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EDITOK AND PKOPR1ETOR.
TERM3 OF EIGHTII YOLUME.
V;IU; anbfcribf .
u l -ou-cribers z uu
v JaaU jnJ Comp.mics nho take at llie oflice
1 -wiot 1'30 centa ifpaid in six montlis.
T.l not raiJ t .l.cnd oftl.c ycar 2. 25
.. ,rj discontinueJ until arrearafres are paid
tatihe option ofil.e proprletor. pajraei t
llowcd -xcept ordcred bj tb proprie-
icationsrausibc ad.lresscd tothe ed-
TIIE LADY'S YES-A So.vu.
HV ELIZABETII B. BAIXRETT.
Ycs!" I anmcrcil vou last niglu
Nu!" tliis morning, sir, I saj
Cobrs tccn by candle-ligln
Cannot look thc same bv day.
Wlicn Uic labora played ihcirbcst,
And the dancers werc not slow,
"L've rac" sounded like a jcst,
Tit fur "yes" or fil for "no."
TIjus ihe ein is on us botli ;
Was to dancc a time to woo 1
YVoocr iigbt makes fickle lroth '
Scorn ol 1E rccoils on rou.
Learn to win a fady'a failh
Kobly, as tlie tliin" is Mgb
nravely, as in fronling death
Witii a uriuous gravity.
Lcad Iierfrora tli painled boarda
Point licr 10 ihe starry skics
GuarJ her lyyour tnilliful woris,
Bf yoar trulli shc shall bc truc,
Ever true as nites of yore,
Auuhcr "cs" ooce said to you,
Shall be jcs for cver inorc.
For tlie Northern Galaxy.
Mr. Eorron, Thc.lcttcr from jtfr. Ran
d,i!l which appcarcd in the Jan. No. ofthe
Cultivator, has drawn out Mr. Stickncy,
throuli vnur columns tliis wcek. His attack
upou me with tlie atUHtion of your owu,
niiiile qnitc a display in last wcek's papcr.
1 am iticlincd to lelieve that if Mr. Stick
ncy had diferrcd his lettcr until aflcr he liad
scni tlie Fcbruary No. of tlie Cultivator, in
which I cndcavorcd to make some corrcctions
to the btatcnicuts madc by Mr. Randall, he
muuUI liaicliccu more mild iu liis communi-
catiou. I s-liould not at tliis time troublc you
Auili a rciilv to anv part ot Mr. Ssticajey s
Ittter if your rendcrd wcre gcuerally stTOscri
Ltrs tothe Cultivator.
Iu ilie currcction. I gave Mr. Stickncy tlie
honor of nuing tbe valualile stock biick
noiv in my pnvsrssioti, and also noticcd tbat
I li.ul sull soiue liucks of Fo:tuiic's bcsides
li.it I lai iai?cd from liim.
It is far from inc to rob Mr. Stickncy or
any otlicr man of tlie laurels tlicy liavc won.
1 takc tlie libcrty to state that tlie two
slin p scut to Mr. Uaudall, and all thc otlicr
bucks by l'ortunc nliich lliave sold, I not
ouly owu tlie sire, but I have in iny j)oscss-ioncx-crycuclli.it
raiscd tbcni. It mattcrs
little to nic on nlinse prcmises tlie Iiuck Kor
timc wasdroppcil.or liis V.nnlx, wliicli is only
thrcc that 1 liavc liought and sold that was
not droppeil on my farm.so lons as I liavc thc
luirk and all tbe civcs tliat raiscd thcm.
I liavc ncvcr madc auy statcincnts about
ih"i!i toMr. itandnll, or any otlicr man, but
nhnt are facls, nud am uillinthcj should bc
ep(M"d to the puldic cyc, if tbcrcby it can
Im- provi-d that I have been in the lc;ist guilty
of diiuis injusticc to .Mr. Stickncy or auy otli
Kcspcclin thc M eiuht of flecce of all thc
i ';rj,cn-i-s nndbucksof Fortiinc'sgcttiug,
out of full Idood mcrino evrcs, I tliink it can
lie easily provcd tliat "thcy(W shtur bc
tv.tcii livc and sit poiinds on aicragc la?t
f.;inn." I iva-! so iiiforuicd by the onuers,
aa l tliey arc mcn of uudoubtcd vcracity.
J im ith in Wilsou l's'., of Shorcliam. stat
cd to me tliat he saveil about thirty liucks
fruin his bcst cwcs by Fortunc, and that
tli'-v lverealllate lambs.droppcd after thc 10th
of May, aud to my knowlcdge they wcre not
' lid on bread and butter," and be tidd me
tVv avcrascd betwccn five and sW pouuds.
Mr. Loyal C. Kcmclce and Myroti Wrigbt
Ksip told inc the samc rospcelini tlieir flocks
ol full blood yearlinjrs by Fortune. Tlicsc
last nameil gcntlemen raiscd eight full blood
bucks by Fortuue vtbich averaged ovcr six
pouuds uahcd wool, thrce out ofthe eight
.-lirwd -3 pouuds and one fourth. One of
thi'e bit, Mr. Vrisht has in his posscssion
niitv, the uool of which is ftnc cnough to suit
most any brecder, and I was infonned thathe
offere'J to Uy a liandsomc wagcr with any one
so di-.poscd, thathenould clip more woul
from aid shecp ncxt spiin tlian could be
fhcared from any other of tbe same agc in
And I will challenge Addison County, or
tlie State of Vermont, to nrodnce anv num-
bor of Iambs from twenty-five to fifly, out of
any onc UocK, by one buck, that shall
liear as niany pounds of clcan wool as can
bc s-heared ncxt Junc froui the samc numbcr
of lambs dropcd on my farm of Fortune's gct
tiug. llcspectinjr tlie eight of said buck's 4lli
flcece it was iust ten liounds. Said buck nri
out day timcs with 175 ewes in the fall of
1S42, and most peoplc will allow that itwonld
diminisli the quant'tty of wool. J.Iis flcccc
was taken offthc third dav after w:ashins at
only 1 1 months and 3 days growth, lie was
wasncu at me samc time and place witn tue
rest of my sheep under the falls, and a bcavy
streani of watcr, as faithful as thc rest of my
flock, it being after severaldays of rainy vveath
cr. (the Oth of June last.) Hence I will leave
it to the public to decide, if lie liad not bccn
ihearcd until the end of the ycar, he would
have gained in pure icool one pound more aud
inoil and dirt full anothcr pound which would
givc him a 12 pound fleece to say nothing
about thc hundreds of locks tliat wcre pulled
out of the ilccce by diffcrcnt individuals from
time to time before he was sheared, and tlie
hard service which he went through tbe fall
previous. Howevcr, it matiers not, in my
opinion, about the iciV7i ofthe ecce ofa
buck, the truc talue Iks in Uic slock which he
I have now about 300 Merino brecding ewcs
probably about 200 of thcm are ensciente by
Fottune, the remainder by another Merino
buck. I have also two hundrcd ewes of my
old flock euscieute by decendants of my two
"celebrated" heavy wooled bucks, and a few
of my best ewes by a buck that was
out ofthe nuted Rambouiltet flock that was
impoited from Francein 1640.
