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tjy TIIE DARK AXD TROUBLED XIGIIT THAT IS UPOX US, TIIERE IS XO STAR ABOVE TIIE IIORIZOX TO qiVE US A GLEA3I OF LIGUT, EXCEPTIXG TIIE IXTELLIGEXT, PATRI0T1C WIIIG PARTY OF TIIE UXITED STATES." AVebsteh.
MIDDLEBURY, VERMONT, TOESDAT MORKING, APRILll, 1843.
editoh axd rr.orRiETOR.
JOSEPII H. BABRETT,
TER5IS OF YOIXME XII.
Yilhge subscribcrs. S2.00
Mail subscribcrs, within thc State, - - - $1,50
lf not paid witliin tlie vear, ----- Sl,75
Jlail subscribcrs oat of tlic Statc. - - - 52,00
Jndividualsand Companics who takeat the officc,
$1,50. or SI,7j if not paid witliin tlie ycar.
Those who lake of 1'ostridcrs, - - - - S2,00
If not paid at thc cnd of tht ycar, - - - S2.25
Xo papcrs disrontinucd until arrcarages arc
ruid, cxccpt at tlie option of tlic proprictor. Xo
t ontract with. or payment madc to Carriers, cash.
kcepin?, or othcnvise, allowcd, except assentcd to
lr thc proprictor.
' A1I conimnnications must be addrcsscd to thc
c'.itur Post 1'aiii.
.TUSTUS COBB, Prixter,
ET WIIOM ALL KIXIlS OF 1IOOK A-D JOB IT.INT
ISC WII.I. 11E KXECUTED OS
MAliSEILLES HYMX OFLIBEKTY.
21T BOUCET I)E L1SLK.
Yc 5ons of Francc, awalc to glory !
Hark '. Hark ! wliat myriads bid you risc,
Yourchildrcn. wivcs, and grandsires hoary,
Bthold tlicir tcars and licar tbcir crics !
Shall liatcftil tyrants, michicfs brccding,
With hircling hosts, a ruffian band,
AfFright and dcsolatc tlic ljnd,
Wl.ilc Pcace and Libcrty lic blecding 3
To arms! to arms! yc bravc!
Tlic avcnging sword un-hcath:
March on, march on, all Iicarts rcsolvcd
On victory or dcatli.
Xbw. now. tlic dangcrous stonn is rolling,
Which trcai licrous kings confcdcrate raisc.
Tlic c'.o;:s of war. Ict loo-c, arc howh'ng,
And lo! cnrliclds and citics blazc.
And hall wc hasely view the ruin,
Vliilc lawlcss Force. with gtiilty stride,
Sprcads dcsolation far and widc,
With crimcs and blood hi hand iinbniins?
To arms ! to anns! yc bravc, &o.
With Itixury and pridc sunoundcd,
Thc vilc insatiate dcspots darc
Thcir thirst of powcrand jrold unlioundcd
To incct and vend thc Uht and air:
Likc bcats of burden wonld thcy load us,
l.il.e God. would biil thcir slaves adore ;
Ilut mmi is man, and wlio i more !
Thcn shall thcy longcr Iash and poad ns 1
To arms ! to arms ! yc bravc, &c.
t.'h ! I.ibcrty, can man rei;;n thcc,
:ice tiaving ftdt tby gcnerous fiamc ?
C.ni dungcnn, bolts and bars ccntinc thcc,
Or whips thy noMc pirit tanic ?
Too long thc world lias wept, licwailing
That f.ilehood"s dacr tyranti icld :
l'ut frccdom is our swonl and sliicld,
And all thcir arts arc unavailin,
To anns ! to arm ! vc bravc, &r.
EDITIXC A XEWSl'Al'EH.
"Mo.-t pcrons tliink thc sclcvtion of suitaMr
matter for a ncwpajicr !bc ca-ict part of thc Im
incs. How rcat an crror ! It i-by aUnican
tlic inot difficult. To look ovcr l.iindrcils f c.
ch.ine papcrs cvcry wcek. froni wliich ti sclcii
inuiih foronc. cjiccially whcn tbc Uestioii i-.
not what shall, bnt what hall int bc sclcctcd, i
iui'.eed "no casv taik." Ifevcrv iicr-on who read
n uewpaKT could havc cditcd it, wc jdiou'd bcar
ii toiui!amt- ot unircfiuentiy it ii uic cajc
thut :in cditor looks ovcr all "his cxi bnncs fui
soiin-tliiu iiitcrcstinjr. and can aliolntcly fim!
jiKilini'. Evcrv iupcr i dn-cr tlinn a coiitribii-
- tipn lo: and vct somcthin niu-t bc liml his pa-
"Hcr inut bavc soin'thuttj iu it. and lic docs thc 1C!-I
h'c can. To an cditor who ha thc lca-t -arc a-
l.mit what hc clcrt. thc Mrritin that bc doc i
tlie ea-ict part of his labor. A papcrh n 10m
plctcd hoald bc one tltat thc cditor wonld U-wi -iini;
to rcad to his wife. his inolhcr. bi- .iter or
!ii d.mrhtcr: and if hc dncs tliat, if bc ;rct snrb
n papcr. hc will lind his Ialor a mibi di(li nlt nnc.
2".cry MiU-rrihcr think tlie papcr ir.i piintcd for
.i's c-HK.ial lK.Mii.fit, and if thcre i nothin in il
that fuits bim. it must be stoppcd, it i tood fnr
nothiii". Onc look- ovcr the dcaths and niarria
t'C. and artually complaius of tlie cditor, if but
fcw peoplc dic. or vrcrc Sufortunate as to ct niin
rlcd thc preiious wcek. An cditor shotild havc
Micli tliins in his iapcr, whcthertbey occiirornot.
Ju?t as many subscribers as an cditor may havc.
ju-t so many didcTcnt tastes hc liT.s to coiuult.
C'ne wants stories aud jioetry : anothcr abboi
all this. Tlic politirian wants nothin but poli
tics. Ouc must bavc fomcthinj: sound. Onc
Ukes anecdotcs, fun and frolic and a ntt door
ncihlior wouders that a mnn of scnse would put
Mit-h ituflT iu his papcr. Somctbin; f picy como
ont: and thc editor is a bhickjruard. Xcxt conics
finictbin arjrumcntativc. and the cditor is a dull
fool. And so bctwccn thcm all, you sce the poor
fellow ets rouphly handlcd. And vct, to nincty
niueoutofa hundrcd tbese tliiugs ncvcr occur.
Tliev ncrcrrcflcct that whit docs notplcase thcm.
may pleasc thc ncst man, but thcy insi-t.that if
tlie papcr uocs not suit Uian, it is gooa tor notli
in. SIXGULAR MAURIAGE.
A rcmarkablc aftair latcly liajipcned iu New
York, wliirh is narratcd as follows: A pcn
tlcman reading iu a Southcrn Statc, was a rciru-
lar corrcpomlcnt of a certain jieriodical in Xew
York. whicfi periodical was cbiclly cditcd by tlic
ilauglitcr ot thc proprictor. In proccss of tnnc
thc Kcntlcman and ladv allitdcd to beramc nrct-
tv well acquainted with each othcr, and corrcs-
pondcd in a friendly manncr. Tlie formcr. to
make a lon storv snort. tcll m lovc vwtn tlic as
vct unsecn ladr, and offercd hcr his hand in mar-
riac. Aftfr a maturc delibcration the lover was
acccpud. llis next step was to visit 'cw York.
jvbcrehe kept himsclf ontof the way ofhisin
tcndcd wifc, thonh Ixith parties wcre makins ar
rangcmcnts for thcir union. Thc day was tixcd,
aiso tuc nour. and tlic fricnds of the laily asscm
b'ed in hcrfathcrs mansion. and she wa rcady to
bccomc a brldc At thU stagc of tlic procccdinjs.
a gcntlcmau madc his appcarancc hcraldcd bvhis
card. lic was rei-onizcd as thc futnrc sou-in-Iaw
and husbanu, and was warmly wclconied bvall
prescnt, tlic lady in thc mcanwhilc standin a
mons hcr fricnds conipletely vcilcd. Thc cicr"v
man now stcppcd forward, and thc marriageccrc
nionvwaspcrformcd; thcnit was that tlie busUind
f.rst fixed his cycs upon thc eycs and countenance
ot his wifc.
