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title: 'Pittsburg dispatch. (Pittsburg [Pa.]) 1880-1923, March 31, 1889, SECOND PART, Page 15, Image 15',
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THE GHOSTLY CKAZE.
How Modern Spiritualism Originated
in a Sleepy Old Village
FORTY-ONE TEAKS AGO TO-DAY.
Singular Manifestations That Led to
Widespread Belief That
THE DEAD CAN SPEAK TO THE UYISG
rtFXCUL TELIQBA TO TH DISPATCH.
Htbesville, X. Y., March SO. T$
morrow will be celebrated by spiritualists
all over the world as the forty-first anniver
sary of the origin of modern spiritualism,
and it was this pleasant little Tillage which
gave it birth. Hydesville is a qnaint old
place dull and sleepy, with an indescriba
ble finished appearance, conveying the idea
that it is absolutely completed and that no
more building or other changes can ever
take place here. Many of its picturesque
dwellings are overgrown with vines, and
their architecture includes jnst snch a porch
as a tired pedestrian or 'cycler delights to
rest in on a hot summer day.
It was in one of these old frame houses,
still pointed out to visitors here, that in
1847 occurred the first manifestations of
modern spiritualises, as familiar to the pres
ent believers, in that faith. Though the
fox sisters, Margaretta and Catherine,
through whom the first revelations of sup
posed spirit power were made, have recently
denounced themselves as charlatans who
have been wilfully perpetrating a gross and
premeditated fraud for many years, and
though they have stated that the so-called
"spirit rappings," which created such an
immense sensation 41 years ago, were pro
duced by a voluntary cracking of their toe
joints, the faith of believers in spiritualism
is in no wise shaken.
They sav that though the Fox sisters
may be impostors, as they declare them
selves to be, yet the great truths and prin
ciples of modern spiritualism stand as
firmly and shine as brightly as ever. They
say that these date back far beyond the
time of the Fox girls. Even in that low.
rambling, two-story house in which those
young women first cracked their toe joints,
it is claimed that genuine spiritual phe
nomena were observed before the Fox girls
ever inhabited it
In 1847 that house was occupied by one
Michael "Weekman with his family. He
was a poor, ignorant laborer, with no
thought beyond his daily toil for his daily
bread. He and his family were soon
troubled by mysterious raps" heard in all
parts of their dwelling, especially at night,
an annoyance that soon increased to such
an extent that sleep was an impossibility.
During all this time the Fox sisters, then
mere children aged 11 and 9 vears. lived
with their parents at a distance ot several
milps Kn fW thT nnnlfl ;m,t 1,-
had a hand or a toe-joint in tho'mvste-
rious Tappings at Mr. Weekman's house.
It was this constantly increasing annovance
of loud raps, which, though diligently in
vestigated, could not be traced to anv hu
man agency, which soon caused Mr. Week- i
man anu wiie to aoanoon tneir dwelling.
ItAFriXGS THAT HOUSED A VILLAGE.
iheiuitwas that on March 1, 1848, Mr.
John D. Fox and his family became its'
occupants. The mvsterious raps still con
tinued. The neighbors were called in on
several occasions and every possible effort
made to trace their origin, but in vain. It
was on the night of March 31 of that same
year of 1848, that the mysterious raps first
gave evidence of being directed by some
controlling intelligence. The family had
retired during a briel lull in the mysterious
Tappings, when suddenly it began again,
occurring- this time near the bed occupied
by the two little dauchters, Margaretta and
Catherine. The latter began to snap her
fingers in imitation of the sounds, which
immediately responded. "Now do as I do "
she cried. ""Count 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6," at the
same time striking her hands together.
Mrs Fox, the girls' mother, then desired the
unseen agency to count ten, and that num
ber of raps immediately followed.
"Tell us the age of Cathy" (the vounger
daughter) "by rapping once for eacfi vear,"
said the mother, and ten distinct raps were
Startled by these manifestations, Mrs.
Fox asted if it was a human being who was
rapping, but no answerinc sound was heard.
"If yon are a spirit make two distinct
sounds," she said, and two loud raps re
sponded. Hate Fox, in her recent
ESTOSUEES OF SMRITCALISSI,
has declared that she and her sister were
producing these mysterious Traps while
lying in bed and almost choking with laugh
ter at the clever imposition they were prac
ticing upon thetr mother. Th"e power of
cracking the toe-joint, by which they pro
duced their "spirit rappings," they had
accidentally discovered and had practiced
until they had acquired a high degree
of proficiency. Be that as it may, these
supposed manifestations of spirit power
created an intense excitement in the village,
and the little house was crowded in every
part Finally the spirit was asked to spell
out his or hername bv rapping at the cor
rect letters as the alphabet was repeated.