I have also about 200 ewcs, yearlings and
juuius, out oi i'eilro and Fortune.
As for my having Pauler Merino sheep I
have no more doubt about it than I should
have m a Native, Saxony or any other breed
ui uduic, tney can as wcll be distin-
guished by tlieir wool and form, without pro
ducing any further testimony which can bc
done from credible mcn.
SOLOMON W. JEWETT.
Weybridge, Fcb. 6th, 1844.
CIlC i30ll'5ll ZUtfC.
A STORX OF TUE REVOLUTIOS OF 1631.
' It was for thi? I lovcd liim so,
And LnUbcd hopcs tbat brigbtly sbonc;
My bcart my soul my weal below
My trust in beaven on Him alone:
All all was given to rctain
Onc so beloved not loved in Tain !
All cndcavors to discovcr the rctrcat of
Christiuc, wcre incfTectual; until. at lcnjtli, n
soldier of the cncmy's forces was brought in
pnsoncr, lrom whom Kolotski nscertaincu,
that his wife was in the power of his rival,
WrclschofF. Maddened with ragc, he med
itatcd an immcdiate attack upoti thc cnemy,
and was only restrained by thc cautious in
tcrfcrcnce of a velcran who suggcsted the
propriety of a more maturcd arrangcmcnt,
previous to cutcring upoii a coutcst in which
thc numbers wcre so uuequal. Rolofski,
howevcr, laughcd his comradc's fcars to
scorn, and iutcut solely ttpon the rescue of
his wife, he bcsougbt au lmmediatc attack.
Ilisappcal, howevcr, was incfTectual; thc
mimber of thc patriots was too small to ad
niit ofthe probability of succcss against the
cncmy's overwhclming forces, and some days
must clnpse bcroreareinforccment ofthe pat
riot party could arrive; but to Rolofski, that
luicrvui vtua piruuui wui uuiiger uuii iie
structiou. Unablc to inducc his associates
tothe attack, he vcnturcd to quit their as-
sembly with his young boy, in ordcr to at-j
tempt the releasc or his wife.
Ilegained tbevicinily of WrelschofTs quar- 1
tcrs, uuobscrved and unmolcsted, and pauscd
10 cousKicr upou me mnuy pians uiai sug- ;
gcstcil thcmsclves, all of which, howevcr,
vamsbcd upon cousidcration, nli'le tbe bare ,
ccrtainty of Cliristine's confiueineiit prcscnt
ed itsclf. Whilc musiug upou the probabili
ty of succcss, hc was challcngcd by au np- j
proacbing guard. 'Fricuds,' cxclaimed Ro- )
lofski!, 'friends to tbe Dukc!' !
'Nicliohis Rolofski!' rcjoiiicd thc guard, '1 1
kuow the voice.'
' You are niistakcn, fricud,' iimiicdiately ,
cxclaiuicd Rolou-ki, in thc apprchensiou of
dctection, ' I know 110 such namc.'
'And yet,' coutimied thc other, 'cachword .
you speak, more furcibly conviuccs mc that
I am not 111 crror. If you arc thc patriot, you
arc safo with me.
'Ay !' cxclaimed Rolofski.
'I sec I read Rolofski writtcn iu every
feature of that cxpressive facc. Rolofski,
who dcaltdcath so bravcly 111 thc attack up
on lns farm, and cliarmcu even ciicmies by
his daring valor.
'You arc an encmy to frcedom.'
'Xo, 110,' rcjoiucd thc guard, 'Ihavcquit
tcd forcvcr the service, aud am hasteiiiug to
cnlist undcr thc patriot's baiincr.'
'Then beaven bewilb you,' cxclaimed Ro
lofski, pressing thc eoldier's haud, '1 am Ro
lofski.' 'And vou seck your intrcpid wife,' said the
soldier, now sufTcriiig ituder ihe opjircssivc
tvrannv of rclschofT; but shc bears hcrsor-
rows bravcly. .Nevcr did inau olTcr grcntcr
tcmptations to wuinaii ncver did womaii
witbstand thcm more uoblv. Disdaining lib-
erty and cvcn hlc, siic rcsists me insuus 01 .
thecoinmandcr, aud scorns alikc his praycrs ;
and thrcatcuiiigs. Her gallaut couduct
charmcd inc, her stern devotion awed mc,
iuto virtue, and lo! iuspircd by thc virtueof
thc patriot's wife, I go tojoin the patriot's
Rolofski hcard tbe noble conduct of his . y0u would chcat me to dishonor, and Ict me are not uecdcd in Vermont to provc its 'par
wife with cxultatiou ; his lips qnivercd, and picture such a sccne 110 more' amount importance.' Our peoplc appfcci-
the tcar started to his eyelid, vt hile thc soj-1 Christine, it is resolved on ; but the fath- j atc the value of thc interests involvcd in ils
dicr rccapitulatcd his story, and pressing his cr's face will be concealed, and he will not maintcnancc, and well understand thc priu
hand fcrvcntly, be inquircd, what mcans ho ( know who it is that fircs tho instrument of. ciples on which it rests. But therc aromsit
cmild takc to refcuc his hclovcd.' 'Simply death, ncither will thc boy beaware ofthe ' tere conncctcd with thc main questiou which
this,' cxclaimed thc soldier, ' cxchangc clothcs
with mc, and takc my statiou iu thc guard
housc ; my fiight w ill uot thcu be discovercd,
nor in the hnrry and bnsiness of thc moincut, !
