ANP MIDDLEBURY PEOPIiE'S PRESS.
H. BELL, Eilitor and Proprietor.
MIDDLEBURY, VERMONT. WEDNESDAY MOItNING, JANUARY 31, 1844.
VOL. VIII.-NO. S9.
THE NORTHERN GALAXY,
;BUSnEI EVKT WEDSESDAT SI0HX13O
:s 6TEWAkt's BUH.DIKC!,
BY J. COBB JR. j
aii ordebj ron rnixxisa i
of jrcry dcscriptiou will be neatly cnd
felioudjlj cxecutcd, at short notice.
OF EIGHTII VOLUME.
T -i,.tfolfcrii)cri S?2 oo
vu -oiicribcrs 2 00 '
,3J -"J Conipanie. l.o uke at thc officc 1
'in tAc of I'ostridcr
1 aI c . .
! ,aid at ilieenJ ofthc year 2. 25
iliacoatinueJ imtil arrearaifes are paid
CtfriraI!oucdfxceptordercd bj the proprie-.
ustbe addrnwd te thced-!
All contnwnications mus
From tl.e Wcicheitcr (Pa.) Record.
A NEW WHIG SONG.
Somctimc sincc the Richmond En-'passcd undcr the canopy, the obsequious
rjUirer, m commenting on a publishcd let- attendants streivcd the ground with cotton
tcrwntlcn by llenry Clay to some of his ; tapestry, that his imperial feet niight not
p Imcal fricnds stylcd it in derision "a'bc contaminated by tlic rude soil. Ilis
h!i?t frc m the Burrlc," and afibcted to con-' subiccts of liizli and low dcirree. who lincd
:JJer i' a sumnions u hich thc Whigs of
ik Union would not vcnturc to disobey. '
i,v thc Hon. Francis Jamcs, which was
aa" bv thc requcEt of the Westchcster
nr ;T FROM TIIF I5ITGLE "
BLAST rUOM UiU bLUL
Tane 'Star srAXCLDD Bax.ner.' t
"X lUit fiom tlie Ctilc sav, hcartl c ihc eound, J
it rollM from the West, over rauuntainaniKal-
Iira a signal fur Pairiotx the counlry around,
To ci5ke fur llic cimtcf t a glorious rally.
Itfgan!, tlicn, il9 cill, jc whigs one andallt
Pif parc fur the conflcrt, to conqucr or fall.
'ALa' f.-ora tlrc buglc" uh! I'ftto it ttrain,
Jli it rchucd in iliuiidera fiou Georgia tc Iaiuc.
L'V ttictru.tip of a chirf hlown to jathcr his clan,
TiH arousc cry frtt-'iaan, tlio Iicaiy his sljm-
Ini cre him to dectls wcll IxrGttiiig thc roan
Who ilesercs tobe rankcil in our army of nutn
Ler; For ue want but llie trac, nlio 'll dare nnd
Wliatever to honor and right ehal! be duc;
Wtea,a''liijt froa the Boglc," fhall tir tip our
U Lwiand and liistiland, from Georgia to Slaino.
Ro crartn, c vih to rcrpond to iti call ;
Anl iili! isay itnloud notcs.no TRAiTonsawakcn;
Ea: lecp bc bis lccp, as the drpths of bif fall,
tet him kreatue on, neglcctcd, dcgradcd, for
facn; Let his namc f.ide away, frora'the liglit of the day
AuJ the honors which once encircled his ra :
TTbiii a "bbst from the Bi'glc" cc'cr isrucd in
l.j'il inspirit cach frceman, from Georgia to Jlaine.
Lst! "a blast fioai the Buglo" haikl hark! how it
T.- tV r.-.-cne,j3 galbnts! f.ill fall in fur Ilarry!
Tlt m ! of ihc V.'cri him whosc caador rccaU
All, -!1 that hc is then I pray yoa don't tarty,
Uut enmc to his aidf lo bas neicrbetrajed
A f.icml.or proicd falsc to tbepromisc lie mad
it rolb. o'crthe
liil' "a blast from llic ivh'
laJ tunles anerlio from Gcor'ia to Mainc.
Tnc Peojct i.v the U'jvs anii mkas
Ufpi: vltiii: Takikf. Thc Ktchnio:id
fnqmrcr in rcplying to our article, thut
Mr. Van Ihircn by mcans of thc Cotnmit
lee pf Vavs timl Jlcans, would push a
iiepcal of'thc Tarifi' Uill through thc
H iuc, with thc ccrtainty of having it
l...cd in thc Scnatc, says :
W'c will makc a fair bargain with thc
Xcw York Express. .Managc your whig
nfnibcrs, and wc will managc our Van
Iturc-i mcn. Get vour whigs to votc for
it, antl ve will undcrlakc to answcr for the
Vf.., mmu-t Tho iv.r.t tnll iiir., .
otit to !.c. that wc will do our duty, and i
tttcmpt to relicvc a sufTcrin- peoplo and a
siarvir," Trcasurv from thc opprcssion of
mr I'rnirrtivc anti-UoventiG law its truo
rimractcr) but the whio-s in thc Scnate i
-ri!l tlnr-irt th- ir-rnil,lir-,n; If tlin rc. i
:,-,f Iu'l be lost. it is vour whi"s in the l l'ien 'lung round Montezuma's ncck a ilton, shcctings,ind shirtings at ncarly all,
Anate who wiii do it miich morc prob- sparkling chain of colored crystal, accora-! with drillings, printing cloths, ic. at sev--ble
than the Van Burcn mcn in ihc Pnying this with a movemcntas ifto cm-jcral.
