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title: 'The Northern galaxy. (Middlebury, Vt.) 1844-1848, March 06, 1844, Image 1',
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EplTOR AND TROPRIETOR.
THE NORTHERN GALAXT,
If rDBLIIHED KVIBT KIDKSDiT UORlflKa
BY J. COBB JR.
BY TTHOJC ALL UEDIELI TOJt rilSIUt
OF EIGHTH VOI.UME.
'! i" iU aoJ Cosipanioi who taka
. 1.- .-: 1 00 nn
n-''e" ' ;j ,t i-ccnd ofthe ycar 2. 25
,i JiontiiiMeJ uotil nrrearan are paid
$JIu'C llieoptioaofthcproprietor. f'o pajmeit
3 -iigncJtxccptordcrtd bj th proprio-
i"';. , -,T,nications rauf.be iddrefscd totl.ced-
, Tiir nir.Tnn.vT or washington.
itik T T!,E orBS,s'1 0F T,,E CELE"
11 rniTioN os TnutsoAr f.ve.mso.
s,ui i m J" ,l crn-r-!'t:ae dropp'd from thc
lonitsdato, but remember its fall,
V.Vti.iT.e thal'oniihand may rcplace it;
,'. Jms'gj'us pride when with poinp it vaslaid,
',' j lor thc min its absence has madc,
' . lapse of the ycars tliat efface it.
W;ihii)ston's dealh, when ye ihink of his
,,,''rr'''jm your thoughts he the lighmess of
,' ',, l'omvour cheekhe itssinilc.
1 1' . X s hure 'ivras a loan not a gift :
i . 'i-ti'f l.isl'O-Iv is all ihatislcft
1 Jn'h.llowliis ftuicral pile.
r i oc:itl..ro!omac! thou washest away
T'Jc,r.,i,VlierehetroJl and theturf whcrc he
V, h-'ii v-nuli broli'd his check with hcr wing;
HOTth- -.ifilr, vc wild winds, thatcirclc aroucd
1 it d-are and purot, andholiest ground
E;:t jircssi by thc fjotprints of Spiing.
E-rh bret n If a !-i?h, ad cach dewdrop a tcar,
h wavc ! a wfciperiDg monitor ncar,
To nuiind the sad shoie 01" his story ;
fi ' .'ar.iT, and solier, and sadder the plocm
Otuui c-.ergrcea lnourner that bcnds o'cr thp
V1 t-re Washington sleeps in his glory.
Grt God' when the spirit of freedcm .-.hall fail,
ir.J ihe si'iis of the pilgrims in sorrow bcwail
Tiifir rehsiun and liberty gonc;
0h! vnJ tack a form that fhall stand as le stood,
Vna!!ue.l bv thc teuipcst,unmoved by thc llood;
A:d to Thce be thc plory alcnc.
A KASUISCTOSIAS SOSO.
Sang at the Temperance Tea-Party Mid
dltbury. Thursday cvcning Feb. 2d.
It vms stated that at the nicctiuj; of
th! Young Mcu's Tcni)crance Society after
tln !.;'e M-sjiun of the County Court, at whicli
ilic Kcport as tnade by its Comiuittce of
the iri 01 thc Society s .Mcinonal asamst
ihe ;r intiuj of licciKcs i thc Court, onc of
the onii'wl lor tlie aplicauts was present, anu
arwd lli" Society, with some fcctin;. tliat
a rf artion would lake plarr, tliat peoplc
noul'l iiot uliniU to be driicn over hy tbc
car of Jui!irrnaiit. A mcmbcr prcsenl, a
Bicb iinc by profession, thc itiuler in fact
ot tlm paper, intcrposeil, sayin; ' It h nut
JCG 01 .mit it:s ii Jl'g!" J iie eprcsion
naj c.iuslit at by a Waslmiptoni.m vcrse-nia-icr.
and made tlie snbject of tlir son?.
A iroud part oftlicjnke nas:li.it ihe learn-
fj cninisi'l liinvclf wa present nt tlir cclcbra
tiin.iVrscciiiod ilipnsrd to enjoy as w ell asany
limly the hencGccnt projre-3 of liis car of
tcrror. Tlie bin'T, at thc sauic time. rcnsiiHl
cil the WI115 portion of thc coinpany tliat tlie
tunc uould bc f.uniliar to tliem as a rcmiiani
thr efa of IP-10, ivlien lliey lind sntis it to
wli it -as callcd the Wlii- Natiooal Autbrm
of Tinnccanoc and Tler too' and calkil
tipon all wlio crc disposcd prcscut to unitc
ni the chortis. I
O uli.it ran meaa this aitation
Taliun up-Ii U and downl
It ihe rnpf it is thc put,
II ii thc Car of Jcn-on-'oT
Ii U the Car of Jcc-or.-Nor!
And its nhepla ill crusli errry glasl
Class glnac ve used topass;
And iu uheels will rrusb ecr' gbs.
Krre fromtlie road-side comci a daughtcr,
Ia.ighter uceping but jlad;
Hcr fithci'rf Imtile blie has got
To put under thc Car of Jug-or-Not,
To put under ibe Car of Jug-or-Xot
And its uhccli rrush ctery glasi!
G!n?s jlasses ne ucd to pass;
And ita wliceU will crusb crcry glass.
T!if lad'K1- are plcnly that Iiclinld her
Hoh! Iier nccpinj for Dad;
And all th:ir tlecantcrs out liaic brouht,
As a patcment til for Jug-or-iot,
A paiement fit for Jug-or-Not
An-I its uhccls ill cull cicry glass
GUss glasses nc uscd to pass;
And its uhecls will cmsh crcry glass.
Tlie Ministcr brings his toddy cup,
Cnp wiili no in:
li h not the ' Bee when his wood we got,
But it is ihe Car of Jnj-or-N'ot,
It is thc Car of Jttg-or-Xot
And iis nhceU ill cras-h etery glass,
Olass glasse? vc u.ed 10 pass;
And iu nheeU will cnub ccry glass.
Thc Lawyerbtinj bis Clicnt's cup
Cup-and aski us 10 fill;
Lct him fill it hiinelf ihe tip hc'd got
Wc ask no fL-e lijr Jug-or-Xot,
We ask no fees fur Jug-or-?iot;
And its nbeels w ill crui crcry glass,
Glasi glasscs wcued to pass;
And it- wbcels will cmsh erery glass.
