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rp s;i nf the South.!
vnTTrr Ptrr.TiTRR FOR TIIE SOUTII.
Wo have so many inquiries
- . i
from different parts
vve nave mj uiauy , tv;
of tho South upon the different branches of Fruit
Culture, that we deem we cannot answer all. more
effectually than to republish oui , treatise upon Fruit
Culture at the South, submitted to the first Fair of
the Russell and Muscogee Agricultural Society.
Since our visit to the Macon Fair,. we are more than
ever convinced of the beautiful adaptation of our
climata to the growth and full perfection of all the
Fruits described. Will some of our Southern read
ers add to the list the culture of the Orange, Lemon,
Pine-Apple, Date, Olive, and Guava, as adapted to
portions of Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana,
tv J Tn tha onltiirrt of these Fruits we have
UU 1CAI" v..
'. anA eV.nl! fop under ob hsraUons it
some one having experience will come to our aid
All the fine varieties of this fruit have been pro
duced from tho wild Apple; and to the Monks of
the middle ages we are indebted for the first great
improvements in fruit culture. The cultivated ap
ples of tho United States were introduced from
Europe by seeds and by cuttings, and although the
wild crab grows in almost every State in the Union,
no edible variety is indigenous. The great diffi
culty in cultivating the apple here, is in the tact,
that almost all the trees originated in a colder cli
mate, and a change of climate is almost certain to
produce disease. It is immaterial whether a tree,
cutting, or bud, is brought from a cold climate, for
the bud contains all the element? of the tree, its
health and its diseases. This no doubt is the rea
son why most of our apple orchards are so short
lived, ten to fifteen years being their average length
of life. If we would cultivate tho apple success
fully, we must propagate it from seeds, and im
prove upon them, and when once we get a good
variety, propagate from it by root grafting. Apple
seeds should bo planted in tho Fall, or if delayed
until Spring, warm water should bo poured over
the seeds until they sprout, which will be in about
three days, and then the seed planted will grow
from three to six feet tho first year, and produce
fruit in three or four years from seed ; out of a lot
of seedlings, in all probability there will bo somo
cmrA fruit these mav bo nropasrated by root-sraft-
in which is the most certain and speedy way of
propagation in this climate. This may bo done
from the first of February to the first of April.
Take seedling roots of one year's growth, cut them
off about one inch lower than they came out of the
ground, now split the remaining stem just enough
tn fair A in the rrraft The crafts should be takeu
from fruit bearing trees, and from wood of last j
vear's growth ; cut the grafts with two or three j
buds, and as many as possible with terminal buds ;
take a sharp knife and cut the end of tho graft in
a wedge form, commencing at the lower bud ; now
insert it in the root, taking care to keep the two
outside barks together ; plant the root either in the
nursery or where the tree is to stand, leaving the
terminal and one other bud above the ground ; be
careful in pressing the earth around the graft, that
it is not moved from the union of its bark with the
bark of the root. In any good soil, the graft will
grow from four to six feet the first year, and will
produce fruit the second or third year. The graft
has now become a tree, and to be. made productive
must be cultivated, nursed, and tended. It will
grow on almost any rich soil, and it is useless to
cultivate the apple unless the soil is rich. Where
the soil is not paturally rich, the roots should an
nually receive a top dressing of some good veget
able matter, with a little lime or ashes. The tree
should be pruned, so as to throw out its branches
low. to shade the trunk from tho intense heat of
JXl QU1U1UC1 9 OUUj nuiUl 1 1 lV I III. 11 H 1 Ull.'V-W U1LV.
fir- VJicntiK! tVia
bark, causinsr disease and death. The around of
the orchard should be regularly cultivated, taking
care not to injure the roots. One of the best me
thods ever adopted in this climate, is to shade the
whole grounds of the orchard with straw wheat,
oat, or pine straw. This preserves an even temper
ature, keeps the ground cool and moist, and gives
the tree an astonishing vigor and beauty. There
are four insects which are great enemies to the Ap
ple in this section the borer, the moth, the bark
louse and the black worm, which infest the roots.
The best remedy for the borer and the bark louse;
is to rub the trunk and the limbs of the tree with
soft country soap ; this not only destroys the insects-,
but invigorates the tree, and also effectually pre
vents rabbits from barking them ; for the black
worm around the base of the tree, ashes or lime
may be used with advantage, and are a good pre
ventive but where the worm has already begun
his ravages, take a sharp knife and pick him out,
filling up all the worm holes and wounds with soft
soap. The moth that produces the Apple worm
may be destroyed by picking up all the fruit that
falls, and feeding it to hogs, or by permitting hogs
to run in the orchard.
If the people of the South will discard Northern
raised Apple trees, and raise their own seedlings,
. we may have the Apple in as great perfection here
as any where else ; for wherever the wild crab
grows, there may the improved varieties be grown
also. It is true the Apple tree will not be as long
lived here as at the North, but they come into bear
ing so much sooner. It is stated of the celebrated
greeen vage plum, that out ot several bushels oi
seed planted, and raised to bearing that the green
Gage was the only oneout of the whole lot worth
cultivating: and if we can by planting bushels of
Apple seeds, produce one that shall hold rank as a
fruit with the green Gage, it would be tho greatest
acquisition to fruit culture, that has ever beamed
upon the South ; and it can be done all it wants
is patience and perseverance. The greatest real
difficulty that we have to contend with, is the
speedy decay of the fruit, after it has matured.