JS"Thcother daya conntryman called on a
physician in this cityj brinsin? witli liim a stont
Sk)t, whosc robust appcarance indicated tliat lic
jui;hi provc a matcti Jor any UisorUcr. lnc anx
ioas fathcrstated to the doctor that as hissouhad
bccn rfisposed to the mall pox, hc hould likc to
Iiac him r,tit,lall if it did not cot ovcr half a
- .ll.ir-.fr ' .u W.. n
OF VEHMOXT, OX
THE TENIIEGLMENT GILL. AND
THE MEXICAN WAR.
Ddivered in the Senazcoj the Unitetl Stales. Ftl. 1 5,
Mr- rr.F.siPEXT: I do not know, sir, thatl
shall bc able, in the hunible part I am about to
takeinthis uobate, to mipart anythm"ot in-
tercst or freshncss to thu iubject, or to bring
any new contnbutiou ot facts to bcar upon the
the nucstions I tiropose to discuss. Almost cv-
cry topic connected with, or growinj: out of
the existin" war with iilcuco. lias liccn allu
iled to and ably commented upon by honora-
blc benators, wlio liave preecueu me on tlie
lloor. Iut, sir, cxhaustcd as the subject is, I
yinnot coutent niyself with a silcut votc on
lielievin, as I do, that undcr exijtinj; laws,
our force in M exico can be tncreased to near-
ly sixty-five thousand mcn, and that the more
vijrorous pfoccutiou oftha war for thc pur
jioses now avowud, vvonld be dkhonorable to
the comitry, I sltall be cotnpellcil to record
my vote against this bill. Uut, I shall do it.
sir, with no view to embarniss the Exccutive
in his ellbrts for an honorablc pcacc ; but to
prcvent the forcible disniembenncut ofa
weak, distracted sister rcpublic, and to pre
serve uiitarnished tlie fair name of thc coun
try, which I prize infitiitely highcr than any
territorial acpaiition3 we can ruakc, or any
glory wc can win, by thc succcss of our anus.
l'hc honorablc C'hairnian of the Comtuittce on
Military Atfairs, in his cloijucnt rcmarks thu
othcr day, in support of this bill, cxprcssed a
desirc that the bill might pass witliout opposi
tion, and tliat the discussion, which hc was a
warc would are upon the war policy of the
Adniinistnttion, and which hc had uo dCMre to
avoid, might be had upon sonic othcr mcai
ure, hereallcr to conic beforc the Senate.
This bill, he thought, Avas safo and common
ground, upon which we could all mect and
act togcthcr. Sir, safe as the honorable Sen
atormay think thc ground to be on which hc
!.tands, l c-annot occupy it with him, bccause,
in my judgiuent, it is dangcrous ground.
TJiis bill is thc first ofa series of mcasures,
wliich, if carried out to the full cxtent of Ex
ccutive recommcudation, muit bring our frcc
in.-titutionsinto grcat pcril, and, I fear, in tlic
cnd, overthrow thcm. The reccnnncndcd in
crcasc of thc arniy, froni Mxty-live thousand
to ncarly nincty-live thoosand mcn, to bc en
gaged iu thc coiiifuest of forcign States and
pronnrcJ, is a propojition too startling for me
to support. llcre, sir, I must pause, and herc
I must stanil nutil I am well conviuced that
this mea-sure is neccssary to indicatc thc
rights and inaintain thc honor of the coun
try. TIio cry is onwanl: and onwanl, at all haz
anls, the Adniiiii.-tratiou sccnis dctcnnincd to
go. until the whole JJexican rcpublic falls bc
ncath our conipicring arms. e preach thc
loclriue of inin-intcifcrcncc in the atfairs of
othcr nations, and still raisc armies to iuvadc
and coiujuer a ncighlioring rcpublic. M
proclaim the grcat principlc of sclf-govern-mcnt,
and thc right of cvcry jicnple to fonn
tlicir own iiistitutions, and at thc same tinie
we send our conipicring armies to force upon,:
.i dNiant aud rclnrtant pcopleornis of gocrn
meiit hlch thcy have no cnpaeity to main
faiii. and to nliicli thcy arc utterly oppocd.
Yc coniicmn the dWmcnibenucnt td Saxoiiy.
thc annexation of the Itcpublic of Gcnoa tc
thckiii'jdom of Sardinia, and the absorption
of Ycnii c by Aii-tria, and still wc go on with
thc work of dimcmbenncnt and annexation
oursclvcs. AVc ilcnouncc l!nfsia,l'mFsia, an:
Austria, for the ili n'.cniliermcnt of I'oland,
and at the miiiic timc wcareattcinpting to dis
mcinlicr a "-Uter Itcpublic ; and if she refuses
to subuiit to our ilctnands, the absoqition of
hcr whole tcrritorv, tlie hoiiorable Chainnan
f thc Comniittcc on Military Allairs says.
may bc thc pcnalty sho will bc compcllcd to
pay for lierobstinacy.
lMcxico, sir. i in our powcr she lies quiv
cri.'is and bh cdin" at our fcet we can de-
Mroy hcr natinnality and blot hcr name froni
the map of nations but such an act of inju
tice, viol;ni-c. and outmgc, would bring !own
upon our hcads thc just indiguation ofall
Chrijfcndoiu, and brnud us asa nation of rob-
yir. FOOTE. I am qnitc ftirc that thc
Senator has no dcsiie to misieiiicieiit any
S,-nator on this side of tlic ch.imbcr. C'er-
tainlv helu not hcard eithcr thc Chainnan of
the Comtuittce on Military Allairs, or any
othcr Senator on this side, givc cxpression to
the opinion that it might become politic to ab--orb
the whole of Mcxico. The absorption o!
Mexico has bcen unifonnly spoken of by ns a
a thing to bc dcprccatcd, but froni which, ii
forced upon us, wc werc to deducc all thc
jood that was possible.
Mr. UPIIA.M. I havc no desire to mLrep-
rescnt any fcenator, but 1 unucrstood tlie
honorable Chairman of thc Committec on
Militaty Aflairs, in alluding to this sul jcct, to
say, tliat it might bc iieccsary, in ordcr to
bring the war to an honorablc closc, to absorb
thc whole of Mexico. Ilowcver, I have his
rcmarks beforc me, and will rcad thein. In
the debatc onthe instructionsto General Scott
to occupy thc rcpublic of Mexico, the Senator
"I repcat what I beforc said, that the lonccr
Mexico continues hcr obstinate rcjcction of
rcasonauie inucmnitv, anu the trreatcr thc ex
ertion shc compels us to make, the greater
will be our ucmanits and the hcavier herlos:
cs. AYhat wc would havc aeccpted lat ycar,
or cven at thc couimcneement of the prescnt
campaign, wc may well rcfuse now: and what
wc would accetit now, we nm- well rcfuse af-
tcr a fcw montlis. And how much thc pub-
lie scntimcnt ot tlns countn- may lcmanu a
year or two years hcnce, if the war continues
so long, I do not prctcnd to prcdict. AVc
may have to make the great experiment so
drcadcd by the Senator from South Carolina
anu thc fccnator irom Kentuckv, and anncx
the domam of Mcxico to our own. This i the
jicnalty whicli national injustice has oftcn
been called to pay, and wliich Mcxico may be
nrepann'r tor ncrsclt.
