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THE FIRST CONGRESS.
THB MEN WHO COMPRISED OUR
.Ellsworth, Sherman, Madison, Lea, Mod
roe and the Other Eminent Statesmen
Who Made Laws For the Infant
By tho tint of tho Continental Congress
tlie old Confederation was to dio on March
3, 1789, nnd tho Government under tho
Constitution was to bo called into loins
on March 4. The first pnrt of this project
was rarriod out to tho lettor; tho secoud
part of it failed. The Confederation went
out at tho appointed time, but tho new
scheino which was to ropluco it did not
come in at the date set. Indeed, tho Con
federation was virtually dead from aliout
the tniddlo of October, 1788, a month after
tho Continental Congress set a day opart
for itademiso by fixing on the first Wednes
day in January, 1789, for choice of I'resl
d'iitiul Electors, the. first Wednesday in
I ibruary for election of a President by tho
,'Jectors, and tho first Wednesday in
March fur tbo inauguration of tho Presi
dent and tho meeting of Congrcsi. From
that timo onward there had seldom been
a quorum in tho old Congress and but lit
tle business was transacted.
Cannon wcro fired in New York on
March 4, 1789, in honor of the birth of the
Uovernmont under tho Constitution. In
reality, however, tho wheels of tiovern
merit did not begin to move until, somo
weeks later. The llouso did not secure a
quorum until March 30, nor did the Sen
ate organize until April 0, while April 21
arrived before the Vice-President quali
fied, and April 30 was rouchod by the timo
mo i resident was inaugratoa ana had on-
1 upon his duties.
here were only cloven States In the
Uuion on Mnrch 4, 1789. Neither North
Carolina nor Khodo Island had yet ratitiod
the Constitution, and consequently they
were not represented in Columns when
the organisation took place. The eleven
ritatos which figured on the roster of
the National Legislature nt that timo
wore Deaware, Pennsylvania, New
Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut., Massa
chusetts, Maryland, l-outh Carolina,
New Hampshire, Virginia, Now York.
Tho States are here arranged in tho order
in which thoy accepted the Constitution.
The ratification in Jllawuro to3k piare on
lccinber 7, 1787, less tlmn three mouths
after the Constitution was framed, while
New York gave iu its indorsement July I'd,
North Carolina and liliodo Island were
still out of thn I'nion when President
Washington was inaugurated, and wero
without a government except as their
legislatures provided. Tho Confederation
was dead, and eleven of (lie thirU-oii mem-
1 bcrs of it hml joined in tho new scheino
uniler tho charter framed by the Cnnstitu-
tioiinl convention ol 1,. llio (rail tio
binding each of these two to the others by
tho articles of confederation had l'cn dis
solved, nnd as neither had yet taken up
tho new tie entered upon by tho other
State, they wore, to the other eleven, lor-
iiti.rn nuillitrii-a fur llin limn lioln., llntl.
ihuwvver, veir hi-usib'v neceiiteJ tliu new
...i i...f..i..'ii. i. ;.tw... .. i
. imiiii iiviuiii iiiu imivvii)fi i-n, I A UI I'll,
I North Carolina mining into the Union in
Mho November after theCoiigrcssoraniced
'nnd "Jjttlo Kholy" iuMuyot the follow
I The r'iist Congress under tho fonatltn
lion was niiiiiei iraliy a small imly torn
k'iired with Congrns.'S iu recent years.
V hen tho thirteen JSlates uere represented
tio Sieniitc consiMijd -ol twentynix iimiii
rs and the IIouho of sixty-live. Virginia
nt that time was tho Iviipife State. In the
IIouho of Ke. resell tali ves tho Old I'o
. minion had as iii.inv ineiiilx rs as New
Xuk and Now Jersey combined, while
'r SI V n .Masheirliiisctl rliHui
' Vueti( on tlir roll, l or the third plaee
flew York and Maiylniid wero tied, each
having tho same number of tiiciuhers in
I the lloum'.
I Of i-our-o representation in tho popular
J brunch of (.'uncross was bawd on kuU
L tion in tin Ik.' mninc. as it has been ever
since. 1 he Constitution fixed the rutin at
the rommi-nri' ment at one inemlier in (he
House in each Main for every ;;.).(X.) ihiihi-
latiou, but parh Mnto to lnvo at loMst onn
member. A count ol ptiiation at all
approaching exnctneMS had not yet Itcon
made, but a year later I7W -when the
first enumeration umlcr the Constitution
was had, it was found tl.nl the apportion
ment uiado for tho First Conguas hud
been moderately accurate, exit'pt as re
gards North Carolina, which hud been
given a smaller rcprewntiition than its
imputation warranted. J ho leading State
atoiMl in this or.ler nt tint time with re
aiiect to number of inlmliit.iiit: Virginia,
Pennsylvaaia, North Carolina, M.i-mic liu
scIIm, '.New York, Miirvland. New York
was tilth on tlie roll, 'j lie population of
theso Males was: Virginia, 747,iil(, IVnit
aylvanin, 4 !l,:;7.1; North Carolina, u'.i'i 7 l;
XliL-wschusetta, :17H,787; New Yolk, 34'),
I'.tr, -Maryland, 3K). .'. IVlawaru was nt
tho loot of the roll, with W.UIU popula
tion. This was tho standing of tho States In
rcccl to number of inhabitants when the
census of 1790 wns taken. In tho next
ten rears New York jniiix'd frm tho
litlh'lo tin) third place, Virginia still being
Hml, nn I Pennsylvania second. Ily Itlu
.New York had beaten IVmisylvmun, t.ik
, " the eeond tilaru on ths list, and in
rf H0 it went to the head, liver si t
W York lias held the lirst place on tho
iht ol Slates, and niuee KJ0 lYnnsvlvniiiit
bus sUki.I M'coiid. Yirtfinlii, which was
firrit until IH.M, was fourteenth in island
will probably have dmpcd to lliegix
teen III or seventeenth place by lk'9.
