SOUTHERN. "RIGHTS MEETINGS.
Pnrsnant to nublie Ut! meeting of the pitisens
of wZngtonCoon.y of New HanoTeMSsem.
j .- U 1. to take into considsrtUoa the
niet of National affairs. . . .. .
Crowing ws. oiganlzed by ?rW Major
S.m'IR. Potter, Chairman ; and John D. Bellamy
BIihi motion of . J. McRee. the following resolo
tions were submitted to the consideration of tbe meet
nnhed. That in the epinion of this meeting,
..- nMl f the " Fuiriiive Slave Law " or the abo
lition of Slavery in the District of Columbia by thej
Variant! Congress, win oe sucn an indication o ti
tled hostilities to Southern institutions as to justify
oiut nmnire as a measure of imperative necessity and
safety, tbe secession of the Southern States from the
Union. '- , ; ' .
2d. Resolved, That in tbe present aspect of public
affairs, prudence and policy dictate that W nigs and
nnnocrats. burvinsr all old party animosities, should
rally around the standard of Southern Righto until it
Aas become the emoiem 01 victory.
3d. Resolved, That in our. opinion the war waged
upon the South by Northern politicians, does not
spring from philanthropy or any honest regard for
Slaves, but ftora a fixed and reckless purposeto ac
quire political power and political ascendency even
at the hazard of ruin to the South, and thedissolution
of the Union.
4lh. Resolved That policy, particularly at this time.
requires that the Southern States should take imme-
i.1. . . . i t? i :i l : J
Quite Steps to estaoiisn a commercial innno,
sucb a direct trade with Europe as will render them
independent of Northern Merchants, Manufacturers
ana snip owners. . . - -
5th. RetocrtL That our thanks are eminently due
totheHonv W.S. Ashe, of this district, T. L. Cling-
man. J. R. J. Daniel and A. W. V enable, tor their
able and patriotic defence of Southern Rights ; and
pledge to them our coroiai support
- fith. On motion, it was further Resolved. That
committee of Ten beappointed to consider and deter
mine tbe proper course to be pursued in order to carry
oat tbe 4th Resolution as above, and they report ei
ther through the public press or otherwise as to them
may seem best. ,
7tb. Resolved, That the papers of Wilmington are
rea nested to publish (be proceedings of this meeting.
On motion of Dan'l Dickson, Esq-, the thanks of
this meeting were tendered the Chairman and Secre
S. R. POTTER, CT'm'n.
Committee appointed under the 6th Resolution:
A. J. DeRossett, Jr., J no. McKae, J no. A. lay lor.
J.Cassiday, W. A. .Wright, G. J. McRee, P. K,
Dickinson, O. G. Parsley, Dan'l Dickson, W. E,
MEETING IN GASTON.
According to previous notice, a large portion of tbe
citizen, of "Gaston County assembled in the Court
Honsem Uallau. when, on moiion oi J as. n. tvmie,
James Qainn, Esq- was called to the Chair, and
John Webster. Esq., Dr. Lee At Moore, and J. M
Lewis were appointed Secretaries. It was moved
that a committee of five be appointed to draft resolu
tions expressive of the sense of the Meeting, when
tbe following gentlemen were appointed by the chair,
viz:, B. Shipp. Esq., Dr. Wm. Sloan, James H.
White. Esq.. Leroy Stowe, and J. M. Newson, who,
after retiring a short time, introduced the following
resolutions, which were unanimously adopted.
We. the citizens of Gaston, assembled in a Coun
ty Meeting, to take into consideration the alarming
agitation of the Slavery question, deem it proper to
proclaim to the world our long and devoted attach
ment' to out once glorious Union the enoblins
pride inspired by the achievements of the past, ami
the bones we uniformly cherished of a bright and
prosperous futare--and, emulating our sainted ances
tors, to pledge, u Our lifes, our fortunes, and onr sa
cred honors," to preserve, if possible, this dear-bought
Republic with all the compromises of the constitu
tion fully observed i but if, after all our concessions,
and our efforts to promote harmony, we shall be driv
en to resistance, we here declare our readiness and
tour determination to co-operate with all Southern pat
riots, without regard .to party, in any wise measure
that may be adopted calculated either to restore the
violated Federal Constitution, or to protect tbe insti
. tutiona of the South, and save the country from utter
ruin. . .
To be prepaired for any emergency, let it there-
Resolved, That we will stand ready to co-operate
in an constitutional measure of redress the South
.Resolved, That if steps are not taken to repair the
wrongs inflicted bpon the South,, by the passage
through Congress of what has been called the Slaver
ry bills, the people should seriously consider the pro
priety ot supendirtg all business intercourse with the
aggressive tana tics of the North.
The meeting was addressed by' B. Shipp and J.
On motion, the proceedings of the meeting were
ordered to be signed by the Officers, and publish
ed in tbe Lincoln ton, Charlotte, Kaleigh and Colum
bia papers, and all others friendly to a united and de
termined maintenance of Southern rights and interests.
JAMES QUINN, Chairman.
J. M. Lewis,
Lee A. Moooe, Secretaries.
The. Mechanics of Fayetteville held a meeting on
the 3rd instant, to take into consideration the inter
ests of the mechanical portion of the community, and
of the State generally, A committee of ten was ap
pointed to take the subject under consideration and
report to an adjourned meeting. North Carolinian.
We think it highly important and commendable
for mechanics to take theirown interests in their own
bands. This thing has been too long neglected, by
Southern Mechanics add the consequence is that they
are far behind those "bf tbe North in invention and
improvement in the different branches of mechanism.