As a result the name of Charles B. Bosma
was obtained, and the spirit said he was a
peddler, who had been murdered in that
house a few years before.
Soon afterward the Fox family removed
to Kochester, If. Y., and the same spiritual
manifestations continued to occur in their
new home, but only when Catherine or
Margaretta were present. By using the
alphabet in the manner already indicated
the Fox sisters said that they found a great
number of departed spirits who desired to
converse with them and to nse them as a
medium of communication with their de
riBST SPIRITUALISTIC SEASCE.
At length the alleged spirits communi
cated to the Fox girls their desire that there
should be held a public meeting at which
a committee of investigation, chosen by the
audience, should determine whether "they
were genuine spirits and produced their so
called manifestations without human aid.
Such a meeting was accordingly held in
November, 1849. The Fox girls appeared
on the stage and the spiritual phenomena,
being freely manifested, were investigated
by a committee of prominent gentlemen
who, after continuing their researches for
several days, reported their inability to
trace them to any hums.n agency.
The fame of the Fox sisters was now na
tional, and when they appeared in New
York in the followinc .May, announcing
themselves as "spiritual mediums," a
phrase which originated with them, they
created an intense furore. These two oung
girls had thus founded a new faith to
which they gave the name of spiritualism.
Humble as was its origin and insignificant
as was the character ot its first manifesta
tions it soon found a multitude of believers
in both hemispheres. Spiritual mediums
quickly sprang up all over the country and
were soon multiplied by hundreds and even
by thousands. No better evidence of the
power of the new faith over the minds of
men and of its perpetuity could possibly be
desired than the fact that even its denounce
ment as the shallowest, flimsiest humbug,
gery bv those who founded it. and their
statement that it is an out and out fraud
originated by two little girls solely in a
spirit or mischief, have been powerless to
overthrow or even shake it.
SPIEIT MEDIUMS OF LONG AGO.
So long ago as the seventeenth and eigh
teenth centuries there were many persons
who professed to be under the direct guid
ance of the divine spirit, and who may in
that sense have been called 'Spiritualists.
Prominent among such mystical thinkers
were Jacob Bohme, or Boehmen, Spener, J.
Godfrey Arnold, John "William Peterson,
John Albert Benzol, Heinrich Jung Still-
ing, Madam Gnyou, Oetinger and Sweden
borg. The last named, when on his death
bed in 1772, predicted that in about 80
years from that time there would be a gen
eral revelation from the spiritual
world which would bring his
teachings into general notice and
confirm their truth, a prediction which it is
claimed was fulfilled in 1848, just 76 years
after the death of Swedenborg, oy the mani
festations of spirit power which were then
made here in Hydesville, and which soon
attracted general attention throughout the
Besides this prediction of Swedenborg, the
birth of modern spiritualism was twice
prophesied. In 1843 some members of the
Shaker communities at New Lebanon and
Watervliet, N.Y., seemed to be under some
strange psychological influence which threw
them into a trance state. "While in that
condition they delivered long discourses in
the names ot eminent men of bygone ages,
by whose spirits they said they were
A STRANGELY GIFTED MA2T.
After these'manifestations had continued
for nearly a year, the -spirits one day bde
the brethren a solemn adieu, telling them to
say nothing to the world's people of what
had passed, but to treasure it in their
hearts, and promising that in a few years
thev would return and "show to the whole
world the same wonderful manifestations
which they had, revealed to a chosen few of
In the same year of 1843, one Andrew
Jackson Davis, a poor, ignorant country
lad of Orange county, Kew York, was mes
merized into a trance by one William Lev
ington, and ever afterward seemed to have
the power of passing into such a condition
at will, though so illiterate that he could
scarcely read or write, yet in the fall of
184G, while n the trance state, he dictated,
under the title of "The Principles of Na
ture, Her Divine Revelations and a Voice
to Mankind," a learned treatise on onto
logical, cosmical, theological, spiritual and
social subjects. In this work he predicted
that "communication with the spiritual
world would ere long assume the form of a
living demonstration," a prophecy which
spiritualists believe to have been fulfilled,
as were that of Swedenborg, and that of the
spirits to the Shakers by the manifestations
at this village in 1847-48.
A SEW KEVELATIOX NEEDED.