Here is tho nuiiilier of representatives
which each Statu had in the 1'irst
f ongrctu: Virginia, 19; l'i unnylvnnl mud
jh'uiwichusctla, e.ich S; Maryland and Nor
York, each ll; North Carolina, South Cur
oliiia and Coiinecticut, each f; New Jer
sey, 4; tieorgi i and New 1 1 mniv-li ir. c Ii
Itand l'olawcre and Kliode Island, each
Tho Constitution, ns before mentioned,
made tho ratio of rcprciteiilalion in the
Mpular hiHiich of ('onun iw one uiomlx-r
to every :t','"M of llio population in tho
beginning. i'linirrrm lias itself adjusted
tho ratio ufler each national census siuei.
1 ho basis has been iucreaiwd from lU.ODO
under the census of 179J and 18U0 to lb?,
IKH) under that of l.ssn
laevetl guns wero fired at sunrlso, noon
and suiiM-t of March 4. ITS'), ushering into
being thotiovcrnmcnt under its new char
ter. Noon was the bourse! apart for thn
opening of Congress, but the quorum did
Hot mako its apM-nruiiee. Coiigrcrf at
that timo consisted of twenty-two N-natora
and fifty-niuo Itcprrvcnlativos, North Car
oliua ami Khodo Island having up to that
time failed to ratify the Constitution.
Their ai ceptnnre of that compact, as al
ready said, caino before the expir
ation of the term of the National Jxvinla
turc, which ojaMicd in 17X9, so that tliirti-cn
MaU'S wero reprissented in the Kirst Con
jrrtsa boforo that Uxly expired by legal
limitation. Hut in the beginning twelve
mainlxTs would have constituted a quo-
'rum ol the Nmate and thirty that of the
llouse of Itenresentalivo. Weeks passed,
however, bcloro this quorum was reached.
The dolay of Cvtigreasmen In arriving at
tho aoat of government was due to a va
riety of causes, the chief of which were
the lalo day nt which Uia elections iu many
cases had been held and tho bad condition
of tho roads at the time set apart for the
meeting of Congress. Tho wildorness had
to be threaded and the rivers fordod, as
even bridges wore scarce in those days.
Floating ice in the rivers between Balti
more and New York kept Kichard Henry
Leo, of Virginia, thirty-threo days in
making the distance between the former
point and tho latter.
When Congress met nt noon on March
4, just eight of tho twenty-two Senators
wero present nnd twelve out of tho fifty
niuo Hepresenttittvcs. Most of these wero
from New Englund and points noar New
York. The only Senator from tho South
was William Few, nnd ho was a citizen of
tho State farthest removed in distance
from tho goat of government (ieorgin.
In tiio Houso, William Whito, of Virginia,
and Thomas Tudor Tucker, of South Caro
lina, wore tho only members from below
tho old lino of Mason and Pixon who an
swered to their names when tho roll was
called ill that bodv on March 4.
The State of N'cw York itself, which
hold tho scat of government, was not rep
resented in Congress at tho opening, nor
did its Senators lakothoir places until long
aitor the inauguration of tho President.
The Houso of iiepresentntives secured a
quorum on March 30, ami tho Senate on
April 0. John Lungdou, of Now llamp
aliiro. was chosen President of tho Senate
Jor the purposo of counting tho votes.
Alter tno count was cone! u. led messengers
wero sent to notify Washington of his elec
tion as Presidcnt'and John Adams of his
choice ns Vice-President. Frederick Au
gustus Muhlenberg, of Pennsylvania, had
previously been choseu Speaker of the
llouso. Adnma was inaugurated on April
1!1 and Washington on April 30.
It was a notablobodv of nion which as
sembled in Federal llall. in Now York,
whon all the thiitecn States were repre
sented, to legislate for tho young Republic
Let us glanco over tho roll, taking the
Connecticut sent to tho First Congress
Penators Oliver Kllsworth nnd William .
Johnson, nnd lteprcsetitatives Benjamin
Huntington, Koger Sherman, Jonathan
Sturgcs, Jonuthuii Trumbull and Jeremiah
Wudsworth. Three ol these Ellsworth.
Sherman and Trumbull wero inou of
great nhility nnd political experience, nnd
of international reputation. Kllsworth had
beeu a uiouiler of tho Continental Con
gress, and of the Constitutional Conven
tion, and afterward was successively Chief
Justice of the United States Supreme
Court and nn Kuvoy to France. Sherman,
too, had been a member of tho old Con
gress of the Confederation, ns well as of
the Constitutional ('(invention, was ono of
the sinners ol the Constitution, nnd was
one of tho most accomplished nxtronomcr
of the day. Trumbull had previously been
a Revolutionary hero, and was subse
quently Shaker of tho llouse, United
Mates Senator nnd eleven times Governor
of his Stato.
William Few and Jamea (lunn, Sena
tors, and Abraham Baldwin, James Jack
son und Uenrgo Matthews, Uipreonta
lives, wero tho men chosen by Georgia.
Few had served in tho Ki'vo'.utioniiry nrtny,
tho Continental Cong .-run ami tiio Conven
tion which framed tho Constitution. In
tho latter years of his lifu bo rennved to
New York, nnd wns for a time a member
of tho lower brunch of the legislature.
Baldwin, who bad ill) been n revo!uiio:i
nry veteran, was not so wuii known as 1' -w
nt the time of thn First Congress, iUk in
distinction he itllcrward ccl.ped ins eo:u
pati lot, serviiu in both br.i:ic!ies ol Con
gress, ht iug President pro teiu. ol tho:-en
ule at his death inlS IJ. Tho re:i.it:i:ioii
of the olliel iucmbcr.4 of II. u Georgia dele
gation was not so great ns that of fiese t wo.