will the substitution. You will soon be or-1
dercd to guanl the cliambcr whcrcin thelacly .
is coufiiied : vou arc bold aud rcsolutc, aud to
a suirit such as vours ' 1
' llie rescue is ccrtain: iiitcrruptcd the
husbaud, and delightcd at thc anticipatcd re-
sult of his cxpedition, he hastily madc tho '
projectcd changc of attirc, and then, dircct- unconscious of the being w hom he would dc
ing tbe soldier to tbe rcndezvous ofthe pat- stroy; guards werc over him to direct thc
riots hc had just quitted, thc latter undcrtook child's hand, and every thing appearcd ready
to protcct the boy until liolofskrs return, as for the ccremony. Christine mstautfy avert
his appcaraiicc in thu guard housc might haz- cd her glancc, aud fell at the fcct ofthe au
ard dctection, and produce thc worst results. , thcr of this scene of liorror.
Rolofski thauked the guard for the suggcstiou 'Forthelove ofGod!' cried shc 'bythe
and also for In3 kind promise to jirotect thc hope of hcaven, stop these dreadful prepara
child: he fcarcd howevcr to trust him with a ' tions; it is Christine that has placed hcr
strangcr. But the lattcr immcdiatcly assurcd childwithalightcdmatchat the caunonVbead,
the patriot of his intcgrity, and also of the and gives the signal for the destruction ofRo
danser that would attcnd his projcctifthe lofski!'
boy wcnt with him ; the child too, requested
his fatlier to procceu aloue, as he was surc
the stnmgcr would not harm him, aud he
miglit lie serviceable iu directiug his passagc
to thc patriot's rctrcat: morcovcr. that ihe
safcty f Iiis mother dcpeudcd solely upou
this cautimi, and he cntreated, therefore, to
be alloucd to conduct their fricud. The
fathcr, unablc to resist such argumcnts, kiss- . attended him, with composure and placidity,
cd thc forehead of his boy, and commeuding and beheld the engiue of destruction without
him to tho carc of hcavcu, and the safe pro- the least emotion or dismay.
tcctiou of the strangcr, allowcd them to de-j 'Hedoesnot feartodie!' energeticallycx
part. He saw them desceud thc hill, aud ! claimed Christine. 'He falls as a Polish
cross the narrow valley; the soldier quick in ' patriot should fall, and beaven will receive
his movement. and the bnv
to conduct his fellow traveller, uutil the turn
ofthe road obscured thcm from his si"ht.
The fond parcnt thcn turned towards m des
tiuatiou, aud, with a burning heart, progress
ed rapidly towards the quarters of thc Rus
Rolofski drcamed not thathc was the ric
tim of trcachery, that the snares ofthe enemy
had complctcly cntrapped him, and that he
now hastencd to his doom! The fricud
w hom he had just quitted, and to whose pro
tection he had rcsigned his child, was a spy
of WrelschofTs aud immediately he bclieved
himself out of sight of his victim, he sccurcd
the boy aud hasteucd by a shorter path back
to the Russian quarters. Rolofski had gain
ed his destination, and mingled with the oth
er soldiers iu the guard housc. He had thus
far suceeeded in his projcct, and behold, in
his imagination, the speedy rescue of his be
loved wife, and the terminatiou of his anxious
Christine was coufined in on apartment,
froni which escape was altogether impracti- towards the cascment, and before thc guard
cable ; tnassy iron bars secured thc only win-, could withhold her, leapcd from her confine
dow that admitted liL'lit, and a sentinel was ' ment, and with the speed of lishteninjr rushcd
cver prescnt to watch her couduct. Wrel
schofThad cxnrcssed himself dctcrmiued up
on her detenuon, maddened by the rcflcction
that thc rival whom he had imagincd so sc
curely in his power, had cludcd his vengcauce
and deprived him thereby of au exquisiterc
vcnge. Christine, howevcr, had been se
cured, and thc idol of his passiou was bcyond
the possibility of assistauce or rescuc ; the
boy, too, had now bccome his prisoncr, and ,
he cxultingly discovercd Rolofski agaiu with- .
in his coils. lmmediatc orders werc givcn ,
lor thc arrcst ol Uic lattcr, who, at the mo- ,
ment he was projecting the releasc of Chris- ,
tine lrom ncr conlmement, was sccureu by
the guard, and conductcd to the samc pnson destruction of his rival; but a sudden tu- , 13 a marvellously couvenicnt aud a very "ju
from which bc had so Iately cscaped. The J mult from the rear c.xcited his attention, ti'fioM" word.
patriot instantly disccrncd the treachcry, and j and before he could collcct his thoughts But thsre is anothcr form of this disguisc.
in the anguish ofthe momcut ravcd in inco- ja vast body of patriot troops wcre upou him ; ' It is protection incidental to diicrimincling
hcrcut terms. and rcoucstcd tidinzs of his . and so quict and uupcrceivcd had beeu thcir . duties that is. duties that shall discrimiiiate
poor boy, but the lips of the guard wcre seal-
cd, and"he obtaiued no reply.
'Jladam, your child!' cxclaimed Wrcl-
schofT, as he cutered the apartmcnt of Chris-
tine with the boy. The niother shnekcd at ,
the sightof hcrdarliug, and springing towards
him, claspcd her arms around his little form
and pressing him to her matcrnal bosom, min
gled her tears with his.
' Madam.' continued WreIschofT,j ' the
child again is mine.'
And its fatbci 3' enquired Christine, in a
burst of agony.
'Is my prisoncr!'
Gracious lieaven forbid! she cricd, and
pressing her boy more passionately to her
throbbing heart, gave vent to her agony in
' Fortune has favored me, Christine,1 ex-
claimed the officer, 'and led within my power
tb.0se beingstLat have produccd such anguish
in my heart, such madness in my bosom. !
Vengeancc, Christine, will be satisfied, your
husband dies !'
.Oh no, you cannot be so very, very cruel,
'Thcre is no crueltv. Christian. in a most
Kevenge is monstrous, Wrelschoff; more !
f,t for demons than for mcn
Then mcn should not provoke it,' said the
ofTiccr, in n decisive tone ; ' the die is east, and
Christine scals her husband's doom.'