Mr. CASS. I havc again and again becn
called upon" to state thc purport of the rc
marks to wliich thc Senator alludcs, and I
do hopc that it will not bc ncccssary to ontcr
into any explanation with regard to thcm
hcreaflcr. I am confident that thc Senator
docs not intentionally mistakc"my vicws ; but
1 will repcat, that all along I havc dcprccatcd
thc absorption of the wliolc of Mexico; but,
as the Senator from Mississippi has correctlv
said. I added, that if forced upon us, we must
mak.c tne most ot ic At the timc when thc
honorable Senator from South Carolina (Mr.
Calhoun) introduccd his resolutions. I stntprl
distinctly, that if Mcxico protracted this war, i
me puuti- opmion ot tnc cauntrj- might mani- j
fest a desire for thc annexation of thc whole
of that country. But I ncver cxprcssed any
opinion in favor of such a rcsult ; but. on the
. .. , i i ,
contrarv, it m a tmng to be teareu anu avoiu
M r. UPIIAM. Thc position.thcn, that thc
Senator has assumcd is. that such mi"ht be
the condition of things, such might bc thc ob
stinacy of Mcxico in rcfusing to yield to our
dcmands, tliat wc might be compclled to pros-
ccutc the war to such an extremity as woum
load to thc dcstruction of licr nationaltty, and
the absorption of hcr whole territory by the
Unitcd Statcs. And, sir, notwithstanding this
rcsult is deprecated, and, I have no doubt,
sincercly, still, in my humblc judgmcnt, the
tcndencv ct the mcasures reccminenucu uy
thc Prcsidcnt. if camed out to the lull ex
tent. must inevitably rcsult in thc absorption
of thc whole country ; and I tliink I can sec
in the signs of the times cnougli to alann thc
countrv in reference to this subiect. Such a
iiolicv has becn more than dimly shadowcd
forth in the resolutions introduccd by thc
honorablc Scnators from Xew York and Indi
ana. Thc fonr.cr suggcsted to thc countrv
thc Tiroprictv and cxpedicncv of strcngthen
ing our conimcrcial relations by thc annexa
tion of contiguous territory. The lattcr a
vowcd thc constitutional powcr and authority
of our Govcrnmcnt to hold and govcrn Mcx
ico as a dcpondent provincc. Sir, I have
sccn it avowed in tlic procccdings ofpublic
mectings, in the spccches of our military of
ficcrs who havc won glorv and rcnown upon
thc battlc-ficlds of Mcxico', and who havc
rcturncd bccause thcre arc no more Jaurels to
be gaincd, and have undertakcn to indoctrin
ate the pcoplc of this nation that it is our du
ty or dotiny tocarry into Mexico ourfrec in
stitutions, and that "this war ought to be pros
ccutcd until her govcnimcnt is oyerthrown,
and a more libcral govcnimcnt cstablished, to
be sustaincd b)' thc powcr of our arms.
Vllat ? Arc we, thcn, to become a nation of
propagandists ? 'Yhy, sir, souic gcntlcraen
liave gone so far as to denouncc cvcry man
who raues his voice against the prosecution
ofa war, for thc purpoc of forcing upon
Mcxico a govcrmncnt of which she does not
atiTirovc. as traitors to thcir countrv ! Such
is the scntimcnt cxprcssed in the spcech of
Coloncl Morgan wlucli i liave DClorc me.
"As . Chri.stians," says he, "we arc bound
toprotect thc Sloxicans fiontthc bad intcn
tions of thcir mlcrs." "And," hc adds, ''all
who will advocatcjhc withholding of suiiplics,
or withdrawingour armies, disguise their scn-
timcnts howevcr thcv mav, under whatcvcr
artful plea thcy choosc, are traitors at hcart."
lcs, sir, cvefy man, evcrv- citizcn, evcry
nicmber of Consress who belicves it to be his
duty toraise hisvoicc against the furthcr pros
ecution of the war, for the punjo?c noxc a-
vowed by the Administration, is dcnottneed
by this orator as a "traitor at hcart," and un
worthy of thc conftdcncc of the pcople. I al-.-o
have in my pos?ession a sjcech of Captaiu
Stockton, advocating thc same principlc, that
the anny shall not be withdrawn until tlic over
throw of ihe Mcxican Govcrnmcnt, and thc
cstablislimcnt ofa govcninicnt thcre upon lil
cral principlc3, be accomjilishcd. lic Iiolds
tue iollowing language :
"I would imist, if thc war werc to be pro-
innscil fiftv vcars and cost moncy enough to
lctiiaud froni each ofyou half ofall that you
posos, 1 woum msist that tlie ti:c--sings otciv-
ii nii n'ucious uucriv snuuui uu "uaiauimi
I bclievc that thc scntimcnts advanced by
Col. iMonjan and Captain Stockton, so fai
tYom mcotinz with disapprobation on the occa-.-ions
on which thcy werc cxprcssed, elicitcd
thc mosl uncptivocal marks of favor. Those
jcntlcmcn, tniiccd, 'ccm to liave bccn prepar
ing thc minds of tlie poople for the unquali
iied admi.ion of the doctrinc, that it is thc
duty of the Goverument to cxtend itsclf over
the whole Amcrican contincnt. At the sup
ier givcn tn Colonel Morgan, the following
toasts vTVrc reccived with the greatest enthusi
"The Dcstiny of the I'nital Slates Gorcrn
mcnt To overshadow the whole of Xorth A
merica; thcrcfore wc uiavas well bcgin with
uTne American Con'incnt An Almighty
hand hasrolleil thc barricrof thc seasaround
it, to mark it as one rcpublic.
'Xo jicnt-tip Utica contracts onr powcrs,
'Ilnt thc liolc lioundless contincnt is ours.''
uThe r.thmuA ofl'ttmima The next rcst-ing-placc
in the exlenion of frcedom's aroa."
2sow, sir, thcse significantinilicationsstrong
ly imprcss upnn my mind thc couviction, how
evcr much the result may bc deprecated, that
great ctlcrts are making to convince the pco
ple, that it is the dcstiny of our Governmcnt
to cxtend its jurisdiction over the entire con
tincnt. An ocean-bound rcpublic is spoken
of with npparent scriousncss. Let it not be
said that the:-e indication3 are to be lightly
reirarded. Thev proclaim, in Ian2ua"C not be
mistaken. thc interprctation which niasscs of
thc people liave put upon the policy wlnch the
Govcrnmcnt scems to havc adopted. And,
sir, if this pcrilous carecr of connueston which
we have entcrcd, is not to be arrested till our
arms shall havc subjugated thc whole Ameri
can contmeut, uis Mtrelv time that thc coun
trv understood it. It is timc that thc voice of
warning should arousc thc peoplc to a full
sensc of the impending danger.
Our Govcniment was not constructod with
a view to wars of aggrcssion and conqucst.
The armies contemplatcd by the Constitution
are armies of dcfencc, and not of atiCTCssion
armies to dcfcnil our own territory, not to
invadethe temtones of othcr nations. Ihe
unlimited power to raise and support annies,
conferrcd upon Congrcss by the Conitution,
was lookcd upon with srcat icalousv bv the
pcoplc. It was assailcd in thc Statc convcn
tions, and clsewherc, with grcat zeal and per-
tinacitv. as danicrons to libcrty, anu subver-
sive of thc State covcrnments. It was said,
that the powcr bcing unlimited, Con2rns3
mi"ht keeii larse armies constantly on foot,
and thus exliaust the resourccs of thc country ;
and tliat wc miiiht bc comnelled to livc under
a !iovcrmnent of inilitarv force. To thcsc su j-
gestions it was replicd, that the power was
nccessarv, and that to be of any value, it
must bc unlimited ; tliat thc power was cx
clusivcly confined to the lesislativc body, to
thc represcntativcs of thc Statcs, and to thc
pcoplc of the Statcs, and that it would besafe
in tlicir hands; that the powcr was nccessarv.
bccause we werc surroundcd by thc coloaies,
and dcpendencics of powerful foreign govcm-
menis, wuijse mantime poncrs ungiii luniiMi
thcm with thc mcans of annoyancc, and mis
chief, and invasion ; that it was nccessarv to
proteotour frontier3 against thc Indians, and
to man our forls aud garrion3 in diflcrent
partsofthc countr'. Ilcrc, sir, you havc the
reasonsfor which the power "to raisc and sup
port rhroies" was deemed ncccssary. The con
oucst of foreisrn Statcs and provinccs was nov-
crdrcamt of by thc framers of the Consti
tution. But thc wisdom of thc past, with thc
"progrcssivc dcinocracy" of thc prescnt day,
isfully; acd, indced, so rapid has becn the
advanccment bcvond that old-fashioned dc-
mocracy, which prcvailed in the bettcr days
of thc republic, that calls havc actually bccn
madc for convcntions of the pcople to recon-
struct thc govcrnmcnt. lo carry out thesc
splcndiil schemcs of national aggrandizcmcnt,
it has becn found nccessarv to wagcwara-gain-tthe
freedom of spccch and the nrcss; a
war infinitclv uiore dangcrous to tue libcr-
tics of thc pcoplc than a war of conqucst.