Maryland was represented iu the Senate
by Charles Carroll an I John llenrv. an 1
in thn llouso by llnuiel Carroll, Beiij iii.in
Coulee, (ieorg - dale, Jodm.i S-uey, Will
iam Smith and Michael Jenifer Sio'ne. The
limit ibsliuuu.xlii'd of llic.to weri Carroll
and Henry, The latter, previous to his
appearance in the Senate of llio First Co;i
pn.'ss, had Served in the Congress of the
Co:ilederatinli,mid W M subseqil 'Clly (iov
ernor of his Stato. Carroll Iu 1 two jk-cu-liar
marks of diMincli.n. II j was a de
scendant of tho O'Carrolls, who were
umoiigtho most powerful of the liixh
Princes of tho thirteenth nnd fourteenth
centuries, and w ns tint 'ait ol the signers of
tho I'eclitration of Independence. Ourioll,
U-siile U-ing a mcinlicr of tho ( ongros
of llio Confederation, served in tin l-.'is-laturo
of his Statu both after and belom
being in the upper branch ol Congrx.sa
under llio Constitution. He was ono of
the. leaders ol the Federal party, and on
the defeat of Athat organization lie went
into privato Inc. and too npeals and d j
mands of bis Statu that lie u.'.un enter
tHjIitics were nliku unavailing, due ol the
last acts which brought him be (ore tho
countrv was his laying of thn corner stonu
ol the I'.ahiuioro iV tlhio liailroa.l in Is.'h.
In this bo alone of nil tho men of thn l.Vv
olntionarv oriod i lentille.t liiuxelf with
a (lis inellvely modern enterpriso. At the
timo of his death, in Is:.', uhen tiineiv
live years ol age, ho had boon forvears ilir
last survivor, of I ho men wIumo sigiialuros
are nttaelied to tho IVclara'ion ol Indo
Mndeniv, and was, for over a quarter of a
century, the most ilitiiniruilie I cii.zcn ol
On thn roll of the Massachusetts delega
tion aponr tho nnimn of Tnstam li.ilion
and Caleb Strong. Senators, and I i-lier
Ames, lilbridgel iorry, In'tijuininlioo'liiiie,
Jonathan iroiit, (ieoro l-nuard. tieoriro
Paitielgo, Theodore N-I'witk and Geor.-c
Tliateher, Kepresentulives. At Ilia head
of tho lint iu intellect and in value ol ser
vices sIimkI Strong, Ames nnd Gerry.
Strong, who was one of the most conspicu
ous leileraii-lH of his State, was one of I lie
franiers ol the CoiiMiiu.iou, and alter le tv
ing CoiigriKS was clceU'd liovernor of .Mas
sachusetts in seven successive elections.
Ames was ono of llio yotnigexl men in tho
Fimt Congress, being only tli;rty-ono w hen
that body met. I'-oih before nnd during
his set vice in C'onun si ho wroto many
polilicul esHiiys w hich had a bigii pl.ieo In
that brunch ol literature. IIm siss-ch in
Congress iu 17'.U udvix'aliiig tho npproiiria
tion necessary to carry into rihrt Jay's
treaty with Great Brimiii waalhit ino-t elo
quent nnd Kwerlul ever delivered in
either branch of tho National I-ifisluture.
except Webster's reply to llayue, and
John Oj'iim y Adams's upiM'nl in favor of tho
right ol H!lilion. Ill-heallhdrove him out
ol politics in early lite, and death closed
his career at tho agn of fifty. Gerry was
tho nioil conspicuous A nti-Federalist in
hut Stulo. In. Iced his nvenoon to the prin
ciples of thti pnny of Washmtou, llainil
tnu and Ailams wss so great Hint he refuted
to sign the Conititutiou. Suliscqiient to
his ncnrnnca in tho First Colore ho
was sin eetsively dovemor of bis Stato and
Vlce Pn!"idciilof the United Slates, dying
in that olllco.
A sharp and tricky redisricting aeheme
which he engineered in bis State to defeat
the Federalists I rntijrht tho word gerry
mander into political nomenclature aiid
Introduced tbo thing which it designates
John 1-angdon and Paine Wingnlo,
Senulors, and A bid Foster, Nicholas Oil
man and Suuiunl Uvcrmore, lUpncnta
livcs, comprised tho delegation which the
(iranito Slate sent to Congrea. The two
first Dnined were among the beat known
men of their time. Langdon was dis
tinguished in his Stato before tbo Involu
tion began, and served In its Lrgisln'.itro,
as well aa later nn In the Continents! Con
Kresa, At I lie beginning of the First Cou-trrp-i
ho was chosen President pro tern, of
tho Senate, so as to rnabto that body to
perform its part la tho counting ol tlie
electoral vole. There wns a President of
the Senate, at bis selection to that post,
several days bofurs cither a Vtct-PrsaiUval
or ft President lad an actual existence.
After bis rotiroruont from tho Sennto be
became Governor of New Hampshire.
Wingato, after leaving tho Senate at tho
cloie of Washington's first term iu tho
Presidency, entered tho Houso of Ilepro
scutatives, nnd subsequently wont on tho
bench in his Stato. For ninny yoni-s pre
vious to his donth, in 1S3S, when ho was
ninoty-niue years of ago, Wingato, was tho
last survivor of the men who sat in oithor
branch of tho First Congress.
Now Jersey sent Jonathun F.ltner, Wil
liam Paterson Jand Philemon Dickinson,
Somitor8, nnd Klins lloudinot, kunbort
Cadwalnder, Thomas Sinnickson nnd
James Schureman, lteprestatives, Dickin
son succoodipg Paterson, who resigned to
accept tho governorship of Now Jersov.
