 100, 1000 mid 100,000.
I have the largest and (lnest stock ever oflcred in the
New England States. Prices VERY LOW. Warranted
CHAN. S. l'ltATT,
North Itemllng, 3Ii.
sa a V OXUV-LLUXJ
m rX ACCOUNT OF IIAItll T
H J prenainxl to sell eggs for hatching fi
Ev birds at hard time prices J1.J3 per 13. U
ruins I am
Boxed and do-
llverod to oxpr.. Address (
Marlow, N. II,
Please aay what paper you saw this In.
ih? stnnn r-.i rr.l T. fi fi 11V. !
i J , nl Tt-C,AAlr bdwv Vim tTar
tkt but and mutt rilialle Garden, Field and 1-lower
c, c- , - , . ....i. t, ,r turn b
atamps. BENSON A BURPEK, Seed Warehouse 223
vnurcn oireei, nuiaueipuia, r.
Many novelties In new aprlng price list. lroitty
finaJllnv. Ciinf. Vnrli unit !IH fttbor Varieties O
atrawberrles t Xliwuck uuil Dcliawisrv Rasp
ulu Nirml.r-. nffrfflotlv hardv blackberrr.
Plants $1.00 per doion by mall i or $1 00 per 50. New
Unpea, rruit trees, eto., cis. iierry iib.i ki
crates In great variety. Address
11. II, HAINES.
IlaliUil-on-tlie-IIiiiIioii, N. Y.
FARM FOR SALE.
milR undersigned offers for sale the farm of Bam,
L uel Drown in Westmore, six miles from Barton
Village. Bald farm consists of 6 acres of the best
of land, good Cedar swamp and aplendld lot of Bpruco
timber. There la timber enough on the farm to moro
than pay for It. A good houlo and barn with running
water to both. Will cut twenty tons of the best sfhay
I will sell with the farm one good cow, and S two-year
olds, a yearling heifer, I good work horse, 1 harness, a
one-horso wagon, traverse sled, and all the farming
tools. Frlce for farm, stock and tools, thirteen hundred
dollars, one-half down, tho remainder to remain on
jnortgage If desired. For further particulars apply at
once w II. I. l.l'CASj
St. Johnsbury, Vt.
-"-dfi. J S vlsvn - -
I WOULD THANK farmers wishing me to repair
mowing machines or other agricultural Imple
ments to bring them to my shop at once, as I can now
attend to uie business.
JAN. HI. WAll.NIIH.
St. Johnibury, April 1C, 1877.
PLANTS & TREES
PARLOR, GARDEN & ORCHARD.
Also a good assortment of
Small I'm II", Nlirube, Senile, i:c.
Cultivated and for sale by
JT. P. CLOSSON,
CaUloguofree. Tholforil, VI.
This establishment hu been in successful operation
for a quarter of a century and the largely Increased
business enu me many oowpnineniary letters r.u.irou
everv season sneak well of the uualltv of blants.
trees, Ac, which hare been sent not only to every
state tu New England, but to many of the other
luu auti uiv i,auviH,
Those who will aid ui In extending our business b,
oraering cauiogues ror uieir menus wno are loieros
aintueeetiiinssorinsveaKiii a yoou wuru lor
WUI reoolro our kiaity Uiauks,
Improvement of Our Common Schools In
tho Interest of Agrioultnro.
n Aililreii delivered tiefbre the Mate Board
nf Agriculture, at North Trot-. ly T. II.
Hoskins, M. M.
Ooo of tho mcmbsra of this board, in a re
cent address, iuformcd his hearers that
though in the popular branch of our last
cgislaturo thcro wore 188 farmers, whilo
no other profession bad ovor 18 represent
atives, vet this largo number oi farmers was
practically controlled by ten or & dozen men
ho troro not farmer-,, but mostly lawyers.
Tbo statement was not a now one. Tho ob
servation bas been mado many times. If a
farmer should make it, fn an aggrieved tone,
ono of tboso ten or twclvo legislative apos
tles, his answer would probably bo, "Well,
well what arc you going to do about it ?"
Now, though this is but a repetition of tho
Hon. Win, M. Tweed's answer, when ho was
publicly charged with boing a tbiof, I talco
in this ease to bo an eminently rroner one.
This answer is but tho qucstfon which oveiy
dissatirQcd farmer ounht to ask himself,
What aro you going to do about it 1"
Una thing is certain, notwithstanding the
common assertion that in this country the
majority rules. It is an iaeffacablo faet that
mere numerical superiority does- not oontor
political or social power. The majority may
dcoido who fball rulo. That is tho extent of
tho majority's power. In truth It is brains
that rule, good and well (rained brains.
This country is governed by tho sbrowd long
heads who make politics a business ; and
tbeso shrewd long heads aro mostly upon the
shbuldcrs of our lawyers.
Wo often hear tbe samo complaint made
regard to congress ; that it is mostly mado
i of lawyers, and that tho farmer is
hardly represented there at all. But what
would be tho use of sending even a large ma
jority of farmers to congress? If tenor a
dozen of our county court lawyers can drivo
whither they will a herd of 133 farmers,
would not tho same number of supremo
court lawyers drivo or load at their will any
flock of our bell-wethers we might select to
occupy the congressional arm-chairs at Wash-
That the great agricultural interests of this
country find no real representative, cither in
our stato or national governments, is a great
evil. Laws are continually being enacted
that must of necessity greatly affect tho
tho farming interests for good or bad. Think
you, is it possible, in law-making bodies
where the farmer has no capable advocate,
that laws will not bo continually framed
which give to other interests and other in.
dustrics an uufuir advantago over tbe farmer ?
