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title: 'The Middlebury galaxy. (Middlebury, Vt.) 1848-1850, January 01, 1850, Image 1',
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Bkoocif JnfArftsf. of everv true American.,,-Washington.
The consolidation df ol
TUESDA.Y MORNING, JANUARY 1, 1850.
f)c ittiubkburi) (Salctxw
runMsnEii EVXRT. TDZSDAT atooxiKO, bt
J. H. BAIiRETT & J&OBB.
IFICE IN SIEWAHT'sBUILDJHp, OS MAIS-ST
J 1 . - - J . : .
JlaiL or at the OGicc, ptr annura,....$l,50
Inot paid within thc ycar. 1,75
lr.pt paid within tlic ycar, 2,25
fccNn nnnpr disrantinucd until arrearaires are
EP-Al -mmunications must bc Post Paid.
ttp-V . Palmer is our agcat in Boston and
J. m. ROBZNSON,
Morchandi-.e and Stock Broker, Commission
Iftrchait and General Agency, Corner
State aad Congress Streets, Boston.
IIiTir.jt faai tjftren ycar. expcrirnce in bluUeta in thii
Citjr, (pnau " S " Wliolraale W. I. Gooda Trada,) I
ojnnowpii. rsprcial attenlion to thn selection and pur
cbarin- of 1 . ira for the Country Tradcra; Salea pt
Produc A SttK-k boupht and aol.1 and a'.l kindf of
bnsinrs eai ej with mctciccutcd with pnnDptneMmad6
delitr REFE E IS-1IU Eirellmcy, tbe Goiernor, Gen.N.
Tlriz.- V 'r A IIuIionor.thM.ieut. oovernor, Jolin
IlUcd. .Oi- lIun.Urorjellliif,pnasnlo. Iion.
fturlV, .. liranon. llon.l J. unaity, Amneril.
PMobtAlKffl, Lowell. llnn. stinmon vai., irumf
' rhffliM Tolinan. llntton. Ilon. William Mitchcll
liclrt Ilon. Jobu Cbapman. Salem. Hon.Wnl.B
ua, Sccretary of State. 1-liilip ureeiy. Jr, L.v.
Itor f Bojton. ij.uia
bN AND BURLINGTON
Ecr leaves Burlington every Tnesday
K , c.mnl.p ... (. t-ii i ti t v i 1 Vprnrn.
r, nni orttum-j ,51 - 1
lcbury, Brandon, Kutl.md, Ludlow and
talls, arriving in isosionsamggvcinnj;.
Boston Monday, Wcdncsday and Fri
m"S, and arrics in Burlington samc
,.n Tlnil rn.nl Exhanirc. Boston.
llohnson, Agtut, Jliddlcbury. 2C
rIRGIL & Cb7s.
YORK AND 1YI0NTREAL
IJEHS pass North from New York
l.inzion. via Kntlaml and Burlington
t.Mcimlav, Wcdncsday, and iriday.
irlmirto'n for Xcw York, lucsday,
ry, Dcc 17, 1S49. 33vr.
AND LAND OFJb'ICE,
I'ond Ou I.nc, Wis.
.'Us, o( the laie ann of Drury & F.almi )
L"jc P !!! nrarfir"! hl all Ihe foiirM in tlir
"iirp ctal aumtion In cillreling inl trrn
n.p ht.,. Innif. miiiMVlion. tiil nt A tlirn
,icof i.ainl, the piymmtiif rai.,tlM-li:ati'W uf l.n
AVarianK ll fxainntauni oi liliit Titlr. ic
Th- lun ltiHlcl"ry rrrirrnc. will b- civn in nr
ci.rt-pon.irm in AVw Y.iik llt-.n, IUlmii. rc, PhMa
Irh iiuu Wail npon Cilv and mil ( ili.-priiicilcl m
Brlrr I llun Milo I. Ilnilirli, Afjlitl l'k. Un l.
K rantl..ni Smatby Phclps, ail C. I. Kafwn. lq.
tlurliiinon , i. Wamrr, r.-q. Ilon. W. Xatli, .Middii-bnri
Dce. 1819. 3,:lr
"IfUSIC forBalls.Cotillon lartics,&c. may bc
JL nlitnintd at sliort notice, ! applyins to
Jt K. Wiiiti.osib, Middlebury, Vt. The Bnnd
cn5its of tlie followin rerformcrs and In.trii
r.icnts, v: 1L E. Wiiitcomb and M. Maxn.
Violins; K. IIill, Clarionctte, Flopcolctt and
Sax-Horn ; J. K. Avkbv, Cornett, I'ost-Horn.
and Ehro Corno; L. Walkeii. Ophcclcide and
JVmlAticello. rew latmans vanzes roiua.
Udc5. KaJft-.as, &cclcctcd Irom thclatesi
?!. -n1t.limipd Cotillnnists of
ficc nmGcrmany, are nuw in rcbcarsal. and
i 'Dccdr.ihf! brouffht forward.
. iddlebnj, Xov. 2Clli, 1 849. 31:6
A R B E R 1 S SHOP,
LfRESII OYSTEKS. Families supplicd at
ll scasons of the year, eithcr by the qnart or
Pcallon at redued prices.
j .( U UlCiJ UCauipu"! "MWitaiv ......
Ccj- Oysternooked in any styleathis Saloon.
JJec.18. 1B o-:iy.
BR00K3 & BROTHERS,
ll miles north of Middloburjr') '
Iddress, Middlsbuet, .Vt i
E. BROOKSr-MILTON BltOOKS.
08 MlDDLEBCRT, Yt.
D-Mcsic furnished for Balu, Parties, &p
-rr-M r ik... rmm iii T)i30t Ground s
m iMiddlcbury, to anypart pf the vilUge, Tor
12 1-2 ccms-and to Moore's Hotel, on Jail
Street,afcw doors soatlt ofthe Court Uonsc,
ft'iff- ?5?. .cntfnllr nnnonnccto Trav
' .1. Ulti nr,llr that hlS HOUSC IS
open forihcir reception asheretofore ; and that
rIMi .!r,.!-tn rcnikr their stay with
fe l!L .... K" , .