Tho most eminent of tlieso wero lkmdinbt
and Cadwalader. lioth were connected
with tho army In the Kevolution, tho
former ns Commissary General, nud the
latter in tho field, lloudinot was a mem
ber of tho Continental Congress, wris
Presidont of that body in 1 7S'-S,t, and
while acting in that capacity signed tho
treaty of peace with Ktigland. "After serving
threo tonus in tho lower branch of tho
curliest Congress under tho Constitution,
ho tilled tho oMico of Director of tho Mint
for a few years. Ho was distinguished
nlsoasn philanthropist. Cadwalader served
in tho TuirU Con.-ejs, us well as iu the
Itufua King and Philip Schuyler, Sena
tors, are tho names host knowii to stu
dents of history of tho men constituting
Now York's contingent in tho First Con
gress, lta representatives in tiio. lower
branch of that bady wero Fghsrt ltonson,
William Floyd, John Hatliom, John
Lawrence, Fetor Sylvester and Jeremiah
Van Kenssolacr. Kind's is ouo of tho
greatest names of llio Revolutionary
eriod. A Massachusetts man bv birth
and a graduato of Harvard College.be
represented that Stato i:i tho Continental
Congress, and later on, moving to New
York, was ono of tho lirst two men sent to
tho United Suites Senate by that Com
monwealth. From 1799 to 1803 and from
lfc.'o to ISliH he was Minister to Kugland,
serviiu in t lie Semite iu tho interim. Ho
was a loader of tho Federalists while iu
Congress, nnd wns twice candidate of that
party for Vice President und onco for
President. Schuyler led ono of the nuMt
romantic careers of the time. Ho win an
ol!) cor iu the British army in (lie war
against the French uud Iii.lians from 17o"i
to 1703, and was ouo of Wa.-.liing on's
most trusted subordinates in the U.-volu-tionary
struggle. In tho Congress of the
.old Confederation he was tvHpieuotis,
und dining Wasliingiou's mi l ha'.f of
Adams's service iu the Presidency he was
one of the mont honored an I itief il nieiii
beis of tho upper liranch of ConjreMs.
Tiio siron-est iiinu liUclleelu illy in
North Carolina's delegation was .loli'n
vier, who S"rvcd in 1 1 iu llouse of B-pre-seiiiatives.
His colleagues wero John 1! ip
tisto Aslie, Tiiiiotliy Bloodwortli, .lol.n
Sieelo and Hugh ill unison. While in
tho Senate Hie Sta:e was rcpr.-s uite.l by
Beiijauiiu Haw kins and S.iuitiel John'.ui.
S-vier was well know n nsan Indian lighter
nnd pioneer Iffore llio ha i lie of U x.,.L-l.i;i
was loiluht, il.d gisnl s.-rvii-e in llio .evo
lutionary army, nnd, in addition to lieing
II ineinoer of tlu Nurtli Ca.o.iu: d-leji-tion
in the first Congis, re;ircs -:ite I
Tennesse.', of which tin w is on i of tlie
founders, in a suhviiuent Concn-ss.
Koli rt Morris, Senator. a:i I I're.lerick
A. ami I'e'.er lu;ileulie u, Ki-ii:i-Mut:i;ive-,
welu llio lno.t not till j llieniliers of 1,'ie
lVtinsyivaai.i ilele.'ation. The ot.'i.-r luen
whieh'th. M.ilet.'iil lo t Ii l ir-t Co;i' en
we e S.-n imr Wiiliain Maeiav and U pre
aeut.ilivl ie it-j Clynier, i'lio n is I it.
niuiui.ciV Thomas ll.uiiev, Daniel lleii
ler, Tiioiu.'M citt and Henry yn', io,i.
Mo'ris h oi U-en u iiieiuU r o( tho C.i.i i
lienlal Con ;res, a figuer of Ih l s i. na
tion ol Independence, u li'iiding siio-cnlier
lo the fund raise I hy li: my p.ili.oiie and
beiievo.ent ciell to u. in nipjuirtinu the
army, I-uperiuteii.leiit of I'iiloi m ill
C-'nted.'ra'l'MI, a lue i tier ol t!ie 'o.i-n
tiou wiiieh frame I llio Coiiatitution, uud
was a Senator in the e.uiier l'oii-.nes, in.
derthe Coustitudon !ir s.x years, 'the
Milhleubers wero euiineiil, im m ier ol a
family w.iieu c uitiiutite.l u..inv ; i -.. i i
gumheil men to the couutrv's h'-rie. in
inil'.l.irvaiiileivicc.ip.ieitv. l: :li t lie brot it
ers here ii. lined studied tlie ilo,:y i n I veie
orda.n -d lo the uiiiiistrv. Fnsleri ' served
iu the. Continental Congre.s, was iV.-. (
ol Hie ( 'on volition ol his Main i.ilielio
ratilr too ! leral t'onsiitir.i.ei, imd w is
tl.o lirst Speaker of tin ilmwnf It -pr
scutatives. Peter Miilil' ini'ig, ulne mil
na.nii was John Peler G.tlmui, was even
more activo and tiixtinguislied than his
brother. Ho was a General in the icvnbi
tioiuity uriiiy, served in tho Ibmse ol liep
rcM'iilutives ill the llireeearde-l Coiiiem -N
miller the Constitution, and sulwcqii.-i.t y
ill the Senate.
lilioiln Ishuiil was repn-viiled in the
Senate by Theodore Fotter slid Josej h
Slanloii, and In I he llou-i hy U-uj miiu
Bourne -ad notalilo men Iu their State.