H nisc of Ucnrcscntativcs. brace him, when he was restraincd by thc Thc avcragc wagcs paid to fcmales,
You maunrr'o vour Vin Burcn mcn ! t,vo Aztec lords, shocked at the menaccd ' young and old, cxpcricnccd and incxperi-
i.v riitln t vour mana"c them, when the
'irilT Biil was paf.scd? Whv didn't you
P'tnagc Mr. Van Burcn's right hand man
n ihc Srurite? Why didn't you managc
Mr. Beardslcy, Mr. DuiTcan, Mr. Hamlin,
sitlolhersin tho ahohtion businces just
now ? You managa thcm indced ! You
-"d yours hrw wood and draw wafer for
fce dirty politicians of New Y'ork.
Tlic Richmond Enquircr cvidcntly
fenks that thc South will be complctcly
jhped, if thc Van Buren men repcal this
Tariff iti thc House, and tho Whigs in the
Scnate dcfeat thc repcal. These New
York tactics are to complelely " baraboo
tle" (we quoto tho Enquircr's East Room
"rrusponQcni, ioi. ucnton) lue Ualhoun
fiien of tho South ! Tho South is to for. I
gctair. Van Buren's shcep speech, tho
-j.uuav; iuuciiiiuii ic&uiuitun, anu ine 1 cuipurur iu iijunu iuv wjitwt .,..
r'ay Scmtor Wright voted on tho prcsent dence. They were built of a red porous
TariC-.rKovinEDlhebusinessof humbug, 'stone drawn from quarrics in tho neigh
w'nich on the Tariff Mr. Van Burcn has borhood, and, though they rarcly rose to
I" carricd on for tho last fiftccn ycars 1 a eccond story, oftea covercd a largo
m kcpt up by passing a bill in ono IIousc ' space of ground. Tho flat roofs, axoteas,
nn. ihe lritcnt that it shall bo killcd in
The Libcrator statcs that the debt of
W9 American Anti-Slavcry Society has
iaereed 4,000 dollars within tho last 7
JJstott';j,,Gronqtiwt of Hrjrt'eo.
FIRST INTEUVIEW WITH MOKTEZUMA.
j In the midst of these unpleasant refiec
tions, they beheld the glitteting rctinuc of
'the Empcror emerging from the great
cfrfPt whir.il lpfl thltn n If lnnc
througi, ti,e heart of thg cJt Amidst a
yd of Ind;an nobleSi preceded by threc
omccrs ot state, beanng golden wands,
they saw theroyal palanquin blazing with
buruished gold. It was borne on thc
snouiacrs oi nobies, and over it a canopy
of gaudy feather-work, powdcrcd with jew-
eJSj ad frjllged w;t, SIver was supportcd
. f nllnnilnnl. nf rnnl-
: They were barefooted and walkcd with a
slow measured pace, and with thcir CVCS
bent 011 the ground. When
come within a Convenient di:
the train had
istance, it hal-
.ed and Montczuma, descending from his
nuer, came iorwaru jcaning on mc arms
of the lords of Tezcuco and Iztapnlapan.
i. - i i ., ... r- t
",s "cpnew anu Drotner, uotn oi wnom, as
known to thc Snaniards. As tlm mnnnrrli
the sidcs of the causcway, bent forward
with their cvcs fastened on the nround as '
he passcd, and some ofthc hnmblcr class '
prostratcd thcmselves before him. Such '
was the homage paid to thc Indian dcspot, t
; showing that the slavish forms of Oricntal
ladulation wcrc to bc found among the
!ru(p inhabitanLs ofthc AVctcrn 1,1 i
At0ntezuma worc thc "irdle and amole
great cloak, tihnallL of his nation. It
was madc of the fincst cotton, with" the
: embroidcrcd cnds gathercd in a knot
rountl his ncck. Ilis fcet wcrc defcntled
by sandals haviiig solcs of gold, and thc
leathcrn thongs which hound them to his
anklcs wcrc cmbossed with the samcmct
al. Bolh the cloak and sandals wcrcsprin
kled with pcarls and precious stcncs,
among which the cmcrald and thc chalchi
vill a green stone of highcr cstimation
than any othcr among the Aztccs wcrc
couspicuotis. On his hcad hc worc no
othcr ornamcnt than a imnaclie of plumes
of the royal green which floated down his
hack, thc badgc of military, rather than of
IIc was at this time about forty ycars of ,
agc. Ihs person was tall and thm, but
nt ill-niade. His hair, which was black
and straight, was not vcry long, to wcar it
short was unbecoming pcrsons of rank.