To the unbeliever in modern spiritualism
its most improbable feature and that which
tends most largely to bring it into discredit
is the alleged necessity for "spiritual medi
ums." If the spirits of the dead have
power to commnmcate with relatives and
friends who have not yet learned the great
secret, why cannot they do ko directly with
out requiring the intervention of a third
person, who was wholly unknown to them
in life ? Then, again, the very vague and
general nature of the great majority of com
munications and messages received from
the spirit world tend to create and confirm
skeptics. Instead of conversing upon some
theme known only to the dear departed and
the relative or friend with whom he is com
municating, the spirit merely says, in 09
cases out of 100, "that he is happy in spirit
life and wants to meet yon there. There is
urgent need for a new duo of Fox or other
"Sisters, who shall proclaim a new revela
tion of spiritualism, which shall enable the
SP1"" to wholly dispense with mercenary
mediums and to hold direct converse with
relatives and friends on earth.
Palo In the Back and IIIp-,
Kate McBurney, 173 Fifth street, Detroit,
I was taken with severe pain in my back
and hips. It continued to grow worse until 1
I uau ku &OC1I iu; ucu. i.ujcu buciu iciucuics
had to keep my bed. I tried several remedies
good. 1 then put on twd Allcock's Porous
Plasters. They took the pain aav so ciuick
that 1 was able to he up in less than 21 hours,
and in a weeK was entirely recovered. 1 was
also cured of a chronic cough by the use of All
cock's Plasters." su
Down Goes the Price of Flonr, Canned
Goodi, Soaps. Etc
1 bbl Fancy St LouisFlonr 56 75
1 sack Fancy St Louis 1 65
1 bbl White, Swan (best family) 6 25
1 sack "White Swan (best family) 1 50
1 bbl Genuine Amber 6 00
1 sack Genuine Amber 1 45
1 bbl Good Amber 5 50
1 sack Good Amber ,.... 135
20 cans Choice Blackberries (forpies).. 1 00
14 cans Choice Cherries (for pies).. .... 1 00
16 cans Choice Sugar Corn 1 00
15 cans Choice Peas. 1 00
14 cans String Beans 1 00
14 cans Standard Tomatoes. 1 CO
40 bars good scrubbing soap 1 00
32 bars 2-year-old soap (equal to Dob
bins) l 00
30 bars "White Elephant soap (floats).. 1 00
26 bars Proctor & Gamble's Lenox soap 1 00
25 bars Proctor & Gamble's Ivory soap 1 00
20 bars Proctor Ss Gamble's German
mottled 1 00
26 bars Scbultz & Co.'s Star soap.... 1 00
30 packages "Washing Powder. 1 00
20 boxes Concentrated Lye 1 00
50 good Scrubbing Brashes 1 00
30 lbs large lump starch 1 00
20 lbs Evaporated Peaches 1 00
24 lbs Turkey Prunes 1 00
15 lbs Evaporated Apples 1 00
6 lbs Evaporated Apricots 1 00
If you don't want the dollar's worth take
Goods delivered free to all parts of both
cities. To those livingoutofthecity will pre
pay freight on all orders of 510, 515, 520 and
upward. Send for catalogue. Opposite
Gusky. M. E. Thompson,
fsu , 301 Market st
Let not a catch-penny ad. attract you.
At no matter what apparently low figure
anybody advertises clothing, rest assured
we can and will beat his price, besides giv
ing you a guarantee which means some
thing; that is, we will keep your suit in re
pair free of charge for one year; not only
high-priced suits, but from our splendid $10
suit to the finest custom made.
Jacksoss', 954 and 956 Liberty st.
Star corner. New building. Handsomest
in this city.
Go to Pearson's for cab. photo of yourself
or family. Galleries 96 Fifth aye. and 43
Federal st, Allegheny.
E. P. Coheres fc Sons Want Ton
To see the new patterns of tea sets they
have jnst opened. The sets contain urn
and five pieces and you can get sugar,
creamer and spoonholder, or in fact any
number of pieces you wish. Even if you
do not wish to buy now go and see their
styles and get their prices. They will give
you every attention. " fsu
Tenement house clothing may be very
piofitable to handle, bnt who knows what
contagion may be in them? The clothing
we sell is home made; that's why we can
warrant to keep the suit you buy of ns,
costing 510 or over, for one whole year in
good repair free of charge. Jacksons', 954
and 956 Liberty st, Star Cor. New build
ing, the handsomest in Pittsburg.