'I!' cxclaimed the agonized mother.
' You know the means by which he may be
'Oh, ycs,' rejoined Christine, and kissing
the white forehead of her boy, she pressed
him fondly to her bosom, and cxclaimed, 'I
know, too, that Nicholas Rolofski would rath
cr yield his life upon a scaffold, orat the can
non'sinouth, than that Christine should reudcr
herself uuworthy the distinction of a l'olish
' You have resolved 2' enquired AVrclschofl
and his eycs flashcd firc as he spoke.
'I have,' was the calm and dignificd rcply.
' Then be it so,' cried Wrelscholi", snatch
ing the boy from his mother's arms, and de
livering him to the guard 'Letitbeas I
liavc ordercd!' and the guard wilhdrew with
'Moustcr, what is it you do? give me
back my child !' cried the trembling mother,
as the door closcd upou thcm.
'Ay, ay,' rcplied WrelschofT, ' by-and-by
thc boy shall return ; hc has first a deed to ex
ecute, to scrve his country and his king.'
' What is it you mcau ?'
'Therc is a traitor to be shot to-day, and it
is resolved that the boy's hand shall bc tried
upon the firing ofthe cannon; that madam,
is all !
' Ah!' rcjoincd Christine, 'my mind pict-
urcs a sccne 01 liorror. Wrelscholi, your
loog confirm my fears; who, tell me, who is
the boy to shoot !'
The traitor, Nicholas Rolofski.'
shriekcd Christine. 'Recall those words, tcll
me they are false, are but to try me; say
individual who rcceives destruction. Behold,' 1
contined he, unfastcnine an iron window tliat
had ovcrlookcd ihe parade, 'behold thc prepar-
ations for the cxecution.'
Christine, cazed from the window, and be-
held the soldiers drawn up in nuhtary array,
nrenaratorv to the scenc of death that was to !
cnsuc: the cannon that was to destrov her !
husband was hxcd, aud her boy, her darling
boy, was by its side, holdine the lighted match
that was to fire the fearful iustrumcnt, wholly
'Monster, monster, cxclaimed sfie, 'how
can you force me to this state of sufTering ?'
' One word, Christine, and your husband's
saved. Behold !'
The procession was now secn advancing
towards the scene of death. Rolofski, appa-
rently resigncd to his impending fate, reccived :
the relifious consolation ofthe holv men that
his soul ! But my boy-
' One moment lonjrer, Christine and your
resolvc is of uo avail; say must he perish?'
'Notby the hand of his child; you will
not, dare not be so barbarous !'
' He dics !' ctied the officer, and hastily
quitted the apartment.
Christine shriekcd as she saw him depart :
she fnllnwfiil liim In ih flnnr tillt if wnfl rlos-
ed. fast aml firm. ct,o ,car.l thp hnlts iar in
the iron clasps, and she turned away discon-1 his adroitness hcrcin wo have had abundant
solate. The guard was her only companiou, j cvidence in his rcmarkable carecr. The "ju
but he was mute anrl niin PoiloMnn nrpr-; dicious tarifT" of Gen. Jackson furnished, in
less, gazing upon vacancy, her thounhts too
great for uttcrance, too violent for tcars.
The trumpet announcing the arrival ofthe
commanding officer upon the scene of death
awakened her from herstupor; shc shriekcd
and turning to the window Irom whence
Wrelschoffhad directed her attention to the
rirenarations for the exccution, discovered
that it had not been closed; inthe impulse
ofthe moment, the distracted mother sprung
VT. TVEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 14 1844.
towards the spot whcre her darling boy held
tue matcn ready to uestroy lns latlier!
The alarm was instantly spread, but the
action of Christine was too swift for preveu
tiou ; and cre her progress could be arrcsted,
shc struck tlie lightcd match from her child's
hand, aud in a frantic toue, cxclaimcd, ' Boy
loy, it is your (atlicr you irouW Icill ." Bolof
ski recoguized the voice, and tbe fcarful
words it breathed ; and starting from his
kneeling posture, rushed towards thc spot j
from whence it proceeded, aud in a momcut,
ciaspeu to 111s clespainug neari, me wuo ana .
child so dear to him. relschou furiously j
oruercu tnetr mstani scperauon, anu tne
progress, tbat the Russiau soldiers wcre sur- j
i prised and dcfeatcd, ere they could wcll im- ,
jagine the cause ofthe alann. llolofski head-I
I etl a party of his brave associates, and bcncath i
his arm the villain rclschofT fell in the first !
assault. Short, but dcsperatc was the cou- ' cnue only, thcu the protection may be justas have a duty imposcd which may, iu any case,
test, and itended in favorof the patriot troops. j ac-cidental as in the other casc; bccause it is i amount to prohibition. But now comes a
Rolofski was savcd, and he clasped to his bo- I very apparcut tliat Congress may discriminate spice of protection "If" he procecds, "it
som his faithful wife, and tlieir darling boy ; iu tbe manucr bcst suited to thc merc purposo be, at any time, deemed ueccssary to thc
whilst thc patriot troops plantcd tbe sacrcd of raising revenue, and have uoregard what-' safcty of the country to cncourage the man
bauncr of frcedom upon thc hcad-quartcrs of cver to protection, and, in fact, sive none to ufacture at home, of the articles nccessary to
uic dimj, diuiiui uic tuuuu 01 vic-inny
tory and Libcrty.
IzSf "Wc find in the Caledonian a spcech
of Mr. Slade delivcred at the Whig State
Conrcntion holden at Montpelier in October
1 . . . i i , r . 1. -,,., : .
' ' ' . , , ,
thc rennest of Krastns Fairbanks Esn. Thc 1
principal mattcrs disctisscd are, the position j
0f Mr. Van Burcn in rcgard to the tariff the
I ' f ; nrT.xns d lhp 1
1ucsuon 0 1 me annexauon 01 1 exas, ana lne
jappropriate action on the subjcct of 51avcrj-
all subiects ofcreat intercstto our readers, '
an j to the discussion of which we need not
, -ir rf :
urgetheir attention. Wc insert imour pres-
ent numbet the first half of that part ofthe j
snecch rclatins to thc first topic, and shall
confinuo thc speech from time 10 time in such I
, ... ii- 1
portions as may bc couvement to ourself and ,
our readers. Although the speech 13 some- ;
what extended, every pohtician will find in it ;
aconccntration of facts and argnmcnts which
will richly rcpay an attcntivc pcrusal.