Thc message of iOcccmber, 1S46, contains the
dcclaration of war against frcc discussion, and
"The war has been, (says thc IVcsident.')
rcprcsentcd as unjust Jtnd unnccessary, and
one of aggrcssion, onour part, upon a weak
and injured cnemy. Such crroncous views.
though cntertaintd by fcw, havc been widely
circulated not only at home, but havc bccn
sprcad throughout Mcxico and the wliolc
world. A more cffcctual mcans could not
have been devised to enconrage thc jenly"l
and protraet the war 7i(ih lo wJrorate and ml
here to their causc, and thus gire them aid and
Ilcrc, sir, is a bold, and I.was aliout to say.
shameless attcmpt, on the part of the Exeeu
tivc, to stifle all inquiry into the origin, ne
ccssity, juslicc and purposes of this war. All
who darc call in qucstion the powcr ofthe
President to wagc war, and to prosecute it
for thc purposes of conquest and plundcr,arc
dcnounced as traitors to thcir country. And
all who doubt the necessity of thc war and
think it could, and should, havc bcen avoidcd,
are hold up as adhcring to, and advocatiii2 the
cause ofthe enemv. Thesc dennnciations,sir,
coming from that high sourcc, should not be
sulTcrcd to pass unnoticcd and uncondcmned.
Thc framers ofthe Conitittttion, reganling
free discus-ion as thc great safcguard of libcr
ty, declarcd, in thc first articlc of amenilmcnts,
tliat "Congrcss shall make no law abridging
thc frccdom of specch or thc prcss." This
right of free discusiion belongs to thc people,
and no powcr on earlh should be pernuttcd to
abridge or inipair it. It is thc great powcr that
overturns deiiiotisms and builds up republics
it shakes tyrants from thcir tbroncs and
confrsthe blcssings of libcrty upon millions of
our racc it kindlcd thc firc ol'our own rcv
olution and made U3 a free and indcpendent
nation and it is tlie uest sccunty wc can
havc for thc preservation of our libcrties. It
was Sheridan, I bclieve, who, in speaking in
thc IIousc of Cotnmous on thc powcr of the
prcss to avcrt thecncroachincnts ofthe IMinis
trv, cxclaimcd in onc of his lofticst stniins of
"Givc thcma cornipt Ilouse of Lords; givc
them a venal IlouiC of Common.s : givc thcm
a tyrannical Prince : give thcm a truckling
Court ; and lct me havc but an unfettcrcd
press, and Iwill defy thcm to cncroach a
hair's breadth upon the liburtics of England."
If the frccdom of thc prcss werc so essen
tial to thc protcction of ISritiah libcrty, it must
bc resranlcd as inlimtclv more important to
thc sccurity of n Govcrnment likc ours, found
cd ttiion and deriving its support from cn
lihfcned public opinion. But, to pass on :
gentlcmcn have searchcd for prcccdcnts lbr
this war, anif the bcnator rroui lltinois imag
incs that hc lias dicovcrcd dne in thc war of
1S12. "That war," he says, "was declarcd
in thc same fonn and almost in thc same Ian
suage as thc prescnt." Sir, did Prcjident
Madion announce to thc country that war
existcd bctwccn thc United Statcs and Grcat
Britain ? Or did hc infonn Congress that
'.ong-cxiitins difiicultics 1 etwccn the two c-ottn-
tries rcmaincl unsettlod ? that he had ex
hautcd all his powers in making pacific cf
forts : and that he was unable to bring thc
controvcrsv to a close ; and that it was for
Coni;res.s to dccide whcther or not an appcal
to arms should be madc in orderto vindtcatc
our honor and sustain cur rights ? Ilcar hi.
'We behold, in Cnc, on thc side of Great
Britain, a tatc of war against the United
States ; and on thc side ofthe United Statcs,
a statc ot pcace towarus urcat Jintani.
Whether thc United States shall continne
passivc under thciiC progressive usuqiation"
anu these.accumulating wrong3; or, opposmg
force to force in dcfence of the natiutial
rights, shall commit our just cause into the
hands of the Almighty Powcrs, andprcserv-
mg a eonitint rcailiness to concur in an Hon
orablc cstablislimcnt of pcace and fricndship,
is a solemn rmcstion, which the Constitution
wiely confides to thc lcgislative dpartment ot
the Govcrnmcnt. In recomuusidmgittotiieir
early dcliberations, I am happy in the assu-
ntncc tliat the ilccision will bo wortliv tlic cn-
lightened and patriotic councils ofa virtuous,
a trec, amt a powcrlul nation.
Upoa thismcssagc Congrets annonnced to
the country, byits legi;lativc act, that asfatc
cf war cxisted betwccn the two Govcrnmcnts
How was it with the exting war? AVhat
was the charactcr ofthe mcsagc reccivctUlth
May, 1S4GV Did it set forth tlie wrong
pcrpctratcd by Mcxico; that the Prcsidcnt
had cxertcd all thc jiowcrs confcrred on him
by thc Constitution to clFeet a pacific adjust
mcnt without success ; and that it was a iptcs
tion for Conrjrcsn to decide upon the furthcr
stcps to be taken to viudicatc the rights and
maintainthe honor ofthe country? .'Xo, sir!
The firrannouncement to the couutry ofthe
cxistence ofthe war was by Exccutive mes
sage. Howi I ask, could a war cxist betwccn
a tbrcign Govcrnmcnt and the Unitcd State
without the knowlcdgc of thc war-making
powcr? Had thc Prcsidcnt any authority to
declarc war ? Xo, sir, that powcr is vcsted,
cxclusively, in Congress. IIow thcn can
thcre bc any anilogy between thc wars that
of 1S12 having been dccLiretl according to
thc fonn ofthe Constitution, whilst the pres
ent war was waged by thc Exccutive in opcn
violation ofthe Constitution. But the Sena
tor says the war of 1812 met with violent op
position from the pulpit and the Prcss, and hc
has givcn us specimens ofthe fulminations of
thc onc, and the rantings ofthe other. For
what purposc wcre thcsc cxtracts rcad?