Ilis bcard was thin ; his complexion some
whatpalcr than is oficn found in his dus
ky, or rather copper colorctl racc. Ilis
featurcs, though serious in thcir exprcss
ion, did not wear the look of melancholy,
indccd of dejection, which characterizcs
his porlrait, and which may wcll havc sct
tlcd on thcm at a latcr period. IIc movcd
v.ilh dignity, and his whole dcmeanor,
teinpercd by an cxprcssion of bcnignity
not to havc bccn anticipatcd from thc rc
ports circulatcd of his charactcr, waswor
thy of a gret princc. Such is thc por
trait lcft to us of thc cclcbratcd Indian cm
peror, in this his first intcrviciv with the
The army halted as hc drew ncar. Cor-
dismounting, thrcw his rcins toapagc ,
ittiii, -,upiiuriL uy u juh ui uiu -jrintiai ,
cavalicrs, advanccd to mcct him. TJie t
intcrview must havc bccn one of uncom- j
mon mtcrcst to both. In Montczuma,
Cortcs beheld thc lord of the broad rcalms
hc had travcrfccd, whose magnificcncc and dCS( prodt:cing 1,425,900 yards of cloth
powcr had bccn the burden of evcry per wcek. or 74,141,000 within tho ycar
tonguc. In the Spamard, on the othcr j i843. The cotton fabricatcd by thcm du
hand, thc Aztcc princc saw thc strangc ring tho ycar was 22,880,000 lbs. " (A
bcing whosc history scemcd to bc so mys-, pound Df cottnn will average 3 1.5 yards
teriously connected with his own; thc j 0f cloth; 100 pounds of cotton will makc
predictcd onc of his oracles; whose go ib3. 0f clolh. A Ioom will avcragc on
achicvcmcnls proclaimed him somcthing i Xo. 14 yarn 44 yards of cloth pcr day ;
morc than human. But, whatever may or pj0. 30, 30. Of printcd cloths, 273,
havc bcen the monarchs feclings, hc so far 000 yards pcr wcck are made by tho 3Ier
suppresscd them that he received his cucst riniac and Hamilton comnanics. Thc
witn pnnceiy courtcsy, anu 10 express 111s
satisfaction at personaliy sccing him in his
caPltoL CortC3 . rcspondcd by the most -
profound cxpressions of respect, while hc ,
made ample acknowlcdgments for the sub-;
stantial proofs which thc cmperor had giv- : 150 of rugs per wcck, besido 85,000 of
cn thc Spaniards of his munificcncc Ilejcottons. Flanncls arc madc at the Ham-
lJIU,a"a"u" ul ",u --" .....t (
mastex, Aiier tne iniercnanse 01 iuese
civiltics, Montezuma appointcd his broth-'
er to conduct the Spaniards to thcir resi-1 their board. Ine payments arc all made
dencc in the capitol, and again entering ' in cash, amounting to 8150,000 per
his litter was borne oft" amidst prostrate ' tnonth. Wo challcngs tho wide world to
crowds in thc same statc in which he had j producc, out of thc manufacturing dis
come. The Spaniards quickly followcd, ' tricts of our own country. n rcgion where
cad with colors flying and music playing ; in femalc labor is so bounteously cmploy
soon made their cntranceinto the southern,
quarter of Tenochtilan.
Hcre, again, they found fresh cause for
ndmiration in the grandeur of the city.and
the supcrior stylc of its architecturc. Ths
dwcllings of the poorcr class wcrc, indeed,
chicfly of rceds and tnud. But thc great
' avcnuc throusn wnicn iney were uow
marching was lined with tho houses of
'hc noblcs, who were cncouraged by the
were protcctcd by stone parapcts, so that
evcry house was a fortress. Somctimes
thcsc roofs rcscmblcd parterrcs of flowcrs,
so thickly wcrc they covered with thcm.
but morc frcquently theso were cultivated
in broad terraccd gardens.laid out bctwcen
the pdiiccs, Occasionally a great square
or markct-placc inlcrvened.surroundcd by
its porticos of stone and stucco ; or a pyr
nmidal tcmplc rcarcd its colossal bulk,
crowncd with its tapering.sancluarics, and
altars blazing with incxlinguishablo fircs.
The great street facing tlio southcrn causc
way, unlike most othcrs in the place, was
wide, and extcndcd somo miles in ncarly
a stiaight linc, as before noticcd, through
thc ccnlrc of the city. A spectator stand
ing at one cnd of it, as his cyc ranged
along tho decp vista of tcniples, lcrraccs,
and gardcns, tnight clcarly disccrn thc
othcr, with thc bluc mountains in thc dis
lance. which. in the transparcnt atnioa
phcrc of thc InMe-land, sccmed almost in
contact with thc buildings.
Uut what most imprcssed thc Spnniards
was thc throngs of the peoplo whoswarm
cd through the strccts and on Iho canals.
filling evcry door-way and window, and
clustcring on thc roofs of thc buildings.
" I wcll remembcr thc spcctacle,"c.claims
LScrnal Diaz ; " it seonis now,aftcr so many
ycars, as prcscnt to my tnind, as'if it were
but yestcrday." But what must havo
bcen thc scnsations of thc Azctcs thcm
sclvcs, as they lookcd on thc portcntous
pagcant ! as they hcard, now for thc first
tiinc, thc wcll ccmcritcd pavemcnt ring
under thc iron tramp of thc horscs thc
strangc animals which fear had clothcd in
such supcrnatural tcrrors; ua they gazed
on thc childrcn of thc East, rcvaling
thcir cclcstial origin in their complcxions ;
saw thc bright fulchions nnd bonncts of
s,cc'' a ,,,ela' of unknown, glancing
,A0 melcors in thc sun, whilc sounds of
"ncarttily inuic at least, sucli as thcir
ruiIc instrumeuts had nevnr wakcned
floaled ,n ,l,e alr ! But evcr-v 0,,lcr cnl-
t,on was '&t, ,haf f deadljr Iatrcd,
"hcn they bchcld their detcsted cncmy.
tho Hascnlan, stalking, in deiiancc, as it
wcrc, lhrou"h thcir strccts, and staring a-
round with looks of fcrocity and wondcr,
lilic some wild animal of tlic forcst, who
had straycd by chancc from his nativc
fastnesscs iuto thc haunts of civilization.