A peneive uor&bippcr is thc Whig
Wliig fartin for Clayj
Hardcidcr will savc him somc applcs that rot,
Nor hinder thc progrcss of Jugr-Not,
Nor hinJcr the progrcss of Jug-or-?iot!
But its wbecls w ill cru&h cicry glass,
Glaj:s glasscs wc ud to pars;
But its whcels thall crusli etery glasi.
And cuaninger is the Loco-foco
Foco of thc Van Buren school:
Eaclt votcr is wclcomc to go to pot,
Or tug at the Car of Jug-or-Not,
Or tug at ihe Car uf Jug-or-N'ot
As its whcels bliall cmrliccry glass,
Glass glasses we used to pass;
And its wlieels shall cnish cerj glasi.
The Clmrchman lias another motto
3Iotto uo wine, no Bishop too!
His cannon was charged ivhh apistol ibct,
To cripple thc Car of Jugr-N'ot,
To cripple tlie Car of Jug-or-Xot
But U ubecU will crub ciety glasi,
Glass glasscs wc ued to pass;
But its u'heeli will crush erciy glasi.
The river Ganges is full of water,
Water and eoare othcr streams;
Well drink at tbeir brim from hinds al hot,
That handle the ropes of Jug-or-Xot,
That handle the ropes of Jug-or-Not
When its wheels sball cnish evory glai,
Gbi gliKes w used to pa j;
WUaiu TPbwU sball cmih rry jla'ss.
Tor the Notthern Galaxy.
II. Bell. Esq.
I addrcsscd a letter to thc Hon. Wm. Jar-
vis of Weathersfield this state, rcqucsting
him to give me a history of the mauagement
of shcep in Spain : also particularly to de-
scribe the diflcrcnt kinds of merino sheep
nhich lic impartcd, with cny knowldege he
might hare of other importations which have
becn madc iuto this country by other gcntlc-
I was led to this from hating scen sevcral
writtcn by differcnt gctitlcnicn, in which the
writcrs have laborcdtocnlightcu thc public rel-
ativc to the diflcrcnt varicties ofmcriuo shcep
particularly thc Paular. And while it is cx
pectcd that creat latitudc wiil bc takcti by the
writcrs to our agricuhural papcrs, jct I have
supposcd there was a liinit. Certainly there
ought to bc, othcrwise our agricultural pcri
odicals will have no valuc. No one iu our
conutry is better qualified to writc on this
subjcct than Mr. Jarvis. I felt that a coni
mutiication from him would bc vnluable at
this time, a3 it would serve to correct some
crrors which othcrs have falleu iuto.
I have reccivcd a rcply to my inqiiirics, to
my cntirc satisfactiou. With his pcrtnission,
I scnd a copy to you for ptiblication.
LEANDER D. GREGORX".
Weybridge, Fch. 27, 18 tl.
IMPORTATION OF MERINO SHEEP.
WEATUcnsFiELn, Jan. 31, 1814.
L. D. GncooRr, Estj.
DcarSir: In rcply to your letter of thc
15th iiist., rcqucstinjr inc to cive vott an rc-
cotiut of tho Mcrino herp of Spaiu and their
iuirodurtion inlo this country, &c. &c, I
ihall with pleasnrc do itso far as my mcmory
scrves mc, nud I bclici-e that nill bc fouud to
no toioraoiy eorrcct, as 1 lonj since cavo
miicn aitcniioii to iuc suiijcct. Irom a couvic- 1m llocx altcr they reaclicu L.iMion. 1 pur
tion th-.t the w ool growing biisincss in thc ' ch.ued about seventccn hundred of the Ai
Unitcd States would provc a sourcc ofna-' gucirras flock of thc Junla and thcrcniaiudcr
tional prospcrity. In Spain thc fine woolcd ; nas sold and scnt to England. Thc Montar
sheep arc dividcil into two classcs; the trash- co flock was bought by a Spaniard aud a Por-
tiiiiantos or travcling shcep and tlie cstautes ,
or slationary sheep. Thc wod! of the trah- ;
iiiiiaiues is vcry iniicii supenor to tliat ol tlie ' to tlie Initcd fclatcs, tlie iourteen liundrcu
cstautes, owiug, tindoiibtedly, to thc supcrior j Paulars, oue thousaud scvcnhundred Agncir
carc aud attcntion which is ghen to them. , ras, tno hundred Escurial, onc hundred Iseg
Tho trashuniantcs are owned in flocks from rcltis and abaut two hundred Montarcos. Of
o.UUO to yo.GOO ; the largcr flocks are placrd
liiidcr tlie siipcriutcndcncc ot n niayoral, ulio ' Wiscasscn aml I'ortland, onc tnousanu one
h.is thc whulccoutrol over the flock iaunua'.ly hundred to ISoston and Ncwburyport, oue
acc-ountswiili thc owncr for thc uctt income. thousand five hundred to New York, three
Two slicpltcrds, four dogsand a pack-horse ' hundred and fifty to l'hiladelphia, two hun
or miile arc cmploycd for cvery thousand ' djed and fifty to Baltimore, onc hmidrcd to
sihccp. The travcling sheep are dividcd into , Alexaudria, and two huudred to Norfolk and
three cla?-es, which take thcir namcs from thc i Richmond. Besides thosc which I fhippcd
provinces whcre they are principally kcpt, viz: to thc L'uitcd States ou my own accouut.
thc Leoucsa, which are bv far thc mo;.t nu- i there were about thrcc hundred Guadaloncs
merous aud aro universally cstccincd the
Cucst shcep in Spaiu ; the Scgovian, which
are couidcrcd nrxt bcst, and the Sorian,
which are dccined a little iuferior to thc lat
I ncver saw any of the Scjoiian or So-I
rian shcep and thcrelbre spcak of thcm from . ton.Providence.Xcw York.I'hiladcIphia, Bal
their gcneral chanicter dcrivcd from Spnu- j tiinore and Savannah. Thc Guadalopcs,
iards tho bcst infuriiicd on the subjcct. The Paulars and Montarcos, which were shipped
Lconcsa arc pasiurcd in thc sumnicr on the to Boston by othcrs, were for thc account of
inouutaiiis and hilly country of Lcon and the ' Gorham Parsons, Esq.. Gcu. Sumuer, Dea.