Werc they designed to instruct thc Scnators
in thc discharge of thcir functions, or werc
thcy intended to opcratc on public opinion
to excitc prcjudices in the minds of tlic peoplc,
against all who fclt it to be their duty to op
pose the policy recommcndcd by thc Admin
istration, for the furthcr prosecution of"this
war, with a view to the dismemberment ofa
sister rcpablic?? Ii" this war cannot be sus
tained upon upon itsmerits ifit bc nccessa
rv to sustain the policy of its further prosecu
tfon by such a courrcofargnmcntasthat adop
ted by thc Senator from Illinois, I think, the
sooncr it is brought to a closc, thc bettcr it
will be for tho honor ofall conccracd. Most
of thc opposition to the war of 1812 grew out
of the particular policy recommcndca for its
prosecution. An incrcasc of thc anny had
bccn rccommendcd for the invasion of Cana
da, and it was objedtcd that thc war otiJit to
bc a maritiine war; thatwc should budd up
a navy, man it, and prcparc oursclvcs to mect
thc cncnvy upon tho occan, wherc thc injuries
had bcen receivcd, which wc had armcd our-
selves to redrcss. Whocver looks at thc dc-
bates upon appropriation bills for thc support
ot tlie war ot 1011', wui nnu mat inosi oi uic
opposition was bascd upon thc ground that
tlie naval powcr sliouiu bc augincnieu to
mect thc encniy on the occan, jnstead of in
creasins thc anny lbr thc invasion of Canado.
But to pass to anothcr poiut. I statcd in thc
outsct that, under existing laws, our force in
Mcxico could bc incrcased to ncarly Gj.OOo
mcn. Xow, sir, is this truc? The honorable
Senator from MissLsippi, thc othcr day, said,
that he did not so understand it. To scttle
this qucstioii I wi'tl refer to thc report of the
Sccrctary of War.
Hc says the twcnty-fivo rcgiments of the
reular army, as distiniruishcd fiam voluntccr
force, when fillcd to the limit fixcd by law,
would be 2S,SU, cxclusivc ofolliccrs; but
thc actual sfrength he says, is now about 21,
533: it will, therefore, rc(mire7,3Sl enlisted
nicu4o complcte thu regular military cstablisli
mcnt. Therc are now in the scnice, en
gaged for the war, sa s thc Secretaiy. twcn-ty-thrce
rcgiments of voluntecrs, seven battal
ions, and thirty-thrcc eompanics not organ
ized into rcgiments or battalious; but the
rank and filc ofall those, the Sccrctary thinks,
do'nct cxcccd 20,000 mcn ; and that to give
those serving for the war hcir complete or
sanization, will require an addition of alout
Thc force in Mexico at this timc, including
the rcgiments ficm Michigan, and the two
baitaitons on me way, is ni.uuv. iu auuuiuu
to this numbcr, thc Exccutive, uniler existing
laws, has the power to cnlist upwards of 7,000
regulars, andto call into thc ficld 12,500 vol
untecrs, to servc during thc war making iu
"all 65,200. If thc 5,000 scamcn and marincs,
also engagcd in the war, be addcd, we then
havc a numerical force naval and military
of 70,200 nien. If wc add to this force tlie
troops proposcd by tlns bill, 10,100 rcguiars,
wc shall have an anny iu Mcxico of upwards
ofS0,000: and it the voluntccr bill is topas,
we shall have a force of upwards ot 100,000:
aml that, too, aftcr the country has bcen vir-
tually conquered by less tuan oue-lourtu ot
Sir, I can see no nccessitv for thc forrc
contemplatcd by this bill. When the rcgi
ments of thc line, and thc volitntcer rcgi
ments, arc filled up, wc shall have a force am
nlv sufiicicnt to nrosecutc thc war "with in
crcased energy and powcr, in tho vital parts
of the cncmv's" country" aud this is all thc
Thc Sccrctary of. war says:
"Our further oncrations in Mexico nicst bc
conductcd in onc of thothrcc following modcs.
First, to tako and hold an mdemmty line ;
to rcccde from all placcs and positions now
occupied in advance of it, and ccasc from all
aggrcssivc opcrations ocyonuiiiai nnc. clu-
OXD, tooverrnn the wlio'.e country, anu uoiu
all the nrineipal placcs in it bv permanent
garrisons ; and, Tinr.n. to retain wl.at we r.ow
posscss, opcn Imes ot commuiiication mio uic
mtcrior, and extend our opcrations to othcr
important placcs, as our mcans and the pros
noct of advauta"es shall indicate, kceiiin a
dispoablc force always rcady, witliin approach-
ablc limits, lo annoy tttc cnemy, to setzc sup
p;ies, enforcc contiibutions, and fnistrate his
ctrorts to collcct means and assemble troops
for thc purposc of protracting the war."
Tlie Secretary,arterdisi-ussitig thecompara
tivc mcrits of these moles of conducting the
war, comcs to tlic conclusion that thc tliml
niodc is prefei able, and adopts it. Xow, sir,
what force is r.cressarv lo carrv it out ? I
havc cxamincd th's question with somc carc,
an-l I cannot icsist tlie conctuston 'iiat ti:c
force now aut'iorizcd by law is sufiicicnt.
This convii tion bas bccn forced upon my
mind bv the sueccs; wliich ha- l.i:hortoattcnd
cd our anns, and by the dcspateh of General
Scott, under clate of heptenilKr lsm, ixi.
Gencnil Tavlor, at'thc battle of Palo Alto.wilh
a force of 2,300, defi atcd a Mextcan force of
COOO. At Itcaca de la Pdlma, with a force
of onlv 1,700, hc dcfcatcd 0,300 Mcxicans.
At Montcrev, with C.045 mcn, hc stormcd
and too!: thc strong fortrt!es of thc city, and
compolled the surrcnder ofa Mcxican anny
10.000 strong. And at Bucn.i tsta, with
1,750 rcguiars ard voluntcors, he dtfVatcd
Santa Anna at thc hcail of 20i00 wcll-armcd
Mcxicans. General Scott, at tlic hoad of 1 1,-
000 men. compe'.lcd the surrcnder of Ycra
Cruz and the strong ca-t!e by which it was
dcfcndcd. At Cerr Gonio. with an army
of 8,500. he met and defeated a Mexican ar-
mv of 12.500. At Contreras, tan Antonio,
arid Churubusco, with S.497 men, he dcfcatcd
i Mevican force of 32,ono. And with i.iao
. c-tT !
;.... t . 1 t o-. rMi -r, :,r,.
UJ. nu.i.-tiii; ...... . -. - -
T - - ti. ., t ri
posetl by tlns out i nnncreoJri. nui.
what says General Scott. in his despatch ot
thc lStli of Scntcmlicr, 1847? Hc says, that '
with thc force en rottte and 4,000 more, soon
tn follow. hc can hold the city of .Mexico witli :
n .-iTTison of 7.500 men, aiainst any attacl:
e.tcrnai, or '"'V,
.urrcction. and have an arnple splii; tcrcc.
to o-cupy Ptiebla, Pcrote.Jalapa, tle Aation-
.il Bndge, the Pasode Obyos, Saiita tc, antt
. 1 - i . " ...... 1 .
Ycra Cruz; and, as a modtiication oi im
, 1 .1. . -.1. t r?n Alift r-in
man. nc savs m.n, nn .1 '
thc principal mining distncts ofthe country
ow, sir, u . , '""'"X - . " siveh.inl.hit. of callin-- ntH, n. to c
Iiant victoncs, w tu a orce yv , j , (i
wc can now put into the iieHi, tlic torcc pro- . .1.1. ,irC)inii,i.. rntaii.iii!r a
mav also lic occupied, and a secure transit tlC ca:C. and thnt sticli tras the unrtcrstamlni'.'. H
"ivcn to "old and silver bullion which, paying well known. A Senator now dcccasol. (Mr.