It is a great folly to let petty rivalry in any. branch
of business operate to the suppression ofthat social
intercourse and unity of effort which, when fully cher
ished, is almost certain to result in the mutual advan-
tfanro rf all MlHUkrnMl.
Wehope to see the time soon arrive wheu Me
chanics of all trades shall combine to assert the dig
nity of labor, when tbe knowledge and ingenuity of
eacb shall be employed tor me good or all. Thus
they would secuse to themselves the respect they de
serve, and the community from being imposed upon
by bunglers, undertaking to do work at half price,
which Matter Workmen alone are capable of doing
Mechanic of North Carolina, call meetings .form
associations take the management of your interests
into your own hands, and thus assume the position
to which roa are entitled. At 'a crisis like the pres
ent it la bigbiy important you should do so.
" Warrenton New.
Impost ant M sense. J. H. Danforth, Esq., the
Postmaster at Enfanla, Alabama, liaving refused to
deliver the National Era. an Abolition paper, to
subscriber, and having been admonished for it by the
Assistant Postmaster General, a large meeting of the
citizens of Eufaola, was held, at which resolutions
were passed, sustaining" Mr. Danforth, and declaring
-that in case of bis removal for bis' conduct in this
matteri no other Postmaster would, be permitted . to
take his sjace.
The Pittsburg Synod of the Presbyterian Church,
old school, .closed its' session last week without any
, action on the fugitive slave law. Several propositions
had been introduced which distinctly declared the, law
void.- as confiictins with the Divine law. But mod-
rat counsels ultimately prevailed, and the Synod
. adjourned without taking definite aetion, or resolving
upon a lormai emprewun F . .
f gioa. of this law on the conscience end conduct ofj
citizen witn its jnnsuicuon,
Carolina MAXVt4icrvM.-:jVfelmm lh9i$uW
graphic despatch bat been receivea in w uiwb inu
. New York, stating that the superb boggy ,Jc.
tured by our enterprising fellow-townsman, Mr. J. o.
Thornton, and to which was awarded the first premi
um at the South Carolina Institute last year, has car
ried off the first prize at the-Fair in Castle Garden,
New York. There were nine other competitors.
v" ,v- " - For tbe North Carolina Standard. .
T0 JAMES B. SHEPARD, ESQ. '
Sir: 1 addressed Ton in Jane last an article en tbe -
subject of yoaf course on State debts, the principles
of which have been established by experience, and
the truth of which by the people of North Carolina
has been most triumphantly sustained to the recent
election for Governor and Legislature.
The sobiect of the Stole debt and eonseqeent lia
bility of the people is always t thera.interesting and
important. Now that tbe Legislature is about to as
assemble, it well beeomes that intelligent body to as- ,
certain the exact amount of the State' liability, real 1
a well as prospect; ve, and see what means are at her
command to extinguish this liability; to create a
nnking fund which can be set apart to meet these
debts without resort to the ruinous taxation of the ;
In all her investments in funds and stock the State
bas been most unfortanate. Other States that have .
embarked in the schemes of-Internal Improvements,
have received some dividends from the stocks, and
thns been enabled better to pay off these debts. But
with few exceptions, this has not been the case in
North Carolina. - ! - V ,
The time has' come that the State mast meet this
qnestion faifly and fearlessly, and in no partizan spi
rit, but as statesmen and patriots; ' It is no nse
to pronounce eulogies on the State, and. glorify the
cause of internal improvement. The'facts and figures
are composed of stubborn stuff, and riot to.be thns
affected. States, like individuals, may pay too much
for the glory of internal improvements... Rev. Sid
ney Smith telle os what England has paid for glory,
and what are the blessings of taxation :
" We can tell Jonathan the ddnsequepce of being
, too fond of glory : Taxes upon every article which
enters into the mouth? covers the back, or i placed
under foot taxes upon every thing that is pleasant
to see, hear, feel, smell or taste. Taxes upon wannjh,
light and locomotion.. Taxes upon every thing on
earth, and water under the earth. Taxes upon every
thing that comes from abroad, or is grown at home.
Taxes upon sauce that nourishes the infant, and the
coffin that encloses old age. The Englishman mounts
his taxed horse,' with a taxed bridle when in health ;
when sick pours out medicine for which he is taxed -
f50 per cent into a spoon that has paid .15 percent;
throws himself on his chintz bed tor which he has
paid 25 per cent, expires in the arm of an apothe
cary, who has paid for a license a tax of 100 pounds
for the privilege of putting him to death. His whole
estate is thus taxed from 2 to 10 per cent. Besides
probate, large fees are demanded4 for burying him in
the Church, hi name is recorded on taxed marbTe,
and he is then gathered to his father to be taxed no
more." " (See Sidney Smith's works, page 140.)
This picture may be strongly drawn, but it is true
to the life. Let us avoid a similar condition ; and
the present Legislature, elected for the purpose, of
public good, should create some rampart which may .
stop this deluge of expenditure, by which our State
may be reduced to the condition of Pennsylvania in
'98, or Mississippi in later times. It is due to the
people and to posterity to create some constitutional
barrier to the use of the State's faith and credit to cor
porations and individuals. Let ns profit by the wis
dom apd examples' of 'other States. . The -State of
New Yorkhas acted upon this subject.