The most conspicuous names on Ninth
Carolina's list ol llepreoentntives in the
First CoiinnH were, liulph lud in the
ups r b aucli and Thonian humter iu tfie
lower. I he oilier iiieiiiU-rs of dial Mate's
il.deg.uion were l-ciiator Pierce Bu.i. r siel
liein-eniiiiivos Ldanus Binite, iaui"l
llll.- rjll l III. Isllllill. l.lld, 141 1 1 II
anaiivu of Ssiiilli Caiuliui, w is 4 gMdmile
of CaiiiiireL'o University, lai.'l.oi 1, was a
In'-111 G. r ot the Continental C,iii,;ies, ioii
Iriba.e I large siiini ol m niey lo ai I tdu pa
triot iirinv in itnisnitcnt With l.n,'l.iu l. and
solved MX Veins in Hie J n., t .1 i 1 1 11 j; the
Adiiiiuihtr.itioil of Piesideut Wioiliiiiton.
Suinpter was one of Hut most aleri, thinlig
uud ikillf:il of the parti.. 01 chieft iius ol
the revolutionary army. Hi! commanded
mil) ol I ho lirel regnueutS raised in houtli
Carolina, nud ismtinued in the s 'rvire un
til the closi of llio wai, nttiiin ng the rank
of Brigadier-General, uud rcimvin a Vote
of thanks by tlm Conlllienlul Congress.
In Coiurcss, under tho Constitution, lie
was a lucuiocr of both branches.
At tiio loot ol thn list, when proc filing
in alpliiilietic.il order, stood Virginia, lm
lari;ii.l and greulest ol Ihu t la'es of the
rovoiutlonury epiH-li Ihu birthpl.v-e ol
seven of the nation's chii f iuu'itiiitc, one
of them being Hie m wt muiist liguro Iu
our political Tsntheoil, which furn'ied
l'atiiik lleiny, th most eloipin. it orator
of the revolutionary period, nnd which
provided, in addili m lolhn lirsl President,
I wo nut of tho lour members of III it l'nul
dent's onginul Cnliiuet, Thomas JclVrson,
S cretary ol Mate, nnd Kdiuund Kan lolpli,
At ono time or other Virginia hail, In
tho Sk'reg lie, four men iu tiio Nnate of
the lirst Congress. Theso wero Willi un
Grayson, John Walker, Be hard Henry
h o anil James Monr'p. Its delegation lil
tho llouso was Theolori' I'.land, John
Itrown, Isaac C'olcs, William II. Giles,
Kichard lliaud m, James Msdison. .An
drew Moore, Jolm I'M", Josmh Porter
and Alexiin ler White. Three oIiom men
Kichard Henry U-e, Monroe ami Madmoii
(ill a lame space iu American history, ll
was Lee w ho. nn a member of Iho Conti
nental Congress, Introduced tho motion
enrlv In IT 70 for nlsHi'.utu 'pnratiun from
Great Britain. Sickness in lo's family,
which obliged him to lie absent, luoven ted
hi 111 from being the Chairman of tho com
liutteo which drew Ui tho Declaiation of
Inileismdeuco, and that lionnr went to
Jeirerson. Ho was connected with the
militia of bis State during tlm revolution,
besides serving In the Continental Con
greM, part of which lima he was President
of that body. Ho shar-il In Iho views
sgnlnst slavery held by Washington, tho
Bnn.l.lplis, and many other conspicuous
VirgiriiiitiB of his tune, and Ids arguments
opposing that luslituilon wort U10 basis of
tho pleas urged against it by tho Aliolition
ists of a later period. During his scrvico
iu tho Sonato under the Cuiwtitutiou ho
wns onco chosen President pro teuiporo of
thnt body. :
Madison an3 Monroe wrro, rcsoctivelv,
tho fourth and fifth Presidents of tho Uni
ted States. Madison had boon n member
of tho Continental Congress, and his serv
ices iu tho Constitntlonnl Convention of
1787 gnvo him tho title of "l ather of tho
Constitution." Ho was tho lender of tho
Houso of Itepresontativcs in the four curli
est Congresses under tiio compact. For
tho subsequent sixteen years he was in tho
Fxoeutive Dopnrtmont of tho Government
eight years as Secretary of Suto nnd
eight years aa President. Monroo, before
his appearance in tho Sennto of tho First
Congress, had boon an officer in tho revo
lutionary army and a member of tho Con
tinental Congress, nnd subsequently rep
resented tho country successively in
Franco, Grout Ilritnin and Spain; was Gov
ernor of his Stato under Madison, nnd
President eight years nftcr Madison's re
tirement Theso wore the men who constituted
tho First Cougrcss. Taken ns a whole,
none abler, greater or more public spirited
wero ever gathered together iu a national
Legislature. A grnvo and delicate task
confronted them, but thoy courageously
uud intelligently in ft all tho requirements
of the situation. Popular government, in
t'10 degree nnd on tho scale attempted
hero, was absolutely new lo tiio world.
Neither tho Komatl liepublie nor any of
tho Commonwealths of Greece, for en
tirely obvious reasons, furnished any ex
ample or guido to thoin in this emergency,
lu'presentativo institutions, us broadly
outlined by tho nation's great charter, win
nu CNnerimeiit, nud theso men d;d much
to mako that experiment into the splendid
success w hich it has sinco become. To
tho nverago reader, perhaps, few of tho
members of the first Congress apart from
Ames, Madison, Kichard Henry I,co,
King and Monroe are even names, yet
that Congress laid down the lines on
which government has been conducted
ever sinco Ihoir limo.
CtrvtnmH, fW. 11h, KM
trf,.S p'tulSph, 'Ai7c .Vnfmnf m'M
A. n.ii.')..t e trartffj tutbrninndfit.
i:t'anlfi t, TrnMnUt,9tiij i i-Mtaitfnitfkrm
vi i-er ijrtt twi't Auh.I)m. a il a.l;ri btm
:i.''it f V- , em nil rjf.i 1 I Mnlf "Wo'fl
i...l eee.s ftt ,oiif.t. Itctt i h trrr dv
1-Sf.il t-r-A ,r r I f isswtil of t?rlrl in th1!'