two Citvtilcs, aud iu the fall are driven into ' Tichcnor aud E. II. Derby, Esq. All these
thc plains ofSpauish Estramadura to bcpas- ' shcep were shipped in the lattcr part of 1609,
tured thtotighthe wintcr. during 1S10 and the early part of 1811. and
Many of their flocks arc driven two hun- ,
drcd tnilcs from the sninmcr to thc wintcr
pasture and rice rcrsa. Some cxplanatiou
will be ncccssary for ihe better understanding
of the cause of this managcmcnt. The plains '
of Spanish Eslramadura are stibjccted to an
alniost in-ariable dronght from thc latter
part April to tho autuuiiial eqninox, but the '
raiin coinniciicc about the 2 1st of Scptember
and coutiiinc to fall cvery two or three d.iys
in vcry heavy showcrs till the lattcr part of
March, when they graduallv fall olf till the
cnd of April. In six or seveu wccks from the
first rain, from an apparcntly arnl wastc, paper within two or three tnonths, lias prc
thosc plains arc covcred with a hcautiful coat tended wiih tnuch flourish, to give a history
of vcrdure and so continiic till April, r the ; of the importation of tncriuos into thiscouu
thermometer rarcly falls bclow 40 2 of Fah-, try, for the hcnefit of posteritj-. Two qualili
renhcit at snnrise. Whilst thc plains arc catious arc csscntial for an historical wnter.
thus narched iin in summer bv drouahtin thc ' The first is a thorouch knowlcdcc of hissub-
tiiotmtaips and hillv reaions thev have occa-!
sionly rcfrcshing rain-', which there keep
thcir pasturcs good throiighotit thc summer.
i hcir flocks ai-c usually startcil iu llie montli or a gross want ol impartiality, as tne atiove mctis. A llocK.ol sliccp tliat will yicm tnrce
of April from the plains of Estramadura to facts, moslly takcn from papcrs in my posscs-1 pounds of w ool by being evcnly fcd, mmmcr
their summer pasturcs, and in October back sion. when comparcd with his statcments, : and wintcr, and kcpt in fair stock casc.bybc
again. They src generallv shcarcd in thc lat- . will clearlv show. I ing half starved both summer and winter.may
tcrpartof May and the w ool is sent to St. ,
Amlcro and liilbon, thc tno ncarcstsea-ports , give you a uescriptiou ol tlie sliccp ot llie an- knows any tlung about wool wll uiidcrtaKc to
to thcir summer pasturcs, for sale. Thcpro- fcrcnt flocks scnt to this country. The Paul- ! contend that this half starved and sickly
ptietors of the flocks always own lands in the nrs were undoubtedly one of thc handsomc grcwth of wool will makc as strong and dura
mountains and in the plains yufiicicnt for both llocksin Spain- They were of middling ' ble a cloth as will a healthy growth of w ool
their summer aud wintcr pastures. From , hcight, rouud bcjitd, wcll sprcad, straight from the same sliccp; nor will the cloth made
thc circumstance of their sheep being fd the ou the back, the ueck of thc bucks rising in ; from the starveling wool handle so soft and
ycar round tipon green foddcr, it was'the gcn- a moderate curvc from thc withcrs to thc wcll as that madc fiom the healthy wool.
cral opiiiiou iu Spain, that the jlcnno would
not succecd in any other country. But the
cxpenments madcjn Saxony, m iOj, ny , tine giqssy nair onttie iacc, anu gcnerauy iiair , no uncommon casc, oy hecpiug inorc siock
thc introduction in that yenr of the SpauUh on the leps, the skin prctty smooth, that is, than our wintcr foddcr will rnaintain, will have
Merino, it has been proved bcyond all qucs- uot lolliug up ordoubling about thc ncck and a vcry uncqual growth of wool; thc summer
tion that, with proper carc and tnatiagcmcnt, body, as iu some othcr flocks, tbe crimp in ' growth will hc strong and flcxible while the
wool may hc grown quhe as fine as the Span-' the wool was notso thort as in many othcr wintcr growth, though a shade fincr in thc
ish, when fcd upon dry fodder four or six , flocks, tho wool was somcwhat longcr, but it ' fibrc, will hc dry aud tcndcr and such wool
months in the year. In fact they have suc-' was close and compact and was soft and silky ' will not makc cloth which is strong and soft
cceded in all couutrics where they have bcen to the touch, and the surface was not so rauch j to the touch. The Saxou maiitifacturcrs un
tricd, exccpt in England and there dcteriora- j covered with gum. This flock was originally ' derstaud this priuciplc wcll aud sclcct accor
tion there must, undoubtcilly, be owing to , owned by the Carthusiau Friars, of Paular, ( dingly! and hcucc inake more durablc cloths
thc extremc humidity of that climate. who wcrc the hcst agriculturists in Spain, 1 than thc Enelish; and they handle as well.
luc origin ol tne iine
Snain anoears to bc a aucstinn
douht. It is ccrtain that Columella. a Snan-1
ish writer on agriculture in the days of Au-
gustus oa;sar, spcans oi nnc wooieu orcov-
ercd sheep. It is probable they wcrc carricd
into that country by the Carthagenians or
Romans, as thc natnc mareno, implics in
Spanish, from or beyond sea. But it is of
little consequcncc to thosc who want a soft,
waim, handsomc garment, whether thosc
sheep wcrc ndtives of Spain, or whether the
original stock was imported into it from an
I shall now rall your attention to the first
introduction of thcm iuto the United States.