Notwithstanding the great resources of that State,
and the .large revenues annually derived from her ca
nals, the last Convention of New York, acting no
doubt in obedience to the popular will on the subject,
wisely inserted in the Constitution such limitations
as will ensure safety against an overshadowing public
debt, as well as punctually meet the interest and -gradually
extinguish the principal of that which had
been created prior to the adoption of the present form
of government. In compliance with the Constitution
of New York, one million, three hundred thousand
dollars,TJeing part of the nett revenues of her canals,)
are annually applied to the payment of the interest
and part of the canal debt, and after the year 1855,
one million seven hundred thousand dollars are re
quired to be applied to that purpose. The Legisla
ture is authorized to borrow money to repel invasion
or suppress insurrection, and the Legislature " may,
to meet casual deficits or failures in revenues, or for
expenses not provided for contract debts, but such
debts, direct and contingent, singly or in the aggre
gate, shall not at any time exceed one million of dol
lars." Except for the foregoing objects, no debt can
be contracted, " unless such debt shall be authorized
by a law, for' some single work or object, to be dis
tinctly specified therein ; and tueh taw thall impose
and provide for the collection of a direct annual tax to
pay and sufficient to pay the interest of such debt as it
fails due, and also t pay and discharge the principal
oi sucn debt wuiun eigtu yean trum the time of the
contracting thereof. Nsf suck law shall take effect un
til it shall, at a general election, have been submitted to
the people, and have received a major it v of all the votes
cast for and against it, at such elect 'ton."
I he Constitution of Rhode Island ordains that,
" the General Assembly shall have no power, here
after, without the express consent of the people, to
incur State debts ton amount exceeding fifty thousand
dollars, except in time of war, or in case of insurrec
tion or invasion ; nor shall they in any case, without
such consent, pledge the faith of the State for the
pavment of the obligations of others." The assent
of two-thirds of 4be members of tbe General Assem
bly is required 44 to every bill appropriating the pub
lic money or property for local or private purposes."
The Constitution of New Jersey contains the fol
lowing provision : '
1 he Legislature shall not, in any manner, create
any debt or debts, liability or liabilities 6f tbe State,
which shall singly or in the aggregate with any pre
vious debts or liabilities at any time exceed one hun
dred thousand dollars, except for purposes of war.
or to repel invasion, or to suppress insurrection, un
less the same shall be authorized by a law, for some
single object or work, to be distinctly specified there
in ; which law shall provide the ways' and means,
exclusive of loans, to pay the interest of each debt or
liability as it falls due, and, also, to pay and discharge
the principle of such debt or liability within thirty
five years from the time of the contracting thereof,
and shall be trrepealable until such debt or liability,
ana me interest inereon, are ruuy paid and discharg
ed, and no such .law shall take effect until it shall,
at a general election, have been submitted to the peo
ple, ana nave receivea me sanction ot a majority of
all the votes cast for and. against it at such election :
and all money to be raised by the anthority of such
law snau do applied only io the specific object stated
therein and to the payment of the debt thereby crea
ted." ' -
The Constitution of New Jersey also contains the
following provision, inserted probably with the view
ot counteracting the modern practice knowh by the
significant term of " log-rolling :"
"To avoid improper influences which may result
from intermixing in one and the same act such things
asiiave no proper relation to each other, every law
shall embrace but one object, and that shall be ex
pressed in the title." ,
The Constitution of Louisiana provides that, "The
aggregate amount of debts hereafter contracted, by the
Legislature ahal I never exceed the sum of one hun
dred thousand dollats, except in the case of war, to
repel invasion or suppress insurrection, unless the
same be authorized by some law, for some single ob
ject or work, to be distinctly specified therein : tit Alt A
law shall provide ways and means, by taxation, for the
I'ajruienioi running interest during tbe whole time
for which aid debt shall be contracted, and for the
full and punctual discharge at maturity of the capital
borrowed ; and said law shall be irrepealable until
principal and interest are fully paid and discharged,
and shall not be put into execution until after its enact
ment by the first Legislature returned by a general elec
tion after Us passage.1 i
Tbe Constitution of Mississippi forbids the appro
priation of money to objects of internal improvement,
"unless a bjll for that pupose be approved by two
thirds of both branches of the Legislature' ;
.The same Constitution provides that no law shall
ever be passed to raise' loan nf mnnav .-
I credit of the State, or to pledge the faith 6f the State,
mw .nan nave ooen approved bV a ma
jority of both houses of the Legislature, durimr (wo
consecutive sessions of said Letrislat
. Xbe cor!!XoS of Tews prS
isiature.. SJ ( , ,
nrohihiba tha r.arri.f.
i !ure !?m. bonowng money except by a majority of
t : 7 . " , V ui Auemoij, nor -ts the
Legislate allowed to contract any, debt exceeding'
one hendred thousand dollars.
to repel invasion or suppress insurrection.
. . w vr', yi ww en
ne constitution or Iowa contains a provision in
reference to the public debt, loans, &c very eimilar
wmcn nab aieaay been referred to in il
stttotion of New Jersev. -":
The Constitution of Wisconsin ordains that, " The
credit of the State shall never be given or loaned io
aid of-any individual, association or corporation.
Unless for the purpose of repelling invasion, Trap
pressing insurrection or defending- the State in time
of war, ue Legislature is prohibited from contracting
debts exceeding in the aggregate one hundred thou
sand dollars, and every )aw authorising a loan," shall
provide for levying an annbat tax sufficient to pay the
annual, interest of sucb debt, and the principal -within
The Constitution of Arkansas provide that no
other or ereater amounts of revenue shall at any time
be leviedr than reqaired'for tbe necessary expenses
government, unless. by a concurrence ot two-thtrdsot
I have not seen the new Constitution of Kentucky,
but I understand it provides, that no law appropria
ting ipdhey to objects of internal improvement shall
be carried into effectunless it receive, the approval
of a majority ofvthe voters at the succeeding general
election.' : . -. '--":- r
Tbe foregoing extracts demonstrate the hostility of
tbe people of New York, Rhode Island, New Jersey,
Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, Iowa, Wisconsin, Ar
kansas and Kentucky, to a large public deb). They
evince no unbounded: confidence in legislative discre
tion or legislative wisdom : on the contrary they are
characterized by that spirit of caution and distrust
which observation has inspired and experience nas
sanctioned; . r :j ;,; .- v
As in a former number, the writer of this disclaims
any hostility to any scheme that may have been en
tered into for the welfare af our Statu. - What has
been done cannot be helped; we wish to profit by
experience, and amend the future by tbe past. .