Sic cnslouiarv duties, would cover a consid- Sptight.) dMinrtlr, and overand overag.iin, aid
erablc part of thc cxtienscs of occupation. ; that scc-h was the nnderstanding witli recard to
But this is not alUsir. General Scctt further our vote It is a gnss misconception, thcn, to
but , , ' ,1,,, . -,0 0011 snpposc that wc voted for the preamhle, or cvcr.
sugscsts that to aamcnt tho arm -' , mnt t0 Votc for it . I Iio, tnis statement will
would cnablc it to occupv all the jta c cam- M . icc ei Jo!loui
tals and pnncipal citicto dnvaguemllas n . -n a fl)-ure tIlIIC.
and robbing parties from thc grcat lngliways ; 'Mr L-j.uAM. Ithank thc Iionor.ibIc Senator
of tradc to scizo into our hands all thcjrpv- j f()r tIlc a,t,iitional infoniiation hc lias giren ufn
caucs ofthe countrv, and to kecpthe Central thc subject thc country houId have thc whole
Govcrnmcnt in constant lr.otioti and alarm ! truth in rcgard to thc matter. Appcal werc frc
until constraincd to suc for pcace. Docs thc ; .mcntly made to Scnators on the other side of thc
President desire to accomplish more than ! chamUr, to strikc ont thc prcambic to thcb,ll.as
i rcsiut.111 Ul- c 1 , criJcnce of its truth bad bcen cxhibitcd. and
licncrai .-cott says can .
force Ot 5,000 .' 11 ucciccs, ..ac.. .
it toannilnlate thc sovcrcignly 01 ''co j,,.,, . crt3kctuc rerK.n-ibility of vi.tin
and make hcr a depcndcnt province or tlie a,;stt Gt.ncrari'jylor had bccn ordered to
Unitcd States ? Such a pnrposc has bccn ; tfc cft bank o ,1C uio Gnuuic n-xth .1 small force.
denicd bv his fricnds on this floor. Vi hat 1 an(j wcrc cntcnaincd, that hc would bc un
thcn can'bc desircd froin thc passagc of this ' au;c to sustain bim.-c!f, without reinforrcmcnt :
bill but the patronaiie it will confcr UK)n thc , and thc bill was jiassccl for his rclicf. Xo intima
Prcsident9 It will nvc him an opportnnitv tion was made by the Exccutive, that tlic warhad
to appoint Vivc or six hundrcd ofliccrs, to bc 1 bcen wagwl with a view to the iermancnt acqui-
cngagcd in recruthng tor tne
Presidenftal camnaisn. Ihe measure is noi
wantcil tor nn incrcasc 01 iuiuku
. ' - ,
asc of soldiers ;
ofolliccrj athomc. lhc ;
army can be incrcased
but foran increac
,r,r1 fito nt tbc
n nniv witbnnt this bill. but thcre can he no 1
incrcasc of ofliccrs unless it passes. Fill ttp 1
thcrcnilarand voluntccr rcgiments now in
thc ficld.and, aftcr that is done, if more mcn ;
are necessaW for thc prosecution of the war, !
arc necessary tor int- i
ask for thcm, anu, iprcsumc, cuW .
sranted. ... , ... I
. T .,. , ... v,M, nf the '
But, sir,I will leavc this branch ot thc
subject, and pass on, to show tnai mc ciku.- 1
ter and objccfs of the war have changcd ; and
that its furthcr prosecution, for tho purposes
cs noic avowed, would be dishonorabfe to the
When Texas was nnnexcd to thc Unitcd
States, its westeruboiir.dary was lcft an open
question, to Ucsettlcil by ncgotiatioti, bctwccn
thc Mexican Govcrnmcnt and ours. Tln
Prcsidcnt. in his nicssagc of Mny 11th, 1S4C,
informed Congress that a strous desire to rei;-
ulate and adjust our boundary andother caus
cs of ditl'urcnee with Mexico, on fnir and
eipaitable principlc-'. juduced him, in Septcm
bcr, 1S45, io scck the rc-opcning of diploma-
tic regulations between the two couiitncs;
that the Mcxican Govcrnment, in Octobcr
followins, arccd to reccivc a Mmistcr from
thc Unitcd States investcd with full powers to
scttle and adjust all mattcrs in diiVeYence be
tween the two cjovernnients : tliat an envoy
fromthe United States repaircd to Mexico,
with full powers to adjust cvcry cxiiding dif
fcrcncc ; and tliat the Mexican Govcnimcnt
had not only rcl'ujed to n-ceive him, or Kstcn
to his jirofja-itions, but, aftcra long continucd
series ofmcnai cs. had invaded our tcrritorv,
and shcd thc Uood of our fcllow-cilizcnson
our own soil. This message was acccuianicd
by about one huudred nnd lifty pages of
uianusi ript docmnents. Thc usual tiKiticm !o
jirint thc documcuts was madc, but it was vo
tcd down by Scnators on the othcr side of the
cbamber. A call for the reading was thcn
nsndc, but that also was refused, aud the bill
ofthe 13th May. lS4ti. was pa?sed by a vote of
forty yeas to two nays. Thc unanimity with
which this bill was passed, has lievn fii-qui-iit-ly
refcrrcd to, as evidcncc to show lluit C"on
gress was almost cnanimously of the oinion
that Mexh.o-coiniiienced the war. Tlu- Prcsi
dcnt, in his last aniiual mcssnjjc, refcrrcd toi
it for that purt)oc. He savs, in substaiue.
that Congress, by the act of the 13th May.
1840, declarcd. with gieat unanimitr, that
'by the act ofthe republic of Mexico. a state
of war exists bctwccn tliat Goveriuncnt r-ml
the Unitcd Statcs. thcre bcin" but two np"a-
tivc votes in thc Scnate aml fourtcen in ihcM'Cfrpm, (Jlr. lle.r.eii.) to Scnatc 1 i.I. .-. It 3,
House of Bcpresentativcs." Xow, sir, I pio- "'nHkin- fnrthcr ni.prot.nat.t.n to Lrin- ih. t-
to rP,-i.t to thc Sctmte :md the countrv
r.n.i... r'.i. ...:.i.
auiuo liicis c oiuin icii iim inu iii-iv
., . i -,, ri-i , -ii r. .i ... ii-..
, ! "ni.
lliai Ulll. jMic oni onui.iicti .11 uic- jiuusi- ui
ltcprcsentativcs. On the 2Gth of Jamiary,
lM4ti, Mr. Haralson, froin thc CommUlee on
Military Allairs, rcportcd a bill to authorize
the Prcsidcnt of the Unitcd Statcs.
under certain cin-umstanccs therein mcn
tioncd, to accept thu ervHCJ of loluntccrs,
and for othcr purposes. On the 11th of May.
Mr. Brinkerhofl' moved to anicnd thc bill by
iiwerting a. new section with a prcamblo, in
the words fol!owing : 'whcrea1, by the act of
thc rcpublic of Mexico, a statc ofwcr cxi.-L-Iietwccn
tliat Govcrnment and thc I'uilcd
Statcs." Theaniendincnt was carried by a
votc of 12" ycas to C7yoas ; and, on thc ssnie
d.iy, the bill pasvcd tho House by a vote of
174 lo 14. So it appi-ar that 07 mer.ibcrs of
thc House voted against thc preamble to the
Well, sir, what is the history cf this bill in
the Senate? Onthe 12th of'Miy, it cr.me
up for consideration, and Mi. Huntington.'
thcn a Senator from Connecticut, sim-c ilc
ceascd, lnoicil to amcmlit by staikctig out the
prcambic : and thu journal shows that thcn.o
tion failitl Ly a votc of 18 ycas to in rays
all thc Senators on this side. of thc cluiml.er.
with thc exccplion of thrce, vcfcd iu the :if
firmativc A inotimi was thcn maile bv the
honoralileS'.nator frnm Ke. tncky, (Mr. Cnn
Tnsrinx.) to take a mte upon the prramblc
alonc, but the chair riilcd that it -mi!d not bc
separated from tlie bill. and the n.otion w.-..-dccideil
out of onlc-r. The bill was thcn
presed toa votc aud jmssed yca-" 10, nays 2.