Soon after the acessiou of Mr. Jefferson to
thc Presidcncy, Chancellor Liviucston was
appoiuted Minisjer to France, and, in 1801
orlS02, he obtaincd from that Government
three or -four merinos of the Rambouillet
flockTwhteh he ent to New York and put on'
oue of his farms. This flock was obtaincd horns. The Escurial were about as tall as
by the king of France from the king of Spain the Paulars, hutnotqttitcsoroundandbroat,
and were tiudoubtcdly purc bloodcd shcep. being in gcucral rather xnorc slight in thcir
A little before Geu. Iluinphreys lcft Spaiu hc mahe, thcir wool was crimpcd but not quite
was enablcd to get to huudred sheep from sothick asthc Panlar orNegretti; nor were
Spaiu iuto Portugal, and they were scnt to thcir skins so loose as the Ncgretti and Agu
Figucira, at the mouth onhe 3Iondcgo, aud eirr.ts, nor had they so tnuch tvool on the face
thciicc shipped to the United States. From and lcgs. The Jlontaocoborcaconsidernble
what flock he obtaincd thcm I ncver could rcsemblancc to the Escurials. The Escurial
learn, though 1 enquircd a number of times; flock had formcrly belongcd to the crown.but
htttas Spanish Estrjmaduraand Leonhorder when Philip theSd builtthe Escurial Palacc,
on Portugal, from 30 of latitudc to the he gave them to the Friars, whom he placcd
northern bouudary of Portugal,, and as no iu a convcnt that was attached to the palace,
other than the Lconcsa trashumantees are as a sourcc of reventtc. These fonr fJocks
fouud in that part of Spaiu there can be but 'were moderatcly iiimncd. TheOuadaloupe
little doubt that they hclotiged to that racc. j flock was ratlicr largcr in the bone than tho
I attcmptcd, iu 1E0G, also iu lc07, to cbtain ' uvo prccedius, about tlie saine hcight.but not
some from the most celcbrated flocks, bnt the j qtiite so hindsomely fortncd, their tvool was
laws were so strict against their cxportation jtbick and crimpcd, thcir skiii3 loose and doub
without royal licensc that I failcd ofsnccess. jling, their faces andlcgsnot matcrially difier
Aftcr the French iuvnsion in 1E03, thc laws ( cnt irom the two lattcr flocks, but iu gcneral
bccamc more relaxed, and in 160D, hy special they were more gtunmcd than either of the
favor, I obtaincd two htindrcd escurials. At other flocks. Iu poiut of fincness there was
thc sccond invasiou of the French, under Jo- vcry little dilTej'cnce betwccn these six fiocks
scph Honaparte, thc rapidity of the niarch of and, as I have hccn told by wcll informcd
the French troops hurricd thc Suprcnic Jnu- : pcrsons, there is vcry little d'iffcrence in this
ta from Madrid aud they retircd to Badajos. I rcspcct ainong the Leoucsa trashumantcs in
Rein without mouey aud heing afraid ofdis-! general. The Escurial, the Montarcos and
gustiug the Estrainadurans, by Ievyiug a tax the Guadaloupcs were not in general so hea
upou thcm, they were coinpellcd to scll four vy horncd as thc other thrcc flocks, and about
oflliefirst flocks iu Spain, which had becu oncin six of the bucks wcrc without horus,
conGscated in conseqtiencc of the proprietors , or what is comniouly callcd a polled btick.
joiniug thc French. These were the Paul-1 1 had selcctcd by thc Paular shcphcids, who
nr prcviously ouned by thc Piiuce of caiuc with that flock, thrce huudred shcep
Pcacc, the Negrctti, prcviously owncd hy . which I shipped to Ncwburyport. Tho half
the Condc Del Canipo tle Alangc, tho Ague- ' of these were Paulars, a fotirth Agucirras.ati
irras, which had becn owncd by theCoudeof eighth Escurials and the othcr cisht Alontar-
I the sanieuanie. and the the Jloutarco, owned '
by the Condc dc Aloutarco, and were such
iliccp as could not have becu got outofSpain,
had it not bcen forthcinvaiion of the French
j and thc dislrnctcd statc of thc country grow- '
tng out of that uii-asion. Wlicn the Junta mvanable practice in fcpain, I brcd thc re
sold, it nas tipon the c.prcsscouditiouof thcir ;spective flocks scparately, orwhat in farmera
granting liccnces to carry thcm out of the i Ianguage is called in and in ; the custom in
thc kiugdoin. Four thousand of the Paular ! Spain having cxistcd from time imtncmorial
flock were scnt to England for thc king; and of brceding the bucCs and ewcs of the ganie
Col. Dowuic, a Scotcli officcr iu tho Ii ritisli cabanna or flnck together, or iu aud iu, hut in
' sen icc, hut who thcn Iicld thcrank of Gcne- ;
! ral in the Spanish servicc, and I, purchascd
thc rcmniucer of the Cock, betwcen tlirccanu 1
four thousaud raorc. and of this nurchase I !
four thousaud more, and of this nurchase I ,
took fourtccn hundred, aud he sent the rcst
to Scotland with thecxccption of two or three
hundred, which hc sold to conicto this couu-
try. SirCharlcs Stcwart pnrchased thc JTc-jniy
gretti flock aud scnt thcm to England with
tlie escctitton ot about a liunurcu I pot out ot :
tugtics anu about two tliousaml scvcu liuml
rcd were shipped to this country, I shipped!
this uumbcr about onc huudred wcrc sent to
purchascd hy othcrs and from 2 hundred to 3
hundred of the Paular flock sold by Gcn.
Downie, shipped to Boston; and of the Mon
tarco flock, shinpcd by others, about two
thousand five huudred wcrc scut to Bos-
were the ouly Lconcsa tmshiiniantcs, if we in-
cludc Gcn. lliiiiiphreys' aud ChancellorLiv-
ingston's (which I hae no doubt were of the
same stock) that wcrc cver shipped to thc
l'uitcd States. Badajos is but little over onc
huudred miles from LUbon, aud all thc shcep
purchascd there and iu that icinity, were
shipped from Lishon. I was then Consnl
there, and from my ollice was accuratclyac-
pronertv from mc alwnvs accompanied thcm.