Thc Tribunc has bccn at some pains in
collccling statemcnts ofthc Lowell racto
rics, nnd givcs thc following facts :
Therc arc c'cvcn rcgular manufacturing
cotnpanics in Lo'.vclI,includiiig thc ' Locks
and Canals,' or watcr-privilcgo company,
which was mcorporatcd in 1792, but did
not commcnce opcrations till 1822, which
may bo rcgardcd ns the ycar of thc foun
dation of Lowell. Bcforc that timc, it
was a ruggcd' rocky, barrcn spot, inliabil
cd bv two or Ihrcc fatnilics of boatmcn
nnd fishcrmcn, nnd not worth tcn dollars
pcr acrc, including evcry thing upon it.
Thc Mcrrimac company commcnccd busi
ncss tho nc.xt ycar, and no othcr until the
tariff of 1824 was passcd. In 1825, thc
Hamilton company startcd ; in 1828, tho
Appleion and Lowell; in IS'.iO, thc Mid
dlesex; in 1632, tho Sufiblk and Trc
mont ; in 833, tho Lawrcncc ; in 1836,
thc Bnott ; and in 1S10 thc Alassachu
sctts, bcing thc last. Thcsc 11 compa
nics cmploy an aggrcgato capital of 810,.
700,000 cmploying 0 295 fcmalcs, and
2 345 malcs. Bcsidcs these, thcro arc in
Lowell cxtcncivc powdcr mills, a flanncl
mill, blankct mill. bolting mill, foundry,
papcr mill, blcachcry, cord and whip fac
tory, plaining machiiic, rccd machinc.grist
and saw mills, cmploying a capital of
guOOO.OOO anu sOO workmcn, making tho
whoo manuractur;ng cap-ai 0f Lowell
11,2000,000, cmploying over 9,000 men
Tlc ,cn p"rincipai manufactorics already
los;;;na(cd havo 33 mills. bcsides print.
tt.nrks. rnn n.1 P4 lonms nnd 201.07G stiin.
Middlesex makcs 9,000 vards of cassi-
meres, 1,800 of broadcloths per wtek,
using 1,000,000 pounds of wool and 3,-.
000,000 lbs. of tcascls pcr annum. The
Lowell makcs 2,500 vards of carpcts, and
uuu, Vi,iu ji.i uliJu..u
01 uoaru ; 10 maics, ci.-u ptfr wcck, or
nbout $18 pcr month beyond the cost of
cJ and is paid an avcragc of S7.50 per
month byond tho cost of board. And
we challcnge this or any other country
to produco a scction in which womcn
who work for their living aro more
intellicent, bctter cducated, moro virtuous,
religious and independent than those em-
ployoi m tho Lowell manulacloncs. JLnero
havo been most shamcful slandcrs cir
culatcd with regard to them which ought
to bc put down, In the infancy of thcsc
establishmcnts some femalcs of bad char
acter obtaincd cmployment there, through
deception : but thcsc were snccdily de-
tected and cxpcllcd 'r and, now, if onc of
bad charactcr is discovcred there, sho is
rcquested to lcavo directly, ns tho others
will not enduro thc association of vice. -No
wherc is there a morc correct and vig-
orous moral senliment than among theso
indastrlous and independent woraen
As to the alleeed hardship. of factory
J labor, we havo no doubt that its cooamous,
might be improvcd. We bclieyo tho av
crago houra of labor aro 12 per day,
which is too much foran cmploymcnt that
is pursued thc ycar round. It docs not
allow timo cnougli for reading, sludy, at.
tending lcctures, and othcr mcan& of mor
al and intellcctual improvcmcnt. But, on
tho other hand, it must be considcred that
the labor is vcry light ; that many pursue
it for houra togethcr with an opcn book
before thcm, reading half thc timc ; and
that all grcatly prcfer it to apy othcr field
of Industry. You can hardly induco an
American-girl at the Eastvard todo house
work cxccpt for hcr own family or tho
sick; tho large majority would prcfer
working in a factory for 81,50 pcr wcsk
to doing hooscwork for 82. And the cs
tablishment of manufactories has, to our
ccrtain knowlcdgc, morc than doublo the
average rccompcnse accordcd to femalc
labor tbroughout tho Manufacturing rc
gion, while grcatly reducing tho prico of
almost cverv thing a woman buys. Bc-
sides this, tho treatmcnt of fcmalcs who
do housework has grcatlv improved since
tho factoncs wcrc startcd. No woman of
scnse or spirit will now submit to tho hu
miliations which wcrc common thcro 20
ycars ago, (and which arc common hcre
now,) bccausc sho knows whcre she may
at any timo go (o avoid them.
It i common cnough for our frcc trado
tradcrs to talk flippantly of our females
cngagcd in factoncs as if they wcro of
like charactcr anu condition uilh those of
England. But this is rery unlike tho
truth. Tho Amcrican factory girl isgcn
crally tho daughter of a faroer, has had
, a common education at thc district school,
and has gonc mto tho factory for a fcw
scasons to acquirc a little somcthing for a
start in lifc. She spends somo wecks or
inonlhs of evcry ycar undcr hcr fathcr's
roof, nnd gcncrally marricsand setlles in
its vicinity. Many attcnd lcctures and
cvcning schoob aftcr tho day's work is
over, and of the six thousand, moro than
half rcgularly occupy and pay for scats
in tho numcrou3 Churchcs of Lowoll.
Nowhcro is thc Sabbath bctter obscrvcd,
or thc proportion of habitual church-gocrs
greatcr than in that thnving city, hardly
any whcre 13 Tcmperance moro gcncral,
or aro violations of thc law lcss trcqucnt.