Whenever we find a remedy for this, the South
will have nothing to fear in the culture of the
The Pear is a native of Europe and Asia, and
was first introduced into this country by French
settlers. There is no fruit that has been more im-
roved by the Horticulturist's skill than the Pear,
n its native state, it is even more unpalatable than
the crab, and is termed choke pear. It is now
made melting, sugary, and buttery. Van Mons,
the celebrated Belgium pomologist, has produced
eighty thousand new seedling Pears, many of them
of exquisite flavor, and all said to be worthy of cul
tivation. The Pear tree is not as subiect to disease
in this climate as the Apple, nor is the fruit as sub-
ject to tne attacus ot insects. The tree is some
what longer m coming into bearing, but if it be
grafted from fruit beanncr trees, on Pear. AddIc. or
Onliiiu j: a j e ii - i -i -ii i
""w iwuj, ass uirecrcu ior me vppie, n will Dear
in four or five years after grafting. It is much
longer lived than the Apple, and there can be no
doubt but many of the Southern States are better
adapted to Pear culture than the Northern. Here
we never have that scourge of Northern Pear trees,
the frozen sap blight, nor has the fire blight made
its appearance here. Take it altogether, it is the
hardiest fruit cultivated at the South, and the
wonder is, why it is not more extensively cultivated.
The Pear will grow in any soil that will produce
Corn, but it most delights in a light, rich loam,
irapergnated with iron ; for this reason, blacksmiths'
cinders have been found valuable to apply, around
Pear trees. They may be propagated by seeds,
where new varieties are wanted, and grafts, where
a new and valuable kind is to be propagated. It
will take some more patience to rear seedlings than
from the Apple, as the Pear -seldom bean from
seed under ten or fifteen years, and frequently not
under twenty ; but as the tree has not the principles
of decay aiaraped upon it that the Apple has, grafts
may be brought from any country where the Pear
has been brought to the highest state of perfec
tion, and those who choose to experiment may try
the seed. , The Southern States are as well adapted
to the' Pear as Belgium. I saw Dr. Caraak, of
Athens, exhihiting forty-five varieties of Pears at
the Fair, at'Atlanta, all the produce' of his own
orchard, and most of them of superior quality.'
One great advantage the Pear has over all other
fruits raised here, is its longer "keeping qualities,
which should commend it to the Southern cultiva
tors ; there are many varieties that may be kept
through the whole winter, ripening entirely in the
house, after picking, which will place the Pear first
on the list of Southern cultivated fruits. The Pear
needs little or no pruning, and to render it dwarf
in its habits graft it on Quince stalks ; this is par
ticularly well adapted to garden culture, and brings
them into bearing sooner than standard trees.
The Peach is a native of Asia, and was first in
troduced into Europe by the Romans, and into this
country by the early settlers. It is easily propa
gated, either by seeds, cuttings or grafting. Peach
es come into bearing in this climate, from the seed,
in two and three years ; but as there is no certainty
of producing the same variety from seed, as the pa
rent tree, cuttings or grafting must be resorted to.
In grafting the Peach, graft in roots of Peach, Plum
or Apricot, one year old, as directed for the Apple;
this method of grafting is easier than budding, and
altoo-cther superior : for as the craft is inserted be-
lowthe surface of the ground, the whole tree is of
the grafted variety ; they will grow trom six to eigiit
feetlhe first season, and will bear fruit the second ;
the grafting should be done, just as the bud begins
tn swell : riuch off all the blossom buds, and leave
the terminal and one side bud above the surface of
the ground. A rich sandy loam, suits the 1 each
bestfand imparts the finest flavor to the fruit. The
ffreat enemy to the Peach in this country, is the
Peach worm ; this is a worm much resembling a
flat head, which preys upon the tree near the roots,
frequently eating entirely around tho trunk, causing
death to the tree ; they may easily be detected by
the black gummy substance exuding around the
base of tho tree. There are many remedies and
preventives recommended ; lime and ashes are good
preventives ; scrape away the earth around the base
of the tree, and fill it with somo good air-slacked
lime, or good fresh ashes ; renew this every spring ;
but where the worm has got already a good hold, I
have never found anything so effectual as boiling
water, turned from the spout of a tea-kettle ; be
careful and not apply too much water at a time, as
it might kill the tree ; but a moderate quantity,
not only kills all the eggs and worms, but seems
to invigorate the tree. The worm is produced by
a fly, which deposits eggs in the bark around the
base, and they hatch out a white fiat worm and
commence their work of destruction immediately.
Another pest to Peach culture, is the worm in the
fruit, from the woolly down on the young Peach ;
the fruit is not as subject to the attacks of insects
as the Plum, and if hogs are allowed to run in the
Peach orchard, they effectually keep down the in
sect, as they eat all the falling fruit, destroying the
insect with it. A peach crop, to come to its high
est perfection, should be tilled with as much assi
duity as Corn or Cotton. The great fault with
Southern Peach culturists is, they are not satisfied
with the yield of Peaches ; but they must annual
ly crop the Peach orchard, and it must yield Corn
or Cotton, as well as Peaches. A Peach orchard,
planted twenty feet each way, will require every
inch of- soil in the intervening spaces for the roots,
to perfect the trunk, foliage, flowers and fruit ; and
every crop taken from a Peach orchard, is just so
much taken from the productiveness of the troes.