SPEECH OF HON. WM. SLADE.
In the Dcmocratic Whig State Couvcntion
of Vermont, Oct21, 1843, thc questiou be
ing on tbe resolutions subscqucntly adopted
by tbe Couvcntion: Mr. Sladc spoke iu sub
stauce, as follows:
Mr. Presidext: The Couvcntion hav
ing madc arraugcments for organizing the
Vermont divisiou of thc Whig party for thc
purpose of giving efiicicncy to its opcrations
m the coming ycar, it remains to declarc by
resolutions, the lcadiug priuciples by which
it is to be guidcd aud animatcd. Those priu
ciples arc substautially embodied in the reso
lutions now before thc Couvention. Thc
first of them is as follows.
" Hesolce d, iu view of the productions of
our soil, the vast extcnt of our tcrritory, the
iinprovements in agriculturc, aud thc incrcas
ing facilities for transportation, that vtc re
coguize as the only mcniis of crcatiug aud
perpetuating a markct for our surphi3 pro
duce, tho paraniount importance of a pro
tectivc TarifT, and thc pcrmaucnt coutinuance
of tho protcctive Policy as regards the cn
couragement of Manufacturcs, Agriculturc,
and thcj-arious Mechauic arts."
It is not my purpose to discuss the gencral
mcrits of the protcctive policy. Artuments
need discussion. I he rcsolution spcaks of
"the ptrmanent conltnuance ot thc protcctive
policy?" How is it to bc contiuucd? How
is pcrmancucc audstability to bc givcn to it?
Thesc are questions at this momcnt of grcat
importaucc. They should be well cousider-
ed. It is not cnough that we have a good
tarifT. It must be maintained. It wcre bet-
tcr, indeed, that it had not bccn cnactcd,than,
having bccn, that it should be abandoucd, or
so impaired in its efiicicncy, that thciutcrcsts
which have been quickcncd into life by it,
should have fclt that life only to yield it up
to the axe of the cxecutioncr. This gencral
truth is apparcnt; but thc danger impending
may not be so apparcnt to all. That danger
is uot from the open cnemics of protection.
The Calhouus and McDuflies are harnilcss.
We knoiv where to find them and how to
meet them. B tit thc profcsstd friends of pro
tection tbe men who talk protecticn whcn
thcir faccs arc towards the North, and anti
protection whcn they look in the oppositedi
rection, who, in fact, begin a sentcnce with
protection, and end it with free trade, thesc
arc thc men to be feared. The protectcd in
tcrcsts may well say in reiercnce to sucu meu
Savc us from our friends.
Now, sir, it should be an essential part of
our prcparatiou for the coming contest, that
wc look at thesc men sharply, and cndeavor
to penetrate their disguiscs. The great in
tcrcsts involvcd in ourcherished policy should
nothe committed for safe-kceping, to men of
doubtful fidelity to thcse intcrcsts. It is not
to be disguised that in the contest ofthe com
ing year a contest involviug in its results the
character of our national policy probably for
a long time to come our main conflict is to
be with men of this stamp. The current
signs but too plaiuly indicate ihat the banner
of our opponcnts is to beborneby "aNortb
ern man with Southem principles" a man,
who of all other hving mcn, is thc most adroit
in the arts of political legerdemain; and who
will not be slow to practice thcm in reference
. to the otiestion of the protective policy,
its wondcrful adaptedcssto every phase of
opinion on this subject, evident marks of this
pateruity. J nai uisguise is woru oui, anu
"incidenfa? protectiou" has beensubstituted.
Ask a disciple of this school if he is in favor
M . - - iP M,(,ml.li, tl.
Ol protectiou. ci taiuij i.1-1 , w
reply. 'I am in favor of incidental protec-
tion.' It will not do to abandon protection,
But what is incidental protection ? This is a
gravo qnestion. Is there any thing lixed and
dcfinite in thb idea? Incidental to vfhit?
Incidcutal to thc raising of rcvcnuc is the rc-
ply. But how ! Incidental to the merc act
of raising revenue, by whatevcr rates of
dutics? Isthcgrcat claim of protection to
be answered by the merc fact that an aniount
of revenue is to bc raised adequate to tbe
wants of the government.' If so, thcn if thc
govcrnment can most convcnicntly raisc the
requircd amount, from half a dozcn articles,
no matter what they may be, there is, thcn, ,
protection to thc cxteut of thc idcaexpressed
tiy too woru mciuental. ilus would be ac-
cidcntal protection, and, of course, might be .
no protection at all. And that isjust thc pro -
tcctiou that the most strenuous advocatcs of !
irce traue arewidingto givc. Forthose nho I
wish to look onc vray and row the other ,
and therc are cnough of tbem "incidental"
as to the rates of duty, betwccn difTcrent ar-
ticles. But hcre tbe questiou ariscs Vhat
shall bc the rulc of discrimination? Shall it '
have rcspect to the pnrpose of revenue or to )
tbatof protection? Ifto thc purpose ofrev-
mieresi. ji aotinuani revenue oe tlie I
only purpose, the duties may be laid mainly more proper than to do so by a discrimination
on articles which do not comc in compctition ( in favor of the domestic manufacturc, inas
with any thing we produce; leaviug those ' much a3 the objecl in view is to promotc thc
which do thus compctc, subjcct to a duty giv- ! safcty of all at thc expense of all."
ing 110 protection. Indeed a duty of fiftcen So then we must wait till wc are threatcn
pcrcent. on the lattcr classof articles would, 'ed with war, and in the condition in which
by reason of tho lieavy lmportatious tindcr
such a duty, raisc, probably, more revenue
.1 m -n ...
than 40 or 50 pcr cctit.
So, then, we may have a discriminating
tariff, aud yet have 110 adequate protection.