Do you think that that fundamental principle
of free government equal rights to all, ex
elusive privileges to none will be long main,
tained by a Governing power where tho
greatest, and collectively tho richest interest,
is practically unrepresented ; whilo all tho
speculative interests, nhich draw their life from
tho labor of that great industry, aro fully
represented by their attorneys upon tho floor,
and by theirageuta in the lobbies of every
legislative body in the nation ?
Follow farmers, without a moro generally
good common school education for tho mass
of our children, and the opportunity for tho
lest education to thoso among us who havo
tho taste and tho means for it, wo shall al
ways bo but as hewers of wood and drawers
of water to tho professional and business
classes. Wo never shall havo truo leaders
and representatives, ablo and successful de
fenders of our rights, until wo raiso them.
And, fellow farmors, let me tell you as
gospel truth, that no other class is going to
do this work for us. Wo havo got to do it
ourselves. Can wo reasonably expect that
the classes which profit by our ignoranco
aro going to spend their roonoy to
give us instruction, to their own future loss?
Tboro is philanthrophy in the world. Thank
God for that I Here and there' is a poorly
educated man who has raised himself to
wealth, and who, aot forgetting his early
struggles, has devoted that wealth to provid
log tho means of education for other poor
bovs. Thank God acain, I say, for such
Hut aro American farmers so lost to
manhood that they will wait until tho char
ity of tho rich provides that education for
their children which will cnablo, and which
is absolutely necessary to cnablo them to
protect their rights as citizens, and save their
property from being despoiled by the lawyers,
lobbyists and speculators that swarm around
tho stato houses of every state, and around
our national capital? Truly said tho poet
"Who would be free, tktmittitt must strike the blow."
The common schools aro the farmers' ool
leges. Wo may talk as wo will about agri
cultural colleges. I bclievo in them myself
when wo can get tncm. l beuove in every
farmer boy having tho frco chanco to get all
tho knowledge ho wants. I bcliovo in ovcry
boy and girl in the nation having that free
chance. Hut circumstances are such, and
will long if not forevor remain such, that
that moit of tbe children of our farms must
depond upon tho common schools for such
schooling as they can have.
Now I claim that every common school
ought to bo able to givo ovcry scholar of
ordinary capacity such a start in education
and such a lovo for it, that the progress of
the scholar in learning will not stop when
tho schooling stops. I claim that ovcry
common school should lay in tho mind of
every pupil, thoso foundations of learning upon
which, in future life, ho may himself erect
struoture of knowledge that will fit him for
every duty of his calling, and for his still
higher duties as tbo cituen of a frco and
Do our common schools do this 7 And
they do not, by do they not ? And. bow
can they bo mado to do it 7 These aro' tho
three questions I oamo hero to ask, and
offer, therewith, Bomo hints, imperfect as thoy
may be, toward an answer.
To the first question Do our common
schools gtre that efficient primary education
which so grounds the pupil in tho elements
of learning'that ho may afterwards offeollvo-
avail himself of tho various means of in.
creasing his knowtedgo by reading and ptt
vato study ; and abovo all, do thoy stimulato
such a faife for knowlcdgo as to make that
pupil a student both of naturo and of books
rough all his after llfo 7 To this question
there can bo but ono answer an answer in
the negative It is beeauso they havo not
ono this that our agriculturo is in tho back
ward condition we all know it to- be. It is
because thoy havo not done It that 138 farm
ers In our legislature can bo brought, ses
sion after session, by a fow lobbyists and
cunning politicians, to white-wash and en
ilorso tho management of a so-called agri
cultural collcgo whloh, without a single
teacher of any branch ol agriculture, and
without an agricultural pupil in tho whole
ten years of its corporate existence, has yet
that time drawn nearly ninety thous-
atultdollor,of th publio moooyrand-is still
drawing it' nt tho rato of over $8000 a year.
say that if our common schools had been
what they ought to bo, and what wo can
mako them if wo desiro to do so, nono of tbo
wrongj of which this is a sample oould bo
perpetrated upon the farmer.
Tho next question is Why do our com
mon schools thus fail in their work 7 My
answer is, only and solely from tho want of
good teachers, intelligent methods, suitable
buildings and tho proper apparatus for in
struction. Tho great majority of our district
schools to-day are as far from beiog means
of genuino, effective instruction, as our dairies
turning out two and thrco tubs per cow of
second and third rate-butter are proper rep-
rcsentatievs of first class dairy husbandry.
As it is impossiblo to turn out a large mako
of gilt edgod butter from a dairy of scrub
cows, poorly fed, poorly sheltered, roughly
bandied, filthily milked, tho milk and cream
kept in a room to which tobaeco smoko and
tho odors of tho kitchen havo frco access, and
tbo whole process of manufacturing in tho
hands of a careless, dirty and incompetent
person. So it is impossible to turn out good
scholars from Bchool Rouses lacking in ovcry
clement of comfort, convenienco and health,
or from schools taught by young men am1
women who bavo never been properly taught
themselves, who bavo no real interest in any
thing but their pay, and who aro changed
every fow months for others no better.
nio tmra ana last quest. on is. 1 ow can
can our scnoois uo raaao emcieni ouucaiors
of the children of our farms, so that tho
next generation of fanners shall havo all the
knowledge requisite to mako them masters
of their business and masters of thoir
publio servants? In tho first placo
wo must bavo good school houses. I do
not mean, necessarily, that wo must havo
costly school bouses. I do mean that wo
must have school houses that aro comforta
bly cool in summer and comfortably warm
in tho winter ; with wholo and tight windows,
and with doors so situated andprotoctcd that
they will not throw a draft oi ioy air across
tbo persons of a number of children perhaps
delicate or thinly dad. A largo proportion
of our school houses seem to havo been plan-
nod by King Herod, for tho slaughter of tho
innocents; and that parents will send their
offsprings into theso slaughter pens is a sad
commentary upon our civilization and our
Christianity. Often havo I visited schools
in winter, whero tho chorus of coughing al
most prevented tho possibility of proceeding
with tho exercises of tho classes. Hero tho
seeds of diseaso and early death, rather than
the seeds of knowlcdgo and future usefulness,
are Bown. Cold feet and burning heads ut
terly unfit oven grown persons for any sort
of intellectual labor. Yet that is tho
condition of moro than half the scholars in tho
schools of Vermont this very day. How can
thoy learn, even if they woro well taught by
tho best of teachers 7 liut you cannot hiro any
man or women who knows enough io teach,
or oven to protect their own lives, to teach
in such buildings.