-aCMI.hnr.. fl 1 . 1 al82ij. 23:tf
A t t n e UlUo t i n.u : :
v, TI., rT,n in ffhre. and intpnds kcen
IHCuUBV,Il'4 ' , r
!np- cotistantlT on hand, a general assortment of
il .1 ic T?tl.,l Tmn nnil C.nt Stlnl
Jfbrway XaF.Rod., Toe Cork Steel. -c all
nf which wilioo oia tow tor wsu.
Kecollections of an American Tonrist.
BV CIIARLES. LANatAN.
The unique brolherhood of men to
whom ve now direct tlie attention of our
readers have alvvays depended upon the
fur irade alone for their stipporl, and as
the various fur compantes of North Amer
icabave flourishcd and declined, so have
the trappers mulliplied or decreased in
numbers. The French, who werc the
founders ofthe fur trade onthe continent,
cstablished themselves here in lGOG, and
the trappinn fraternity may therefore claim
the honor of having existed nearly two
cenluries and a half. To cstim-jte the
prncise number of individuils , couiposing
this class at the present time,iwould bean
impossibilily, occupying as they do a sec
tion of country cxtetidingfrom tlie Pacific
Ocean to Iludson's Ba.
By the laws of our country they have
ever been lookcd upou-as alieps froin the
commomveahh of civilization, and by tlie
ludian tribesas trcspassers upon tlieirnat
ural and iuherited privileges. The blood
of the white man, tliough'frequently con
sidcrably adulterated, invariably runs
through their veins, and the grcat majori
ty trace their origin toa French Scotiish,
or Irish anceslry, it belng an cstablished
and singular fact that trappers of pure A
mcricaii blood are exceedihgly rare.
Those of the far north cominonly have
the dark eyes and hair of the Canadian
Frenchman, and those of the somh-west
the flasen hair and broad brogue of the
Scotchrnan or Irishman. The inntives
eenerally found to have infliienced thern in
entering upon their peculiar life are of
course exceedingly various. but amongthe
more common ones maj be mentioned a
deeply rootcd love for the works of Nature
in their prmieval luxuriance, want of suf
ficient intellicenceto prosccute a morere-
spectsble busines, and a desirc to kecp
out of thevvay of certain laws whichthey
have trausgrcsseil in their earlier days.
They are tisually men with families, their
wives lieitig pure Indian, and their clul
drcn, as a matter of course, half breeds.
The) have what may be termed fixcd hab
ilalion., b.itlhey are rjdelog cabins, Ioca
led on the axtremc fnintiers of .tlie civi
I zed world. In relipinu,.as a, class, they
are behind their xed biethren of the tvil-
derness, atiJ their knowllg!i of books is
qtitte litnited. ueiteraliy swaKing wicy
-pcntl nbout.nihe jnohths rrtamins 'alone
through tlie solitude of th'e fo'rcs'ls aiul
prairies, and the remaining three months
of the yoar with their families al the tra
ling pnsts ofthe fur companies. As their
harvest tinie is the winter, they are neces-
sarilv men of iron constitutionp, and fre-
quetitly endure the scrercst of hardships
and privatmns. UnuerstanUing as they
do ihe science of trapping and the use of
a gun more tnoroughiy tnaii tn? Jnuian,
they eclipse him in the busines? of acquir-
ing furs, and rrora tbeir siipenor knpwl
ede ofthe civjizediord,litniled though
it be, ihey-.realtze irjuch-greater prouts,
and henceitis that tliey ware,not,ry hat
ted by thelndians, but alsouy th ytraders
Their manner of drcssjng i orjtnarily a-
bof.t half civilized, their buck skin hunt-
mg shirls and fur caps, of their own man-
ufacture, being alniost as picturcsque as
the blanket and plumes ot the Indian him
clf. As to the animals wticu they make
it their busine.ss to capltre, it may be
mentioned that chiefest among them all is
the beaver, but a gnodly portion of their
income is denred from the furs and-pel
tries of the martin, olter, ciuskrat, bear.
fox, mink, lynx, wolverine, raccoon, wolf,
elk, and deer, and the robes of the huge
h now behooves us to dcscribe the life
of the trapnitij fraternity somewhat more
minulely, and 111 doing this we shall give
an illustrative sketch of the career of a
sitiglc iudividual, describing his departure
irom liome, nis sojourn 111 tne wuaerness,
his return honie, and his manner ofspend-
f . ,- - . t -ll
mg his brief summer furlough.
It is a biishl October mornins, and a
bout the threshold of the trapper's cabin
there is unusual stir. M hile the trapper
himself is busily engaged in ' examining
and putting in orderhis trapsr packing
away his powder and fead, with i'puuiber
of gbod flinls, giving tHp lo'c'k of his old
rifle,a,tb,oropgh oilinff. and sharpetiing his
lcnives, his."nfc is stowing away in his
knailsack a few simple cookina utensils, a
small-bag of tea-and'a little suijar, severai
patrs, of inoccasins and coarse woollen
socks, and a coodly quantity ofthe sinewy
malerials used in makmg snow shoes.
The fact that our friend is about to leave
his family for almost a year, makes him
particularly kind to those about him; and,
by way of manifesling his feelings, he
ffives into his wife's nossession what little
spare money he may have left in hispock-
et out oi nis earnings oi ine jjreviousyccr,
and alloivs his children to make as much
notse as they please, even refraining frotn
scoldinir them wlien th.ev kick and abuse
his favortte hunting aogs. aii mings ue
in? readv. ni'ht comes and the trapper
Dermits himself to enioy another sleep in
the midstofhis household, but long.before.
the break of day ne nas wnisueu 10 nio
dogs, and, with his knapsack on his back,
haslaken'hls departure for a stream that
riw nmnnrr the Rockv Mountains. If his
course liesthrough a forest land, he co'n-
irnnps ir.tr.ivel on foot, takinffhis own
Ipinri. killinff sufficient eame to satisfy
his watits ; and sleeping at night up.on his
skins under-acanopy ol leaves. u exien
iirp waipr courses lie within his range.
he ptirchascs a'canoeof some -vanderin2
lndians.ana.jiiaj (iih iiu"6"
and if heinndsiit necessary to crtsswen
sive prairies, he obtains a pony, atid,
packtng himselt anrl plunder upon tne an
imal, plays the part of an eqnestrian.