Sixuit of Iho tcn of tho femalcs, and a
ftill half of tho malcs, enjoy bctter health
in tho Mills than they did beforo coming
Six of tho mills nre warmed by stcam,
only two by hot air, and thrce by stcam
and hot air togethcr. Tho annual con-
sumption of wood "there is 3,290 cords;
or Anthracito Coal, 12,500 tons ; or Oil,
67,850 gallons. 000,000 bushcls of Char
coal wcrc uscd in 1843, and 4,000 barrcls
of Flour for Starch alonc. The Locks
and Canals Company uso 1,225 tons of
ron pcr annum : will put up and lumish
,1 factory of 5,000 spindlcs complctt in
four raonlhs, and cmploys, when builting,
1,000 to 1,200 workmcn.
Such nrc some of tho statistics of(the
chief manufacturing town in Amorici.
As a spccimcn of rcgulatcd, systcmatzed,
wcll dircctcd industry, it is worthf of
study. Though doultlcss far cnongh i-om
pcrfcction, whcthcr as to efficicncy ordis
tribution of procccds, we ask evcry frbnd
of thc Human racc to jndge whcthcr it is
wiso or humanc to favor a policy nhich
would diminish such towns as Lowcll,and
cnlargc such as .Manchester, Prcston nnd
Glasgow. This is tho principal qucstion.
And, whilc thc laborcrs of England Iiavc,
undcr all changcs of poficy, bccn yearly
sinking into dccper nnd dcepcr abpclncss
and dcspair, owing to causcs far bcyond
thu rcach of any policy wo may pursuc,
wc rcjoicc in heing able to statc thal thc
working mcn and women of Lowcll'havc
vcry largo and gcncral dcpositcs in the
Savings Bank of thal place, and thatthcy
arc bccoming largc owncrs of stockm thc
Corporation for which they work in one
already (o the cxtcnt of S 100,000, in an
nother to thc amount of SG 0,000, ic.
tc. Ilere is the gcrm of the truo and
gcncral rnform which wc hope to seo bc
comc universal, and which, when shall
havo rcsullcd in making tho wtrkmen
large and goneral owncrs of stock in tho
cstahlishmcnt in which they are cmjloycd,
sharing fairly in thcir profiis, will pit an
cficclual stop to thc demagoguc rcscrt of
cxciting laborcrs against cmploycrsi to the
injury and ruin of both.
Onc word on the prnfits of manufactur
ing, and wo closc. The ve.y Frcc-Trado
journals which moralized with ill-coweal-
ed cxultation. over thc rcportcd failurcs of
thc Saugcrties Iron Works, ofScnator
Spraguc's Calico Works, X:c., as showing
the dclusivencss of Protcction anc of tho
hopcs to bcnuflt to manufacturo from tho
Tariff, sincc have made tho land ring with
thcirproclamations that the manufccturcrs,
undcr tho Protcctive Tariff, aro making
profits of 20 to 40 pcr cont ! Th cxcusc
for this falsehood is thc allcged fact that
thc Mcrrimac at Lowell and onc cr two
othcr companics havo made hcavy divi
dends this ycar. Now the Mcrrimac is
the oldcst establishmcnt at Lowell, with
cxtcnsivc and valuablo conncctions, is cn
gagcd in printing calicoes, (the same busi.
ness which Senator Sprnguo failcd in this
ycar;) having a capital of $2,000,000;
and thus able to supply tho market when
it is favorablc and withhold its goods when
olhcrwiso ; just as thc Harpers make mon.
ey by publishing, when youngerandwcak
cr houses go down all around them. Cal
ico printing is cither a good or veiy bad
busincss; tho Merrimac Company havo
thisycar and usually makc it a good onc.
But tbo averago dividcnds of the LowcU
Companics have not bccn 7 per ccnt. this
year nor averaged 5 per cent. sinco they
were cstablishcd probably not four. Wo
havo read over tho list of dividends rc-
ccivcd by ono of tho heaviest ownera of
. . . - r 1 -.1
manutactunng siocks in uosion, nuwu
investmonts have been made wisely'find
well ) and his dividcnds do not averege 7
per ccn.t. this year, whilo for tho thrco I This last increasc corrcspoods more near
preceding thoy fell bclow fli o. Thcro nrc W w'm tho gcncrally cstimated avcragc in
vcry few wfco haao dono bctter, while w 1 thc btisiness on rail roads, -viz. 20
m.n k. r.r.j ik.. i. ft.., I, per ccnt, per annum, for five vcani. In oth-
is usclcss to dwell farthcr on th'is branch
of the subjcct.
Mk. Slade's RArx-RoAD Refobt.
t will now procecd, Mr. Chairman, to
to some gcncral observations on tho sub.
ject or rail roads, with slatcmcnts as to
the cost of construcfion of, and incomo
from, numcrous roads in Great Oritain &
irom, numcrous roaus in urcat tiritnin oc
thc Unitcd Slates", and a reference to tho
agricultural and othcr rcsourccs of Vcr-
i. i. .ir..,.j u i-.-j
UUCLIVU Uy IIIU CUUlCIflJIiait:U
road from Burlington to Boston.
Notbing in thc history of internal im-
provcment has cxcceded the rapid incrcase
of Rail Roads. Twclvo ycars ago, thcro
waro, I bclievc, hnt 92 milcs in use in the
United Slales, viz. 71 in Maryland, 151
in Ncw-York, and 6 in Massachusetts.
Now, thcrc arc in opcration in tho Unitcd
o,.,' i , , 1 , . .,
Slatcs, probably about 5000 m.lcs. Tho
"bb'b""- "'"i, ...imiwiiivujtijtiis rcason of tmsl u aqucsuon not
x uiiiua , auu iiua waiiuju-u tltab u
or 000 milcs would bc addcd jiflhi
ui iiiu currciu y cttr
Tho acgresato of tho 4412 milcs was
madc up as follows.