Wo bavo a superintendent ol Kdueation
in this state. I know him, and ho is
ablo man. I say to him that tho very first
work for him to do, and tho essential prelim,
inary to any other improvements in our Bys,
tern of education, is to teach our pcoplo how
to build school houses. Lot him havo drawn
and printod a scries of plans for school
houses of all grades, from the littlo district
schools for ten to twenty scholars, up to tho
large graded schools of our village districts.
Let thcro bo embodied iu tbeso plans the
latest improvements in hoating, lighting aud
ventilation. Let us begin by having a do,
cent and healthy school bouso tirst. I say
decent with a very particular meaning, for,
asido from tho provisions for destroying the
health of our teachers and children, wo of
ten seem to design tho fittings of our school
bouses purposely to deaden tho senso of
shame, and undermine tbo perceptions of
morality and deccnoy.
Having secured tbo bodily comfort and
health and physical morality of our cbil
dren by a properly constructed school
building, tho next thing is to havo it suit'
ably equipped wth tho implements of teach,
ing. Wo bay improved mowers, rakes and ted
dcrs, patont milk pans and churns,but wo raro-
ly think of fitting up our district schools with
the improved implements of education. A
blackboard is about as far as wo genorally
go, and thero aro a good many publio Bchool
rooms in Vermont without even that. W hat
would one of our old fogies with five bun
drcd dollars worth of patent farm tnachinos
around his buildings, say to raising a district
tax of 8200 to purchaso globes, maps, mod,
els of tho mechanical powers, a magnifying
glass or a oheap mioroscope, and a cabinet
of minerals, aa means of instruction 7 I
know what he would say, for I have talked
with him. x'erbapa 1 shall start him up
Having provided proper buildings and
tbo necessary implements of tuition, wo aro
then in a position to ask an intelligent, well,
trained and capabio man or woman to as,
sumo the responsible task of instructing tho
children God has given us, and tbo heavy
dren theso things of which thoy aro thomr
selves ignorant Y i
Wo want our mother tongue thoroughly
taught in our oommon schools. Then wo
want common arithmetic. In thts thero Is
responsibility of whoso future lifo, here and
hereafter, rests on us. Thcro aro such mon and
women among us, men and women worthy
ten thousand. fold tho honor and estcom wo
accord to them. Naturally I cstocm tho
profession of farmer as the first and noblest
of tho secular occupations of man, but if I
wero disposed to yield that position to any
other, I should assuredly yield it to tho
teacher of youth. I say wo havo them
among us, ablo, sinccro, zealous, progrcs
sivo, encrgetio meo and women whoso hearts
are in tbo work to which thoy havo choson speoimcns of natural objects, and by explain
to dovoto their lives. But they aro all too ing them. Let him do the samo with differ
few. Vet perhaps thoy aro as numerous as tpt farm machines and implements, tho man
wo desorvo, considering how wo, cntc,(tafa aaneut of.crop8,.cto., cto. Thon let him re
them, qnire a scholar to write down what bo can
In the besinnins. having provided good I
school houses and properly equipped them, I
we must tako tho best tcaohcrs wo can find ;
and wo shall find oven an ordinary teacher
will bo ablo to do tho children much more
good in a good room and with proper teach-
ing tools. Yet it remains a fact that white
we havo somo good teachers, tho large ma-
jorlty of tnem aro ba(jy prCparod for tho re-
sponsiblo task they undertake Tho fault is
not with them so much as in tho want of
well endowod, well equipped and well taught
high schools, academics and normal schools,
wherein young men and women may bo pre
pared may proparo themselves, - rather
for their profession.
Every county ought to havo at least pno
frco high school, tho highest grade of whioh
should bo a normal school. Every town
should havo five or six scholarships in this
high school, and should send to it from its
district and grammar schools thoso scholars
that havo a desiro and show aptitudo for
teaching. What do I mean by scholarships in
a frco school ? Woll, 1 mean just this, that
tho town shall pay tho board of theso schol
ars whilo being instructed as teachers, with
tho agreement on tbo part of the scholar
that ho or sho shall hold him or herself
ready, tor a specified uumbor of years after
graduation, to leach in that town at a ccr.
tain salary, if required to do so. I know
old fozies will bold un thoir hands in holv
uorror 4t Buch an .,cxpeDslve.. notion ui
,Lt. ,, sp , i. ,,,
moro than poor teaching, then thoro is econ
omy, not only in building good school houses
and properly equipping them, but also in se
curing competent teachers ; and I know no
better way than this of stimulating tho poor
but ambitious scholars or our common
schools to Improve their opportunities. Of
courso thcro will bo selfish rich men and
women in ovcry town who will bo opposed
giving thoir poor neighbors' children such a
chanco ; but tho poor men aro in tho ma
jority, and need not beg for a favor liko this,
if they know how to put their votes whoro
thoy will do tho most good. And a sens!
bio rich man oughj to boo far enough boyond
tho end of his nose to understand that tho
moro tho children of poverty nro encouraged
to train themselves for honorable and uso
ful work, tho fowcr of them ho will havo to
bo taxed to maintain in tho poor houses and
tho prisons. Wo farmers suffer enough
from tho aristocracy of the towns and cities,
without encouraging suob bob-tailod aria too
racy as this among ourselves.