Imlecdtlie discriniiuatiou may beforthevcry
pUrp0se of dcstroying protection. Away,
thcn, with goneral, indefinitc languagc, 1
onlv suited to tbe purpose of doublc dcalin;, I
and hold the professed friends of a protcctive j
. ,ruc .. ,,..... and comt)e,
tariff to sometnmg whichsiiall lastcn ihem
tlem t0 toe ,jlc mari,-t or go 0pculy to tlieir
What, thcu, I may bc asked do we want?
I answcr Discrimination fur llte sake of vro-
. sq that if a of twclltni.
;0U3 ;s necded, it shall, by discrimiuatiou, bc
ndjustcd upou thc various articles of nuporta
tion moderate upon tbosc we do uot pro
duce, and high 011 those wc do so as to raisc
the amount rcquircd. and give protection to
our own iudustry. Every one must sce ihat
such a discrimination is very diffcrcnt from
that which has rcspect to the singlc purpose
of raising the twcnty millions. Thc one
would keep protcctiou stcadily iu vicw.aiul sc
curcit; thc otherwould look to revenue alone,
aud, that sccurcd, would have protection to
take carc of itself.
I have laid don u thesc priuciples which
no intclligcut fricud of the protcctive policy
will undcrtake to controvcrt forthe purpose
of tcsting the doctrines of the grcat leader of
Locofocoism, as we hnu thcm sct lortfi 111 his
letler, datcd the 15th of Fcbruary last, in re
ply to iutcrrogatories addresscd to him by
"the Dcmocratic".State Convcntion of In
diana, heldat Amiapolisou the 8th of January
1843. It coiitains a formal cxpnsitinn or ratk-
er mystification, of his vicws on thc subject of
thc protcctive policy; auu is prouaoiy 10 ic
thc formula of the doctrines 011 tliis subjcct
during thc canvas? of 1844.
Mr. Van Burcn ojiens his expositiou by re
ferring to lits lettcr " to tlie Shocco Springs
mccting in 1832," in which hc says hc "dis
tiuctly avoweu a conviction that the establish
ment of commercial regulations with a view
to the cnconragcmcut of domestic intcrcsts is
within thc Constitutioaal power of Con
gress." IIc goes on to say
"More than ten years have clapsed sincc
that commuuication was madc; and during
that cntirc period the people of the L'nited
States have paid large amounts of duties a
vowcdly imposed for the encouragcmcnt and
protection of domestic manufacturcs, with
gradual rcductions according to the provis
ious of the compromisc act of 1833. Thc
unbiascd sentimeut of the country in rcspect (
to what is, undcr such circumstances, the
proper rnlc for legislativc action upon this
subjcct has, I think. by thc course of evcnls
and thc progress of opinionf been bronght to
the conclusion briefly cxprcssed in onc ofthe
rcsilutions of yourconventiou, viz: "11 dis-
. r v. i ,t ri fl fnr rr ntif ntirrV)tJI tinltt.
,;V7. ,rill inridrnlnllv motrct jlmerican
Indiiitry." j "The man of wcalth, whenhe pays a tax
Hcre, thcn, wc havo Mr. Vun Burcn's I in thc form ofimpost which inures, incident
'rulc for legislation upon the subjcct," viz: ally tothe advancement of a special interrsl,
OXLY. 1 in which he is not concerned" (as though the
and which will incidcntally protcct Amcrican
industry." Hcre is professed protectiou.
But what is it.' lucidcntal protection; aud
incidental to discrimination. But what sort
of discrimination? Discrimination for the
purpose of protection? Oh no. No such
purpose cnters into his contemplation. He
takes, indeed special carc to exclude it, by
declaring that discrimination must be for rcv-
I enue purposes.and for revenue purposcs only.
tal protection, "all fair and nicc." and yet both
arc rcndered nucaton- by a qualification whicli
exprcssly excludes every other purpose from
.tl,r,,ip, nf Wislatinn"but that of raisina
That Mr. Van Buren intended to make a
oad distinction between a tariff for revenue
and a tarifT for protection is not lcft to a mcre
constmction of the language of his "rule ofj discrimination in ror of articles necessary
le-islation." He is hU own cxposilor; for, to his comfort, thatis, lettmg in frceof duty,
a little further ou his lettcr, after having dis- articles competiog with the manufactures nec
cussed the ceneral questiou as to thc raising essao tohiscomfortjthattheimusticetownich
of revenue by imposts compared with direct , he is exposcd can be mitigated. It discnm
taxatiou. he saysi- .inaliou is, therefore, power, the constant
"Of the great raass of opponents to a pro- 1 and faithful exercise of which is, in my judg
tective tarifT. there is not, so far as I know, a ment, demanded by considerations of justice,
single State or even district, that has takcn
grounus against a revenue uinii.
So. thcu, a "revenue tariff" is a very dif-
fprpnt thinr?. in his estimation, from a "pro-
ponents to a protective tariff; and yet a tariff. it is discrimination of a precisely opposite
discriminating for mcre revenue pnrposes, is ! character, dUcrimmation "in favor of arti
thc onlv tariff to which thia professed friend cles" used bythe poor man; that is, let-
fiti . U:,alfl trr tliPrr. in frPP nf rlntv iinnn iheSUPDOSl-
nt nroiecuon is iviiiius iu luiuuiii ui.
lirUlCl-UUU a i. '0
nn '-- t 1 ni n ; riilltr fnnflrmprl
by anotlier passagc in this remarkable letler.