.Mr. Berricn, .Mr. Evans, Mr. Hur.t;ugton.and
Mr. Calhoun declitilnir to votc, and vIimui
Scnators on this idc ofthf chamlKT voiing
vci with a protcst against tlie preamble to thc
bill. This, sir. is a inm ic history of thc pio
"rcss of thc biil throtigh the two llouics ol
Now, I a'k, in all candnr, wliat cxcusc can
the PresMcnt rcndcr to thc countrv forassort-loi"
in in his mcssaae, tli.it h..il, br.i.iclics of Cn -
warf xi c I bv h act f eico tl-i cbcngl.ul I
.FrrtM ,-ti (fNiii mtrtnimiiv. iifi-'.-iri'ii iiini iih-i
fonrtpc-n ne-ja'.ive voti-s in thc Hoii-i" of l!c
rcscntativcs and to in the Scn.-itc? Sir, tl,c
joumal of tlie IJoti-o hows G7 ii"gative voti-s.
and tlie journal t th..- -natc sliur.s is, ma
kir.i; in thc w!m!e ."5.
Mr. CLAYTOX. Will the f ena:r allon mr
a word ;
Mr. ITHAM. CVfaii.Iy.
Mr. CI.AVTOX. Ai t'u. timc thc bill p.Ts-' d , i.I. n-iii--thisScnatc.
thoseof'i who loifd br i's paiip 1 iiit-:o!icr.
r,.. ',;i.n, il..
(tiort to -tri!;t-"iit t.ie ir. -!
amhle. as thc Senator Irom erniont lias trtcil.
tl.cr -ntc tlic ixcc-'-1
oie for a I i'l.
lies for the i
a mattcr of fact ofwbuli e had not cvnlencu lie- j
frc u, y,'c rencatolly dc:nan-led thc sipuraiion
ofthe two t'roucitionsr but thc s,.i,araiio!i Bm
refu-cd, tlie rresidcnt of tlnScnate k i.lin that
wc had 110 rii-lit to call for a dhi-ion of thc i;ih---
tion. Thcnweiiui tcd tiion it that wc )-hoald
1 iinrp iiw ntiiir 111 in r uiioii 1 . n iiii i i u . i -.111 ' .1- 1
! ..tM lhe fnHe. And thc Senator from Mi-1
I m .
on - t!iat furIl ,TOH,(l ,mr
( snrfj nn,Ier!.t..in,Iini lint ifwe i
,,.aveourTot ,3 ,n f ;1Tor f tlic biil .we wcre to be
e . . - ,. . -
; vor 0r tiie j)ream;,c- ;j",u u ihe siinile factof
r,.n.e(i K vo-.in lor nte Minimcs, nni noi inia-
f . .,; . ,.,.
mI.o.lnit. Wc n.u.t votc for thc bill as it
! I.tlt tt llitf rrf.ntll'1,11 11 ot tlic o
.KH11"1 '? M!0 ,-,,e ,hwe"
-J- lrti!n .t. . -i..,l,ln5.o:i tlie othcr liand.it wonld be a niwthin
.1 ' 1 IU 1 J. ICALIU, MI3 I1ICS9UV, ' I
" d thc boundarv of thJ Unitcd States, bas in-1
onrtcrriorr;am, sh?a Amcrican l.loodnp-
on Anierican soiL Toenable Uie Prcsidcnt to
, .t:. nnfl ato nroeeate tho- war to a
jpccjv-aiiu snccessfnl tcnnination.1 I votcd for
tiiebill of the 13th iUy, 1S4G. Vtett, sir, what
fai thc Prcsidcnt in rcsanl to thc war, in hu
mes-age of Dcc, 1S4G ? Hcarh.. lanpage:
. wa:rc(i wlthaviewto
bcen commenced by Jtexr-
, hnfi..n carried into thc enemv's country,
co. t bas bcen camea into me ene
, mb pfc.scr.utcd
view to obtain an honoraMc'pcacc.''
Hcie. .-ir.ronqucst, 'with a view to permanent
occupancy of Mexican territorv," is disavowcd.
Thc war had becn carried into Mexico, to cripple
hcr power, and compcl hcr to make an honorable
peacc. Again. sir, tlic l'rcident, in his message
of August 4th 1846, says :
-lipially anxioss to tcrminnte, hy a pcacc hon
orable to lioth panit-s. as I wa oriinally ta avcid'
tlfe cxi-ting war, I hnve decmed it my du'y a
pain to cxtend the olive branch to jrrxico.
Should the Govennnt nt of tliat republic arccpt
tlic otler, in the same friendly spirit br w'lich it
waj dictatcd. ncgotiations will specdily commencc
for the cumdusioii ofa trcaty."
".1 jfjre hfmortille lnth vaTtits" was the ob-
ject dejircd. 'Tlw chief difiictilty to be antici
lau-il in the rigotiatmii. say3 the I rciutnt
r-Is the adjustmtut of the bonndary bctv cen tha
ponic?. by a lrae wliirh shall l e at "oncc satisf.ic
tory aml mnvcnimt to lioth, nnd ui h as neithcr
will hcrcnftei . 1h- indni d to di.-turb. TL j is tho
licst mode of securin txirpctual pcarc ar.d gooil
iicurhliorhoc d bctwevn tlie two rcpn!Ii s. Shonld
the Mexican (Jovemment in order toancmp'ih
thec objcct-, ie willins toccilc any peitioii of
thcir territorv to the United Stati-. w- ; uht to
pay tlnni a faimjuivalrnt ; ajiuiand '.nioraMu
po:ni. and not ronqncst. bcing our pui-po-cin thu
pni'n:tioii of tl.c war."'
The iHinndnry imtoiion was the niati t in dis
ptite lictwrtn tlic tb coiintrics and sl i ulil thc
Mcxiran Govcrnment. for thc pui-josc iftstal
li.hiii!f a lincconveiiiiiit fer botli part.-. - Itvr,-
in( to itdt tt ftiVyH uf hr tuiltrn-fi ' , i'si'td
tutnt. ut- fliiA to ity a fmr fqnirw i ' ' -r t.
ce.-Mfn ct tcrritorv wa.- to ie reijTrtJ v it'.out
tl.c fri-c roiient of tl e Mcxican lio-i riurnt
Ent this i nns aII. ir : the l'rcsidint L-ki'' for rn
ai'propi iation of 3.(H.'0. otm, to rnablc lirtu to ad-
vanri a poniini of i f the ciiiidcrat'n i "non j ,
for n:iy t e-yion ot' tcnitufy thc Movi.j-it v1'm
nicnt cii'ht I willinjr to m.ike. 'Ili i!n ;cr
aml obk'tts ofthe w.ir iiavinir !cen tl. ii- i mi ed
j lo (.Vuress i.r.d tliciocn'rv I. wiih i. . ct t'x
t uator on llii? -Me or tlic iliaini.tr. 4 Mie M t
sc.-ion of C'onjrc-.. Totcti rii n and uu'i i ; fi r it
pro-.iiii!iiii. Aid. -ir. to show t!.-t i.'ii- vc'. s
wcre givcn twth t i. n to the ai i n cf
Mc:aii terriur Iv ! ,nf Iti'u t.. -'
uiciitliiifni nlU riii I v il.v lu:..iral Ic f. p.i-i r fin
" war W1L" ,CN" 0 ,0 a .'.l-T11
roui lii-inii." loninionlv caibd the thr,'e tniuicn
Therollon in!; are tlu- v.ordi of ' c tt..i t.d
"lVoviucil alwav. and it i-- hcrcTiv di i -p f1 to
be ihe trne intvnt ad nu niii i f ( c.nri m
niakinir this apprnpn.uioii th.it ihe aarmh S'f-x
iio oivht r.ot to If f.nci-!':ed l-y t!i' o im
mcnt. witli any viciv t" the dL-t'H-': . i
tliat repablic, or to thc aiiiu-'ilim. ' t .