I have bcen thus iiiinute, bccause a writcr,
without signaturc, in thc Albany agricultural
iect, thc second creat inniartinlity. But so
far from corrcctly informiug postcrity. this
writer has hiniself displaycd grcat ignorance,
I 3hall now. iu compliance with your wishcs
scttiog ou ot tlie nead, tucir ncaa iianosome
with aquiline curvo of the nose, with short.
wooled shcep of and was sold by that ordcr to the l'rince of, notwithstanding the supcrior finish of the En
ucslion of much I Peace when hc cainc into powcr. The Ncg- ' glish. Yet we hcar our wool-buyers crying
relti flock were the tallest mcrinos in Spain,
but were nothandsomcly formed, being rather
flatsideu, roacti uacKcu anu tue ucck mcnn -
to sink down from thc withers, the wool was
somewhal shorter than the Paular and more
loose and inclincd to double, and many of bc the acme of perfection.
thcm wcrc woolcd on their face and Icgs j I think I have now answered all your ques
down to their hoofs, all the loose skimicd tions, and if I have trespassed too far upon
shcep had large dcwlaps. The Agucirras ' your patieucc, I hope to find an apology in
were shortlcgced, round, broad bodied, with thcsolicitude which you evinced toobtainfull
loose skins, and were inore wooled about ' information on thc subjcct. Since beginning
their facca and legs than any other flock I , this letter I have looked over some IcUcrsand
pvnr saw. thc wool was more erimned than : nanprs. tonchins the numbcr of mcrinos ex-
the Paular and less than the Negrctti, but
-was thick and soft. This flock fonnerly be-
longed to the Moors of Spain and at thcir
expulsion was bought by tbe family of Agu
cirras. The wool in England was known as
tho Muros flock and was highlycsteemed, all
the buck of fbee three flocks had large
VT. - - WEDNESDAY, MARCH 6, 1844.
cos and Xcgrettis. These I put on the farm
iu Vt cathcrsficld, Vt., that I bought aftcrmy
rcturn to thc Unitcd States, aud aljodroveup
about a hundred. thc remainder of thosclhad
shipped to Boston. In compliance wiih tho
about 1810 or 1817Itnicd thc diilercnt flocks
togethcr, and liaveso brcd my nicrinos cver
since. About teti ycars ago I found some"U
or SO samnlcs of the Paular flock that was
or SO samplcs of thc Paular flock that was
sent mc from Spaiu to Lishon, and hv clipp-
ing from my sheep about as mauy samplcs,
Justas they came to haud, I was satisficd that
flock had improvcd; and some tcn or 12
wool growers who cotnparcd thc two, were
ol the same opinion. Whcllicr tlits was ow-
ing to inixing the sevcral flocks togelherorto
a vcry close attention to thc sclcction oi my
bucks I cunnot say, but thc fact unqucstiona
hly is so. I well knnw, asyousay.thatmany
have becn latfrlv runnitit about thc country
! pufliug up thcir shcep as full blood Paular.',
which name has dotibtlcss becn adoptcd bc
cause it is gcncrally tindcrstoud that thc Pau
las flock carricd the hcavicst flceccs, but wiih
the cxccptiou of 8 or 10 ptire blood merino
ewcs which 1 have sold within three or four
years, and about fifty purc blood merino bucks
within about five years, 1 do not know nor do
I bclicve that there is a purc blood merino in
the United States, bcsidcs thosc which lown.
Thc rcason for this opinion is, that from 1623
to 1S3G the rage ofSaxonyshecpwassogteat
that fcw ornouc of our wool-growcrs would
brccd from merino bucks who could get Sax
ony; and after the largc importation of Sax
ouyin 1625 and 1620, the Saxonies, or their
crosscs, wcrc within the reach of ahnost eve
ry brccder. From 1633, as tho differcnt pri
ccs of wool were in uo fair proportion to the
differciicc of its quality, thc light wool Sax
ony flccces got daily rnorc and more out of
reputc until wc are fiually gctting into thc
opposite e.xtreme, and are giving up the Cnc,
soft. feeling wools for the coarscr aud harshcr
and heaviest flccces. This is a grcat crror,
becausc finc wools must always bciudemand
foro ur superfins broadcloths and cassimcrcs,
aud with a propcr sclection of hucks and
ewcs, flccces averaging thrce pounds wcight
may bc as casily grown of finc, soft, silky
wool, possessiug thc fclting propcrty iu the
greatcst degrec, a3 can bc Irom shcep which
yield only two pounds and a quartcr or two
pounds and a half a flcccc. Iu 1S10 a vcry
intclligcut London wool-brokcr, who was scut
to Lishon for the purchase ol wool for sevcr
al English maniifacturiug cstablishments,
which was principally sent there for sale, du
ring that ycar, in consenuencc of the French
l.-:7. :.. 1 : r .1. -r C,t.,
, informcd me that the Lconesa wool posscscd
thc fclting propcrty in a fcrcatcr degrce than
thc baxony, and tliat it was gcncrally used iu
England for thc mannfacturo of supcrfinc
cloths in prcfercnco to thc Saxouy. Since
that time thc Saxouy doubtlcss has bcen vcry
tnuch improvcd and may have attaiucd to c
qual pcrfection in this rcspcct. I ihink there
, is a ecncral crror prevailins in our country in
, rcgard to wool. Light flecces acd fine wool
I are almost universally considcrcd as synony-
j bc rcduccd to two pouuds Now no one who
bhecp, tno, wlucli nae occn wcu lasturcu m
summer and half starved in wintcr, which is
! out. finc wool sir! twonoundand a quarter,
two pound and a half, which sccms tobc their
i pnncipat stanoant lor nnc wooiauuuccoruuig
to this standard the wool of a flock of sickly
starvelings, as brittlc as rolton straw, would
i nortcd to this country, which has enabled me
to correct an crror in my letter to Mr. Calvin
Benton in 1630, respccting the number ship
ped, and which crror I fell into from trusting
Note. I invtte tlie rcaders of thc fore-1
going- coinmunication of Mr. Jarvis to give
particular attcntion to the discription of i
form, and wool, of the differcnt varietiesi
of sheep which he imported. Deicribing
the Paular he says, that the skin is pretty
smooth, that is not rolling up or doubling
about tlie ncck and body, as in some oth
cr flocks; and thc surface of the wool was
not so muclt covcred with saci. Thc
Negrctti flock with others, wcrc loosc!
skiuned and thc skin was inclincd to roll
or doublc ; also all thc loosc skinncd sheep
had large dcwlaps. Does tht3 description
of a Paular shcep agrce with what has 1
bcen givcn by other writers recently ?