- :. .CATO.
MlLITARV AND SciEHTlTIC ScHOOI. IK WeSTERIf
Carolina. ' Wa have been Ion? ot trie opinion that
something of ths sort is demanded by Ihe necessities
of our State. That education is essentia to the wel
fare.of a State, is a fact beyond all contradiction : and
that the military education of her sons is equally es
sential lor ner aeicnce una support needs no argu
ment. We hsve been favored with the letter below,
that shows npon what basis our sister State, Virginia.
has. organized and'has in complete and successful op
eration her Military Institute, oouth Carolina has an
Institute similar. We are gratified to learn that met
mortals will be presented to our Ueneral Assembly,
to locate and establish a Schoot similar to these, at
or near the Catawba Springs, in this County. Pro
perly encouraged by the Legislature.' and under cap
able and scientific instructors, an Institute mighty be
established that would. disseminate knowledge and
information not only to the present generation, but to
thousands yet unborn. The location is beautiful,
the buildings could be readily prepared to receive the
cadets, as soon as organized, and would command
the petronagre not only of our own State, but portions
of South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee and other
States. ' '
We deem this a matter of great moment to the
country ; and in the present crisis s( ous-Sonthern
country essential to ber interest, and we respectful
ly request the attention of our members of the Legis
lature, and earnestly request their co-operation and
exertions for its establishment, on surh a basis as
may be worthy of the State, and most conducive to
the welfare of its citizens. Lincoln Republican. -
From Gen. Wm. 11. Richardnon, Adjutant General of
the State of trgwia.
Adjutant General's Office,
Richmond, May 28, I850.v
Dear Sir: The Governor has handed .me your
letter to him enclosing one front Col. Wheeler. '
The Virginia Military Institute was put into ope
ration in November 1839, by substituting a corps of
40 cadets for the regular guard of 20 soldiers com
manded by a Lieutenant, and costing the State 6000
dollars per annum. It was an experiment through
which, the instrumentality of Col. Francis H. Smith,
tbe Superintendant, a graduate at West Point, and a
native of Virginia, has proved most successful. ,
The course cf instruction and discipline are the
same as at West Point. The corps of cadets has been
increased to 120, of which 32 are educated at the ex
pense of the State and are required to teach in some
school in the State, two years after graduating. The
other cadets nay theirown expenses, which, inlcuding
every thing, are not permitted to exceed $375 the first
year, and $250 the succeeding years of the cadet's
course. Such is the just reputation of the school,
that many more applicants for pay cadetships offer
every year than ean be received and the last Legis
lature appropriated $46,000 in 4 annual instalments,
for reconstructing tbe buildings upon a plan adapted
to the purposes of a military school, and to accomo
date 200 cadets. The whole annual appropriation is
a little under 910,000. No cadet is admitted nnder
16 or over 25 years of age. It is an excellent pre
paratory school for boy 8 entering early and, intended
for professional life the restraints of military discip
line and .course of mental and moral training estab
lish habits of system, order and industry, no where
else acquired and the graduate still bas time for a
classical course at the University.
For those not intended for the learned professions,
but the practical business of active life, it is the best
The graduates are the best teachers and are ea
gerly sought for and to an extent, greatly beyond the
supply. -Many of the pay cadets teach for a year or
two. Ihe provisions for the cadets is admirable
to each one of them a diploma is an independence
it secures him at once employment as a teacher, not
onfrequently a professor and whatever emolument
attaches to that station,.
With high respect and esteem,
I have the honor to be very
, Respectfully your ob't serv't.
WM. H. RICHARDSON.
The Hon. R. M. T.' Hunter,
U. S. Senator.
Unless our Northern people, however, learn to
look upon this Federal Republic in the spirit in which
it is framed, and to execute all the articles of the ho
ly covenant of the constitution in good faith, there is
an end of the Union. We can dissociate ourselves
into 31 distinct, and, in all respects, independent sov
ereignties ; but we cannot, execute tbe Constitution
in the parte that suit us, and nullify it in the parts
that displease us. The covenant to surrender fu
gitive slaves is unpopular in the North, but it is ne
vertheless a s6lemn covenant, If we are to enjoy the
blessings and the benefits of one Government, and
continue to be one people, popularity or unpopularity
must be disregarded, and duty must be done. We
tremble more for our country now, as we see ; the
North shrink b way from this painful duty under tbe
Constitution, than we have ever trembled over Tex
an State threats, Nashville Conventions, or South
Carolina secessions. ' If the North turns Nullifier,
our republic is wrecked on the rock that has dashed
to pieces all others, and as we go down- the last wail
of Freedom goes with us. ' "
The slave case in Boston snow us that practical
nullification exists in that city already. The act of
Congress js virtually nullified.
Not only is the slave refused to be delivered up,?
but the claimant is put nnder 910,000 bonds in a slan
der suit for calling the slave a slave.
It is evident that Boston cannot long nullify the
laws without reciprocal notification elsewhere. If
the Constitution and laws cannot be enforced in Bos
ton, they cannot be enforced out of Boston for the
benefit of Boston. New. Turk Express.