In New England C05 milcs
New.Jersey 204 "'
Pcnnsylvania 700 "
Michigan 226 "
Ohio 73 "
Indiana 23 "
Dclawaro 49 "
Maryland 331 "
Virginia 350 "
North Carolina 247 "
South Carolina 193 "
Georgia 350 "
Alabama Cl "
Florida 32 "
Mississippi G0 "
Kcntucky C0 "
It is cstimated that tho lcnglh of rail
roads in tho Unitcd Statcs cxceeds that of
all other countrics.
Thcrc nrc morc than 500 Locomotivc
cnginc3 in uso in tbo Unitcd States all
of Amcrican manufacturo; and so supc
rior is that manufacturo that moro than 50
havo bccn purchascd in Europc.
Such is Amcrican cntcrprizo and tkill.
Cost of Rail Road Cox
strtjctiox. Great improvcmcnts havo bccn mado in
thc cconomy of construction. At first thc
idea prcvailcd that rail roadj must bc con
structcd ncarly upon a lcvcl. Thirty
fcet to thc milo was considcred as thc
maximum clcvation, without stationary
powcr. Expcricnco has sinco shown that
80 fcet, and cvcn somcwhat morc, can bc
casily ovcrcome. Tho diffcrcnco of cx
pcnse in a counlry whorc thcrc are con
sidcrablo elcvations is obvious. Varii.ua
improvcmcnts in tbo modcof construction
havo also contributed (o thc diminution
The diffcrcnco in the cost of the rail roadt
which havc bccn constructed in Great Brit
ain and in the Unitcd States h vcry striking.
In Great Britain the whole length of Rail
Roads, as statcd six months ago, was 1,456
milcs, Cost, $201,000,000 equal to 180,-
00!) pcr milc.
The following is a'statcmcnt ofthc cost of
scveral rail roads iu the Unitcd Statcs
All.-n- in.t .CtrnnootflrlT- 15'1.! tniloa rnf
permilo $70,903 anJ eucrgy to givc cfTcct to thc whole, is in
Western 150 48,505 ,Iie fruitful ininds, and strong arras, and ready
Worcester (double track) & 45 61,209 hantb of the sotis ofthc Green Mountains.
Lowell do 20 76,033! "oodeu ware! Oce of tho most stnking
Providcncc-single track 42 45,057 prcsentcd in a rcport which I havo be
Eastcrn in Mass! and N. H. 53 50,535 toto me of ; statistics connected with tho Bos
Tho cstimated costof thc Fitchbnrgh n',t0 Fitchburgh railroad.is, that ttnlhou
road is, pcr mile, a little Icss than $20,000 ; "ooden warcs of Tariou, descrip
anditisbelicvcd that the costof its extcn- annually manufactured upon the
sTon to Burlington through Mount Holiey ! ofthatroad whtch; it ts est.mated w,U bo
will not cced that ratc. The statcment doubled. by thc opemug oflhe roadl And
rm about to makeof thc divhlends on tho ftimate unot founded on mere conject
stock of scveral rail roads in the Unitcd but corre.ponds w.th the actual resuUs.
States whoSrco t has vcry grcatly cxcceded , regard to numerous productions of the
fh. ? cstimated costof cltension of tho "PS "f rail roads in var.ou, parts ofo.tr
ritchburgu road, taKen in connexiou w mi uio
amount or business whtch wii W
.. nn thf ron! thnll EttCDdcd. Will O'C
on the road tbus extcnacu. w.i, ,J'k
,dca ortho probable value ofthc sock.,
a dividends on the stock of tlic Albany ,
and fckcnectadyraurc.au, m ' "(marUctiScheapcUed. Now, thc.-e b a heavy
cent. on an outlay of about $ 1,000 p mde. ( deduct;on mad from the amonnt rcccived fe
i.Iore recenny ine uiviucuug uu uiu ii . uuj
from Albany to Buffalo have bcen from 7
to 12 pcr cent.
In 1842 tbe following dividcnds were made.
road outlay $61,000 per milc, 6 1-2 per ct.
Lowell $76,000 " 71-2 "
Providence S45.000 61-2
Eastcrn $50,500 " 4 6-10 "
Western $48,500 " 4
The small dividend on the stock oi tne
Eastern rail road is presumetl to oe owing to
thc compctition betwecn tnai roaa anu uit
steam boat lines from IJoston, eastwaru.
The 4 per ccnt dividend on the estern,
was for thej!t year. The probable increase.
in subsequent years may be conjectured from
the rollow.ng companson oi tno receipis ou . wou,d-be ; but a poor compliment
that road for the two weeks cnding Becem- ;ntciiigencc of our farmers to suppose
berOth 1643 with the receipu of tho corres- of apprcc;at;ns ,llch adran-
ponding two weeks ml84. ino'tages as these; forit needsno argumcnt to
Receipts, two weeks, 1J v-4 , show. that cvery cent of diminution in the ex-
" 18i ' ' pcnse of transportation to and from market
, . . in ; i so ronch gain to thcm, both on what they
Incrcase nearly 54 pcr ccnt. $3,431 . and h , gelL
A similar result appears m xne veniriuru.
road, Georgia: thns
Receipts, 4 months cndmg isar. lrvnioa of the valu'e ofwhichis lost tothe
,. ifuo errmu
corresponding 4 months, 1S4-, 67,693
Increasea little over 63 pcr ccnt 8W.'pnTlo of Verontas ex
A'smaller .ncrcase.appcars m the Ccntral Pf1? ePretums of mmhai aCcom
RleSforNoi Siai373!panyin5 the censu, of 1840. They are as
..P 1843 "fSSHS- 496.000 Bu.hel
Increws Bearry 17 per eent. $2,761 Oora 1,120,000
f!: ?! iMM?U!atCl,,t,-at1-t,, bus!ncs8,.of
rail roads will doublc witbin fivo years after
iney arc opcueu. Jt is cviuent tliat, with rc
gartl to ivrac roads thc donblin; will take
place in a shortcr timc than that.