Dyeing and Clennlng.
Gents, now Is the time to have your spring
clothing cleaned or dyed equal to new, at
Chas. Pfeifer's 443 Smithfield street, Pitts
burg; 100 Federal street, Allegheny. Tele
Carpet Two Room for 81 50.
It can be done by purchasing a roll of
China mat tine, the most popular summer
carpet, from Edward Groetzinger, 627 and
629 Penn avenue.
Don't buy a carpet or pair of curtains
until you see our stock.
Geo. W. Snaman,
MWSSa 136 Federal st, Allegheny.
Cur this out and paste it in your hat:
Any suit you buy ol Jackson's, costing
510 00 or more, they will repair it for you,
it necessary, for one year free of charge.
Jacksons, Star Tailors, Clothiers, Hatters and
Furnishers, 954 and 955 Liberty st '
GIELS AS GYMNASTS
How to Improve the Form and Ac
quire Strength and Health by
SIMPLE CALISTHEKIO EXERCISES.'
Original Mechanical Devices Used by Fash
TO DEVELOP E0BDST FIGURES
IW1UTTXX FOB THE PISPATCH.1
' PROMINENT New
York physician, address
ing a lady patient, said:
"Take the bridle path
and It will lead you to the
The speaker was a fa
mous medical man, whose
practice is among ex
tremely fashionable peo
ple, and his advice in this
particular instance was
addressed to a stylish
weakling of ithe feminine
sex. Her health was bad,
andjier wedding day was
set for six months ahead.
"What hemeant by his'jo
cose remark was that
horseback exercise was
the thing requisite to im
prove her physical condition.
"But, Doctor, I can't stand outdoor exer
cise until the weather becomes balmier,"
the fair patient objected.
"Then I will have a m.ecianical horse
constructed for yon," he answered, "and
you can ride it indoors."
Expense was no consideration in this
case, for the girl was heiress presumptive to
a million, and so within ten days a mechan
ical horse was set up in her boudoir at a
cost abont as great as that of any live horse
in her father's stable. A picture of it is
here given. It has the motion of a trotting
horse not the easy canter that is imitated
in the spring rocking horse for children, bnt
a gentle jogglety-jog of a trotter. It is
operated by the motion of the body and the
pressure on one foot in the stirrup.
ROBUST FIGTJEES IT0W ES PASHIOJT.
The equestrienne has Been using It an
hour a day for a month, and, sure enough,
it has done considerable for her in a
strengthening way. Of course, now, that
spring is advancing, she will quit this con
trivance to take a side-saddle seat on a gen
uine horse. I Use her case merely as a hrst
exhibit of the manner in which this physi
cian whom I am enjoined not to name, for
lear that the Medical Jaqciety will rate him
an advertiser contrives machines for
the physical improvement of his wealthy
It is no longer fashionable to be puny.
Our belles are cultivating robust figures.
This doparture from old-tashioned nonsense
has been going on for several years, until
now the beneficial results are quite visible
in the healthier complexions, straightened
figures and elastic carriage of the girls who
For the Wrists.
have practiced it. But the doctor in ques
tion and he already has several imitators
aims to devise apparatus for exercises ex
actly suited to individuals. Just as a
surgeon plans special appliances for out
right cripples, so these advanced practition
ers are providing machines to improve
forms that, in old days, would have been let
alone In their lack of symmetry or strength.
The fundamental idea of the system is the
substitution of cleverly constructed ma
chines for the ordinary manual efforts used
in obtaining gymnastic exercises, and the
furnishing by mechanical means of passive
movements in the limbs and bodies of
patients, which are further aided by the
active movements of the apparatus.
GTMNASTICS FOE "WOMEN.
Not only, too, does the system supersede
the old conventional forms of gymnastics,
but it also takes the place and is somewhat
of an elaboration of massage treatment, and,
by the ingenuity of the machines
and the extreme convenience of the
mode of applying and using tlrem, they
afford special facilities for movements of a
gymnastic nature, or, rather, which pro
duce the gymnastic effects without the ac
companying conditions of personal activity
which would, in many cases, render a course
of ordinary gymnastic exercises not only
inconvenient and undesirable, but impossi
ble. Of course these theories are put for
ward here for their novelty, and as an ac
count of a curious innovation in exercise as
firactised by some of the New York swell
adtes, but without either indorsement or
But our belles are not yet prepared to take
all the risks of ordinary muscular develop
ment They have observed that brawny
oarsmen and .ball players have hands like
stone masons, so far as size and rnggedness
are concerned, and they have no notion of
sacrificing their manual charms, even tor
the sake of improved health. They like to
broaden their shoulders, swell their biceps
and invigorate their walking members by
exercise, but they do not wish to increase
the size or shapeliness of their gloves.