Significant. Every Democratic paper in Missis
sippi is dissatisfied with the measures of "adjust
ment" as they 'passed the last Congress. The
Natchez Free Trader says that the first business of
tne called session of the Mississippi Legislature will
be to condemn the course of Senator Foote on all the
Southern questions that have come up this session in
Congress, and, as the body from whose suffrages he
gained his seat in the United States Senate to request
his immediate resignation. ". . .--r,; s j.
Scicide. We learn-that Mr. Cordy Alsobrook, ag
ed about 50 years, living in the lower part of this
countv, committed suicide on the 17th instant by
shooting himself with a gum.' He left a wife and 5
children. He was a very poor man and bad osi the
use of one of his hands which caased his mind to be
greatly distressed. 'He had become tired, of Jiving
and resolved to die.' :, He shot himself in the pres
ence of a son and .daughter. The gun snapped five
times before it went off. . He ras a 'peaceable; citi-
on ana a gooa man. - s . ttaUfajs RepubUcan. '
There ha lately been a great falling off in CalifoW
ma emigration from New Orleans. A regular line
of sevenschoonere, which for a considerable time had
full business in carrying passenger to CJbinea. is
now wholly withdrawn fof want of patronagS.
I SEMI-TVEEKLy STANDAJIH.
SATLIXDA, . If JTI33XRir 2,r 2850.
'7 OUR FIRST SEMI-WEEKLY.
We gave notice in ear fast that we should publish
our first Semi-Weekly on Wednesday next,' and our
next-Weekly on the. Friday ensuing'; 4ut finding,. .
after more reflection and inquiry, that it would be
best to continue our Weekly on Wednesdays, on ac-r ;
eoant of the fan of the Mails, we.bave changed our ,
plan apd present our first Semi-Weekljr to-day. The
Semi-Weekly Standard will therefore be printed and! J
mailed on Wed nesday and Saturdays, and the Week- -ly
Standard on Wednesdays, as heretofore, v r"r: "
Onr enterprise, , we are' glad to inform, our. friends, .,
is likely to be well sustained. - We are in the con
stant receiptor subscribers both to our Weekly and
Semi-Weekly i'and the prospect in addition is, that
our lists will receive considerable accessions from
names brought in by friends, at the opening of the
Legislature. ' - -'f ' ' "":v
Our most grateful acknowledgements are due, and .
are hereby tendered, to those pesons who have taken
an interest in our success, and contributed by their
exertions to extend our circulation. To our brethren
of the Press also, we are under many and lasting
obligations, for the very kind ana liberal manner jo
which they have been pleased to notice our enterprise,
and bumble labors. -' ', '.-v;'- :
Particular attention is directed to our " Terms,'
as published on our first page.' . v . v ' ' v
fft. CENSUS RETURNS FOR I850V '
; We are indebted to Col,' Little for the Censua Re
turns from Camden, Carteret, Stanly, and 'Wayne
Counties. A mistake having occurred in our publir
cation of the Census of Wayne, in a former number,
we insert that County again, together with all the
Counties thus far heard from. A 1 ' w
' - 1840. . 1850
The above exhibits an increase of 12,491 in nino
Counties. If the 9 Counties, large and small, should
come in as the above cine have, the increase in pop
ulation in this State, since 1840, will be a fraction
over 100.000; but even with such an increase, we
fear we shall lose a member of Congress.
INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION IN LONDON.
Gov. Manly has appointed Col. James F. Tayloi
of this City, an Agent through whom; Societies and
individuals in North Carolina may forward articles for
admission at the Industrial Exhibition to be held in
London, in May, 1$5 The appointment is an ex
cellent one., No one would give mire attention to
this subject, or perform the duties in question with
more intelligence and discrimination, than Mr. Taylor.
This Exhibition is to be a great Fair, at which the
productions of all the nations in the world, both raw
and manufactured,' are expected to-be displayed; and
tbe result of this Exhibition, it1s anticipated, will be
a better understanding of the resources of various
countries and climes, and a consequent improvement
and advancement in the mechanical, agricultural, and
commercial interests, of the world in general. The
President of the United States has placed a vessel at
the disposal of the Executive Committee at Washing
ton, for the purpose of forwarding articles from this
country; and a number of the Governors of the re
spective States have already appointed-Committees
to co-operate with this Executive Committee. Gov.
Quitman, of Mississippi, has appointed a Committee
of twelve for this 'purpose, to act for that State.
LITERARY NOTICES, &c.
Mr. Henry D. Turner has laid upon our table "the '
Life and Correspondence of Robert Southey, edited
by his Son, 5th part," to be completed, in six parts.
This is a deeply interesting work..'
Also, the " Illustrated Family Christian Almanac,"
printed in Boston, and published by the American
Tract Society.. v
- Alsoi the "Church Almanac, for tlmyear of our
Lord 1851. This Almanac contains a mass of val
uable information in relation to tbe Protestant Epis
copal Church in this country, and in England, Ireland,
Scotland, and the English Colonies. The list of
the Bishops and Clergy, which it gives, and tne sta-
tistics of tbe various Diocesses, must render it ac
ceptable and useful, especially to the Members of
that Church. It is very neatly printed; and so is
the " Illustrated Family Christian Almanac," men
tioned above. -1 .
Mr. Turner has also sent us a lovely miniature like
ness of the immortal Jennt Lind. A friend, who
has seen Jenny, and heard her sing, pronounces it
an excellent likeness. .
Tl THE UNION MEETING.
The call for the Union Meeting on . Wednesday
evening will be found in our columns to-day. The
signers, numerous as they are, could have, been dou
bled, tripled, or quadrupled ; but " enough is as good
as a feast," and there was no occasion for more.