The following is a statcmcnt of tho divi
I dends for thc last six months upon the stock
i of scveral rail roads, with thc amount of cap
ital investcd in cach, and thc current ralue of
cach $100 of the stock, as IJlnd it in theCos-
Capital. Val'. f stk's.
4 Pr. ct. isi.eoo.ooo
Charl'n. lir. 3
: Such is Itail Road etock.
It nced, thcrc-
fore, occaatou no snrp.be that thc halance of
iho stock in iIm Viichburgh road ($100,000)
has bccn reocutly suddcnly takcn up, and
th?t "tock U now above par.
! t It's. notonow that ihcre now no better
stockm market than that of rail roads as is
manifcst from the foreso!ns B,ateuleD.
UllilCUlt tO aUSWCr.
Itisa rcinarkable fact that the proCts of
'frail roads havc uuilormly cxcceded pre-
viu3 estimates contrasting, strongly. with
thc vcry common failuro of calculations of I
proQt from othcr mvestrucuts. 1 he rcason
is obvious; and if thoroughly uudcrstood by
the farmers aud merchants of Vermont, as
wcll as by tho capitaliits of Boston, will, at
no distant day, draw forth an amount of eap-
uai wntcu n ui ensurc tue compieuan oi a rau
road. conircutiicatiou bettrecn llojton aud
Hiirlm-tnn. TIir ralrulntinn of nrnfit frnm
nnlinnnr Tn-nf mprif nw 1init itnnn lli nr -
jdinary protluctlons and busincss of the com-
mutiity, whtcti tuo-o mvcstincnts do not.ncc -
cssarily iucreasc. This may be illttstratcd
by a toll bridge, thc stock of which may not
oniy oc etaitonury, uut may BinK nciow par
by the diminution of business nnd travcl from
various uuforcsecn causes. A toUhridgc or-
dinarily creatcs no ccw busincss dcvelopcs
no new sourccs of weakh, and stimulatci no
new cnternrisc. '
Not so with rail roads. By brin'ing dis
tant parts of thc country to the vcry door of a
market, they give value to many things that
had little or no yaluc before ; nhilo tliey adu
to tho value orstaple productions. New cn-
crgy is put forth in evcry branch of industry.
Tha earlh is tasked to an incrcascd power of
production; its uowcu aro opened to draw
forth their inincral trcasurci; tho foresli cc
quire a uew valuo, nnd a new and strongcr
impulso is given to the incenuity and enerey
aud cnternriM of rrran. Rail roads thns be-
come tho instruments of new dcTcIopements
of rcsourccs, slnd new crcatious of valucs to
euter iuto thc cxchaujcs of thc world.
This ricw of llic subjcct is full of intereat
to tue pcople or this statc. uivo us a rcady
and cheap acccss to a market, and no ftate
in thu union of ths same size would he rich-
crin thc productions of its flocks, its forcstj
and its mincral trcasurcs than Vermont.
Westcrn Vermont has, it is true, a bctter ac
ccss to market than it had before thc openio
of tha Champlain Canal and tho use of steam
in tho navigation of tho Lake; but that chau
ncl is closcd froin four to fivc months in tho
ycar. Tlic contcu:ilated rail road is prescn-
tcu to supply thm dciiri.'ucy; and it will morc
than supply it, for it will cnablo us to rcach
thc Uoitoit market in a siujrlc day, aud cverv
(iny ui mc ycar, wiui our lutnncr, nrc SIOCK,
I .1 , t . ,
bcef, pork, buticr, chcese, Iard, wool, iron
and iron warc, woodeii warc, marble, lirac.
manganese, coppcras, and thc protluctions of
manutactunng c&taulislimcuts which such an
acccss to market would multiplv upon thc
j numcrous watcriaiis. in this part ofthc state,
I may nerhnps be askcd, where is tho icoodtn
trore which is to bc traasported on your rail
road? I answer it is in our forcsts; the
strcams to inovc the secessary machinery ar:
running from our mountains, aud thc skill
. j,,, roails j,, not merciy ;ncrease our
projMtim!ilt,i ;ive more steady cmploy-
r ..' , S ,
ment to all brancheo of onr industry; they
fa , f hs f
J ' j . lrlVOItMioa0 a
Boston for our productions, for thc cxpense
of thcir transportation, while a corresponding
addition is made to the price ofths artidcs
receivcd in cxchanc, when they come into
the hands of the consumer. Tho freight bc
twccn Middlebury and Boston vill probably
bo betwccn $-1, and $5, per ton by a rail road.
This, compared with a land transportation at
$30 per ton, would bring Middlebury within
from twcnty nve to lEirry mucs oi uoiioa ;
and, compared with the chTuitous transpor-
im champlain canal, and the Mas-
gachu3etto ra;iroad,-, or the voyage round, by
, th cr;ce of transporta-
- . ' . . t..;d eaabl n- u.
j producU-ons to a. market cvery
. . .
,r,. . ,.,::
This is a consideration of ereat importanee
in rejrard to our heavy productions, a large
producer in the expenso of tbcir trtnsporta-
meU bringsme t0 acon.