This may be objected to by some, who have tried
some crops amongst their trees with apparent good
results ; but in cultivating the crops, the trees got
more culture than usual, aud showed an increased
production over the season when they were in the
turf. If the trees bore better by cultivating a crop
amongst them, how much better would they bear
cultivated without the crop I It is a well estab
lished fact, that all grain crops are positively inju
rious to fruit trees. The proper time for pruning
in this climate is July ; the wound then heals quick
ly, and as Peaches are only made on new wood, it
is best to shorten in the" branches, to induce the
limbs to make new wood, which will give plenty
of fruit for next season. A serious difficulty the
Peach has to contend with here, is the late Spring
frosts. The warm days of Winter swell the bud,
as the first gtnial day of Spring it bursts forth in
its tenderness and beauty, but to be blackened and
blighted by a lingering frost For this reason,
Peaches should never be planted on low, wet lands,
or in tho vicinity of streams of water, as they are
much more liable to be killed by frost than when
planted on high and dry lands. As to varieties,
there are seedling Peaches raised on many of our
plantations that will compare favorably with any
of the grafts of France, and whoever may wish to
start a Peach orchard, need not go out of Georgia
for varieties. Peach seed should be planted imme
diately after eating the fruit. It is frequently ob
served that self-planted Peaches make the most
vigorous trees, and the reason is, they had a better
There are many varieties of native Plums found
in this country, but the finer varieties of cultivated
Plums were introduced from the South of Europe.
The Plum, like the Peach, may be propagated from
seeds, or by grafts seeds where new varieties are
wanted, and grafts where an old established kind
is to be propagated. Graft below the ground, as
directed for the Apple, in roots of the Plum, Peach,
or SI03, of one year's growth ; and if grafted from
a healthy fruit bearing tree, the graft will produce
fruit the third year. The Plum tree will grow in
almost any soil, and is very luxuriant in a lijrht
sandy soil : but to produce fruit it must have a stiff
heavy slay, or a loam with a clay sub-soil. The
great enemy of the fruit is the Curculio, or Plum
Weevil. This is a brown bug. or beetle, about the
size of a pea bug, which makes its appearance about
the time the fruit is forming in the bloom. . The bug
has a proboscis, and makes a puncture in the young
fruit in the form of a crescent ; in this he deposits
an egg, the wound soon heals, the egg hatches out
a worm, and the worm eats inwardly until it reach
es the kernel, when the fruit drops ; he now eats his
way out, burrows in the ground, where he goes
through a chrysalis state, and the next spring comes
out a Curculio, ready for his work of destruction
again. It is observed that where soils are very
stiff, the worm cannot force his way in, and conse
quently perishes : for this reason. 6tiff clav soils are
absolutely necessary for the perfection of the fruit.
ravinrr around the tree ha3 proved of great service,
but whether it is the instinct of the Curculio which
teaches it to shun those trees where there is no
chance of propagating itself, or whether it is the
tact of so many of the worms perishing on the
pavement, has not yet been determined. Wher
ever the Plum orchard is, it should' be a hard trod
den yard, with hogs, geese and other poultry, ran
ging through it. The Curculio seems to be the
natural enemy of all the thin skin fruits, and is a
very shy and timid insect, dropping to the ground
at the least jar of the tree. I have tried many ex
periments to get clear of him, but to no purpose.
Salt has been recommended. I have found salt a
fine invigorator of the Plum tree, but no preventive
against toe Curculio. There are localities around us
I am now satisfied that it takes but a few days
for the chrysalis to come oat a Carculio, and that they
come oat f the earth constantly, and keep up their
depredations as long as the fruit can be puncture 1.
where the Plum flourishes and yields heavy crops,
but invariably the soil is stiff clay. The other dis
eases which the Plum is subject to in the Northern
States we are exempt from here ; our only . enemy
is the Curculio, and his name is Legion. The Plum
tree requires little or no pruning; as the tree gets
old shorten in the branches, to produce' new wood.
) NECTABINES. .
The Nectarine is only a variety of the Peach, with
a smooth skin. Its culture and propagation is in
all respects like the Peach, but, like the Plum, it is
subject to to the attacks of the Curculio, and should
be planted in stiff soil, to secure fruit. -.'.
The Apricot is found wild in Asia and America,
and is one of the thin,' smooth' skin fruits between
the Plum and Peach. It is desirable for its early
bearing, being the first of all the stone fruits that
ripen ; but like the Plum, it is hauuted by that
scourge'of thin skin fruits, the Curculio, and should
be treated accordingly. It may be propagated by
seeds or by grafting. Graft under ground, as di
rected for the Apple, on roots of Plum, Peach or
Apricot, and if grafted from fruit bearing trees,
two years will give fruit from the graft. From the
early blooming of the Apricot, the blossoms are ex
tremely liable to be killed by frosts ; the tree there
fore should be planted in the most exposed situa
tions, to prevent the too early bloomings. Ihe
Plum, Nectarine, and Apricot, must all be planted
in stiff soils, or constantly watched, and shaken
durinjr the fruiting season, and the insects destroyed,
or thev cumber the erround, and, like Dead Sea
fruits, perish before they come to the lips.