"MvptrtSl! t'. .cs t i-J ; f III trl k.4l'l!r
f r. l tjt i e .riVji t( I ttirrrtimi 0mJ f.nri
f-rm." t i'ei'iiimf e.rst- t'i.M'.Aro.' that.'' t
IwiLI ff bt.'t p ril-t llttimrtil (..-. rt, U k tLttrrnj
fi t. tlJ r.-t ;f U ft e, it .'firr-T f'i rfirW'crS
vi.iln Yi.r, "ll'ta 1 K-A I trui." Am4 latkwj
UCl I'HtUimJ r it.
T.n T'-t H' vl t.t It H.s. t . 11I riU ttiss.
Cr cy rth:r Mineral Pciaon.
fi u ?. rtr. Hi ij. r, tiuj i ; 1 iit froa
J( 1 l :'.. Ii ifnil
I' : I'ic rn t t T.t . I ' nn' I tint
'trv( ("' i- .fjt ..is H 14
vi - ttajtt.
t furcw Wrwi '! Iniitm. ffTf. fVr-
' I.I ill Km f 1, an I ilta-j 1-4 lit is i.. tv 1 Hit
rt I iim .' rat-lv. Mi ii un; tut- - i iii"0 fr -ia
ln.iHirr tifit, ll t 11 -s fi-tt)tt ! I'i'rti.
ft (Ik Ul ili ) hH 4uiU I 1 I uiUU hUtv
11 limtt .
W'r Ui9 M h-pnV eli in j n MHrf rf l!i wmi
!rffni ritiMiii. m ii ti ittn, fi.in i i..r ih
Wurld, is I c 1 11 I rsMi iim ' I isl u I c iy
iri.t. atlMI . M ' Will llijll III V VU .IIM (!'..
tt 'lUi ,f t wwll'l In- Ulh' iil l. Vi I kV
M' f ur O jsiuu U'ouU 1 uusa, m-iiI 1 aa
iis 1 1 1'lMrryof j-wir , nml oir Jivn
fUtl 'til r) if If villi VH 1 ' Irilt. hi flMlrt
co We iii 1 a iiittut t ktu in,;;.
I .r tc by kii iitii'isi.
Tm virt F"--mr Cn , Drttrf 1. Ailmti, 0;
l-Mtj I: Jt t artmisiuicd mnti I CU Pl l.fSs
son U i I lcj Utmrlj, tut, (as mil I'.ori t
tit4 s Hi rccori. Wonts tl (clci o (u.iuf.s
ki. Iniucbdl.uiKt jttrrni, '.-fdi.n, I)pm:
m rrrrj t'.'-o, Cr-rcnis MusiuUi-i int Rwnwif
hl!llcc'Jntu khllih Oiisi sf l-wi.fsn-l.i,':;cx:ci,
Asyjtk: ClJMUianJ Unrstursl
ri::' '5.11 1) iSocJ msis'Imii Mnjcurss,
1: oe. t.lc s":ijset ptlicnai Ihil hi teniae
eujjllytn.-tslliiliwiincf-sll'i. I, :.i lbs
Si ttrt. tr Inijjsm.sl PilU'-urch. II ts f ,!,
wild) It I .'; dC3Crib4 Is Dr. Ks-lnas't "I II ol
ll:iclnsCs.,Cluai'Jui, 0. nnj cjoI tcrt-f.Uc-niiifrtftilnsstnM.
Td I tl) Tl cmssj
Sir. 0.:,tlL.tUiClu. rorc-U t, -ll tfn
lifts. '.nulictLrtJ bj Cit Pt-fu-si Un.i'.li.i C,
A II0 Cl CilSI fWlfifl - l,-'- ! '
s nrTiVflTTSl ibhi"i'..'.ii.
aiwus l, ru ii..- "t
fH. MaiXk. $J
TV If .,,. m (
EX f ;f-ii.-4
4irin 1 S
rVArrnia Hfc.slliO f CO.. n-racs'wtis
osLl. Tni i,t. i Atis, 'i.
FOR r.lEU ONLY!
I POSITIVE '-tosTwFsn.rKi 't"n0',j
nTTT? T. iO" ssir "4
t-toM, -i. .t.K,nf.n. m- -
.i..i i iirut-n,.t,iti
iinm4-i.i, MkiflM nss iMiivstsT- ir-
fe IMUft lrm 1 1 Sum, tMlta, l I ' ""71
1 -'! I--. -.. fll...uuM.
I M. Mrt U MUlIU t(M Ml. It
' ' t OA I1'. . '
1 'i' A.-I,. " . .
,-r5-.'-,t-s.f1 'ii t
A '.-7 t fvrie ?'irsi ITT
- I W-'(U.llL..'l .1-.1" i
rx t Jf'S. o.-'ll-"."S
0 i ) T 1 1 .. i n I " '
VrsiiaM umm tm una i f! . ' , . . i .
APItIL 30, 1889.
"Pot nsarly s
month I was not
ablo to sleep, bat
tor two days, ln
samnls flod anil
ei." R O. Pmitii,
Clausscn, 8. 0.
"t have taken
only s part of a bnttlo of nunr's Celery rvm
pouml, snd It has enilrely rellovcd nw of
Slreplessncss, fMtn which I have suffered
greatly. " Mrs. E. ACTCurr, iMorla, 11L
Milne's Otory Coiniwnnil pmflnfsMi srninrt and
tvnvKhliMf slis.ji. a iiliysli -Inn's pnswritittnn. II
Oiss nut eoiiliilii onolcniirulilniir. Like iiolli
liiir cNi. ttlMH iruiu-aiil.sil eurn for livplei-Ui'.-s,
11 illr-i Uinmiire f iltlitully fnllnweU,
ll.iia. six lor is.mi. lniirirlH.