AN INGENIOUS MUFF TVABMEB.
The second picture shows how the physi
cian got over this difficulty fof one of
his patients. The device enables her to ex
ercise her forearms and wrists by means of
exertion that does not require band grip
or any strain at all upon the fingers. It
seems to be practical, too, according to its
gentle operator, who declares that her wrists
and arms have developed -markedly in
muscle,, and that without the slightest
change in the small daintiness of her hands.
Apropos oi fashionable hands, let me
wander off or a paragraph about a con
trivance that- a lady lately brought from
Europe." It is nothing less than a muff
warmer. It is the invention of a Japanese
genius, and is a very simple little perforated
box containing a wee roll of compressed
Straightening the Figure.
charcoal, which is lighted at one end like a
cigarette. Shut in the box, it remains
alight for a couple of hours or more, accord
ing to the amount of air admitted. The
heat given out is quite considerable, and
the apparatus is so small and so light that
it can be carried about for hours without
the slightest inconvenience. Should K be
duplicated into common use, I suppose
there would have to be a combination of
fire nnd life insurance to cover the risks.
FOB IMPEOVINa- THE TOEM.
To return to the mechanical improve
ment of figures, it must be said that it is
only claimed to be feasible for girls who
have not much more than gained their
growth. There must be.sufficient of youth
tul pliability, for nothing can much change
a figure that is once fixed and settled into
maturity. Hound-shouldered forms are the
commonest- feminine offense against sym
metry. Some of the popular exercises, even
that of horseback riding, are calculated to
increase rather than remedy this defect.
And pillows are also to blame for It To
lie on one's back with the head bolstered up
six inches higher than the shoulders is con
ducive to round shoulders, and in lying on
either side just the same relative attitude is
apt to be taken.
The machine for straightening the fignre,
as sketched while in use at the home of an
owner, is so weighted and contrived as to
pull the shoulders back, and to train them
into that position. More pretentious is an
apparatus for developing and limbenng the
shoulders and elbows, and in this case, in
deed, most ot the benefits of a well-equiped
gymnasium are embodied in it How
often, ordinarily, does a woman stretch her
arms straight upward? Her clothes are apt
to be an impediment to such free use of tub
arms. Few of her outdoor diversions even
call upon her for just that sort of exercise.
EXEECISING ON FLYING KINGS.
"But what nonsense such a machine as
this is," said a professional athlete, to
Expanding the Chest
whom I showed the drawing. "If the girl
were to simply tasten a pair of what we
call flying rings to the ceiling of her room
and let them dangle at a height to which
she can just reach when standing on her tip
toes she will have just as good an apparatus
as this complicated machine offers. If she
will clutch these rings with her hands and
throw all of her weight upon them she will
stretch herself as moderately as she pleases
and with no danger of harm. If she wishes
a stronger tension she can lift herself en
tirely off the floor. "When she has accus
tomed herself to it she may swing as hard
and as long as she pleases."
His condemnation seems reasonable, but
it does not hold against the interest of this
letter, which sets out merely to depict some
of the very curious means of physical devel
opment employed just now by way of a fad
by some of our girls. Let the exhibits be
concluded with the chest expander, a con
struction which braced the operator com
fortably behind her shoulders, while with
her hands she worked a pair of wooden
handles in a manner producing somewhat
THE EFFECT OF BOWING
in a boaf, except that she sat bolt upright
while doing it. As a method of producing
a concavity of back and a convexity of
breast, I should think this might have a
For Shoulders and Elbows.
practical value. Anyhow, that was what
the physician prescribed it for, and in the
hope of which the young lady was laboring
industriously an hour a day.
The usual modes of mild exercise, like the
calisthenics practiced in most schools, and
the use of dumb bells and Indian clubs, are
in great and increasing vogue. One swell
class of 150 women and girls meets twice a
week at the Berkeley Lyceum; several of
the most fashionable dancing schools have
been made to include gymnastio exercises;
swimming baths, fencing rooms and even
well-equipped gymnasiums are the resorts
of Filth avenue femininity. It is stylish,as
asserted at the outset of this letter, to be
stalwart. That belle is well pleased with
herself who can greet you with a hand as
soft as a baby's, but who can also raise the
muscles on her arm when she -chooses, until
it looks incongruous as bared by a sleeveless
STTtfDA'XS MAR.CK'' "-81,
BRATERY IS BATTLE.