The Cherry was introduced into Europe from Asia,
by the Romans, and into this country by our Eng
lish ancestors. The Morello is quite easy of culture
and propagation, crrowinir readily from seeds, and
flourishing iu almost any soil. But the finer va
rieties of English Cherries, must be grafted. Graft
ou one year old roots of the Morello, as directed for
tho Apple, and bearing trees will be produced in
three years. The English Cherry cannot stand our
long hot summers ; the bark becomes blistered, and
the tree cracks and dies : to prevent this, shade the
tree. It is well to box the tree, up as high as the
limbs, as we find ornamental trees in towns to pre
vent the barking by cattle ; have the box bored full
of holes, to let in lignt and air.
The iN orth side ot a house is the most appropri
ate place for the English Cherry. The English
Cherry may also be grafted on a three year old
Morello, in the limbs, as the Morello stands the sun
better than the English. The foliage of the graft
protects it from the sun, and all the fine varieties of
English or trench Uhernesmay be propagated and
cultivated in this manner.
This is one of tho oldest fruits in existence, hav
ing been extensively cultivated by our earliest fath
ers for Wine. It is found in almost every clime.
and is indigenous here. Our native grapes are su
perior for Southern culture to any of the foreign
varieties that nave yet been introduced. It is easy
of propagation, jnrowing freely from cutttngs and
layers. In a deep rich soil, abounding in lime, the
grape is a long-lived plant, but from some cause,
not j'et explained, they are becoming a short-lived
plant in Middle Georgia and Alabama ; eight or
ten years being their averaged lite ; but they are
so easily propagated and produce fruit so quickly
that it is almost like serving an annual crop. Most
of the grapes strike freely from cuttings, and bear
freely th j second year, and the third are in their
greatest perfection. Among the grapes which strike
frequently from cuttings, the Catawba and Warren
ton are found to suit our own locality better than
most others ; being fine table grapes, and excellent
for Wiue. Grape cuttings may be put out either
in the Fall or Spring ; let there be from three to five
buds on the cutting ; make a smooth, clean cut ;
place the cutting nearly horizon til in the ground,
leaving out two buds, when the bud begins to swell,
pinch off the weakest bud. The Grape delights in
a calcareous soil, and where it is not found, lime
should be freely used ; no heating manures should
be applied around the grape vines, but tho mould
from swamps, ashes, gypsum, soap-suds, and added
to tliis the best manure I have ever fonnd for grapes
is shade. Shade to tho roots, cover the ground
with leaves or straw as far as the roots extend,
which keeps the roots cool and moist. Grape
vines with us, do not require the pruning that the
Europeans give them. Any time between October
and I ebruary, take out all the dead wood, and where
the vine has become too scraggling and long jointed,
cut, to force new and thicker branches. The grape
is sometimes affected vith mildew or rot. This is
caused by frequent ch.r.iges in the weather, and
willl hardly ever occur, if the ground around the
roots is properly mulched ; for whatever changes
may take place in the atmosphere, there is always
an even temperature around the roots, which gives
health to the fruit. The Scuppernong, a native
white grape of North Carolina, is better adapted
to Southern culture than any other grape, growing
in any kind of soil and almost any situation ; it
however does not strike freely from cuttings, but
most be layered or grafted ; it is fully equal as a
table, and superior as a wine grape, to any grape
that I am acquainted with ; it is superior for arbors
and trellis work, growing rapidly and holding its
foliage a long time. There are but few diseases
that the grape is subject to here.
The Aphis, or ant cow, is a troublesome insect,
not so mnch from the actual damage that they do,
as the unsightly appearance they give the ends of
the vines. A sprinkling of Scotch snuff, when the
dew is on the leaf, will soon exterminate them.
This, like the grape, is one of the oldest fruits
cultivated. It probably originated in the Garden
of Eden, and is the only fruit that has come down
to us unimproved, from that Prince and Father of
Horticulturists, Adam himself. We find no ac
count of an improvement in its culture, but Figs
six thousand years ago, were probably the same as
Figs of to-day. The Fig is easily propagated, by
cuttings, layers, or dividing the roots, and will grow
in almost any soil, but the fruit is of superior flavor
when grown on a rich sandy loam. It is liable to
be winter-killed in this section and should therefore
be planted m an open exposure, where it may get
all of the cold to retard its early budding. It is
rarely filled in the winter, until the sap has com
menced rising. It is well to prune the bush, so as
to form a tree, as it is better able to bear the cold
of winter. ' A barren Fig may sometimes be made
productive, by pruning the roots. When a winter
is very severe, a Fig tree may be protected from the
cold by applying a good coat of stable manure
around the roots, covering the ground around the
tree, about six inches deep. There are many va
rieties, and all have their advocates. The Fig should
receive more extensive culture.
To be concluded in our next."