The signers embrace men of all professions, though
most of them are merchants, llie idea that this meet
ing originated through fear or cowardice as to tbe
course of the South, or in any manner by Southern
dictation, is as gratuitous as it is untrue. The meet
ing originated according to the best ot our knowledge,
in the purest and most patriotic purposes, in a love
of the Union, in a determination to stand by the Con- '
stitution, in a common resolve to obey the laws of the
land, in a detestation of fanaticism, in a weariness of
agitation, and in an earnest anxiety to end debate up
on settled questions of public policy. The signers
wish to show the North, more than their countrymen
of the SoSth, that they are ready here, and now, to
frown upon the spirit of Discord, Disunion, and Nulli-
ification so rife for mischief in our midst, and that.
too, regardless of all legal restraint, and all sense of
moral obligation. " New York Express.
This Meeting was held on Wednesday evening
last. It was expected to be a great demonstration on
the part of New Ybrk City, which is, in many re
spects sound on the Slavery question. The Express v
of Tuesday last contains tbe names of some fifteen
hundred persons to the call for this .Meeting.
.. ?. Daughters or Temperance. We learn that dur
ing the meeting of the Grand Division, in this city
some fortnight ago, a-Grand Union of daughters of
Temperance was organized. .Ladies were in atten
dance from three subordinate Unions. ;. The follow
ing officers were elected for the ensuing year:-
Mrs. E. A. P. Lemay, of Raleigh G. Pi S. .? 1
;,Mrs. N. D. Hani of Frankfinsville, G. A..S-
. Mrs. t. M. Petetsillia, of Raleigh, G. S. . :
" Mrs. L. M. Makepeace, of Frankliasville, Cf, S, S. '
" Miss M. R. Mckinnie, Sinithfield, G. S. G ; -;;;Mias
IGBrigg. o3P Raleigh, t3. S. C. h ,. v
Mr. J, E Boy kin, of Smithfield, G.'SS.:
n " :t yr ; . . '. - -it
- We learn tSat the Consulship to Havana, in Cuba, '
has been offered to "Hugh' Wsddell, Esq.-, of Orange I
Coanty. This is a "jnog' office, tod we presume
FREE COLORED PERSONS AND SLAVES.
Publfe attention in North Carolina has JbeetS for
tome time past directed to tbe importance of devising
some plan for preventing tbe increase bf free persons
Tof color, and of ultimately removing them entirely
from the State A course of this sort bas been ten
-dered the more necessary, by the aggressions of the
free States, npon onr rights and interests, and by the
constantly increasing, obligations npon ns to keep a
strict watch oyer tbe habits and morals of our slaves
It is due to candor and justice to say, that we have
among ns some free persons of color who are worthy
and industrious citizens, and who deserve the respect
and confidence of the commnnitie in which they res
pectively reside f bn t as a general rule, this class of our
population are vicious, idle, and disorderly, and there-
fore a dead weight upon tne nooy poiuic. , mfj -yr
sume. but nroduce nothinz; and in additiotf to this
they corrupt oar slaves, and render them, in many in
stances, insolent and insubordinate. "Vny law, look
ing to the removal of free persons' of color, would
necessarily operate harshly npon that worthy portion
of them already referred to ; bat a law for this pur
pose would most probably be general, and they; we
apprehend, will be ultimately compelled to share tbe
same lot with the vicious and disorderly. .We pro
pose no plan on the subject. : We merely allude to
it, in obedience to the demands of public sentiment,
leaving it to, our legislators" to devise the plan and
apply the remedy for this growing evil.: It may be,
however, that some measure may be adopted, which,
while it will rid the State of the great mass of this
class bf our population, will at the same time permit
those to remain, of a certain age, (say beyond sixty
who can establish a good character, or who may be
able to show (with a good character,) a certain amount
of property as tbe result of inheritance or honest earn
ings. This would operate as a reward for well doing
to the industrious end deserving, andalso cut off, by
tbe restriction as to age, any chances for an increase
of this kind of population. .
One of the free States Illinois has already, by
a Constitutional enactment, excluded free persons pt
color from coming within her limits; and Ohio is
about to follow the example. Tbe day is riot distant
in onr opinion, when most of the free States will
adopt a similar course.
At the last session of the Virginia. Legislature a
law was passed appropriating $30,000 and levying
a tax of one dollar on each free colored man, tp-be
applied to the removal of this class of persons from
that State. .This appropriation of $30,000 is an an
nual oneand it will no doubt be increased in the Fu
ture, if any increase shop Id be necessary.
A friend at our elbow suggests that nothing would
please him better than to see every free colored per
son in this State taken up bodily, and set down in
the old-fashioned, law-and-order State of Massachu
setts. - Such an event would create a delectable stir
among the descendants of. the Puritans. ' It might
serve to cool their affection for fugitive slaves, and
incline them to restore the stolen property of the South
ern people. -Or we might visit them on this score in
another shape, by offering premium of three or four
. B , I - ?, 1 1 "
nunarea aoirars case, io oe paia on aue prooi irora
the State Treasury, to each free negro who would re-
port himself within a certain time as safely landed on
the soil of a free State. This would diminish tbe
evil in our midst, and at the same time please and
gratify our Northern felloweitizens.
li is of the first importance to the value of our slave
property, as well as to the welfare and happiness of
the slaves themselves, that our laws in relation to
them and to free persons of color, should be rigidly
enforced. We call upon the Magistrates, County
Attorneys, and the officers of the law to be vigilant
and diligent in this matter, and to see that the laws
are observed, ' We demand this of them, in the nam
of the people, and by every consideration, connected
with this subject, which can address itself to their
sense of duty and their consciences. Our space' will
not permit us at this time to point out the various
laws on this subject, but they are well, known to those
charged with their execution, j&mong them, howev?