:.iv.r ru MitnM nr? nmnnnt nf tho
Value of poultry
Value of Buttcrt Chcesc$2,009,000
Productions of orchards S214.0GO
Su5ar 4,048,000 lhs.
On a comparison of the productions of Ver
mont with those of the othcr 2o Statcs,
it nppcars that we stand first among tho
whole in the ratio of prodnction of potatoes,
hay, sheep, wool, butter and cheese.jecend in
tho production of sugar k third in thc No.
of n cnt cattlc. It is obvious that wc only
nced a rail road acccss to thc mctropolis
of New England, to ensurc a Tcrv great
r r n . t , .r t
incrcase in au ino prnauciiocs i navs
cnumcratcd, as well as thc dcvclopcment
of Eourccs of wcalth hithcrto but sligh'ly
if nt ull productivr.
As tlic projcctcd rail road will run thro'
thc Counties of Rullnnd cnd Addison, Ict
mc comparc these .Countics with tho rcst
of the State in respect to some of tho sta
tistics relurncd by the Marshals in 1940
premising that thcsc Counties cnntain
Ic3 than 20 pcr'ccnt of tho populntirn.and
but about 17 pcr cent cf tbo tcriitory,
of tho wholo Statc.
N0. 0f furnaces
' Tons 0f east
in. . ,
! ForCCS 14 1
' Tons of barjron 0551
: rxcat altlo a,j'tii
31 3-4 "
25 2-3 -
' Shcep 1,631,819 i
Tons of Hay 830,7391!
i , ,.
J cuch nro tho disproportions in Rutland
j nnd Addison Counticr, of some of Iho
1 most important productions of thc Stnlc.
vvliilo nt the same timo they havc thcir
just proportions in tho , productions of
whcat, ryo, and com. Thcro wcro no
rcturns of the coppcras and mangancso of
Rutland Lotinty, whoso capacity of sup-
pi)'g mincrais la aoequaie io uio
j consumption of the world ; whilo the mar-
blo nnd lime of thcsc counties which wilt
not now bcar transportation to market
aro absolutely incxhaustible.
It is time that Vermont wcro awako to
thc fcubjcct of railroads. I: may well in
list tho most prudcnt and cautious. Tho
timo has passcd when their expcdicncy ia
to bo discusscd. it has ccased to bc an
opcn queslfon. The policy has bccn o
doptcd in tho United Slniee, and rail roxds
nrc mulliplying in cvery dircction. Thcir
distancc.annihilating powcr bas brought
Buflalo ncnrer thnn Middlebury to Boston.
Vermont is drivcn to rail roads in self de
fence. If we would rctnin our popula.
tion wo must open channcls to thc mar
kcls that will givo our peoplo ndvantagcs
which they can now enjoy only by cmi
gration; Thc increasc of that cmigrulion
from 1830 to 1840, compared with tho
prcccding tcn ycars, s shown by thc di
minbhcl increasc of our populalion ia
worthy the mot scrintn considerat.on.
Thus, frnm 1E20 to 1630 our population
advanccd from 235,764, to 230,679, bcing
an increasc of 44,915, or a littlo over 10
pcr cent; while wo had advanced. in
1640 to only 291,043 bcing an increaso
of but 11,209, or ubout 4 per ccnt !
Vermont has tho clementa of crcntccss.
though she is but amnll in opulation and
trrritoria! extent. She is capablo of sus
(aining double her prcscnt populntion ; and
.she will one day havc that amount, if sho
is Iruo to hcMelf, and Ihe nntional govcrn
ment shall not Jeavo her industry unprg
tcctcd. MR. VAN BUREN AND THE SHEEP.
From the Etening Pott)
If wo nnd thousands of onr rcadcrs
support Mr. Van Buren cordially( it is.bo
cnusc we regard him as pleJrcd ton com-
mercial rcforro nnd to tho layingof dutics
simply for the sakc of a rcvcnuc. If wo
belicvcd him a fricnd of tho proltcltvo
system, wc should no longcr wisii to sqo
bim a cnndidate.
Thii is a cunous commcnt nn the opin
ions of Mr. Van Burcn. "," says tho
Post. " tce leliettd him a friend ofihevic-
leclixe system tet should no longtr feel any
tcish to see him a candidate." Mr. Van
Burcn bas bcen in public Iife nearly fortv
ycars nnd yet the Post is unccrtain as to
his opinions on ine great question oi pro
tcction to American inuu.nry. unring
this period hc has voted scrcral timcs di
rectly for tho Tarifi". and scversl timcs in
directlv, as is tho case of tiio New York
Lcgislaturo wbcn howas a mcmlcr. He
has writton nt Icast tncntv lcttcrs on
thc vubjcct, as in rcply to tho Indiana
Legislalure of last year. nnd also in tho
more rccent lotlcr published in tho Rich
mond Enquircr. The Post is ono of his
organs and expoundcrs, and yet the Edi
tor has to say if if if, on all occasions
when any cardinal point of publio policy
is under discussion.
Wo haro n rcmcdy for all this, and will
suggcst it to thc Post as a method of sct.
tlting nll doubts both witb that papor and
with its rcadcrs : Lct somo Dcmncratic
Committee, or the Editor, propound tho
following question to Mr. Van Burcn, snl
if ho will reply spccifically we will engago
that the public will know moro than thny
harc known during tbo whole lifo of th-j
Arc you in favor of a duty of 30 pcr
cect ad valorcm, and thrco centa per pound ''
on wool ? (tho prcsent dny.)
Now, aye or no, Mr. Van Boren. No
dodgingt No long ynrta I Vo Ihtfiina
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