But now wo co mo to tho top of tho
question. Whero shall wo find teachers for
our county high schools 7 Well, fellow
farmers, I think about tho poorost placo wo
can go for such teachers if wo regard tho
interests of agriculturo is to our classical
colleges. They don't teach much in thoso
colleges which wo want our children to know,
and thoy do tcacn ono thing thcro which is
ii, l.i hin ih 1 1, a p
workinir men oueht to bo tiucht-contemnt
iiiiv iua iuiui: uint ii v vuiiuivu ui
for manual labor and the manual laborer.
I say they don't teach much in tho oiassi-
oniinna i,snh n o.nt n- .(.ti.u.n n
know. Witness tho following recent fact iu
proof of tho assertion : At tho last Harvard
examination filly-two per coot, of tho stu-
dealt failed in English composition, though
but 10 per cont. wero laokifig in Greek
grammar. I think wo surely don't want tho
teachers of our district iwhool tcaohcrs to
como from an institution of which anything
liko that is true.
In tth it I. r1ifl.ei.il tn find thn riffht
men for such a responsible position as ,B0
hand maabirahln of a Iran countv hirU and
rrrammar school. If I were tn iro anv whero
o ' o J
to look them up, it would bo to the gradu
ating classes of our best scientific schools
and agricultural colleges.
And uow let me glanco at the queition
What do wo want taught in our common
schools, in tho interest of agriculturo 7
Wo want first tho English languago thor
oughly taught, so that boy and girl, bofore
their school days aro over, can read it, writo
it, spell it, compose in it, speak in it, with
correctness and easo. This is the great pri
mary failure of all our schools, and even of
our colleges, at this very timo. The Eng
lish languago Is neglected for tbo foreign
and the dead languages in tbo colleges and
academics; and when wo tako their grad
uates for teachers of our common schools,
they cannot read entertainingly or expres
sively, they cannot writo legibly, they can
not spell, they cannot composo or speak In
their mother tongas with clearness and con
rcctness, and how can they teach oar cbil-
less failure, though tho method of tcachin g
is too mechanical and unintelligent, and it
takes four times as long as it would do if tho
teachers understood principles as well as
rules, and knew how to briog them oat in
Thirdly, wo want tbe powers of perception
and observation developed io our children.
We want them to learn to see and notice the
wonders of creation around them, and to this
end thero is nothing better than elementary
instruction in tho natural potenoes. l'ow of
Ihf teaohets, ,cvn in oui .igfter- kch'OoVa'Iid'
ac - .aenjica,nrQ nt present capabio ot giving
tb.is instruction, and our classical colleges
aro but just boginning to glvo attention to
this class of studies.
. I believe that a qualified tcaebcr, whilo
l-tcachiog tho Kngllah language, in his reading
lessons, his writing lessons, and his speaking
lessons, might bo ablo to commuuicato all
the elements of tho natural sciences in a way
greatly to entertain and interest his pupils.
Let his reading classes take for a lesson the
account of soma natural object, somo plant,
animal, rock, or mineral. Let tho teacher
illustrato tho lesson by word, and by sketches
on tho blackboard, by tho oxhibitiou of spec-
imens, by roquiring tho scholars to bring In
remember of what ho "has read and heard on
a particular subject, copy it upon the black-
board, and thon let tho wholo class be exam-
iocd, to see if thoy can correct and add to
what their companion has written. In this
way, whilo tho training in languago is going
on, tho miod is boing filled also with useful,
practical information in rrgard to things of
daily life and use. A child will learn moro
in a week, in this way, than ho will in six
monthsof ordinary school drill, because, if tho
teacher understands his business, tbo pupil
wilt be heartily interested in what he is being
When wo add - to tho things mentioned
above a littlo geography, I am inclined to
bclievo we havo got about all wo waat in the
ordinary district school. A boy or girl of
seventeen, leaving such a school, having mas
tered what has bcon taught there, would
havo a better education for all tho practical
purposes of lifo than many of our collcgo
graduates possess. Especially in tbo mas
tery of tho English tongue, and in tho terms
ol the natural scicuccs, (which are such a
troublo to most of us who want to under
stand what scientific writers havo to tell us
upou agriculturo,) tho young roan or woman
possesses tho instrument for oponing all tho
learning of tbo world. And tho taste for
learning will also havo bcon imparted, which
b tho most important thing of all. With
ii,i t.dn imninni in ihn mm,l nr h
Dg eratloM how long would it bo bo
foro tho vexed question of town libraries
would bo solved? Iho hunger tor moro
knowlodgo makes as impcrativo a demand
upon tho intelligent mind as tho hunger for
food makes upon tho stomach. The demand
will havo to bo filled, books will be bought,
and libraries will bo begun every where.
I know I havo wearied many of my hear
crs, but I have a few more words to add about
that county high school. I thiok to every
Buoh school (and why not to tho common
school, too.) thero ought to bo attached a
, ' . ii .1-. .i
miBo B4iuvu mi o.u... u..-. .Uv
. . , c.i i l d .-i - r
intnlitnrn nF thn tMcnurii. Kuch a lurm or
... , ...
garden would servo to exemplify much of tho
teaching, would servo for tho trial ot many
instructive experiments, and would furnish
also much food, which might be allotted
umong tho poorer pupils, according to tho
voto of their companions, to assist in their
maintenance whilo pursuing their studies.
In this school for the education of teach
ers whoso duty it is to teach tbo children of
our farmers, a knowlcdgo of tho elements of
scientific agriculturo is important, and wo
know not how moro easily it could bo ao-
quircd than from such an appondago to tho
school, especially when tho principal is him
self a graduato of an agricultural collcgo.