Economy in Candles. If you are without a
rush light, and would burn a candle all night, un
less you use the following precaution it is ten to
one an ordinary candle will gutter away in an hour
or two, sometimes to the endangering the safety of
the house. This may be avoided by placing as
much common salt, finely powdered, as will reach
from the tallow to the bottom of the black part of
the wick of a partly burnt candle, when, if the
same be lit, it will burn very slowly, yielding a suf
ficient light for a bed chamber ; salt will gradually
sink as the tallow is consumed, the melted tallow
being , drawn through the salt, and consumed in
The Constitution and the Union at the Stalest
Si " "Theyi raait b PreietTed." ' : .
SATURDAY, JANUARY 3, 1852.
The following gentlemen have been licensed by
the Supreme Court of .this State, now in session, to
practice Law in the several County Courts :
James P. Scales, Rockingham.
David M. Carter, Hyde. ;
Augustus S.' Merrimon, Buncombe. "
" Alfred M. Scales, Rockingham. ' -
.Wilson S. Hill, Guilford. ;
.. Eugene F. Clewell, Forsyth.
William H. Johnston, Edgecombe.
Zebulon B. Vance, Buncombe.' ' '' . ' ';'
William H.Jones, Wake.
John C. Badham, Chowan.
William H. Bailey, Orange. 1
William. T. Marsh, Beaufort.
Robert B. Gilliam, jr., Cumberland.
Malcom J. McDuffie, do.
James C. Davis, Robeson. ,
'William S. Devane, New Hanover
Alexander S. Hicks, Granville.
Cyrus Q. Lemmond, Union.
William S. Mason, Wake.
Francis W. Bird, Bertie.
Alfred M. Erwin, McDowell.
Samuel W. Watts, Martin.
William J. Houston, Duplin.
William F. Green, Franklin.
Archibald D. Hawkins, do.
And the following gentlemen have been licensed
to practice in the Superior Courts: .
Samuel H. McDowell, Burke.
James N. Montgomery, Caswell.
Andrew H. Joyce, Stokes.
William A. Littlejohn, Chowan. 1
Joseph Masten, Forsyth.
Tazewell L. Hargrove, Granville.
James R. Mendenhall, Guilford. .
James J. Iredell, Wake.
William L. Tate, Burke. '
George E. B. Singellary, Nash.
Richard M. Allison, Iredell.
Victor C. Barringer, Charlotte.
Forney Geore, Columbus.
Nathaniel McLean, Warren.
Quentin Busbee, Wake.
In the Senate on Monday, the 29th, barely a quorum
of Senators appeared. A communication was receiv
ed .from the Treasury Department in relation to the
estimates. A deficiency in the public revenues, a-
mounting to $219,000 is estimated by the Secretary
for the ensuing year.
The President had signed the Kossuth Resolution,
and the committee appointed to make arrangements
to receive him, made a report. M. Kossuth will be
introduced to the Senate in precisely the same man
nerthat Gen. Lafayette was presented theehairman
of the committee of arrangements introducing him
in these words, " We present Louis Kossu'h to the
Senate of the United States." The Senators will
then rise in their seats, and the President of the
body will invite him to be seated. The report was
The Senate soon after adjourned over to Friday
The House was not in session to-day, having ad
journed until Tuesday, the 30th.
The House, on the 30th, went into Committee of
the Whole, and after considering various points oi
order, a Resolution was introduced proposing a Com
mitlee of five to wait on and welcome Kossuth to
that body. This gave rise to an earnest debate, in
which Messrs. Brooks, Carter, Giddings, Richard
son, Gentry, and others, participated in the affirm
live, and Messrs. Venable, Bayly, and others in the
negative. Without concluding, the House adjourned
to Wednesday, the 31st.
DEATH OF MR. CARRINGTON.
The -last Richmond Enquirer says : " We were
painfully shocked yesterday morning by the intelli
gence of the death of William C. Carrington, Esq.,
Editor of the Times, and a Delegate elect to the Le
gislature, at his residence in this city. Though for
ten days prostrated by a violent attack of cold, which
led to a probable congestion of his liver, his friends
had confident hopes of his recovery. He. however,
relapsed on Monday, and at half-past 10 o'clock that
night, breathed his last, in a state of perfect consci
ousness. With the lamented deceased we have ever
been on the kindest terms. In the excitement of po
litical controversy, we have always respected him as
a gentleman of sound heart and fine character, and a
dignified, sensible, and influential Editor. He made
a most favorable impression on the community, since
his not extended residence here as was shown by
his election to the responsible honor of a Delegate
to the Legislature from this city, young man as he
Mr. Clay, it is stated, has certainly resigned his
seat in the Senate of the United States, by a letter
to the Legislature of Kentucky. His letter was
read to the two Houses now assembled at Frankfort,
on the 23d December, and a Resolution was adopted
to elect a Senator in his place on Tuesday, the 30th.
Mr. Clay's health is said to be failing rapidly, and
he looks forward in the belief that his death is near.
His cough gets no better, and he is becoming much
emaciated. The voice and port of command, the
eagle eye, the great heart, and the fearless and deter
mined spirit will soon pass forever from our midst.
His death will produce a profound sensation through
out the whole country.
A NEW MAP.
We have been shown a new map of the United
States, with the adjacent countries and islands, pub
lished by Jacob Monk, Baltimore, and engraved in
the same City. It is handsomely executed, and ia
no doubt as accurate as it could be made. It is a
Southern production, which is one of its strongest
Mr. Clark, the Agent, is now in this City, and will
exhibit this map to such as wish to see it.