er, we may aUude to two evils: One is, the hiring of
their own time by slaves ; and the other, slaves go-
! ing at large on Sundays and at night without written
) - f -t . mi ! I
permits irom- weir masters or overseers. I nese eviis
ought to be corrected at once ; and if the present law
on the subject is. not stringent enough, let it be
amended at the ensuing session. " By the86th Chap
ter of the Revised Statutes it is made the duty of thr
County Courts to appoint Patrollers once in each year,
whose" duty it shall be to patrol their respective dis
tricts and preserve order anions the slaves. Do tbe
Courts perform this duty.1 Do they see to it that
Patrollers, thus appointed by them, are active, vigi
lant, and faithful ? . ' ' ' ' '
We take the liberty of calling attention to another
provision of our laws, on this Subject. By the 17th
section of the Chapter on" Crimes and Punishments,"
it is enacted that any person who shall " knowingly
bring into this State, with an intent to circulate, or
knowjngly circulate or publish within this State, any
written or printed pamphlet or paper, the evident ten
dency whereof would be to excite insurrection,' 'con
spiracy, or resistance in the slaves or free negroes
and persons of color within this Sfate, or which shall
advise or pursoade slaves or free persons of color to
insurrection, conspiracy, or resistance "such person
so offending shall be guilty ot fekiny, and on convic
tion thereof shall, for the first offence, " be imprison
ed not less than one year and be put in the pillory
and whipped, at the discretion of the Court; and for
the second offence shall suffer death without benefit
of Clergy." Now this section ought to be altered,
in onr humble opinion, so as to take away from such
person bis benefit of Clergy, and thus subject him to
the death-punishment' for' the first offence. This is
the section under which the Reverend Messrs. C rooks
and McBride were indicted at Forsythe Court. - .Mo
Bride was convicted ; and if the law bad" been as
strong as it ought to have been made at first, instead
of being at large, as he now is, under a light forfeit
ure by way of bail, the gallows would have risen op
before him as the merited end of his folly and crime,
Weshall alludeio this subjectagain, in its various
aspects; and in the meantime we Mope our brethren
of the Press will generally speak out, and give to
their readers the benefit of thejr reflections arid opin
ions npon this important matter. The Legislature is
aboot to assemble, and our laws pn this subject will
doubtless be brought before it for revision and amend
ment. Under these circumstances, the Press can
perform no duty more acceptable or proper, than that
of collecting and condensing the views of their Re
spective communities, so that the amendments, addt-J
Jions, and alterations proposed may not only be well
Considered and matured in advance, but be in accord
ance, as nearly as possible, with the wishes and judg
ment of the public generally. ' ;
' The Ohio Statesman says that all the Democratic
members of . Congress recently' elected from that
State, will vote to repeal the Fugitive Slave Law.
Oil the contrary, tbe Democratic members from Penn
sylvania will generally stand by the law. '
-.'' ' J-t .-u -
" We regret td learn that the Steam Saw-Mill 'of W.
1 S..Ballenger, Esq. of Johnston County, was destroyed
a few days since by fire. We have not heard the ex
tent of. his loss. . ;f :
' . i . ; , ' .
Boston is just row the seat of great excitement, n.
account of the fugitive "SSav Law: Indeed, all
Massachusetts, ivSth the exception of Daniel Web
ster and a few of he faithful Democracy, appears to
be arrayed against Ihis law, and determined in the
first place to evade it, and in the second to repeal it,
if possible, at tbe next session of Congress. We
copy tbe fallowing articles from the Boston papers,41
showing the nature bf the excitement and its extent :
Fugitive-slave excitement in the city. There
was Some slight commotion in this city yesterday,
in consequence of the issuing of a warrant for Will
liam Crafts, and his wife Ellen, fugitives from Ma
con, Georgia, claimed by a person named Huohes
aiu u no 9o acni oi.iQe master
of, the Crafts. The rumors in circulation yesterday
in relation to the affair were numberless, bet thfi..-
we believe to be as follows :
I Mr. Hughes applied to Judge Spragae on Thursday
for the warrants, and they were placed in the hands
of .George Pevens, United Slates marshal, that night,
ot earlyyesterday morning. It was known to Crafts
and bis friends that an agent was here in pursuit of
him, and his determination ws to resist seizure ; and
for that purpohj he armed. himself, and professed to
wait for the officer and agent, at his residence in;
Cambridge street, here he also has a small shop, in
which heworke'd as a cabinet-maker. , In the course
of tbe forenoon, "howevw his friends prevailed apon
blm to tfettre to the house f 0ne Hayden, in Southac
street. In the course of th fjay both houses were
reconnbitered by persons in tin, service of the agent,
but there was no attempt to entei and make an arrest.
In the forenoon E. G. Loring ad S. E. Sewell,
retained by the vigilance committee s general coun
sel for fugitives, called upon Jbdge Sprague at his
chambers, and interrogated him.' specifically, wheth
er he had issued, any warrants, and. If so, against
whom. Judge Sprague declined givingy reply
other than to say that he regarded euch warrants as
standing Mpon the same ground as all other warrants,
and therefore that he was not at liberty to make any
disclosures in relation to them before they bad been
served.. He also declined to answer whether be had
or had not issued any warrants. At one time there
was a large crowd near the court-house, and one while
man made himself conspicuous at the corner of Frank
lin avenue and Court street,. by. haranguing, the as
sembly, and advising them to resist unto the death,
if any arrest should be made. ' Considerable crowds
were also collected in Ann and Cambridge streets
about the middle of the day ; but, as no open meas
ures were taken towards serving the warrants, the
excitement died away during tbe afternoon.