Dr. Hammond Writes AT)out the
Physical Aspects of Courage.
HUNGRY TROOPS FIGHT BAD1T.
All Men Are Afraid, in the Presence of Un
INCIDENTS OP THE PENINSULAR WAB
tWBITTZar FOB THE DISPATCH. 3
T is a fact that all men, no
matter how Drave thep may
be, generally experience fear
in the presence of a danger
with which they are not
familiar. A Boldler,who
will without hesitatlqn march
up to a cannon's mouth, is
frightened when some con
tagious disease makes its appearance in
the garrison or camp, while the physician,
who walks among his cholera and typhus
fever patients daily unmoved by the slight
est fear for his health or life, would likely
waver in the face of a bayonet charge.
Familiarity in this, as In many other mat
ters, breeds contempt The 'Soldier learns
to nurse his sick comrade without trembling
for his own safety, and many a military
surgeon has lost his life or been grievously
mounded while facing death on the battle
field in the discharge of his duty.
Not only is courage largely a matter of
experience and education, bnt it is to a great
extent under the control of the will. Ii left
to himself, and without any higher motive
to actuate him than the desire for his own
safety, a man will generally do his utmost to
escape from an impending danger, but when
moved by some feeling which, for the time
being, is paramount with him, such, for in
stance, as patriotism or love for others or
the fear of punishment or of ridicule, he
will stand up and be shot at or incur any
other risk rather than evince the slightest
fear. Perhaps the strongest of all these
emotions is that sense of self-respect which
is posessed by the generality of men who
have been liberally educated or well brought
up. This feeling enables them to exert
their will power in such a way as to pre
vent the exhibition of any sign of coward
ice even in the presence of the greatest dan
gers. ONE KIND OF COURAGE.
A story is told of two officers who were
serving together in the Peninsular "War,
which illustrates this volitional control of
the manifestations of a powerful emotion.
One of them, whom I will call Captain
Smith, was remarkable for his bulldog
bravery, which never failed him under any
circumstances when mere animal courage
was required. The other, Captain Jones,
was a good officer, but was thought by some
to be deficient in the contempt of danger,
which is, after all, the least qualification of
a soldier. The bullets were whistling
around, when Captain Smith, riding up to
Captain Jones, who stood pale but collected
at 'his post, said, with the inexcusable
brusquerieto be expected of such a person:
"Captain Jones, you look as if you were
"Yes," replied Jones, "I am frightened,
and if you were half so much frightened as
I am you would run away."
It is not to be doubted that to a certain
extent the emotions are under the control
of the will. A man may strengthen his
emotions, lessen them, subdue them abso
lutely or create those which are not natural
to him by the force of his will acting in
accordance with his desires. The medical
student whose horror at the sight of blood
causes him to faint by lessening the action
of his heart when he sees his first snrgical
operation, in a short time overcomes his re-
Iiugnance, and after awhile becomes a fear
ess snrgeon. The soldier who in his first
battle is so terrified that he exhibits the
most unmistakable evidences of the mental
agony he is suffering, perseveres until he is
renowned for his gallantry and daring
under the most tremendous fire. Courage,
therefore, like other faculties, is susceptible
of improvement it can be educated to an
almost unlimited extent, so that even the
veriest coward may be made as brave as
Still it must be confessed that occasional
ly irreclaimable cowards are encountered.
Persona who, no matter to what influences
they may be subjected, never fail to exhibit
the most abject tear when exposed to dan
gers that may injure their bodies. Coward
ice is an essentiaLelement of their nature;
they are born poltroons, and they remain
such as long as they live. It does not seem
to be the fear of physical pain which ren
ders them absolutely helpless in the pres
ence of danger, for they will endure great
bodily torments rather than expose them-
'selves to a possible. 'though uncertain dan
ger. Thus 1 have seen a man submit to be
pricked with bayonets, belabored with
swords and trampled upon by men and
horses because he conld not stand up in the
ranks and run the risk of being shot
Such persons have endurance of physical
suffering, they accept the inevitable with a
certain amount of composure. It is the un
certainty which makes them cowards. On
the battlefield they are absolutely devoid of
courage, but when condemned to death bv
the sentence of a court martial and marched
out for execution, thev sit down on their
coffins and lace the firing party with heroic
calmness and fortitude. They are like
those financial speculators who, harassed
by anxiety relative to the success or failure
of their ventures, exhibit the utmost trepi
dation, but who, when their mm is surely
accomplished, meet their fate with entire
equanimity and immediately go to work to
repair their fallen fortunes.