ol nny lurlion of hcr tcrriti-ry. 'Jhat'tli- (Jv
eiT.HT' Ht. cver ile-iiri'iis to inaintiiin ai d prc crve
pi-.T-cfnl and frini"!'- re!:;.i wit! :'! it r
ajiil :i tic-tdarli witli tl.e n iIdiori:i; r'-, i. ... of
Jli'vu o. will afiv:n - l.e rc. ir tocntcr H; ": t'rt
tijtion with a vk'.r :o tcniinatc the pt. r.t U'
hapj.y i-ontiiet. on tcir.i !.;i!i slui!' a-- tl
it liyhts, and pncrve iiiviolatc tl e r. 'l ial
honor of thc I'nitcd Statcs and Mcxii ". 'J ' a' t
is c-pei i.illy dcsiral.'.e. in orderto tnil.iMi"
prccrve thb-c Hini.-nble n !.. tions !iiti .-. 'f. -
avs to cxit 1 ctwecn ni iiilioring n-.-n'nn s. t ait
thc Uinudarr of tlu- Stale f Tcxus - i i-nM 1 n
t"nit:c!y M-ttlcd. and ihat piovi.-ion U in: it.- ly
the rcpublic of Jlesi'O for thc prcmiit ..n ' p.ii:.'-Mc-
adju-itRcnt of lt-c jiiat ilainis of o.,r cu 113
y:i tha: rcpublir. '
(In the iuetiot:."-'iall llii-. am n'i ';: ' 1
.'optid ' it was deterniiii' d in tlic I a
votc of m-3", tnenty-four nay?. ttreiiM nni -1 -crv
Senator on tl.i idc of :hi ciia'nl.i r wi. . ?
j-ii'tii itf Mr. Johnson, ol JniNuma. 1 . n
in thc nd rnintivc. Hcr". -ir. i.s ihc 1 . T ; -p
i.:oi! of thc Whiu Ili" N nalc, tli.it t!.i- r r
iu!!t i) to lic ).-o-oi u'cd wnh a ri to 1. -..i-i-Mtiim.
bv romj'ics'. ofanv por;ioii of M X:c n
And Iurc. too, ; n . f-rrlcd or ' . n of t'o
diinoira. i cf ibc Siiiat . ,ti-iritti o-ri n to
tbat c. rc-eil by tl;- nbig Thc is n - l ,. rlv
joincd rml to thc 1 ountrc I nni pe-f i-tl; v. .!, "
to-u' nii'thc di-ii-i"i ol ih.- qui r.Hi." I b.i-.n
-hoiin I thir.k. -ir. Iiy cudw w!m !i Si i:'fn
on tl c o her.-ilc cf the -!.:ini'-crare not at li cr
ty to di-pute, that u:i to ihe close ofthe fcist r--.'ion
ot fonsns-. tl:- aripn-ition, by -on ,:i st cf
Mri. " tirritnii. divowcd bv the i.xe u
livc. AVbar. -Ir,"l , thc ibara. ter of tli- .irnoir'
j For w'.at pornoje 1-
f ' e proccuMl -w t.i 10
I i-rea-i c : -cr?y awi i v. 1 m t-ie niore v.'ai ; .r 5
ih- ii'rn'- ""'. J"V t- iI
! '7i'-." '? .,h- 1 s,,:,i'"! n 'T ?
. . ...
11.1:- 01 111 r terri ory.
iul il-..i-aad of l-ir
ritorv 1 I'cmandtd. ii
r, oir.nTi 1 llic war bc
mr- than t'lr c I. j-
flii, ti lO'i ' !
! eruus - y,L ' . tl
1 -"ni.itelv r f 1 ,t -j- "1 r"
dive lr!i h. v n otrcn"' bv o r t,,-
i-mnicnt. JleM- " Int". nrei'.l to ri c a
(.'..nimU-i'mcr. to n ! ; ti -1 t'i ;nelion f.l'iOii' ' -rjr
l tcvi-cn t' f to lov' mtii. nt-. int II c i r : cnc
I nt a Muii'trr l'lciiipi t'-n;i.': . ntnl -,.1 n-- . t, i
UiM : cnt-c-!-in. I.ov.i-. . r. f. tae aii.e t-r ti
to roii-ne i.im ni
lint, -ir. .bd -a.
notieriil bc C".
rcji-i f tw . Li.
iii--io'rr I 1 1 t
n-ai.i . v
tt"- 'A 1
,f hcr m,i .i. 1 ' N".
ir. e rr- e 1 it
rin-- an-d a it w.i ciiii 1:10 Moo-I ot Ii -r
t riil v. aivn a'ld C i ilrc :. And vcii.it "T f' c
ti nns of pcaic i.ffi-n d t-y our (;oeimi"it
Thc-v'vf n-fir-t. tlu-IJio tiinih'c foroar vv. n
l-onmiarv : secoiid.tbe 1 .'ssiuij tothc I'n.f'-d w
of Nc-w Slcxic-o aod tl.c tv o Cuiifo-'ii - a. d
thin!. a liht of 'vav nn.i - ' Ist'imu- "f J ii
.'IiI'-jjci-. And.in 10.1 1! riti.iiiofihi.-t't. 1, ij.
if roiii-i-.'.. d. we propn-t d. th t. to rc.,1'1- .. 1 1
i-laim ( r the cxiim ot t!n- war.. sci-cmi ! tu as-
. . - 1 .. . 1 - -
M-xicn (io-n.nu.ir. to he V t
vjCCn..rt.) and tl.ird. to p,v SIp.m. ,p a bV
,:,..: .,., i m,v t f.-mtorr .! d .r..- t
K ,l0rt:i ovcr aml alaire mir ch:;ms nr.cn 1 -r
Uovcrmnerit. itie uni oiicreu oy air. Airst ts
stateil to have bcn from liitren tolwenrv iim . oi
of dolbrs and that, too, after our dcmand ' n-1
licen redueed to Ihe ultiinatmn of the I're- drr t
Wc-H, ir, what wa thc rcply of Ihe M ica n Cor -ernmc'nt
to onr deniHinU ! It was. in t! ' ' n
aac of UicMcxic-anC'onimissioncrs to3!r Trist,
-The cxijting war was nndcrtatcn s-.lely nn
ac-count of thc tcrritorv ofthe State of Texii. n-spec-ting
whirh. thc Xorth Ami'rican repu't ic
reents as its title thc act of thc said State bv
which it wa anncxedto the Xorth Amcricnucon
fedcratinn. after Iuving proclaimcd its indepcnd
cncc of Jiexiro. Thc Mexican republic ofuriivr
(as wc have informed your cxrelln',y tocon eat
fof a proper indcmuiflration, to pretcasion'5 cf the
(iovcrnment of Yashinp:on to tho tcrritorr of
Tcxas. thc causc of the uar has dinppearet and
thc war ir.-clf otijtht to ccae, since tliere is no wrr
rant for its connTniancc. To thc othcr tcrri'or-M
tacntioned in the fonrth arth-lc of yonr cxt len-cv-'s
draught, no risht has herc'ofore lcn ar-crt
eii bv thc repuldirof Xordi Amcri' a. not ilu ito
nclicve it possible for it to assert nny, rqnsinc"it
lr. it could not aennire thcm cxccpt by thc ri,-ht
of conipicit, orby the title which wrln-sn't fnnn
tlie ce.f ian or salc whi.-h Mcxico misht now make,
Dut. as we arc pcrsnaded. that thc rcpn'jlir of
U"nbinrfon will not onlv aWlutclv n pel l:t
' . . . . . .
and contrary to cvcry idi of j-ist
war nron a pcopleforno otherjea.'
rnnsc it refused to scd temtorvwh:
cvcrv iiiwi 01 j-iiii.v, w
je.ison tuan oc.
which its neish-
liors sought to bny, wc cxpcct froni thc jai of
thc governmcnt anu people of Xorth Amcnc-.r.
that thc ample inodification whkhwchave topri
posc to thc cession of territory. contempratl in
thc fonrth articlc. will not be a mntive to po ';t
in n war which thc worthy General of ihe Xorth
Amcrican troops has jostiv styled vnnatun l."
In rcranl to tho Kio Oraride ai the westcnj
ibouut&ry ofthe State cf TcxaSj and tSe ccs on