' -.y Boston Posl.
The fugitive slate excitement in Boston. Yes
terday afternoon, towards night, the excitement about
Court square and Court street had subsided, and the
only place of excitement, apparently, was at the west
part of theity, where William Crafts, the fugitive
againu whom a warrant was general lly understood
to haie been ironed, was qnartered.
Atnoon yesterday it was advised by some of the
partidular friends of the fugitives to issue a circn
lar, tj be sent round to all the fugitives in the city.
A ciicular was subsequently issued, generally circus
la tedi and reading as follows: "To the rescue!
Three fugitive's about to be arrested ! William Crafts
sunpjosed to be one ! Be on the alert! No time to
be Idst ! . Friday, noon, Oct. 25, 1850."
ring yesterday afternoon crowds continued. fo
colli ct in the western part of the city, in expectation
that some demonstration mightf be made. - We un
iert land that the United States marshal, Mr. Devens.
end avored during the day to secure the assistance of
con tables, and other officers of the city government,
in i aking arrests, but was generally refused. One
of he constables a good-looking, able-bodied man
said that Sooner than go in he would leave the city,
and go out to Porter's and board, and let the parties
"settle their own hash." L. Boston Times.
By telegraph to the N. Y. Journal of Commerce.
Boston. Oct. 28.
. The fugitive-slave excitement. No arrest of
fugitive slaves has yet taken place, and the city is
quiet, although incendiary handbills are posted about
the streets. Win. H. Hughes, of Macon, Georgia,
who came on to reclaim Crafts, has voluntarily given
bail in $10,000, to answer to a charge of slander in
stating that Crafts 'was guilty of ttteft In stealing
himself and clothes. . Knight, who was arrested on
Saturday afternoon for slander, came on here on bis
own private business, and was called on by Hughes
us luenuiy ivniit9, wiiuiii ue imiu cuij'iujw iisavvu.
- The vigilance committee has been increased to
100. C, G. Loring and other leading lawyers have
volunteered to defend any fugitive who n.ay be ar
rcsied. Crafts remains quiet at his house in Southac
Street. The houses in this part of the city are barri
oaded&nd.lentifuIly provided with arms and am
-The house or the fugitive slate is his castle.
Tbe Boston Journal states that, inqoiry of the
marshal, Judge Sprague has intimated that the pro
cess for the arrest of a fugitive slave is in the na
ture of civil process ; that in serving it an officer will '
hot be justified in breaking open the other outer door of
aiy dwelling-house; that every dwelling-house is
tbe castle of its occupants. This protection, how
ever, is confined to the dwelling-house, or house
where a person sleeps, and not to his place of busi
ness. It is also confined to the outer door.v If this
is left open, or if the marshal is admitted witbin it,
be may break open any inner door. . - -t.v
Thus it is that the laws and Constitution of. the
epantry are disregarded and tram pied nnder foot, in
ope of the most enlightened cities in America; and
lawyers are found mean enough to advise the arrest
of a master claiming his slave, on tbe ground that he
bad slandered the slave in saying he had stolen him
self! As the Washington Union well says: "A
lawyer who would advise such an arrest must be as
ignorant of law as he is lost to all sense of profes
sional duty. The words imputed to the witness
would not be slander if ottered a thousand times. To
say that they would he is as absurd as to charge a
man with slander for saying of another, He is guilty
of murder -for he murdered a mad dog.' " -
The houses of the fugitives in Boston are, it seems,
"barricaded, and plentifully supplied with ammuni-
The wronged and outraged slaveholders of
the South look to the President of the United States
to enforce ihe laws: High times, indeed, when runa
way negroes, protected and fortified in the bosom of
a sovereign State, are too strong for the laws of Con
gress and the Constitution of the land ! W ho has
any thing to say now about Southern " disunionists
and Sou th Carolina " nullification " ! From tbe bot
tom of our heart do we bepe that the vile fanatics
and tbeirfcatural allies, the Freesoiiers, may be over
thrown and crushed in the contt now going on, and
the Union come forth anAattered and triumphant;
bat while we hope wearalso, for it is apparent that
the deadly poison Is circulating, more or less, in all
Northern veins, and that the madness now prevailing
amorijj large portions of the Northern people is des
tined to increase both. in its intensity and sway.
Here and there ,we can see a bright spot in tbe midst
of darkness ;pnt in tbe very "cradle of liberty" the
sub bf the onstitution now casts its palest and sick
liest beams. AVe turn with hope to New York City,
and to glorious, old Pennsylvania, and to portions of
Michigan and New Hampshire; but we expect noth
ing calcslated to -cheer any lover of tbe Union, or
friend of Southern rights, from Ohio, Iowa, Wiscon
sin, Massachusetts, or Maine.. Who, we repeat, are
the " disuoionisU " now? Let events, rapidlly trans
piring, give the answer.
The fate of tbe Union hangs on this result, There
is no doubt of h. If the people of the free States shall
crush this fonl spirit of rebellion, and stand up to tbe
Constitution and the" laws, the States of "the South
wilj acquiesce in other measures already adopted, and
the U nion will endure ; bnt if not, and this Fugitire
Slave Law. is repealed, or its vitality destroyed, sep
arafion wig and ought to ensue. ' ' - V "'
The Virginia Reform Convention, now in session
at Richmond, has at length organised its Committees,
and is now fairly af work.
. BOSTON "' N ULLIF1C A.TIQ N .
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