Many persons are temporarily cowards
from the fact that they are unacquainted
with their own mental organization; they
have never been placed in positions of dan
ger and have therefore never been called
upon to exhibit courage. All they require
is experience, and under its influence the
latent courage inherent fh. them is soon
A man's capacity to exhibit bravery is, to
a great extent, dependent upon his physical
condition. All those causes which lessen
his bodily strength and vitality at the same
time engender timidity. Hunger is one of
the most powerlnl of these factors. All good
commanders know how much the courage of
their troops is due to the state of their
stomachs, and therefore take every means in
their power to keep their armies well fed.
The soldier who goes into battle in the morn
ing before having eaten anything will not
manifest the same degree of elan as the one
who has taken a enp of coffee and some good
solid food into his stomach. There must be
a certain degree of activity in the circula
tion in order to produce the highest degree
of physical courage.
There are various methods of producing
such a degree of temporary excitement as to
make a man fight with ardor who would
otherwise be more or less passive. It is said
that Captain Dacres, who commanded the
British trigate Guerriere when she was cap
tured by the American frigate Constitution,
gave his sailors just before going Into action
a mixture of gunpowder and brandy for the
purpose of rousing their dormant ardor.
However powerful as temporary exciters
of courage, alcoholic and ther stimulants
are a two-edged sword, for reaction or mental
torpidity eventually results from their em
ployment and may come on at a time when
their appearance is fatal to those who In
dulge in them. They are occasionally good
for a "spurt," but they are in no sense pro
ducers of that true courage which can be
relied upon for all emergencies. Moreover
the highest type of man requires at no time
any such adventitious aids. His courage is
directed by his intelligence, he requires his
mind to be clear in the presence of danger.
His courage does not lead him, but is di
rected by him. It Is very nearly true that
courage is the least qualidca'ion of a-good
soldier. William A. Hammond.
,io 0 ,m-
BY A CLEEGXMAN.
TWEITTKI TOR THB DISPATCH. 1
HE recent elopement of
the daughter of the Chief
Justice of the United
States, brings into con
tinental prominence' a
question of moralsana
every household from
Maine to California.
Callow youth, of-either
sex. is enchanted. The
romance o. the affair temporarily eclipses
the prosaic days that surely lie ahead.
For this "Young Lochlnvar" business,
however poetical in .the prelude, is almost
certain to be sober prose in the denouement
Once In a hundred times an elopement Is justi
fiableas when the parties are ot, age, know
their own mind, are certain of self-support, and
find themselves unreasonably opposed in what
is to them a matter of tenderest concern. But
a runaway match, inspired by passion, or bom
of romantic Impulse, or conceived In outrageous
disregard ot parental rights and authority,
usually and legitimately Issues in misery and
invites divorce. Study the after history of
these couples and you shall learn that as a
rnle, whose exceptions are homeopathically
infinitesimal, their career ends In dishonor.
Why not? Has a father no claims upon his
child? Has a mother no rights which her son,
or daughtar, Is bound to respect? "Are lives
consecrated to the happiness of offspring to be
ruthlessly trampled and draggled In return for
years of nurture? Shall a family be forced
into an allianco which is regarded as a misal
liance? Into association and relationship un
congenial and abhorrent? By and by, when
the glamor Is dispelled by mature experience,
too late, perhaps, when several lives are
blighted, these questions, which persist in put
ting themselves in the deep, deep heart get
Generally, it must be said, there is something
wrong in the home training when children thus
misbehave a lack of that mutual confidence
which is the crowning charm of the ideal fire
side. Anyhow, an elopement does well enouch to
spice a novel; In real life it is almost always a
present mistake and a future torture. It is
said that the world "dearly loves a lover." All
right But how about the pathetic days when
lore flies ont at the window, and loud-monthed
and red-faced dissention comes in at the door?
Life is not made np of caramels and vanilla
cream. Young man, young woman, yon think
it 13, do you? Very well. Experience is tne
best teacher; but the school fees are somewhat
Apropos of household discioline, the truth is
that children usually turn out about as might
be expected and predicted in view of the treat
ment they receive. We say this -independently
of any special case, and with reference to the
broad rule (and exceptions prove rules).