pr,Wnn he savs "ofthe constitutional
lloubt." Tbis Iooks like affirming the doc-1 rests upon the assumption that an mcrease ol
trine ofthe right to discriminate for protec-! duties increases the pnces to the same a
Uon: for if he were speakiug of discrimina- I mount, when the whole history ofthe protec
tion for revenue purposes only.why thus treat , tive policy shows that this is not true ; but
the right of discrimination as though it was a that in fact, an increase of duty sometimes
solcmlt. quesUon about which thlre was a even dirainisbcs the pnce; whde w.tfc that
dispute, and upon which he dccmcd it itnpor-
taut to say he had "no doubt," whcn be wcll
knew that the constitutional right to discrim-
inate for the purpose of revenue was nevcr
doubted by auy body. He evidcntly iutend-
cd that this should sccm to bc au aflirmatiou
of the constitutional right to discriminate, for
protection; and, yet before closing the para-
graph he qualifics it all away Itgocsoffiu
vapor; for he procecds thus
"Equally clear it i, that the practice of
makmz tliera (discriinuiations) has existed
from the commcnccment of tlie govcrnment,
and coustitutes a feature in every priacipal
tariff bill w hich is to bc found upon our stat-
utc liook. They (discnnuuatious) are, m
dced, iudispensible to the successful opera-
tiouot every rcvcnuc bill Ine
ery rcvcnuc bill (here he puts on tlie
revenue face) whetbcr the design bc to guard
against smuggling on thc one haud, wheu the
nature of the aniclc is such as to afford fa
cilities for that practice, or on the other, to
prevcnt loss to the 1 reasury by thc unposi
tion of duties highcr than the value of the
articlc will bear, aud thus prohibiting its in-
troduction into the country,"
Hcre is discrimination downward, to pro-
vent smugghng; and a spccial cnre not to
ns ueiencc in oase 01 war, uoinmg caa be
tlie war ot isi2 lounu us, bctore we may
move a step in the matter of protection.
uir .:..;. l,
"If, at any time it bc deemed nccessary or
conducive to thc safety of the country to en-
courage the manutacture ot articles ncccssa
ry for defencc in war" then "nothiug can bc
more proper than discrimination" for that
Having thus touched npon "discrimina-
tion in favor of domestic manufacturcs''
not, iiowevcr, lor wic puqnise 01 proiecung
industrv but to provide the means of dcfence
in war, he strikcs ofi" into a very dilTercnt
sort of discrimination (discrimination to let
m articles free of duty) 111 the following man-
"Discriminations have constantly been
inade in favor of articles imported for the usc
of philosophical or litcrary societies, for thc
cncouragemcnt of the fine arts, or for ihe usc
01 beminaries ol lcaruing, spccuucns in nat
ural histoty, animals imported to breed, &c.
tcc. kc. all fouudcd on the samc principlcs,
in rcspect to the uuivcrsatity of the benefits
desigucd to be secured at thc coimuon ex
pense." And what has all this to do with the pro
tcctive policy, unless it be to covcr up his
bostility to it by talking largcly of discrimi
nation for purposcs which have no relatiou to
He now procecds to a most insidious. aud
disingcnuous argument against protection,
which he addresscs, in cfl'ect, to thc poorcr
classcs, iu thc following languagc.
"But abovc all, is the power to make thcm
(discriminations) of indispensable importance,
as thc only mcans of rclicving thc poorer
classes from thc unequal operation of this
modc of collccting the public revcnues, and
of partially rcaliziug Mr. JefTcrson's idea of
a wise auu Irugal govcrnment onc which
shall restraiu mcn from injuring onc another,
and shall Icave them otherwisc frcc to regu
Ute thcir owu pursuits of industry and im
prnvcmcnt ; aud shall not take from the mouth
of labor the bread it has carncd."
What sort of discrimination is it which is
thus to favor thc poor to "realize Mr JeflT
ersou's bcautiful idea" to "rcstrain men
from injuring one other," andto " leave them
to rcgulate tlieir own pursuits of industry !"
Why, it is the samc kind of discrimination of
which hc had just spoken, namely admit-
ting articles frec of dnty. This is the dis-
cnmination wmcii is"not to lake irom tue
mouth of labor tlie bread it has carncd" as
though a discrimination involving, not frce
don from duty, but a prolecting duty, would
take ihc carncd bread from labor's mouth,
when it notoriously fdls thc lnoulh of labor
by giving it good wages, with a stcady dcinand.
A protecting tanfi is cmphatically the poor
mau's friend. This truth is writtcn 011 every
page of the history of our tarifT policy, a
truth which Mr Van Buren cnlirely ovcr
looks ; while discrimination for free trade is
held up as a boou for povcrty to cuvct. ilc
! then procecds as follo'
, !iolc community rich and poor, wcre 'not
concerned in the proteetion of every branch
ofour industry) ' is, in a dcgrce rcconcilcd
by the reflcction that, if the amount paid was
. . ... . 1 r . ,.1 1
not coiiccteu in tuis iorm, 11 wuuiu uc .isscsn
ed upon him in anothcr, referring to direct
taxation by which the amount of his contri
lmtinn in cnmnarison with those of his less
alllucnt ncighbour.would be matenaly cnhan-
ceu. uut 10 tne poor man, no ucn cuusuia-
tio n is afibrded. The system that is tlie pro-
! tecting system which operates thus favorably
, to his more fortunatc neighbor, increases lns
tax inan inver3e ratio to 111s awnty to pay .
' Even' additioual mouth that hc has to feed
i adds to the conlribution heis obliged to make
1 for thc support of government. Mr an
' Buren secs nolhing but "taxes" and ' contn-
butions,' in a pjotective tanU !J ii is oniy oy
: humamty and sound policy.
What discrimination is this, which 13 thus
demanded ? Out of its connection with what
precedes it, it may be taken and quoted, as it
often has been, as discrimination fbr protect-
when. connected viih what coes before.
o " ' .
a . -
1 tinn lliat he i thfirebv bcuitltteu.
j This 13 the complexion to wbich Mr v an
, Buren's professioos of fnendship for a pro
tective tarifT coire at last, His conclusion
THE NORTHERN GALAXY,
H rCEMSIIED EVERT WEDSESDAT MOEHIS
IX STEWART'S BCIl.DI?rGSr
BY J. COBB JR.
BT WDOH ALL OKDSKS TOVL rBlSTtS
Of every description will be neatly and
fashionably exccuted, at short notice.
diminution is connected another advantnce
to the cousumcr that of the incrcased dc
mnnd for labor and all its prodncts, which full
employ ment of our mauufacturing facilities
The nianner in whicli protection, rrctingdi'
rectly on articles of manufacturc, difiues its
benefits through thc nholc community, and
acts on labor in all ils departmeuts, Mr Vau
liurcn secms not to understand. He aflects,
ou the contrary, to considcr protection as iu
uring to the bcnclit ofthe manufacturcr ex
clusively, whosc iuterests seem to him to be
built up at the expcnsc of other classes, and
especially the poorcr classes of thecommuui-
" Ihe position assumed by yonr convpn-
tion," he says, ' andin which I fully concur.
is, that the incideutial protection thus dtri-
vcd, that is, as before quoted, from 'a dis
criminating tarilTfor revenue purposes only'
is all the legislativc favor which can, at tliis
time, be conferrcd upon thc manufacturer,
without grcat injustice to other intcrcsts.