If any of tho ideas I havo advanced to
you this evening, fellow farmers, should ap
pear to vou of any practical value, let mo
appeal to you not to let them pass away in
tno speasing oi tncm. x ou uavu lunucro
I . i it .a P l
'utjs. yu havo 6raDges. Jou ' havo BBtl(!Ul
tural societies, you havo meetings at homo
ttni1 abroa,J- ut m0 enlreal J'ou t0 mlko
this nucstion oi improving our common
schools in tho interest of agriculturo a sub
Ut of theught and discussion on every suit
Immonso interests depend upon it, tapi
tal in tho bands of speculators and gieat cor-
porations, is crowding labor harder and
I harder, and unless the working men of this
country fortify themselves with knowledge,
and with all their getting, got understanding
of tho great and momentous problems upon
I I e s . - . ;. I i..t...
wmen wa luwro PnPnV
"ocrtics or our country uuj.euu, vuu uuuuk
8 not Bering for our
children. This is
tho first country whero tbo workiog man has
ovor had a chanco or has ever enjoyod genu
ino liberty. As wealth accumulates, and
luxury prevails io our great confers of popu
latioos, tho rights of tho workers bcoomo
more and moro in danger, bocauso tho pos
scswrs of that wealth will control our legis
latures and mako our laws, unless wo with'
stand them. It is an entirely now danger,
Ono hundred years ago thcro was not a roan
on this continent possessed of a million of
dollars. Now wo havo thousands of such
men, and wo havo wealthy corporations with
out number, interested in diverting the little
rills .of prosperity that ought to fertilize our
farms into thoir great reservoirs. It is a now
danger. It is our business to investigate
and understand it. And tho moro wo inves
tieato tho more we shall be convinced that
our only safety lies in a better education for
tho children of tho working poop le.
Th r,illi,o, fi,, nMshA. i siraa
goou practical larmer, is prepare e.m.r tuo
... j. " j . r. . .1.
Z 6nf 'TU7;7 "he J;Da
four bushels air slaked liino and eight lush
els of good wood ashes t add to this as much
in bulk of clear sand or loam, and put a
largo handful in each bill. This quantity
is sufficient for an acre. It is cheap, and
easy to procure and apply J and the quantity
of tbo potatoes and abundant yield win sat'
isfy any ono who tries it. Besides the arti
cles are all good, and much needed by most
of oar toils, iry It.
Potato Bugs. '
I sco that many of our farmers, antici
pating tho ravages qf tho potato bug this
season, recommend early plantiog, thinking
by so doing to get tho start of tbo bug.
Wilt tlfoy succeed 7 Tho bcctlo is already
out of tho ground prospecting for potato
tops, and if thcro is a green vino onywhero
in tho vioinity of his wintor rcsidcaco, ho
will bo sura to find it, and tho vino will
grow so slow at this season of tho year that
it will roquiro constant watching and caro
to Bavo it, I havo practiced planting my
Early Hose potatoes for sovcral years past
the first of Juno, and havo suocccdcd every
season in getting a good orop of potatoes of
tho first quality aud matured in ten weeks
from tho time of planting. 1 usually plant
on greensward plowed in tho fall and work
ed in tho spring with tho cultivator, but not
doep enough to disturb tho old sward. In a
week's timo from planting the potatoes aro
up and ready for tho cultivator, and grow
vory fast under tho warm and genial sun
and showers of Juno. This June planting
is for my field crop only. Plant in drills,
two oyes in a hill about twenty inches apart,
rows thrco fcot apart. In or lor to get a
good yield of Early Itoso they shoutd bo
planted as eloso as thoy can bo workod and
woll hilled up. Islander.
Soutk iero, Afay S,
The Root Crop.
Last spring I read everything L could
find on roots and root raising, coming to tho
conclusion that cows in milk would do better
on roots and hay than on grains of any kind
and hay ; so I put in a lot of mangolds
which canio up well.
1 saw your nuvico to those who bad neg
lected beets and rutabagas until too lato to
sow, to put in flat turnips ; so I thought al
though 1 was not one of tho negligent ones,
that 1 would put in somo flat turnips. Tho
next thing was to find a place to put them.
(Jo looking round 1 louod about three-
fourths of an acre, not over, of oats ready
to cut for fodder, which I cut, hayed, and
got into the barn. Then I took tho land,
thorough ploughed and harrowed it, plough
ing in a fair dressing of stable uiauuro, after
which 1 bushed in half of a pound of flat
turnip scod, putting In tho 10th of August.
They grew well, and Nov. 1st I harvested
six hundred bushels of turnips, somo weigh,
in four to six nounda. Tho boots wero
pounds, iho beets
dnmnired Iiv the drv weather, nnd I cot four
hundred bushels : however I was satisued
with tho result, considering it was my first
iNow let us sco ; 1 get six hundred uusn-
els of flat turnips, from which I cut tops
enough to keep ono cow a hundred juys,
which paid for raising and harvesting, but
tho beets cost mo about fifteen cents per
bushel to raiso and harvest.
Somo considered mo toolish in raising
roots, they considering them hardly worth
harvesting, but thoy wero somewhat sur
prised to sco mo harvest such a crop, and
still moro surprised at tbe result of feeding
I fed out all tho roots to cows in milk
with poor poor hay, from which I got
14.000 nnarts of milk, and when tho roots
. . , r ,,
woru ig'J out, lisvu iu iiioir umuu wui muui.o
I . . .V. . 1 ,
ot shorts nud two quarts ot meal per uay,
. ' ch on wllicn tho fol( 0ff j milk
to each cow, on which thoy foil off in
over 15 per cent., showing roots to bo better
as a milk producer than grain.