Have we not bcen made to understand that
a Paular's skin must roll or double on the i
neck and body, and have a httge dewlap ? j
Exactly the reverse of this is the descrip
tion giveu oy .ur. jarvis. w nat lias becn,
inthis particular, takcn asproofofa sheep
being Paular is decidcd testimony to tho
contrary. Have not thc sheep that have
been takcn for Paular's bcen tnuch gum
mcd Thc description of Mr. Jarvis is
the reverse of this; while thc othcr flocks
wcrc considerably gummed the Paular's
were slightly. Has it becn undcrstood that
thc wool of the Paular was coarscr than
the other meriuo's, while it wr3 heavierl
Ifowdoes this correspond with Mr. Jarvis
statcment! He states tliat thc qttality of
wool diflers very little in the six flocks
To what conclusion then mutt wc inc
vitably como about this cry of Paular !
Paular ! It is a humbug.
I. D. GREGORY.
Land SmctrLATtoNs, ano War, -Ths
last hopc oT kindiing n war with Grcat
Ilrilain, ainong our dpccnlaiing and impor
ted palriots, scctns to rcst upon tho 0c
gon qucstion. Andlhcynre so lcarful in
loosing it by an amiablc adjeslnient, that
Ihcy are anioua to bring on such a ca
lamity, bcforc a negolialion can cow
tncncc. A largc share of Ihis kind of
public f-pirit is to bc found in Illinois,
.Missouri and Arkansas. As it must bo
pcrfcctly apparcnt to every body who
givcs his attention lo Iho subjcct Ihat as
thc peoplo of (hoso States cannct wnnl
more land for any good nurposc, they rnast
bo on thc look out for a chance to spccu
Inlo on a largc scaln and tosecura that
chancc, they aro wilhng to subjccl the
nalioii and thc peop'o to thc niultiplicd ca'
lainitics of war cnlamitics which may be
sevcrely felt for gcncrations to comc,
lloving lost tho oppotlunity to provoko
hostilitics with Grcat iiritain on tho dis
pulcs and irritations which grcw out cf
thc iSorth Jiislcrn boundary, they notr
turn thcir attcntion to thc nppositc sido of
the contincnl, with tho intcntion, if posst.
ible, of producing a result inore favorablc
to their views and intcrcsts.
We (rust that tho membcrs of Congrcss
from thc Stales which must bcar thc bur
dcns, and stitTcr the cvils, of such a war,
will unitc to chcck thc hairbrained schcmca
of inlcrcslcd and rocklrss politicians of
thc Wcslcrn Stales, who doubllcs3 bc
licve that such a war will bc protitnble to
contraclors, nnd grccdy harptcs, who al
ways thrivo tipon the calaniities of thcir
country, espccially thosc which grow out
ofa war. llaving in a fricndly manncr
adjustcd and rcmovcd onc sourcc of ill-fco
ling and controvcrsy with Grcat Brilnin
incomparably more itnportant, and of
course tnorc inilnting, than Orcgon can
be, it would bo thc height of folly in our
government lo bc driven into another,
which may as casily bcscttlcd, mcrcly for
thc sake ofgratifying the sclfish or vindic
livc fcelings of dcspcrate advcnturers and
spcculating pcditicians, the ncccssary re
sult of which must he, thc sacrificc of nn
imtnense amount of propcrty, and thc dc
struction of thousands of livcs, without
any good, or cven plausihle, rcason for
such national and personal cvils.
Riru.-At a Locofoco convcnlion recent
ly hcld in Tippcncanoe county, Indiana,
a fricnd of Ur C'as3 movcd a rcsolution to
tho followtng cffcct. "U'hcrcas Gcneral
Cass emigratcd to the West from .New
Hampshire in carly life with his knnp
ack on 'his back, and unshcathcd his
sword in rcpclling tho Indians from our
Norlhwest fronticr, and fighting against
tho BritUh during the last war. 'i herc.
fore, resoltcd, 'I hat hc ought to be suppor'
tcd hy tho Dcmocratic party for Prcsidcnt
of the Unitcd States". A brothcr Locofo
co movcd to amcnd thc rcsolutiou by strik
in"Out the name of "Lewis Cass," and in
serling thc name of " Martin Van Uurcn"
whichDmotion, after an animatcd discus
lion, prevailed. Some one called for the
rcadin" of thc rcsolution as amcndcd ;
whcrcupon, tho Secretary, in a loud
voice. commcnced reading "Whcreas.
Gcneral Martin Van Buren emigratcd to
the West from New Hampshire in early
ly life with his knapsack on his back, and
unshcathcd his sword in repelhns the In.
dians and fghting against ths British."
By the time the sccratary had got thus
far, thc absurdity of thc thing becamo so
manifcst, that tho same Locofoco who
movcd thc amendmcntsprang to htsscat,
e.xclaiming, Tul, tut, tul, Mr Chairman,
that'll ncvcr do I I movc to lay thc affair
on tho tablc," and thero it was laid accor
dingly. N. Y- Standard.
ADVEnTisio. The mass of thosc at
tempting to do busincss have a very impcr
fect notion of the immcnso advantagcs of
advcrlising. says tho N. York Tribune.
Many a man givcs a thousand dollars a
year for a favorablc stand, yct grudgcs a
hundred for adverlising; not rcficcting
thata hundred men would be made ac
quaintcd with his busincss through tho
I nncwspapcio "-'" t
. observo his store, though in the most favor'
ablo locatioti Thero ara t: fcw who un
der stand this matter ttnd cre making for
tunes, while thousnnds arotind liem ttre
toiling to livo and often failing in that.
KrOLD GRIME8 13 DEAD.
Ephraim Grimes of Hubbrdsti.a, whom
cvery body in al! this region knows us
"Old Grimes," oras '-Eph Grimes,', and
whom thousuidj have coupled with thc
suhject of the trito song 'old Grimes is
dcad" dicd at the Ahns Housc in that
toiva on Thursday of iast wcck, cged
eig'.ity-Svo. Few icdividunls have cver
nttaincd a grcatcr co'.oritty ia this and
tho adjoin'.ng countic3, ar.d nono cver de-se.-vcd
it better. Thero aro a thomand Ira.
ditionary tales of his inerry and mbchiev
otis trtc'.cs which are truo, and mcre dcv
illry of which he was probably ncvcr er.il'
ly is a.cribed to him, thao to any nccro
mancer or unearthly spirit of olj.