When the first blastot IJecerauer, accom-
panied by a shower of snow, sweeps over
the land, it ftnds our trapper snugly domi
ciled in a log shanty at the mouth of the
river where he proposes to spend the win
ter, trapping beaver.
And now all things are ready, and the
trapper has actually entercd upon his win
ter avocation. He has reconnoitered the
valley in which he finds himself, and hav
ing ascerlained the localiiies of the bea
vcr, with their houses and dams, he forlh
with manages to shoot a single male bea
ver, and having obtained from his glandu
lous pouch a substance called castoreum,
he mixes it with a number of aromatics,
and in three or four dajs he is supplied
with a suitablebait and proceeds to sel lits
traps. As the senses of the bcavei aro
exceedingly keen, the business of the
trapper requires experience and greatcau
linn. andhe clides throuah the forest al
most with the silence of a ghost, but.
when inaster of his calling, he seldom
leaves a beaver village until, by his cun-
ninir arts. it has become depopulated. 1 he
war of exterminalion, as already intima-
ted. benins at the mouth of the river, ann
with our friend will only cease wtien ne
has reached the fountain head, or thc sea
soti of trapping comes to an end. The
coldestof winds may blow and the woods
may be completely blockcd with snow, but
the tranner has mounted his snow-shoes,
and day after day does he rc-visit and re
arrange 1ns traps. ll nignt ovcriaKes inui
whenfar removed Trom his shanty, (which
may be the case more than half the time.)
Im dins himself a hole in some sheltered
snow bank and wrapped up in his blanket
by the side of his solitary fire spends n
strangely comfortable night. When not
engaged with his traps, ne spcnus i.isume
in dryingand dressiug nis lurs, or,
cy may dictate, he shoulders his gun and
starta out for tne purpose of capturing a
deer, a bear, or some of the bcasts which
ire wout to howl him to sleep at the miu
nisht hour. Wild game, as a matter of
course, constitules his principal food, but
he is particnlarly parlial to the trail of his
favonte beavtr. 1 he only human ueings
with whotn he has any social intercourse
dunii" the lontr winter, arc the poor wan
derim"' Indians, uho chance to visithim in
his cabin ; and at sueh times many ate the
wild adventuresand straneelegends which
they relate to each othcr around the hugc
fireof the trapper. And he now enjoys
10 ocrfection the companionship of his
dogs. Companions, it is true, of another
"sort sotnetimes gather around his lonely
habitation to relieve his solitude, for the
snowv owl hoots and screams at night,
from the huce p:ne brauch that reaches
ovcr his cabin, or pcrhaps an unniolestcu
deer manifests his love of companionship
by browsins the twics in broad dayhght
at his verv threshold. But now fair
weather cometh out of the north, and the
trapper begins to think that he has sccur
ed biicli a supplv of furs as will guarr.ntcc
him a comfortable support during the com
ing summer, and one by one he gathers his
traps. The crack of his rille. is now lieard
more frequently echoitig thtough the
woods, for he cares not to obtain more
beaver skins evcn if he could, and he
wntild obtain a suflicient number of mis
cellaneous furs. to render his assortment
complete. Ilcavy spring rains have set
in, the watcr courses are nearly released
frotn their icy fetters, and on issuing from
his cabin, after a niaht of conflicting
drcams, he fmds that the n&ghboring
sticam has bccomc unusually full. A sin
gle glance at its turbid water is enough.
He ctits down a suitable tree and builds
him a can.ie. and in this does he stow a
way his furs and all his other plunder, and
seizins his paddle, he iumps into his seat,
and with a light heart starts for his distant
The rains are over and gone, and aN
though our voyjger has been ten days up
on tlie water, he has yet at least a tnou
sand additional miles to rravel. Rapids
without number are to'be passed, many a
laborious-porlaae inust be made around
Imge, vaerfall9, and at least two months
must clapse bcfore he can moor his littl"
barge in the haven vvhere he would be.
Day fdllows day, and his course is ouward.
All along his routc the forest tree are
burstms their buds ann decking them
bclveswith the livery of thevernal season,
while the grasses and flowers of the pra;
ries are strivms to overrcach each other
as they loom into the pleasant sunshine.
And then the heart of our voyager is
cheered by the sinsins of birds. Whet
night comes, and he has lain himself down
by his watch fire on the shore, in some lit
tle cove, he is lulled to sleep by the mur
muring mustc of the stream. II, on a
pleasant day when he is fatigued, he hap
pens upon an Indian encampment and
finds that an extensive ball-play or an In
dian horse-race, or any lmportant medi'
cine ceremony is about to occur, he lar
ries there fora few hours, and then, if his
mind duells upon the srotesque and lacgh
able scenes he has witnessed, he resumes
lus vovase in a more cheerful mood. Day
follows day, and thestream upon which he
is now noatins is broad and deep, and
sweeps ontvard as if rejoicing with pride
for having triumphed over the obstacles
oi the wilderness, and is rapidly approaca
ing the fields and the abodes of civiliza
tion. It is now the close of a day in the
leafy month of Junet. and our voyager is
gltding noiselessly into the quiet cove be
side his cabin, anduttering a loud whistle
or wlioop, his fami'.y hasten to the shore,
and he is at liome !