(Jaro should bo used in tceding mo roots
as well as in cooling tbo milk, as it is neces
sary to get out tho animal beat beforo ship-
pine and tho roots should bo given soon al
I think that cows do better on roots than
grain, cousidcring their general health, as I
was not troubled with gargot as in tho past.
Trv roots this season and report them next
winter. Cor. Massaaimsetts l'lowmman.
Trim the Hoofs of Colts,
In many iustanccs tho insensible portion
of tho hoofs of colts and of young horses will
grow out so round and Hat that fragments
sometimes will bo broken off. 'Ibis is moro
particularly the caso if colts aro allowed to
run at largo occassionauy on naru grouuu,
cravolly and stony lands aud bard roads ;
the hoofs will wear fast enough, as naturo
evidently intended thoy should. But if
young borscs aro kept on smooth turf, their
feet must be kept short by artificial means.
Tho roost convenient way to trim long hoofs
is to let one person hold a block ol hard wood
nirainat lllO hoof. Or hold tho llOOfon the
square cod of tho wood whilo an attendant
cuts ou Bmau pieces witn a snarp cuisei nuu
mallet. Use an inch fiuo chisel rather than
a largo ono, as a two-inch chisel will requiro
heavier blows with n mallet. A pair of sharp
nippers (somotimes vulgarly called suips)
mayoltcn DO cmpioyeu lor sucn a purpoeo
when a colt is bo rcstivo that a chisel and
maiiei cauno uu usuu.
Wo havo in mind a colt having unusually
lone hoofs, which bad in his play Stepped
upon some naru suuaiaucu uuu uruaou uu iu
11 i . i t i. -jv 1 1.
front of 01.J part of tho loot to tho quick.
Tho acoidcnt was attended with somo bleed-
ing anu excessive lameness, iu buouuS
bruto beiog unwilling to put his foot to tho
ground. Ten miuutcs' work would havo
saved tho animal much pain, and tbo owner
1 - - 1 . 1 , . 1 1 , :
micht havo had the benefit ot three months
".L :i..,i'ri..i. : .....ui r,. ii,.i
grun tti, mi-Ivan ui na.iu in .Hin .ui "
period, isut too occasional oroaiting on 01
a part of tho hoof is a mero triflo when com-
pared with omcr iniscnicia resulting irom too
samo causo. mien mo 100 m too long uie
strain on mo iouock juini win uo greauy iu-
.1 J" l i- f T.i ...ill I - ii.. !..
creased, bo that pormancnt injury to tho bus-
poosory ligament ot tho foot ofton lollows.
Young borscs frequently havo wind-galls and
and other evidences ol sprains bcloro they
aro put to work. In many iustanccs such
ailments occur whero shortening of tho too
bas bocn neglected uutil tho hoofs havo
grown to an unnatural leugth. Practical
A I'ossmLH 1'itojECT. A moro gigantio
plot for enhancing tbo valuo of real estate
through tho wholesale iinprovmeot of tbe
climato was never proposed than that which
contemplates UIOOKing mo oiraiu ui hcii
Isle to the end that tho Uult ot at. Lawrence
bo changed from a refrigerator to a tepldar-
! ll", I. .1.- . !.- ,1 .. 1..
"" Jurougu iucbo s.raua iu jni,,
1 urnis an almost eouioss nrocrasiuu 01 icu
d considerably lower the average tern
peraturo of tbo surrouuding shores, How
tho mechanical difficulties aro to be overcomo
is not yet announced, but the project bas the
merit ol being a bold ono.
A politician who wished to dogrado a Lit
ter opponent, said of him, "givo that man a
fair chanco, and 1 will warrant that he
would be meanor than the rneaooat man in
Taming Cows to Pajtsro.
Thero is great differenco of opinion among
dairymen in regard to tho timo when cows
should bo turned to grass. Many contend
that all kinds of stock should bo kept off
pasture grounds during spring until thero is
a good growth of grass. In other words,
tho hcrbaga must havo obtained su'ch a start
that the stock will not bo ablo to cat it down
short during tho season, and thus they bo
llevo a supply is more fully insured.
Another plan, practiced by many, is to
let stock have tho full run of pastures as
soon as tho snow is off tho ground, allowing
it to pick on the old grass and cat of the
early vegotation as soon as it springs up,
Tbo chief reason urged for this latter courso
is, that tho change from hay to grass in
feeding should bo as gradual as possible, in
order that slock may bo kept io good health ;
that, if cows in spring nro turned suddenly
from dry food upon luxuriant pasturage, the
change is very liablo to produce serious
troubles execssivo scouring bloating and
othor disorders that impair health, oltcn lor
a considerable length of timo, and even if
thoy do not lead to tbo total loss of tho ani
mal, they causo tho loss of her milk for long
er or shorter periods.
Now a middlo courso, between tho two
plans named, we think, is to be preferred
and will givo tbo best results. In tho first
place, it may bo remarked, pasture lands
will be injured in productiveness by allow
ing stock to roam over tho fields early in
spring beforo the ground is settled, and
whilo It is soft ana easily trodden. Tho
"poaching of tho land," by tho frequent
tread of cattlo, destroys tho grass in places
while thesurfaco is rendered uneven or filled
with holes mado by tho feet of cattlo. Again,
when tho frost is coming out of tho ground
it is often rendered so looso in tcxturo that
tho roots of grasses aro easily pulled out and
cows feeding on the old bcrbago not unfro-
qucntly mjuro tbo tun by pulling up grass
by tho roots. It will bo advisable then not
to turn stock upon pastures until tbo ground
is lully settled, and is not in condition to bo
injured by tbo feet of cattle. Nothiog is
gained by allowing pastures to get a tall
growth ot grass bcloro turning stock upon
them, bocauso thoy tramp the hcrbago down
in places, and by neglecting to leed otber
portions down, it soon becomes hard and
woody and will not bo eaten.