Whj.s, lnciiAKiwDN ft Co., Uurllngion. Vt
DIAMOND DYES fc1Z'JtZ'll."LACTITD FOOD
W. H. RIIvEY
228 MAIN STREET,
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
FLOOR CLOTH, SHADES, ETC.
LOWEST JOINERS' RATES IN THE SOUTH
MAIL ORDERS SOLICITED.
LAMPS AND LAMP GOODS.
ASSORTED PACKAOES OF TINWARE PUT UP EXPRESSLY
Floyd & Co.
HAVtt THE LARGEST AND MOST COMPLETE STOCK OF
CHINA, CLAS3 AND QUEENSWARE EVER
BROUGHT TO MEMPHIS.
MTIBND rOK WIIOLESkH l-RICB LIST.-VS
R. L Cochran &: Co.
0AW AND PLvUlINQ lb! ILL, ITAVY-YAIID,
Doors, Sash, Blinds, Molding. Lumbor,
Lath and Ghmlos, Flooring, Calling and Codnr Posits.
ALABAMA : CARBON : HILL : COAL
Cl x:iX 'viVt $V -:i-t ii'V- ','!( 4V7
inthicitp. Coka Wend
E. WITZMANN & CO
WEBER EH KNABE
HKNI KOI I CATALO'IUP:.
221-223 SECOND STREET. - - - MEMPHIS. TENH
IKrV. O. CT.AXO te CO.
lr.ii, f-r,SZjj taint
R O.CNAIU b CO.Miiwnsis, Tinm. . .
' A'L ',,(FJ?. 'i' i SHOPS. OFFICE ArTo WAREHOUSE.
feSlt'SV-iiS SECOKD STREET, l ilO'l KARKET TO VIKCIIESTER
JiV MHMI'IIIM.T t-N V.
Mullina & Yonge,
Cotton Factors and Commission Merchants
No. 370 Front Street, Memphis, Tenn,
"Piira lonirttmet W!s sa nprrrns smi mm
ontthat I iiiiilil nut work. I irliil ninny misll-1
clnes. Blt nmio (ravn mo relief mint I usl'
Pslne's t'elery inipoun1, wlilcli at ouco
StrongUieneil nnd Invlvurated my nei-Vi-s,"
Uaulkt siuiivan, lmrltuguin, Vt,
quickly qiiWi snd strrmrthrns llu nerves, when
trrllsted or pnkined hy overwork, exee-wn,
dlsriuie, or shock. It etmsi nerreusnoM. hesil.
ni')u i1vt.prptii, KteeeteiLsnisi nielraieliollu, uJ
oilier dlsorderi of tho nvrroui lynUui.
Tones up tho
I'ortivo roars I wnsn siifti rer Imm nrrvniis
di'MII'i-. nnd 1 tliank llml mill llio discoverer nt
the viiIii.iWo reined, Hint Tiilne's I'eli i-y i i.
puiiii Iciniil mo. li ioir one write to me tor
ihUKh." UKoitus W. llut'TON, Ktuniluixl, conn.
atrf H 1Vhi ff"V
rAs; l( for Itivusjl
NO. 278 SKC0ND STRKET.
UHl u.! .' ' '
JOHN E. RANDLE & CO
Architectural Iron Work,
iik-NmiJ iii(A"rXsiivi,.,fOTT)v n:i'.-i:
II l.l.l-.VS r 1 1 A r 1 1 Mi, 1.1c.
A TLAS ENGINES AND BOILERS.
ELLITHORPB AIR BRAKE COKPART'S ELEVATORS.
ME AM lUMIH, MAI IHNLKY bt.ITI.lls, i;tc.
Ins for Sale
WE II AVIS
30 lots on Eoboaon avonuo, north
' wost of Elmwood,
200 lota on Mississippi avenue, be
yond tho Curve,
10 lots on Main ctroot, noar Ray
Any of which wo will soil oa
Monthly Payments of from $10 to
S20. Whon a lot has boon paid for
in full, If tho'' put ohaior no deslrea
wc w.U build for lilm a home oa
eatd lo', ronclvltifj Monthly Pay
ment! in sett'.omout for the same.
This) plan or arottlnz a home la
bettor than by bull linn associa
tions or any othar plan. You havo
to tako no stock; you havd no cor
poration to d;at with; you gst title!
to lot at 01100, and can ajll at any.
time, 8ibJoct to amount of pur-!
chnsa monoy unpa d.
We huvo sold ovor 300 homes oaj
monthly paymonta. Apply to
BARTON & LAMB.
19 Mm St, QonipMs. Teon.
Memphis, : Tonn.
riu KOTO ICS.
J. T. I rint,
J. v. Allison,
l I' Il.l.l.n,
II. ('. l mtf.
W N. IllUtYlt,
)t: l.v, Jr.,
i K ll.il,li:.ot,
J. T. IVtltH
). J Ji nnr. .
r-ot I'u rtuso.
Iv II. snoa,
J. v. 1 . lirsn,
W. A. Kvrrn,
C. F. rsn.tweiiU.
OP PICK 1 13.
I MIX V. cot llltAN. rrva..nt.
1.01 Is II N ll'HI, i.sj frn..1i.nl
M.HAI1I1 tiOU'-Mll'il. laililrr.
U f. ht l.ul.N. 4,.'.iul CMlilrA
Alllsnct H.inV.I.InilitJ.Lon ten, KnjUnd
Clicniirul Nailo i, Hnlt, 1 1 t New Yo k
lOTTEKf OP THEJUDLIC CH.RITf
:h,AIII.!-sViT.i IN tnT7
- ri 1111. -
0-tid I'nl r Tntr Y .,' Orn'ri-t kf th) M11-
Kia IB iriijli'.oil lmp-..:iii'iit Uniijiii.