Durir.g tho latter part of his lifo, old
Gnmcs-.vas .tdependant on tha paiipr
support of his nativa loivn. The light of
his genitis had oxpired, histight liaud for
got its cutming und tha lio co longer rnll
cd glibly from his tongite. Yct thc repu
tatton of his formcrdecdsyet surviveJ,(ar.d
long will,) nnd rcndered him an objcct of
ctiriosity. Evcn when the spirit had dc
partcd ar.d the good pcopfo cf Hubbnrds
ton had sccn him "safely" undergroand,
they lcft Iho grnvevard Ioo!;i:ig over thcir
bhotildcrs. it is said. lest this last ccenc of
his eventful life tnight provo to bo but
" av.olkir of old fjrm'a tricl-s." Barre
Cottox Goodj in Canada. Lilanch
ard, ediior of the Wcrsnw, N. Y. paper
wJio is now travelling in Cnnada and wri.
ting intircsiing Icltets (or his paper. ays.
that ncarly every slore in 'I oronto is sup
plied villi Atncriran .-!:en(irg3 and many
olher goods from the Gtatcs. Thc trade
in thcso ptticlrs has much incrcnsed the
past vcar. Tho merchnnts of Canadn cot
i .!.:. ,i:.. c ii. .st rt !..,.
pttrchascd half u mi'.lio.i cf yards Ust fill
Tan Last or the Stewahts is Kso
lam). This most wondcrful cbr.racter
sti'l livcs nt Twecdmouih. Tie complctcd
his riGth yeai nt Chrislmas, 16-13. His
fnlhcr, Gcn. John S'owait, was a cousin
of " Prince Chsrlie," tho P.-ctcnder.
Jamcs Slcwart saw t'tOoO metnorablc bat
tles, during the rcbcllion of 1745, 1'rcstom.
pins and fjuilodcn, nnd has spokcn to, and
had wine with, tho Prctendcr. He ha.
bcen livo tiincs mnrried, nnd no. livcs
with thc 5th vrifo 75 ycn.-s youtigcr than
himsclf. He has had by bisfccvcral wivcs
27 childrcn ; tcn of whom have becn kiil
cd in battle, five of thcm in India, two at
Trafalgar under Nelson, one at atcrloo,
nnd twoat Algicrs. Forncntly CO ycars
ho Iravcl.'cd in tho Rordcr districts as a
wnndcriug minstrel, but he ncvcr askod
alms from any onc. Hundredsof persons
can bcar tcslimony tohisamnzingstrength
from which circumstanco hc got the byc
name of " Jcmmy Strcngth," Among
othcr feats ho could carry n 2-1-poundcr
cannon, and hc has becn known to lift b
cart-Iond of hay weighing a ton nnd a
upon his back. It will bo long bcfora wc
can look upon his liko agnin, to hcar his
storics of 17-15, and his glov.-ing descrip
tion oflhc"Young Clievalicr."
Asecdoti: of David Cbocsctt. On
Davy Crockett'a rutarn to hi co.nstituents,
altcr his firjt .cs:-ion in Congrcss, n na
tion' ofthcm sitrroundcd himono day.and
bcgan to intcrrognto him about Washing
ton. 'What time do they dino at Washing
ton, Co'one! !' eskcd one.-
'W hv,' said he. 'common pcoplo such a
you nro hcre, get thcir dinncrs at one o
clock, but thc genlry and big'uns dino at
thrce. As for thc Rcprcscntativra we
dincnt four, ar.d the aristocrncy and Scn
ate, they don't get rituals (ill five.
'Well, when doc3 tho Prcsidcnt fodder V
'Old Hickory ! cxclaimcd tho Coloncl.
(attcmpting to appoint n time in accor
dancc with tho dignity of thnstntion.) 'Old
Hickory I' teell, hsdn'l dir.e till next
Siiretvd. Aa a lato Profcssor Hamil.
ton was ono day near Ahcrdccn. ho mcl
a wcll known individual of wcak inlellcct.
Pray,' said tho Pioft-ssor, nccoatin- him,
how long can a pcreon livc without brair.s?'
'I dinna kcn,' rcplifd Sctnmy, scratching
his hcad ; 'how old aro yourself'
Ai IT-cn;i5fDX JtrrxsE -Tho Adatns
Scntincl states, that while Judgo Bucbanan
was pasj'inj; aenter.ee of dcath a few dnys
since, in Cumberland. Md., upon Wtlliam
Chtisc, founJ guilty of the murder of Abra
ham Pcrry, bis feehngs ncro so ovcwhelm.
int as slmost to imncde uttcrnnce. APcr
passing sentencc, tho Judee arose, and with
him thc olher mcmbCM of the uourt, tne
Har. and the whole assetnbly, when ho of
fprptl nn tn thr Throne of GrBCO a mOSt
fervent prayertn behalfof the doomed nnd
Ciinjtcn or Scotla.vd. Tho seccding
ministers from thc church of Scolland,459
in number. renouncina salanes to tho a-
mount of Sl, 400, a yoar many of them
Icaving princely dwelhngs, nnd now lodir
ing with their families in obcure apartmcnti
-astor.ish the worldlymindi-ri. These nob!o
mindcd ministers insisted that no minister
filionld bo inlrudcd unon a concrcnntion
(nnlrnrr In thf. uiill nflha DPOdIp. and rf--
sisted the act of tho civil court which tend-
ed lo destroy thu spirttual independence
of the church. Tiicy have by their self.
n.xrlfii'ii hrnni'ht (rrcat honor unon the
chrtstinn religton. Berkshire Whig.
Of overy description will bc neatlv aai
fashionably exccuted, at short notice.
VDDISON COUNTY TEMPERANCE
In accordanio with previous noricc, issued
by the Young Mcn's Temperance Society
of Middlebury, the fricnds of Temperance
in Addison Co. convcned ia t!icaftcrnoonit
Feb. 22d, at the Congrcgational Church in
Thc Convention was utily organized by
choosing Philip C.Tuckcr Esq. of Vergcnnea
Prcsidcnt, Calvin Squirt of New Ilaven,
Vice Prcsidcnt, and Charles C. Bt'sbce of
On motion of Jamc3 M. Slade, a Commit-
tee on rcsolutions wa3 con? tituted, consitting'
of Mcasrs. James M. Slade, Matthew D.