Urass is sweetest and gives the best re
sults io milk when it is eaten off at regular
intervals and is not allowed to get a largo
growth. In this way tho produot is greater
wbilo the exhaustion to tho soil is less than
it is whero tufts of grass aro allowed to
mature and go to seed. Cows ought not to bo
turned at onco trom hay to pasture, sinco a
sudden chaogo of this kind will bo apt to
""' nvauu. jt. uunor wuy vu givu
them tho run of pastures for an hour or two
at first, and so allow them gradually, from
day to day, to become accustomed to tho
tho change ot lood, and they snoulu bo ted
from timo to timo with hay after thoy have
becu turned to pasturo altogether. Cows
will frequently eat greedily of hay when
thoy have been out to pasturo lor a consid
erable length of timo and rations of hay will
often bo found useful in correcting a tendenoy
of looseness of tho bowels or scouriug.
Some dairymen aro in tho habit ot giving
salt to aniuials at certain intervals ot time,
but tho better way is to keep it constantly
beforo them or within their reach so thoy
can tako it daily or at will. iNaturo rcgu,
l7 ' mu.cn DCl,cr
than it can bo done by portioning it out at
intervals, and if tho animal always has it
within reach thcro is no danger of over-feeding
and tbo milk will show loss variation in
character. Au important point to bo observ
ed in tho management of milch-stock is to
kcop them in a bcaltby, tbrilty condition,
and if cows on turning to grass, aro inclined
to Ioso flesh and run down weak and thin,
they should bo fed rations of ground grain
aud thus kept up to tho maximum ot bcalth
Tho Advantages of Evergreen Trees.
Tho earlier settlers wero not unmindful of
tho advantages of shelter, hcoco their dwel
lings were generally located at tho base ot a
hill that the ficrco blast of winter might pass
abovo unheeded , for scienco had not then
recorded tho greater degree of cold pertain
ing to valleys, though perhaps felt less from
tho absence ot winds, isut in suclt situations
tho fogs are wont to linger wbilo tbo hill
sides are clear, and fogs aro destructive to
health and comfort, at any season of the
year. Theso facts being at present generally
understood, persons about to iocato a dwel
ling chooso an elevated position as being
more chcorful and healthy, and affording a
finer and moro extensivo view of tho land
OtajlU, UUk DUUJVb. IU IUU I..IIUI Miu.ia wl
wjntor wnieh in many situations aro of Buch
scape but subject to tho fearful blasts of
sever,ty as almost to mako an otherwiso
BErccabl0 residence untenable. Yet happily,
man Ba. power to overcome and set at nought,
in rcat mcasurc, tho ficrco winds that sweep
th0 land in wjntcr by confronting the clo-
mcnts ja nature's own way by surrounding
oar habitations with strong belts of hardy
snrnce. which when planted eloso torm a
comnlcto barrier to tho wind. I have suob
. 1H,lm, nlnvn vcmrnnlanteil. which is fully
I " . r r . J
515 j-uct n,feh anj g0 iion3e aa to completely
brca. th iorco 0f th0 wind, in a situation
whoro (omcrly tho ground was swept bare of
1 . . - w . ..
taoyf ju wlnt0r and tho soil Was cast about
jn 00Uj8 0j Ju3t, 'j'bta has long been tho
i10m0 0f lnany singing birds which gladden
niaeo w!ii, musio. for although tho condition
nr mind mav bo such that tho sweetest
. r . .
noios ot tuo numan voioo may lau to piease,
yet man is over mado happier and bettor
wui nia B0U j3 gtirrcd by tbo welcomo of
birds, and it is a duty that tho owners of tho
soil owo to humanity and to Uod's little song.
I . . . . f
gterg that thoy furnish them a placo ot shel
lcr from the storms and refuge from their
onomies, for if it woro not for the assistanoo
0r birds in kocping tho insect herds in chock,
man would plant and sow In vain. It is
surprising how great a number and how vast
a variety ot birds will dwell about a placo
whero thero aro many evergreens, bomo
enterprising citizens are endeavoring to iu
troduco quails into this country, but quails
and partridga require a eloso covert ot ever
greens for protection in severe storms, thoy
ofton huddlo together for days under tho
soow-ludeu branches of evergreens, Theso
are also a chosen nesting placo and place ol
roiugB 111 mui: ui uaur, luauy uuu visriuus
aro tno auvautugesoi piaiiuug iieauiiiui ever
green trees, not tbo least of which is tho
I 11 .).! . ,. 1 : .
v.iuo .uUj uUU ,u . ii .K..o. ..
- f rCardod
- 1 hu ihisv, wuuiuvi-r uua m tuu uuauiv, unovi
- by a purchaser, which is of importance in
this land of unrest where the larger portion
of homesteads aro awaiting a purchaser.
A little girl who was sent to tho -pasture
to drivo home tho cow, full and was severely
scratchod and bruised. On returning sho
was asked if sho cried when sho fell, "Why
bo," she replied. "What would have been
tbe uso? Thcro was nobody to bear me,"
The Higher Aim In Farming',
A reoeat writer says : Tho higher aita of
every intelligent tiller of tho soil should bo
the improvement of tho productiveness, of
his land until it reaches tbe point "whiro.
maximum crops aro produced at the least
expense. Wise husbandry regards tho farm
simply as a machine for turning out crops.