The summer time, in the oplulon ofour
trapper friend, is the scason for unalloyed
enjoyment, for it is llie'n he gives himself
up to ihe gratificatipn.of all. his de,si;.es..
d( his furs.and peltries at
ist for atew.nunarea
lequivalent in mer-
In a fit onHHkli
upou a visit
ot city, where
iraws. and the
The novellv of this
and our tranner with
mnre domiciliated in thei
nf inactivitv then follows.
becomes as restless as a nsn
Hi U tmubled with a k
I ....1 Ttn rrrfa nllt linnn
bonizingtour among the hangerson aTJout
the trading estabiistiments, recouiiung iu
all who will listen to him his adventures
in the wilderness, and sp'inding the rc
ma'mder of the summer after the manner
of theidle and dissipated. But the frost
. . .. i.i.
i.rinira him n lus !Pnses. anu tlie irauuci
is himself again for he is thinking ofthe
Ofthe PansinEXTOFTiiEU.siTF.r) States
tO both HoUSCS of the TlIIRTr-FIRST
Coxoress, Dcccmber, 1949.
Fclloiccilizens ofthe Senale and Jlouse of
Sixty years have clapscd since the estab
lishtnent of th'n Govcrnmcnt, and the Con
grcsi of the United States again as$emble3,
to legislate for an cmpire of t'rccmcn. The
predTctions of cvil prophcts, who formerly
prctendcd to foretell the downfall cf our in
stitutions, are now rcniftnbernd only to bc
dcridcd, and the Unitcd Statsa of Amcrica
at this tnomcnt present tothe world thc mo5t
stablo and permanent Govcrnmcnt on carth.
Such is the rcsult of ihe I.-ibors ol" those
who have gone bclore us. Upon Congress
will cniincntly dcpcnd thc futnre maintcn
ance of our system of frce government, and
tho transm'usion of it, unimpaircd, to postcr
ity. Wc arc nt peace with all thc nations of
thc world, and seek to nmintain our chcridi
cd rclations of amity with them. During the
past year, wc have bccn blcsscd. by a kind
Providcnce. with an abundanee of thn fruits
of the earth ; and, although the dcstroying
angcl, for a time, visitcd extensive portions
of our territory with thc ravagesof a drcad
ful pestilcnce, yet, the Almighty has nt lcngth
dcigncd to stay his hand, iand to rcstore the
incitiniahlc blessing of general hoalth to a
pooplc who have acknowledgi-d his powcr,
dcprccatcd his wrath, and implorcd his mcr
Whilo cnjoying tbe bcnefils of nmicablo
intercourse with foreign nations, wo have not
bccn inscnsiblc to thc distractions and wars
which have prevailcd in otherquarters of thc
world. It is a propcr thcmc of thanksghing
to Him who rulcs thc dcstinics of n:itiou,
that w6 havo bccli ablc to maintain, amidst
all thcsc contcsts, an indcpcndent and ncu
tral pcr-ition towards all belligcrcnt powcrs.
Our rclations with Grcat Britaiu are of thc
most fricndly charactcr. In conscqucncp of
the rcccnt altcratiop of the Britijh navia
tion acts, Britisli vesscls, from British and
othcr foreign ports, will (undcr our cxisting
laws) after tho 6rct day of January next,
be adinittcd to cntry in our ports, with car
goes of tho growtb, manufacture. or produc
tion of any part of the world, on thc samc
tcrms, as to diitics, itnports and cbargcs, as
vcsscb of the Unitcd States with their car
goejiand our vesscls will bo admitted to thc
samc advantagcs in British ports, entering
thercin on thc saiuc ternis as British vesscls.
Should no ordcr in council disturbthis Icgis
lative arrangcmcnt, thc latc act of the Brit
ish Parbament, by which Grcat Britain is
brought withic thc terms proposed by the
act of Congress of tho 1st of March, 1817,
it is hopcd, will bc productive of bcnefit to
both countrics. . .
A sli"ht intcrraption of diplomatic mtcr
coursc.vhich occurred bctwcen thisgovern.
mcnt and Francc, I am happy to say, has
bccn tertninatcd, and our ministcr there has
bccn rcceived. It is therefore unncccssary
to refer, now, to thc circumstances which leil
to that intcrrupticn. I nccd not cxpress to
vou ihc sincere satisfaction with which we
shall welcomc the arrival of another Envoy
Extraordinary and ministcr plenipotcntiary
from a sislcr "rcpublic, lo which wo have so
long bccn, and still rcmain, bound by the
strongest ties of amity.
Shortly after I had entorcd upon thc dis
chargc of the Executive duties, I was ap
prizcd that a war-stcamer, bclonging to thc
Gennan Empire. was being fittcd out in thc
harbor of Xcw York, with the aid of some
of our naval officers, rendcrcd undcr ihe
pcrmission ot the latc Sccretary of the Ka
vv. This pcrmission was granted durins an
arniijtiee between that Empire and the King
dom of Denmark. which had bccn engaged
in thc Suhleswig-Holstein war. Apprchcn
sivc that this act of intervcntion, on our part,
might be Tiewed as a violation of Dcutral ob
lications, incurred by the trcaty with Den
mark, and of the prdvisions of the act of
Congress of the 20th of April, 1818, I di
rcctcd that no further aid should be. rcnder
ed by any nsent or officcr of the Kavy ; and
I instructed'tlic Secrctary of Statc to ap
prize thc Ministcr of thc German Empire
accreditcd to this Govcrnmcnt, of my detcr
mination lo cxccuto the law of tho Unitcd
States, and to maintain the faith of treaties
wilb a!l nations. The corrcspondcncc which
ansued bctwcen the Department of State
and the Minister of the German Empire, n
hercwith Iaid bcforc jou. The execution of
the law and the observancc of tho trcaty
were deemed by mc to be due to tho honor
of the country, as well as to the safired obli
gations of the'Cpnstitution. I shall not fail
to pursuc the samc course, shoulda similar
case arise with any othcr nation. Having a
vowed thc opinion, on taking the gath of of
fice, that, in disputcs bctweeu conflicliug for
eign governments, it is our interest, not less
than our duty, to rcmain strlctly neutral, I
shall not abandon it. You will perceive,
from thc corrospondenco submiltcd to yon,
in connexion with this subjcct.tbat thc course
adoptcd in this case has been. propcrly re
garded by Ihe belh'gercnt powcrs intcrestcd
in the matter.