Gordon, A. C. Twining, Philip Battcll, and
After Praycr by the Ilcv. Joseph Ayrcs of
Middlebury, and appropriato exercises by
the Choir,the Convention listecedtoan nble,
timely and instructive addrcss from Charles
Adams Esq. of Burlington.
Tho epeakcr, Mr. Adams,on so trite a eub
ject, instcad of being dry anu! nnintcrcsting,
traveling over the same ground and lusyinff
himsclf with tlie same ohjects which hii
prcdccessors have too oflsn busicd tliem
bcIvcs with, took his nudicnce alorg ud
tlie too unfrequcntcd vale of rcason and pht
losophy, and exlubited to the eyc of the un
dcretandinj; thc cver ititcrcsting sccne
ry o! truth and happiness. To the cyo of
the phihnthropist this -ale is a dc'ightful
one. Watcred ns it evcr is by the perennial
fountains ol" Plulosophy, and irns;aicd by
the cry-Ktal waters cf the rivcr of Trtth, iu
cver living foli.ige h: of the richrst l.ue, iu
fragrancc of tlicchoicestodors, ilsarl ors tho
home of rcflcction and rcligion. and its ricli
and cver vtiryiu music the mc'o ly i.f hcav
cn. Who could visit tliU lovrly home of tho
truly rcgcnerated and discnlfimlli-d Epirit,
and rcturn not rcfrefhcd and inviforalcdfor
tlie activedutics of life? Tliatiks to thu
spcakcr fur tliU dclightful vUit. Clatsic
Tcmpo, adorncd with thc rich imagcrj' of
nature nnd gcnius, maycharm the fs,but
cannotarousc and refrcshthe inner manfir
tlie weighiy responsibilitics of a inortil being.
It ia man'd AtVier powcrs that mustbe ro
frc!"hcd und in tgoralcd in crdcr that le may
be a.-n:edfor tlie grcat warfaroof life.
But to the Addrcss. Hcre wc would say,
that wc do uotprojiosc to give an abslract of
ihe addrers, or tofollow the speakcr through
any part ol it, butsimply to notice a trninof
tliought that pervadcd it. which, if put in
practice by manMr.d, would be produrtive of
llie most glorious rcsnlts. The train of tho't
rcfcrred to is this That tlie character of hu
man conduct as cxhibited in the hiftory of
mankind ia the result of prindpU. This is
truc of individuale, comtnunitics and nalions.
Hcre it will beproper toprenuse, thatin the
snbcr, cvcry-day conduct of men, thcir prin
ciplcs and practices agrce. For we i-houM
l.edoino; injuslice to humanity, to supposc
their eobcr acti did not rcsnlt from honest in
tcntiotij. If thU hc true, then there arkcs nn
imperativc nccctsity that the princip'cs in
hcrcntin thc minds of men be correct, in or
dcr that hcman conduct may coinridc with
thc divine rule. Hcnce nn men or set ofrr.en
can bcstown, grcatcr btncnton their spccicn
than to aflbrd tliem correct principles of ac
tion. Man, it sccms, is tlie only objcct from tho
hatids of thcCrcator that is in the lenct de
grec imperlcct. This impcrfection cxists in
his moral and intelUctmil facvltics. Anl
ii we arc to lcarn any thing from analogy, it
is, tliat thess facultics arc lo bc pcrftclti, in
order that there may be iiltimatcly no imper
fection in God's works. And by vhovi arc
tlicsc to bc pcrfcctcd Hy oursetces most
assurcdly. This is the grcat cnd nnd objcct
of life. The lee tliat constructs ils fragrant'
ccll, tiic lirxl that swings his hammock on tho
pcndant houglv, cxliilut in thc first construc
tion ahsohite perfection. liut man's mcntal
and mornl powers in thcir first excrcisecxht-
1 bit no Etich pcrfection. They are thercfore,
... y - - -J - . vv..,v1u..(...j
cvery tliinp; tliat has a tcndcncy to hinder or
cbstruct this improTcment ar.d perfection,
shooM be firmly dircovntrnanced and i
carded. The use of alrhoholie drinLs as n
bcvcrape, in all of its posriblc bearint's, waj
hown by thccpcakcr to have this tindency
and this tendency only. IJut in ordcr ihat
thc use of tlicscdrinks may ccasc,it is ncccs
sary that the rommunity ai !ar,rc elearly np
prchetid this tendency. This senliircnt he
would have cvery temprranrc perrt-n fro
mulce tlirough tliclength and brcadlh of
ourland. Thc momcnt that stnliwent be
camc tlie univcrcal rule of action, tliat jno
ment would the cause of Temperance tri
umph, that. Tzomrnt would the preat and
powcrful obstruction to the pcrfection of hu
manity bc rctnovcil, and man bcgin to nd
vancc with more rapid stridts towards the
truc cnd of his being.
Aficr some cxccllcnt music by thc choir,
thc following resolution was introduccd and
cnstaincd by appropriato rcmarks, (in con
ncction with a hricf abstract of thc doings of
thc last State Temperance Convention) by
Prof. A. C. Twining: and unanimously adop
ted. Ilcsnhcd, That the plans of the Stato
Temperance Society, as cxhibited in tho
Journal of their proccedings, at thc last nn
nnal mceting, are adaptcd to tlie cxigcncica
of our commonwcalth; that for their imme
diate cxccution, in rclation to our own coun
ty, wc plcdgc our individual and unitcd cx
ertions, and that for nccessary cxpcndilure
wc chccrfully assumc our share of pccunia
It is hopcd that the above rcsolution will
mcet with a cordial rcccption, and bc respon
ded to practically by cvery temperance indi
vidual and society in thc county.
The following rcsolution" was thcn intro
duccd by Hon. William Slade, and sustain
cd with his usual ability:
Rcsolved, That the County Court, in rc
fusing liccnces, throughout this county, have
conformed to thc principles ar.d dictatcs of
humanity and sound morals; that they have
consultcd, atonce, the bcst intercsta of the
towns and the wishcs of the great body ol so
bcr and reflecting citizcns; and tliat we
would add onr warm commendalion of their
pnblic actp, in this particular, to the higher
approbation which they doubtlers reccive in
the consciousncss of having donc thcir duly
Thcn followcd a statement of facts. by Mr
Slade, inrcferenee'to the lieenee to ellin-.