We have it from quartcrs entitlcd to r spect,
that thc most considerate of the di.mestic
manufacturers are satisfied with this mcasurc
hcre those " corjidcrate manufactur
ers" are tobe found hedoo not tcll. They
must be manufacturers of public rpinion
against protection; for 110 other could be sat
isfied with thc prmcinle, which as 1 have
shown, utterly cxcludcs protectiou frc m the
purposes ofa larill", and makes discrimination
for Tctenxie only, the"ru!e of lgi:latiii '
this subjr-ct. And noiv comes one of thc
most insidious thrusts at the protective sys
tcm through thc manufacturers that have
ever seen. Referring to the ' cots'deratc
manufacturers," he procceds to say
" Conscious of thc extcnt to which. for
more than a quartcr of a century tln-y havv;
cngrossed the time and attention ofthena
tional lcgislaturc, and ofthe people as hotigh
" the peopln" had been annoyed by the man
ufacturcrs, with whom they had no ccmmu
uity of inlcrcst and of ihe milliuns upi n mil
lions whicli have, dnring that time l.ei n col
Iccted from the lalter, avowedly lo f. 11 ilitate
and give spccial advantage to thc par'icular
pursuit in which they are engaged, ui t only
to the cxchisinn of, but at the imrr.cdiatc
costoflhnsc ofothers; hcre is thc stereo
lyped anfi-protccliou argument, w hi h has
been a tbotisaud times ansuered sctisible,
as thc most obscrv ing nmongthein 11. us: be.
that thc pcriod has passcd away when a tarilT
( dcsigncd for protection cau bc kcpt up in this
country uithout domg more mjury to every
iuterest by iho convulsions and rcvulsions
which it ranunt fa'l to produce in public opin
ion, than it can rcmfer bcnefit on thcirs, they
would llicms-chcs prefer ihat ihe protectinn
sccurcd to them by thcleciskition nfCVnprrss
should bc tbat which is incidcntally cerivcd
from a rcvcnuc tariff."
Whcrc Ict me repcat, are those 'considerate,-
observinc" manufacturers, nbohaie
abandoncd thc idea of kccping up a protective
tarifTJ What authori'y has Mr VanBurtn
for putling such languagc as this inio tln ir
montlis? for thus giving up, in iheir namc.
and as by thcir anthority, a tarifT " dtiipned"
for protection ? ihe only kind of taiiff tliat
ever did or evcr will. efTectually sccure to ibo
country the bcnefits of the protective poli
cy. But to procced. Mr. au Bnrcn gocs on
to admonish thc manufacturers to an r.cqui
escence in his sort of tariff, by referring to llie
danger which he pmfesses lo sec, that thc
whole systcm of raising revenue by impost.s
will bc supcrscded by a rcsort to a systcm of
dircct taxation ; in conuexiou with wlueh he
"The manufacturers cannot be iguorant of
the fact that prcjudicc against direct taxation,
springing, in some degrci', at Icast.from asup
poscd abusc of the poncr in times past, may
yield to time aud rcficrtiou, or may bc sup
planted by a new aud stroiigcr nntipalhy.
lAntipathy against a protective tariff lie evi-
dcntly incans. And what could be more
, likcly to awakcn popular aversion than the
stglit ol a grcat am! alllucnt intcrcst in tbc
country, mcauingthc manufacturing intcr
cst, stnnding out amid tbe ge neral glnom,
pcrtiiiarioiisly cxcrling its iuflucnce in thc
cnuncils of the nation, not only to saie itself
from the misfortuncs uhich had ovcrtakcn all
other classes, but to sccure its unu rggnin
dizcinent by new and unjiist impnsitior s 011 a
community already borne to theearth by ihc
adverse course of eveuts."
Now, why parade thc inamifactiiring intcr
cst as "great and aflliient amid Ihc gencral
gloom" but to creale thc impressiou that it.s
prosperity nccessarily deprcsses tbe orher iu
terests, nd produces general gloom? Ai.d
why is this "nflluent intcrest" prcscntcd iu
thc atlitudc of pertinaciously cxerting its iu
flucnce in the counciU ofthe nation tosccr.ro
its own aggrandizeineut by new and utijtist
iuipositions na an already opprcsscd coinniu
nity," but to awaken the very "popular nvcr
ion" which he alTccts to dcprecate? But
thc most direct thrust is yet to bc madc:
"Individuals and thcir fainilics," he adds,
"may be, and in other countries aic, per
manently billcttcd on tbc public coflcrs; but
all cxperiencc has shown tuat.with us at Iea.,
it is not in the power of govcrnment to sc
cure permaneut advantagcs to the biisine.-'s
pursuits of onc clasa ovcr those of all oib
crs." And thus, Mr. Vau Buren dcems the pen
sion systems of the govcrnments of Europf.
by which fainilics are billeted on thc public
coffcrs, a fitting illustration of thc cncour
agemcnt afforded by a nriff for protection, to
"the business" of manufacturing in the U.
States! Mr. Van Burcn knnws that this is a
rcprcsentation of tlie casc rank w ith thc gross
C3t fraud upon thc public mind; forheknows
tbat a measure of protection which shall es
tablish our manufacturcs upon a firm basis
will, by nccessary conscquence, give vigor and
activity to the energies of all tbe producing
classes. Such has notoriously been the re
sult, and such will, manifestly, always be the
resnlt, of adequate protection to manufactur
ing industfy connected, as of course it
should be, with protection to the raw male
rials, when it is iu our power, or for our iu
terest, to produce them.
I might procced with similar cxtracts from
this remarkable Ietter; but enough has been
presented to show what it is, and to exhibit
its author in his true character destitute of
the frankncs3 and manliness becoming a
ttatesman striving to conceal from commou
observation, by circumlocution and qualifica
tions, his real hostilily to protection, uiug
terms which seem to be cxpressive of the
true doctrines on that subject, and yet skd
fully throwing them into such conucxions as
entirely to change their bearing and destroy
To be continued.