Althoush a Ministcr of thc Unitcd States
to the Gorman Empire was appointed by my .
predecessor, in August', 184'8, and ha., for a
long time, been In attcndancc, at Frankfort-on-the-Main;
and altfioiigh a Mjnistcr, ap
pointed to rcpresent thal Empire, was re
ccived and accreditcd here, yet no such Gov
crnmcnt as that of the German Empire bas
been definitivcly constituted. Mr. Donel
win. our reDrcscutative at Frankfort, rcmain-,
ed.thcie.seycral mon.ths ia.the exnBctatioa
that a unipn of the German State?, undcr
one constitution or form of government)
might,at lcngth, be organizcd. It is bclicved,
by those well acquaintcd with the existing
relations bctwcen Prussia and thc Stat;s o"f
Gcrmany, that no such union can be, perma
ncntly, cstablished without her co-opcration.
In the event of the formationof such union,
and the organization of a ccntnd power in
Germany, of which she should form a part.
it would become neccssary to withdraw our
Ministcr at Berlin ; but while Prussia cxists
as an indepcndent kingdom, and diplomatic
rclations are maintained with her, there can
no ncccssity for thc contmuance of thc
tk iion lo Frankfort. I have, therefore, re
cd Mr. DoncUon, and dircctcd thc ar-
chivcs ofthe legation at Frankfort,lo bc trans-
fcrrcd to thc American legation at Berlin.
Having bccn apprizcd that a considerablc
number of adventurers wcrc engaged in lit
ting out a military cxpcdition. within the
United States, and against a forci.cn country:
and believing, from the best intbrmation I
could obtain, that it was dcstincd to invadc
thc island of Cuba, I dccmcd it due to thc
fricndly rclations existing between the United
States and Spain ; to the trcaty bctwcen the
two nations ; to thc laws of thc Unitcd States,
and. above all. to the American honor, to c.
ert the Iawful authority of tbis Govcrnmcnt
in suppressing tbe cxpcdition and prcvcnt
ing thc invasion. To this cnd, I issued a
proclamation, cnjoining it upon thc olliccrs
of the United States, civil and military, o
use all lawful means within their power. A
copy of that proclamation is herewith suh
inittcd. Thc cxpcdition has been suppress.ed.
So long as the act of Congress ofthe 20th of
April, 1818, which owcs its existcncc to the
law of nations and to thc policy of Wash
ington himself, shall rcmain on our statutc
book, I hold it to be thc duty of the Execu
tive faithfully to obey its injunctions.
While this expedition was in progres?, I
was informcd that a forcigncr, who claimcd
our protcction, had been clandcstincly, and,
as was Mipposed, forcibly, carried ofT in a
vcsicl from New Orleans to thc island of
Cuba. I immcdiatcly caused such slcps to
bc takcn as I thought necessary, in case thc
infonnation I had rcceived shouWprovc cor
rcct, lo vindicatc the honor of the country,
and thc right of every pcrson teeking nn
asylum on our soil to tbe protcction of our
laws. The pcrson alleged to have bccn ab
ductcd was promptly restored, and thf cir
cumstances ol" thc case arc now about toun
dergo invcstigation bcfore a judicial tribunal.
I would repcctfully suggest, that although
the crimo chargcd to have been comuiitlcd
in this case is held odious as bcing ;n conflict
with our opinions on the subjcct of national
sovcreigntyand pcrsonal frecdom, there isno
prohibition of it, or pnnishmcnt for it, pro
vidcd in any act of Congress. Tlie expcdi
cncy of supplying this defect in ourcriminal
code is therefore recommcndcd to your con
sidcration. I have scrupulously avoided any intcrfer
encc in thc wars and contcntions which have
rcccntly distractcd Europo.
During the latc conflict bctwcen Austria
and Hunsary, thero scemcd to tic a prospcct
that the Iatter might bccomc an indcpcndent
nation. Ilowevcr faint that prospcct at tho
time appearcd, I tliousht it my duty, in ac
corJance with thc general scntimcnt of the
Smerican pcoplc, who dccply sympathised
with thc Magyar patriot, tostand preparcd,
upon the contingency of the establishmcnt
by her of a permanent government, to bo
the first to welcomc indcpcndent Hungary in
to the family of nations. For this purpose,
I iuvcstcd an agcnt, then in Europc, with
powcr to declare our willingncss promptly to
reccnize her indepcndcncc, in the event of
her ability to sustain it. The powerful in
tervcntion of liussia, in thc contest, cxtin
guished thc hopcs ofthe struggling ilagyars.
The Unitcd States did not, at any limc, in
tcrferc in the contcsi; but thc feelings ofthe
nation wcre strongly cnlisted in the cause,
and by the suffcritigaof a bravepcople, who
had made a gallant though unsucccssful cf
fort to bc frcc.
Our claims upon Portugal have bccn, du
rin" the past ycar, prosecuted with rcncwed
vigor, and it bas bccn my ohject to cmploy
every cflort of hoiiorablc diplomacy to pro
cure their adjustment. Our latc Charge d'
AfTaircs at Lisbon, the Hon. Gcorge W.
Ilopkins, made able and encrgetic, but un
succcssful efibrts to scttle thcso unpleasant
matters of controvcrsy, and to obtain indera
nity for the wrongs which wcro thc subjects
of complaint. Ourprcscnt Charge 'JAffaires
at that court will, also, bring lo the prosecu
tions of thesc claims, ability and zcal. The
rcvolutionary and distracted condition ol
Portugal, in past timcs, has been rcprcscntcd
as one of ihc Icading causes of her delay in
indcmnifying our sufTcring citizcn'. But I
must noiv say, it is a matter of profound rc
gret that thesc claims have not yet been set
tlcd. The omission of Portugal to do jus
tice to the American claimants has r.ow as
suracd a charactcr so grave and scrious, that
I shall shortly make it tbe subject of a spe
cial mcs'aje to Congres.'. with a vic w to such
ultimatc action as its wisdom and patriotism
With Eusria, Austria, Prussia, Swedcn.
Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands, and
the Indian States, we still maintain our ac
customed amicahlc rclaticns.
During the rcccnt rcvolutions in the Papal
States, our Charge d'Affaires al Ilomo has
been unablc to present hisletterofcredence,
which, indced, he was directed by my pre
decessor to withhold until hc should receivc
further orderi. Such was the-unsCttlcd con
ditfon of thiiies in those States, that it was
nnt deemed expedient to give him any in
structions on the subject of prescnting his
crcdcntial lctter.differcnt from those with
which he had been furuished by tlie latc ad
ministration, until thc 25th of Junc Iast;
when. in conscqucncc of the want of accu
rate information of the exact state of thinss,
at that distance from us, he was instructed lo
exercise his own discretion in presentins
himself to the then existing government, if,
in his judgmcnt, sufficiently stable ; or if not,
to await further cvcnts. Since that period.
Kome has undcrgone another revolution anil,
he abides thefcstablishmcnt of acovcrnment
sufficiently permanent to jnstify him in open
in diplomatic interconre with it.
'With Ihe republic of Mexico, it is our
true policy to cultivate tho most fricndly
relations. Sinr.c the raiificalion of the
treaty of Guadnlupe Hidalgo, nothrns has
occurred of h ser'mus cbaracte r lo disturb
them. A faiihful observance nf tlie treaty.
nnd a sincere rrspect fnr herrightF, cannot
fail lo securc the lasting confidence nnd
friendship or thal republic. The meesage
o'f my predecessor lo ihe Hous of Uepre
senlatives. of thc 8th of Fel.ruary Iast.
commonicating. m compliance with a resr
olution of that body. a copv nf a paper
iU nrn-ocol. sisncd at aueretaro on
! the 30th of May, 1S1S, by the coiumistion-
ers of ihe United Slate3 nnd the ministcr
of foreign :ifT.iirs of ine Mexican govern
meni, liavini; been n subject of curic.Jpon
dence between the Dcparlment of State
nnd the Envoy Extraordinary nnd Minis
er Plenipotcntiary of liint rcpublic ncrred
ited to iliis;;overnmenl. n transcript ofthal
correspondencc is herewiih fubmitled.
The Commissioeer on the part of Ihe
United Stntcs for mnrking the bonndary
between the two rcpublirr, tlioiiglidelayi'd
in reaching San Diego by iinforeseen ob
stnrles, arrived nt ihni placc within n shorl
period ufter the lime requircd by the trea
ty, nud was there joincd by the Commis
sioner on tlie part of Mexico. They en
lered upon iheir duties : nnd at thcdate nf
the latest intelligence fnmi that quarter,
eomc proress had bccn mndc in tbe sur
vey. The expenscs incidenl in the nrgan
izniion of the Commission, nnd to its con
veyance lo Ihe poinl where its oprratians
were to begin, liavesn much redticci! thc
lund appropriated by Congress, thata fur
ther rum, to cover tlie charyes which must
be incurred during the present fiscnl yenr,
will be nccessary. The grcat fronlier n
long which thc boundary extends, the na
ture ol thc ndjaccnt territory, nnd thediffi
culty o obtaininy supplicp. exccpt nt or
near thccxtrcnies or the line, render it nl
eo indi?pensa'je that n liheral prnvisiou
should hemadeto meet Ihe necpssiiry char
ges during Ihe fieral year cndinpon thc
30th ot June, 1851. 1 nccordinply rccom
mcnd this euliject to your nltentinn.
In ihe adjustment" of the claims of the
American citizens on Mexico, provided fnr
by thc late trcaty, the employment of rotin
el, on the part of governiiient, mny bc
romc importanl lor the purpose of atsift
ing the commissioncrs in prnteciine the in
lercsls ol tho. United States. I ifoni
mend this fubjectlo ihe carly ronsidcralion
Complainls have hccn made in rrgard
lo the inefficicnpy of thc mcuns provided
bythe government of New Grenada for
transporling the mail ncrois the lsthmus
of Panama, pursnanl to our Poslal ron
venliou with that republir, of Ihe Gih or
March, 1814. Our Charge d'Atlairrs nt
Boiota hna been ilirccted to ma.KC fdch
rppreecnlations lo thc government of New
Grcnadn, a will, it :s hoped, lcnd to n
prompt remnvnl ol" the rnuse of complaint.
Tlie Eangtiinary civil war willi hirb
the Krpnhlicof Venezucla has for soini
lime past been ravngcd, has heen broughl
tonclosc. In its progress, the rigbts nf
sonie of our ritizcns rcsiilent or trading
Ihero have brcn violalcd. The restoration
oforder willallnrd the Venezuelan rov
crnmenlanopporlunity toexnmiue and rc
drcss thcse grievances and otherd of lon
gerstanding', which our rcprcsentatiics nt
(Jaraccas have, hitherto, ineircclually tirg
ed upon the Mttntiou of that government.
The cxlcusion ofthe coast ofthe United
States on the Pacific, and the uncxampled
rnpidily with which the iuhahitatits of Cal
ifornia, espccially, nre incrcasing in num
bers, have impailed new contcqucnce to
our relations with thc othcr counlrica whose
territnries border upon that ocean. Il is
probahle ihut the intercourse between ihese
coiiiitries and our porsPEsions in that quar
ter, particularly with the Kepuhlicof Chi
li, ivtll bccomc extensive nnd mutually ud
vantaireous in proportion ns Cnhlbrtiiaand
Oregon shall increase in populalion nnd
wealih. Itisdesirahle.lherelorp, that this
govcrnmcnl shouU' do everything in its
power Iq foster and strenthen its relations
with thesc states. nnd that Ihe pirit of am
iiy between us should be mutual nnd cor
dial. I recommend the observancc ofihesamo
courfc towurds all other American statep.
The United States stand as the grcat A-
merican powcr to which, ns their nattiral
ally nnd friend, they will nlwnys be dipo
ed, first, lo look for mcdialion nnd asist
ance, in ihe event of nny collisi m bctwren
lliem nud any Europcan nation. As such,
we may oflen kindly mediate in Iheir bc
half, withoul entangling ourselvcs in for
eign wnrs or unnecessary conlrnvercies.