By the way, there ought to be a new map of North
Carolina, and we hope the next Legislature will take
the necessary steps to have one gotten up.
The ice on the Potomac river has of late placed
the newspapers, South, under considerable inconve
nience. It has cut them off from anything like a
regular receptionof the Northern news. We learn,
however, that the ice has broken up, and .that Ihe
boats will hereafter make their way regularly, unless
another extraordinary freeze should occur.
A Wobld's Fair in New York. . The Board of
Aldermen have adopted a Resolution granting the use
of Madison Square to Edward Riddle and associates
for the erection of a building of glass and iron, for an
industrial exhibition of all nations.
"THE REVOLUTION IN FRANCE.
We alluded in ourlast to the revolution in1 France,
so boldly achieved by President Bonaparte, and we
gave some of the details connected with it. ;f Napo
leon has shown that he possesses at least one quality
of his great uncle decision pf character and rapidity
of execution; but whether success Is. to crown his
late usurpation, is a matter to be determined by time
and events. ? '
The Richmond Enquirer publishes some, letters
from Paris descriptive of the revolution and the state
of Paris, and accompanies them with the following
" There is an air of romance about the incention
of the movement which indicates much more sagacity
and boldness on the part of the usurper than has been
usoaiiy ascribed to him. rhe night of the success
ful coup Teial, a brilliant and animated reception was
given at the Palace Elysee.' The President did the
honors with great affability and apparently with en
tire devotion to the entertainment of his guests." A-
bout midnight (and here we quote from the corres
pondent of the National Intelligencer) the President
was called out from a circle of officers and prefects
of departments who were playing the courtier in the
presence of him whom they were sure would be one
day their Emperor. He passed into an adjoining cab
inet, where he met a couple of his intimate counsel
lors and deyoted partisans. They told him that the
decisive moment had come; that in fact, he must
now choose whether he would go to prison as a cap
tive or to the Tuileries as an Emperor; that the allied
tactions in faniament intended on the morrow to in
troduce and carry a measure that would infallibly re
sult in his impeachment and incarceration, unless en
ergetically prevented by the prompt execution of the
counter stroke that had been long since prepared, and
which he must now let fall. "Very well, gentlemen,
hand me the decree and the proclamations ; I'll sign
them. But the Minister of the Interior, is not pres
ent; we have no time now to send for and consult
with him; I appoint, at the instant, M. de Morney
Minister of the Interior; let him countersign the de
cree. And now let it be immediately executed, and
let the proclamations be issued." The President
then returned to the crowded .saloons, and a couple
of friends who were at the Elysee that evening, re
port that he continued to perform bis role of host with
a wonderful sangfroid and cheerfulness of manner'
that prevented the first suspicion on the part of his
guests that he had just played the decisive game of
his fortunes his head against a throne ! Before day
the next morning Generals Changarnier, Lamoriciere,
and Cavaignac were seized at their respective resi
dences by a detachment of troops dispatched for the
purpose. Before day, and with the utmost silence,
without causing the slightest alarm in the city, large
bodies of troops were directed upon the Place du
Palais Bourbon, the Place de la Concorde, the
Champs EJysees, the Hotel de Ville, and PUce du
Carousal. Daylight found all these strategic points
of the city in the quiet possession of. M. Bonaparte's
soldiery. The questors of the Assembly were ar
rested. AH the entrances into the Palace in which
the sittings were held were guarded by troops, with
strict orders to prevent members of the Assembly
from passing in. The first intimation that the Parisians
had of the audacious revolutionary movement which
was in process of execution came from the placards
which, by order of the usurping Dictator, were post
ed up on the walls all over the city.
The President escorted by a strong body of horse,
and with a numerous staff embracing marshals, ex
celmans and Jerome Bonaparte and Lucian Murat,
made excursions through the streets. He wore a
ghastly smile of anxiety at the coldness with which
the was received by the infantry of the line and the
people,-though he was cheered by the cavalry and the
gendarmerie. The National Guard, however, was
treacherous to its mission, as guardians of the liberty
of Paris. The people had no arms, even if they
were disposed to revolt a most extraordinary usur
pation was rapidly consummated " order reigns at
Paris," and the Republic of France is now, doubtless,
ruled over with an iron rod by an arrant Dictator.
The army have by an immense majority voted for the
usurper, and on the 20th and 21st Dec, the free citi
zens of France have, no doubt, humbly submitted to
the chains forged for them, and have recorded that
election, upon bis own liberal programme, of a dic
tator for ten years. There can be no doubt that the
factions in the National Assembly, by their own dis
sensions and follies, invited the audacious movement
of Louis Napoleon. The people had lost confidence
in them, and were ready to fly to almost any alterna
tive for supposed protection. The usurpation has
succeeded the people of France, stupefied by the
suddenness ef the trick or fascinated with the milita
ry glory of the name of Napoleon, have been drawn
into the trap. If they submit quietly they deserve
no better government but it may be that they will
awake from their inglorious slumbers and make
another violent effort, though their leaders are in pris
on, to shake down the dictator from his throne, impe
rial in everything but the name. We cannot believe
that he will maintain his power for any extended pe
riod. New leaders will spring up, and France may
soon have to go through the most violent throes, in
their aspirations after freedom, which they seem to
have too little spirit, sense or firmness to enjoy. The
future of Europe is full of mighty issues and France
may still be the centre whence tumult and revolution
will penetrate the whole continent."