Tho machine is tho matter of first impor
tanco. This Is always to bo kept in good
running order, and its efficiency is to bo in
creased by all economical methods. The
man who farms upon this system will never
sacrifico soil for a great crop. His aim is
to havo ovcry crop taken off, leaving the)
land in a better condition than bo found it.
lie aims in overy workfng of tho soil to in
crease Its depth and to odd to it moro ele
ments of fertility than bo removes in the
crops, and to mako tho crops pay not only
for themselves but also for tbo improvement
of tho acres upon which they aro grown, la
carrying out this aim, so as 10 roaliw theso
rbftilts, a man shows his skill as a cultivator
It is a comparatively easy thing for any ono
who has monoy to improvo tho soil so that
it shall produco crops paying for the labor
of growing thorn and tho interest on two or
threo hundred dollars an aero. Stablo man
uro enough, well ploughed in, will do this.
But it is altogether another matter to mako
this improvement pay for Itsolf. Yet it is a
possible thing to do this, and there are farm
ers skillful enough to accomplish this result,
and this we hold to be tho truo aim in tho
cultivation of the soil. Tho most judioious
improvements those which finally pay tho
largest profits requiro sovcral years to bring
in their full roturns. It is a matter of great
importanco that tho farming population
should not only bo settled, but that thoy
should feel settled, and plan all their oper
ations upon tho farm as if thoy expected to
spend thoir days upon it.
Cuickek Cholera. When we see among
young chickens ono or two standing about in
a listless manner, their feathers ruffled and
their wings hanging loosely, we look for
symptoms of cholera. Ordinarily wo should
lay tho troublo to vermin in sbapo of head
or body lice, but theso do not infest our
chickens, and among tho many hundred that
wo bavo growing up not a single louse is to
be found. Cholera among chickens begins
with a slight diarrhoea at least cholera in
this section of tho country does and its
presence may readily bo detected by exam
ining tho excremont of the chickens, which
if tho birds aro diseased will havo a yellow
ish and grocnish tinge. If tho chickens aro
examined there will be found below tho anal
aperture a few feathers or particles of down
ticking together, iho liquid exudation
from tbe anus by which the adhesion is mado
indicatos cholera, and if it is dried on tho
feathers it is as sticky or rather it holds tho
feathers or down exactly as would glue or
mucilage. Treatment at this early stago
may bo mado successful. For a mcdicino
give extract of Jamaica ginger in milk in
tbo proportion ot a tablespoontut to a quart
of milk ; by giving them nothing clso to
drink for a day or two a euro may be effected.
"I havo a pardonablo desiro to live else
where," said a man writing to the president
for a consulate.
AVhich is tho oddest fellow, tho ono who
asks a question or the ono who answers 7
Tbo ono who asks, because bo is tho querist.
It is said that the now style of tho com
mon band-organ has only ono stop. It be
gins in tho morning and stops at night.
Wo havo roason to think that Cowper tho
poet didn't pay his hotel bills, for ho ohed
for a lodgo in somo vast wilderness.
A Missouri paper, In speaking of tho cold
winter of 1827, said : "Ilogs, cattlo, ducks
and turkeys, roosting on tho trees wero froz
en to death."
Thcro is a placo in Maino called Mcddy
hemps, it having been christened after all tho
words ending in skook, coggin and goggin
bad given out.
"Ho, all yo dyspeptics 1" says a patent
medicine advertisement. If all tho dyspop-
tics would hoo regularly,tbeir number would
Tho Now York woodcock aro said, upon
their first arrival in tho state this season, to
Btop at tho nearest bookstore and iuquiro for
a copy ot tho gamo laws.
"Did you do anything to resuscitato tho
body 7" was recently asked of a witness at a
coronet's inquest. "Yes, sir. We searched
tho pockets !" was tho reply.
Tho English claim to havo been tho first
pooplo to uso forks at tho tablo. Probably
invented for Queen Bess, She always want
ed something handy to throw at a fellow.
"We're in a pickla now !" said a man in a
crowd. "A regular jam !" said another.
"Heavon prcscrvo us !" Ex. llight in for
sass," wercn t tnoy ;
Policeman Orbus appears on tho rolls of
tho San Francisco foico. If in order, wo
riso to suggest that this is a clear caso of
Tho foolish man will ask a woman if her
baby is not a trifle cross-eyed, but tho wiso
man will tako tho oars lor Uhtcago and mako
his inquiries by postal card,
Tbo St. Augustine hotel in Florida is tho
largest hotol in the world. It must be for a
correspondent says that among tho guests
aro "tho Smiths ot flow Xork."
Tho Norristown Herald suggests that tho
guillotluo bo oalled into requisition to sup
press tho tramp, Woll that would bo a cap
ital way to get a head of him, that's a fact.
"Mr. Jones, don't you thiok women aro
moro scnsiblo than men?" asked Miss Smith,
And Jones, after scratching his favorite
bump, for a moment or two, said : "Why,
certainly they are they marry men, and
men only marry women," Miss smith beat
a hasty retreat.
Tho Grst thing a young man docs on Boo
ing a friend with a new hat on is to tako
it off and serenely try it on his own head.
When a young lady sees an acquaintance
with her new boonct on sho justs lifts her
nose and serenely wonders "whero tho thing
tho fright.' VatskM liecoraer.
"Say, Pat, suppose Batati was to como
along uow, and Bee both of us hero, which
do you supposo he would tako you or ine 7"
"Oh, faith, yer honor, he'd tako me." "How
so?" "Well sir," said Paddy, "ho'd tako
me now, bcoauso he wouldn't bo sura of mo
when he eaino again; but he'd bo sure of
you any timo, and oould afford to wait."
In a prominont interior city a professor
of physics was giving a deeply learned lec
ture on light, with Experiments of a most
convincing nature. At tho end of the dis
course tho professor, ajdrowiug with a tri
umphant air bis audlonee, exclaims : "It
seems to mo that a demonstration liko this
is worth soinolbiug." "Lot's go cout," says
an economical backwoodsman to his son;
"(hey air a gnioe to tako up a collection."