Whenever thc faith of our treaties with
any of them shall require our inlerfcrence,
we musl necesirily interpose.
A convenlioti has been negotialrd with
Brazil, providing for the satisfiiciinn or A
mcrirmi claims on tiiat government. nnd
il will bc submitled lotheSenale. Since
ihe Iast scssion of Congrcfs, we have rc
ceiyed an Envoy Exiraordinary and Min
istcr Plenipotentiary from Ihai Kmpire.nnd
our rclations with it are foundcd upon the
most nmicable understanding.
Your attention is enrneslly inviled tonn
amcndment ofour cxisting laws rclit'ing
lo ihe Africnn slave trade, with a view to
theeffectualsuppreseion oflhat barbarous
iraffic lt is not to bo dcnied, that this
trade is etill. in parl, carried on by iticnns
of vessels buill in ihe United Stntes, nnd
oivned or navigaled by some of our citi
zens. The r.orrespond'cnce belween the
Dcpartmeut of Siate nnd the Ministcr and
Consul of the United Stctes ai Itio de Ja
neiro, which has Irom lime to time bcrn
Iaid before Congress, reprcsetits that it is
n cnstomnry dcvice to evade tbe penallics
of our Uws'by mcans orsca letters. Ves
sels sold in Brazil, vchen provided with
such papcrs by ihe Conul, instead ol' re
turnitig to ihc Unitcd States for u new
register, proceed, ,nt oiii-e. tothe const of
A!iica, lor tho pu-pnse of obtaining car
coes ol slaves. Much additional itil'ormn.
Iion, of ihe same character. has rerenlly
been iransmined to thc Dfparltnent of
State. ll has not been considered the pol
icy ofour lawlo sulijert an American
t i izen. who, in a foreign cnunvy, purchares
a veel built in the Unitcd States. tothe
inconvcnience of scnding her liome lor n
new register. before permitting her to pro-(
rpod on a vovage. Any aiierauou i.i
laws. which might have a tetidenry.t"
nede. the frec trnnsfer or proptrty-'
sels between our riiu.c..-. ... y
or me" v"r' ,
gatiou or those vesfela ew" 7r Ttj.;
parts of the world. when e.'p'yf
,y considered; but 1. ouf
dom w.II devwa W J &. b(J
general pol.cy. P,S q(
ornncrl Jiicd. may beprcve.ifed.
In" ascerlained llm ihere isnoprOs-
rect oflhe 'e on'on r "ve s,n,es of
Centrnl America, wl?ch li.rmerly cmpos
tt ibo republic ofyfiat name. we l:nve scp
aratelv necotTate '''n some of them trea
ties of amity a0 commercc, wfifch will be
Iaid before tbe' wnale.
a ,nnirai havmg been eoncludcd wuli
.i.- .ti. '! Nicarauaa. bv n compnny
composcd of .American citizciisfur, jlie S-1G;7DS,C6XJ ,and, iji tlr'V.l"?"'- -pu'rpostjif
cooslrucling a ship. canal, fuiidcdtionvvtttyv
... ''Uf i - ' - v " '- - '
'ihroujh the territory of thnt state, to ron
tect the Atlantic nnd Pacific ocenns, I hnvu
dircctcd the negolintion of n licaly w ill
Nicnraguii, plcdging hbih suvrrnmenis to
protecl those ho shnll engngein and per
fecl the work. All othcr iintions "ie invi
led by ihc siate of Nicarsrua.to cntcrfr.to
the same slipuliilions iVith her; nnd the"
bcnefit to be derivcd by ea'h from such r
rangctnent, will he ihe proteclion of this'
great inler-ocearuc communicniinii n.? ainsr
nny pocr which might scck to obstrn.-t
il, orlo monopolize iis advantnge?. All
states. entering into such n trcaty, will cn-
joy the right of papsage through ifie canaf
on paymcnl ofthe fnt'neudis.
Thc wnrk. if cnnslructed undcr thrso'
gnarantccs, will brcome n band or pcarc,
instead of n suhjert nf cnntemion nnd
strifc, between the nalitni uf the carth.
Shonld ihegreai mari'ime ?tnics of Eu
rope cniisenl lo llili urningrnient, (nnd e'
hrtve no reason lo tuppose that n pioposi
tion so fiiirnnt; hnuorublc will bcojtioecd
by any.) the encrsics of iheir people and
.ours will conpernte tn prniunting ihe euc
cess ol' the enterprise. 1 do nol recom
mend nny npprnprfntion IVm ihe Nnlional
Ircamry for this purpofe, nor do I bclicvc
llint such an nppropri.itinu is nccreenry.
Private cnterprise, if pioperly protectcd,
will romplete the worky slunihl it prove In
be frasible. The pariif who have pro
curcd ihc rharter from Niraragu, lor it?
rnnslruclion, desire no nssistanre from lliir
Gatcrnincnt beond its prolcniiuti ; and
tlny prol'ess thnt, havinsr pxnminrd tho
propju-d line of roiiimuiiiriitiun, iht y will
he teady U coiuinenrc the iindertakii g
whenever thnt p.Dtfetinn thnll be exlrnd
ed to them. Should there npprar lo ho
reafon. on exainiiiing ihe whole pvidcnce,
tn pntcrlaiu sx tcrioiis doubi of the prnrli-"
rnbiliiy of rotistriicling snrh a rnrnl. thni
dnnbt cotilcl ficspredily tolied by un nciunf
cxplorntiou of thc rotitr.
Should such it wnrk be const nrtrd, iin-r
der the rnmmnn prntrciion of till i.niioii-,'
l.irequnl benefitR loull, it would be npitltt-r"
just iinr t'X'cdietil that any grcnt umrilin.e
State tliould ciiniman.l llii- (-O'nmtiiiiratiuti.'