SLAVERY IN CALIFORNIA.
The last news from California shows that the dis
cussion about the division of the State and the intro
duction of slavery, is becoming more and more ani
mated, and may in fact be considered the great topic
of the times. The San Francisco Herald of the 12th
ult., in the course of a long article deprecating exci
ted and angry discussion in the subject of introducing
slavery, makes the following interesting statement
" It may startle those who happen to be nervous on
this subject to be informed that slavery now exists
and has always existed in Oautornia since tne adop
tion of the constitution. In the mining counties and
even in San Francisco, there are many slaves, and
yet there is no manifest derangement of public mo
rals in consequence, .ior do tne people generally seem
to give themselves much anxiety on the subject. There
is no attempt to incite the slaves to runaway, and
they themselves, catching the healthy tone of public
sentiment, never entertain a tnongnt or sucn a ming.
We know some of them whose earnings amount to as
much as the pay of a post captain in the navy ; and
who can purchase their freedom at any time, but are
perfectly content with their present condition. These
facts go to prove that it will be difficult', without per
severing agitation, to generate bigotry in the minds
of the people of California on the slavery question or
to convert it into an element of discord ; and such per
severing agitation we hope never to see." ,
Pepper has sent some fine Canvnsi-backs and Teal
for which he has our thanks. We understand that
he has made arrangements by which he will receive
regularly all such delicacies of the season, and serve
them up for the Public in his nsual elegant style.
Such schemes of internal improvement deserve to go
Pepper served us the same way, but Wfl omitted
to return our thanks in oar last. We endorse the
above the Editor of the Register is a gentleman of
taste. Let no one say, hereafter, that the Register
and Standard have never agreed upon any one point.
Negroes were hired here on Thursday last, at an
advance of at least twenty-five per cent, upon former
prices. This is owing, in the first place, to the in
creased demand for labor, occasioned by the building
of the North Carolina Rail Road, and the ' River
improvements ; and secondly, by the abundance of
money. Such prices cannot be permanent.
Pork has been selling here, during the past four or
five day 8, at from $6 50 to $7 per hundred most of
it going off, by engagement, at $7. Droves of hogs
were here from Lenoir, andj Johnston, and one drove
of some four or five hundred from Kentucky, " '
Louis Kossuth was in Baltimore on Monday last,
receiving his friends at the Eutaw House. His health
had improved, and he was to leave for Washington at
9 o'clock on Tuesday morning.
Gov. CalVof Florida, proposes to break
mg parties ana form a new one upon the Tt '8t
f inln Rnv u: t . "n ir;.
, " w". u inn union numbua ' "
disposed of by the Fredericksburg No areihs
Daner; ' ' Vh l
" Parties. Gov. Call of Florid ,
up me present parties of the country, ami r 0reak
onpa nnnn : m. ' a"1 form
ones upon Union principles
nas Deen elected So the U. S. Senate
the intentions of these gentlemen. What" 1
ti v f 1 1 iiifin nnriv c - let t Kn.i : . inot..
party which is Union under all circumsta "" a
is it intended to form a Union party upon h :
Issues 1 If the former we presume there w611
DCrsons in this Southern ennntnr be Too
enough to unite themselves to such a n,,. Vek
... . T 1 1 u will L
latter. tharA wilt ka ettll ... L . r .J ll tl..
linely become members of a party thirs otoz wil
There are not ten prominent men in tl?-
States who are not lor the Union under ..:!.. n!N
cumstances. Mr. Rhett of South f!ari: " . "n?eir.
ly member of Congress who has openly avn 1
union at the present lime. He declares u7.
....vu u .no (jic-jciii unit,, no declares th
abstract question he wishes at once to itiias a
.nnroil.n.it ... ...I. ni . . u,301v9 ii
What number baa ho now in cr .... I01
. uu miu aio iT.r. rsr.ett fan
who will sustain him in a scheme so mj J ro!lu
We have yet to learn the material differ,
principle between Southern Whio-s and TV.Ince of
ncjr uiBdii lur hid union. 1 o De raisintr
oartv nnon iaanea whinh an not rrAn l 3 ew
fruard of intalirant frppman ia k , 0rPral
essences of humbuggery. These men wh0 "eii
me ume oenowing tor tne Union are the t
enemies the Union haa. Th ant :r .l siw'est
uimiuauie party in ine country wno were orw,. I
it that itwaa in !mm; j .."PPo'ed to
something was done to save it, it would tDJ,i
once over their heads. And what do facia Z.
In South Carolina, where there is not.pS-W
does not advocate disunion where almoSeJ., , IT
ing man in the State has been speaking and S
in every form and way he could where thee f
whelrning influence of Mr. Calhoun was felthevonJ
the influence of any other name in any other Sta,ef
the Union, notwithstanding these influences. Son,
Carolina in her late popular vota has declared for a
Union, and wiil hereafter, if th lata -m.:. .s
adhered to, be as firmly fixed in her attachments !