(inn I Moiiihtr I'rsnlnr. lei I III II, Mnrriii
, . - 11 ,..t in nu. .14111, ii -,m,ltyol li-h,
l iul imli'.li ) inn, In, ., l.t loner m.riil tlili. -iris
ri.M,ini,-.t (or I',,. .urM,4 l.y I'm iHviourh-uf
Hi.' lull run ami Hie I ros.urr.
UltAH 1X1 1)1' M.W a. tll. I
CAPITAL PRIZE. - - $00,000 i
UO.COD Ticket at 81, $310,000.
I'KH K OK 111 kl IS, AM' ll'l AM MllNi.V.
Mh.ilr. mt lll., nt - IJunnai SI.
(lubluioa. K, II. i.. r n t 1. I . B. Uurt ury.
1 ir nr rui'i'
I rl'IT . flllK llr ui.ii I. ...f7IOe
I I Si ll HI. fnl.K OK Jliii.il -.si.iiiI
I t Wt I SI. I'll I f. Ii'.ioi Is le.
I 1. I: ) N l I'lll.r. Of 3 i.l JO.H
I I nt levari-
I 11.1.1 s nf ..1,. a,.,)
In l'l:l s iK nr.- ,
',: fill I s uf vn 1 ..'!
Hi I'l l 'IS nr snar,. ;, .
I'lnI s UK .euro I..OI,
'fj fl(l.lJ UK an- KI-sl
nn iiiiSim rior 1 rwis.
Ui I'l'-osnt ,iu a..ioiiinftins lu f') .
I'll r a.rr9
4l fn..-. tti .t.s 1 it.M :lrc In I u.-kO
fli I'n ul tl'l airo.litiatitii; lit IiiiilsI
r-J 1 . n ill.', ul l.'i, ,, I.I.-.I l.jr i.i,,0
.' .'''i I'li.'i- an"inil ' rill l - IITS.'.J
Ml In . - 1 I lu Ul" llllli-l Mali . I 1 1 1 MI1 111
f. r. 1 . 10 11 r.
U .inol .-.-iiir.i-l li- lotiii.itiv lin.li1rr-s.lt
II' .Mm 1, 1 all l' I r. tin I'l-1- I 111 Un- l'i "iti U liir-J
11 tut a ,ii"i i In tu t, ami tv t iio lliv billowing
i.ni 1 ,1 .t ii
1 r 1; 1 1 1 i 1 1 1. II .-f'ty ts-uili- i'i it ih I m.
d .11 I'm. ol Mi tlr. ami rsmili iii,riil hs. tut
mm. i-.-ii 1 in- ii'i 1 .rr I iiii 1. 1.1 r i.sitiw 1 !irfi
-i 11. .'ul ol nil lui ill isu hi liu.' I-ilrri 14
I'a 111 '1 ti,' la I'nH 1
11 ll'iln l' ' IZ KIVMU. Iii'rrr-nlor
t'"nli r. II. 1 .11111 tn 1 I. r. . ur I In i..lrn,nt4
fill -i "t in,. '( 1 i' l'.l "I a. I II11 Hi iirl. It.
f t.n. a I'l'.i-r -ro.iu .11 nun I. niuo b) rur
I, 11, r I o . t
I i'i .. I. . in- itmit.-r ..f II v. i. I. Il",ll"1 fo Sim)
. ... U..IKH' .ul . oil., ( Ixuirrlisj u ii 114
II, r .inn- 'I ,
l"f I ill f n'M ii ir tot r. w I'. DitairKI, A fi it
it., ; , 1 in ol i, i, . 1. .1 ,i.
.1. M . I I I.I fi M ,r.l- Slrrnl, Xnrf
!. 1 ii 11., 10 m Ml A, : I i'r Ti l. his
HEAL ESTATE. "
N' I'm T - tti IS- rhinrs'fT fn
Ml ol SI,. II,,
- 'it , - K. Mi "Hi.1
II i.im lu.ir. triL
. irttM-ill alt li.lrr i III .r l." hi' lr SRI-. rl-Ii-t.'.I
In ti- nl-i- i-n'i-tf- oil li Mill ul A ;-r ll.
I 1. M II "i- . ", I will I. si .ill.U.- a l
In, 11 1.1 iim hi ii-.1 lii l'lrr. In fruiii ol Hi lu r
mii ...i,r oili- t tin-Mum )tr. ( rnirsn'.' of
Ihi' r.11111 I10IIW III rliv'.li) luillit), 4rUilllS 1U
SHlunlrif. 4l Ii .lav of Msr, isst.
I ..i hours, ihii I.. I'. mHu 'l.s-r.i-'l Pf "
iii. .t',i,iol In tin 'laftiiif I'iifl ul fac:l
nnir. li'iiii , in n
I l.i.iiiili on ir r ol l"l ) .' II" -smi Icint-
Ins llnrl) . .-ll an I our 1 litilli 1 .. . li-vl lnerr uf
1i--h. 011 I I' h tMj-Mvt tr'. I Mini ruliHH'1 I-
lm II ''i' 'l Inns o,i him. In-1 nti.) l -f n s-'.li)
III mi hill (II-1. 1 f'sl. Mow nr l.-a. I.. l all. 1,
Ilia mull II11 o( ku.t l.i Ulnl llw noilll llUXST
li-rnis l sil -r tisll rsh. Mlsniss on
rtwlll ul lrlr nioiiiii iti - Inii rtol olife
an iiiiir r.iiiil, ih u r isiii'sl. r-l ii 'U"u s'f'.sl.
lln. I. ilnlar ul M.rn is-i
F. H Mi Ht'NIlV.iSrrk slot Mstrf, .
I f. Hell. I I, T tiluiolHlxill, I. fc. Is
m,i . II. Iriinl.lr. H..II. itora.
liars rtsl si hoaiawil
1 o-lr-ssa. )fc'S'ff
1 I :mlinml VHTI
S u, , , k V M