The trrritory thrnugli whirli lbernp.nl n ny
be oprnt-d oughl to bu frcrd from thc
claims of nny Inreign power. Nn stirli
.oiPr shntil.l orrupy a poiil:nn that wtmld
cunblc it hcrcalter to exercise so cnutroll
ing an illflupn, urrr the cnminerce of the
world, ur In nbstii'CI n highnny whirh
nughl tn be dcdicatcd to thc rutiimon usca
The routcs ncrujs the Inthmns nt Te
hiinnirpecniid Piinamn, arentro wortliy of
our serioii roiisiderntion They did not
1 il tocngiiL'e the ntlcmioti ol my j rcde
cessor. The npgotiator nf ihe :reaty of
Gund.iliipe Ilidnlgo was instructed to ofiVr
n vcry large smti ol" inoiiey fnrihc riglitol'
IratiMrnrross Ihe lthnm of Telitianii'prt-.
The Mexitan governniPtit did not acrcdri
to the proj ositiun fnr ihe parfhiise of llili
right ol" way, piobably hi'ratie il had nl
rcady contractei with privute ?iidivjdu.-iU
rorthe roni"'riiclinn of n pafsace frnnt tbe
Gunsartialco river to Tt'hunnteprc. 1 t.inl
not rrncw nhy proposilinn to purrhn'C lor
money, n r i-1 ' I which oughl to be fqtially
sccured to nll natinnr, nn paytnent ol'a rci
snnnble toll to the oivner ol thc improvr
inciit, who wnuld, doubtlecs, bc wt-II cnn
ten'.cd with that ronipensaiion nud tho
guarnnlccs of thc m.iritime States ol thc'
world, in tcparnle treaii. s nrgntinled wiih
.Mexico, binding her and them tn prntert
those whoihould conslruCl ihc work. Such
guamntcps woiiM do nioie to spcife tbj
complction of ihc commuiiiration through'
Ihc territory ol Mexico, thuu any oilirr
rcasonnblc ronsidcrnnnn thal could bc n
fcred ; and ns Mexico hcraelf would le
the Rrcatest gniner by lli? oppning of thia
comniutiicatiun between ihi Gulf and the
Pacific oci-an, il ie presumed that she wouM
not lirfiiaie to yicld lirriiid, in the manner
pmpoeed. in nrromplUh nn iiiiprrivemcnl
so impormnt to hcr own best interests.-
We hnvereason to hnpelhal thc propos-'
cd railroad acrnes thr IlhnnH at Pananin
will bc sncrcssfiilly ruusiructed, tindcr ihe
proteclion of the hile ireaty with iVetv
Grenada, ratificd nnd exrlianged hy my
predercfsor on the fOih day nf June. 18-IS.
whirh guarnutees thc perlecl isrutrality uC
tho lsthmus, and thermhisuf sovfrrigniy
nnd properly of New Grenaibt over that
territory. "with n view il.nl ibclrre tr;tni
Irom ocean inorenn may ii"t be iittcrriip
ted orembairjssrd'" dtiiing tho eximenct'
of tlie treaty. It is our pi.licv to Pi'rour
age every j rac iciihlerou'earrose the Uth
miiF, whirh conncrls North and South A
tnericn, cither by railro.id or rnmi!, nlurli
the cncrgy nnd cmerpri'P or unr citizens
may induce them lo complete; and I cnn
sider it obligatory upon uc to ndopt ilmt
policy, csjicrially in conscqucnce ofihe b
snhite nccessity of facilitntins inirrrourse1
with our posessions on the I'acifir.
The posiiion of ihe Snudwirli U Inri'U,
willi rererence to the territory of the Uni
ted Statps on ihc Parific ; the siuresso!:
our persevering and b. ncvolenl riiizens,
who have rrpaired O lut remole quarter,
in rhristianizing thc n-ilive. aml iliduriniij,
them to adopt asystent orcotfernmcril'and'
laws suitcd lo Iheir rapncity ar.d iva'iir;
nnd ihe use made by our iiumprous wj"lc
eln'j.s nf ihe hvrboraol ll e i-I.indi,V"pla-..
res of resort lor obtaining refrp-nieltlir
nnd repairs. all romlmie 'nfcrV''dcr iheir,
deetiny pcwliarly IntfrrVjiil lo or. Il ur..
our d'utylo rCijiucili autbonlies ol".
these island in theiVls P imrovc and .
elevate ihe mornj ad pphticnl conilition of
lheinlnbitaoti",."'vd,we shoii(d make rca- .
SDuable jllpWinies f-r tke .lilHrul'ivs insep
nrabio frotr'i'' lafc. Wc ifesiro ihnt ihe'
islands payjnainiaiu their imtppemlenre,'
atd ihn Olher nation should roncur tviili
us in ii)sentrii.cnt. We fnulil in'no cveiii
ba i.trereiit to their p.tving nnder ihe:
derniuiqi of any other power. Th prin
cipal ccnuiiicrciiil stntcs bavc iu lh'rs aenm
Dion interest, mtd it i n 6e hopd''iriat no" 0
one ol them will nlli mpl tn interpose Oh
sturlcs to thc eniiTo indepcndcnce of ihe'
The receipis into thctrea.ury for the fis
cal ycar cnding on ihe ihirrtelh nf Juno'
latt, Mrerc.in caah, n.rlj-eighi miirion-" cialjf
liundrcd and thirty-lhotisand iiiiiety-rveir',
doilars and fifiy ccnls, ($4S30.t)67.o't),): ,
nnd in rrearory notes fondcd,- ten millibnsr
cight humfrcd ai.d Im'rty-three ihousanif
dnllar? (10,833,000,) makmg nn agg?e- "
cate of Siiy-tiine'm'llions six linndrrd unil'
sixly-thrccT ihousan'.r riin,tv--5pverv dt.ftar
nnd fifty ccm. (59,603.09740:), nmt'lhef
expenditiires, furdic same lime wer, itv
cnsh, foriy-sixmillions severt hupdrrd nn-i
ninpiy-eighf! tho'lmnd ix bundrcd .niil"
sixty-e,vcn" dollar' anil eiehy-trn ceti".