Messrs. Toombs and Call are moonstrmk, orther
have some other motive than the one which aoml
upon the surface. They are smelling after the flesh
pots which they can only taste by some popular
move like this. When they can satisfy the nub f
that the Union is in danger that a respectable W,
can be found in any one State, who are for its disso
lution, then we may join them. But such not bei
the case now, we must be? lo be excused from lend"
ing our countenance at this time to a proposition sn
THE GREAT MEN OF THE SENATE.
The Waehincrton ClnrreannnAant a!.l. -ii i
. 1 -"iui me onaneston
f ArfMiriT rTIVO tho fnllnnrinvnMnl.:
giapiuu account ot some
ot the great men of the United States' Senate :
I HcuDir P1 t . 17 ;a 1
wua miiiug last, aim uecominT a very
old man. He probably came here in the hope of re
cruiting his shattered and failing powers ; but a heavy
hand rests upon him which he cannot shake off. Since
the last session he has broken down wofully. The
collapse of the high excitement of the strife that then
sustained him, and the utter annihilation of the hiuh
hopes he nourished, have suddenly aged him, and I
what but a short time since, looked like an old, but
still strong temple graceful yet in its proportions,
firm still upon its base, is crumbling- fast intoaruio.
He has been confined to his room for the greaterpart
or me session, ana nas recently oeen compelled to
go to Philadelphia to recruit. It is more than doubt
ful whether he will ever fill his seat in the Senile
again. To few is it granted to die as died Chatham
and CaTiHoott, but Clav is ambitious of meeting ihe
same end. A great change is gradually taking nlace
in our Public Councils, by the removal of those who
long stood as conspicuous landmarks in the Senate
Chamber and the forum. He who now glances
over that familiar scene, meets no more the lion port,
and the eagle eye of Calhoun the face haggard and
worn, yet bright with intelligence, the grand brow
and cavernous eye of Webster, full of lurid light,
scowl no more on the spectators,; and now, last ling
erer of the three, the spare form and quick eye of
Henhv Ulav pass like a shadow on the wall, ou the
way to the land of shadows. The big and burly
form of Benton, a strong man in his sphere, has also
vanished from that scene, and Cass sits alone,
removed and unmoved, amidst the " noise and confu
sion " which now characterize that once dignified
THE RESULT IN VIRGINIA.
We copy from the last Richmond Enquirer the
following statement of the result in Virginia :
" Grayson county elects to the House, Wm. C,
Parks .(Dera.) by 19 majority over John Dickinson
and gives to Johnson 340, and to Summers 309 be
ing a majority of 31 to Johnson instead of 4 majority
for Summers, as previously reported. The Republi
can reports Boone county as giving 87 majority to
Summers. Correcting our table, and estimating tbe
vote of Prince William at 250 majority for Johnson,
and Westmoreland at 100 majority for Summers-
liberal enough to bummers in both cases we matt
Johnson's majority in the whole State. 6.899. The
official returns may carry it up to seven thousand.
The Senate will consist of 34 Democrats and 16
Whigs and the House of 87 Democrats and 65
Whigs democratic majority on joint ballot, Jiw.y.
In Smyth county, Preston. (Whig,) receives there
turn, in conseauence of the commissioners at i DM"
ocratic precinct, whose vote would have elertei
Grieves, (Dem.) having failed, within the five flays
to sign and certify the polls there."
The last Examiner says :
Mr. Joseph Johnson, ihe Governor elert of this
Commonwealth, has arrived in this city and taken
lodgings at the Exchange Hotel. We understand
that this distinguished gentleman is in fine health
and excellent spirits ; and that he has received ihe
congratulations of many citizens. His term of office
by the election of the Legislature during last winters
session, will commence on next Thursday. On that
day he will be installed by taking the oath before anj
Justice ot the Peace. Not until the Legislature meets
and the vote of the State is announced, will his te
by popular election commence. At that time he wi"
be installed by taking the oath again in the presence
of tbe two Houses of Legislature."
There was a disastrous fire in Philadelphia on the
26th December. The loss is estimated at $150,000'
The intense cold prevented the firemen from operating-,
and the fire thus obtained dangerou headffty
At one time the conflagration threatened to be general
There was a disastrous fire in New York on lb
27th instant. The fire broke out at No It, Bowery,
and consumed about twenty buildings, involving
loss of some 150,000.
There was also a great fire at Buffalo, New Yort.
on the 25th and 27th. Tbe loss is estimated at $1'
000. The books, papers, &c. of two of theBank
Health of Mr. Clav. The accounts from W
ingtonall represent the health of Mr. Clay tobei
a very precarious condition. ; The correspondent "
the New York Tribune writes: The final and in
evitable fate of all men. is fast enoompassing
Clay. Inexorable Death moves apace toward l"
distinguished victim. - The lion is at last driven
bis lair, and he hopelessly awaits the shaft whipb
to terminate his carter. .There is hardly he shada
of a hope left." ,' , ,
Raleigh akd Gaston Roab. The next meeting
of the Stockholders of the Raleigh and Gaston Road
will be held at Hender83n.on Tuesday the 13th da
of January, 1852. ,
r ' , t
We shall commence in our next the publication
the Comptroller's Report, for the year ending 0C,
ber 31st, 1851.