"What untold agonies," exclaims one of our
most practiced and accomplished educators,
"not only in the open day and thronged market-place,
but in solitude and at midnight, do
parents suffer; what soreness of heart, even
snch that the tenderest sympathy tortnres it
like fire, does the mother feel for a profligate
son. while he, as if urged along by some
demon, rushes on to darker shame and a dead
lier perdition. Yet the time was when that
boy's heart was soft as wax, when his feelings,
like an aspen leaf, could have been moved by a
breath. Then the mother conld have supplied
the very moral nutriment that should have
been embodied in the growth of his soul, jnst
as the milk from her own breast became a part
of his body. Then she sat upon a throne, and
weal and woe were ministers ready to do her
bidding. Then she was, like a goddess decree
ing the future, originating predestination,
telling Fate himself what he shonld do. But
for some vanity or frivolity of the hour, she
abdicated her queenly prerogatives; she was
an idiot In casuality, and a Tost child and a
broken heart are her reward."
Faying Terr Old Scores.
Any tourist who has traveled in Germany
will remember the abounding marks of war
made away back 200 years ago by Louis xfv.,
who invaded and fairly scarified the conntry.
Every turn of the Rhine reveals some old
castle crumbled into ruins, covered now with
peaceful ivy, and serving only to decorate the
historic river, which was demolished by that
ruthless French King. More than 100 years
later Napoleon I. put into the same soil his
stern plowshare and plowed the ground over
again; not quite so disastrously. The Ger.
mans never forget nor foreave those Invasions,
the first especially.
When the French historian Thiers saw the
German scholar Ranke after the Franco-Prussian
war (when the table was turned), the fol
lowing conversation took place:
"Were the frussians fighting against Napo
"Why, no." answered Ranke.
"The empire, then?"
"The French people?"
"Well, then, who?"
"Louis XIV.," thundered Ranke.
To Educate the Indians.
Last week representatives of most of the
churches, missionary organizations, and socie
ties interested In- the civilization of the In
dians, waited upon the President and the Sec
retary of the Interior, and presented the fol
lowing resolutions, upon which they had
"First That prompt and comprehensive
measures bo taken by the Government for the
education of all Indian youth, and that special
encouracement should be given, impartially, to
all accredited religious bodies and missionary
organizations engaged in the prosecution of
"Second That appointments and removals
in the Indian service should be made on the
ground of character and efftciencv, irrespective
of party affiliation, in order tha't the obvious
advantages resulting from faithful service,
continuity In method and experience may not
"Third That the work of alloting land in
severalty to the Indians nnder the terms of the
general severalty bill should be vigorously
fressed forward, and that the Interests-of the
ndian3 in relation to the same should be care
.fully protected against fraud both before and
They were cordially received, and were as
sured by the President that he would do his
best to secure efficiency and faithfulness in ap
pointments to the Indian service.
Bright Thoughts of Grent Mind.
The proverb is wrong. A bad beginning
makes a bad ending. Iavy. "
' The greatest reverence is due to a child.
Great undertakings require great nrerjara-
The weilth of character Is the only true
He is i fool who leaves a certainty for an un
'Tis man's bold task the strife to try.
But in the. hands of God is victory.
We wretched mortals lost in donbt below,
But guess by rumor, and but boast we know.
Leave no stone unturned, Euripides.
The German word for hard is schwer. But
it is not hard to swear in English. Martyn.
The roots ot education are bitter, but the
fruit is sweet Aristotle.
When the Psalmist asks, "Shall the dead
rise up and praise thee?" in Christ's name and
In the light of His revelation, we joyfully
No MAN can permanently succeed In Amer
ica who does not live, as Sc Paul did. In the
street called "Straight." Joseph Cook.
There Is a good deal of religion in the
world, but In view of the three S's (sin, suffer
ing, sorrow), there Is plainly not enough to co
Trips Undertaken for Health's SaUo
Will be rendered more beneficial, and the
fatigues of travel counteracted, if the voyager
will take along with him Hosietter's Stomach
Bitters, and use that protective and enabling
tonic, nerve Invlgorant and appetizer regnlarlv.
Impurities in air and water are neutralized by it
and it is a matchless tranquilizer and regulator
of the stomach, liver and bowels. It counter-'
acts malaria, rheumatism, and a tendency to
kidney and bladder ailments.
,Comb and see our carpets and curtains.
Mwssa Geo. "W. Snaman,
.KEWfADVERTISEMEXTS. J ,
Another Great Triumph for
THE LADIES DELIGHTED
No such display of rich and handsome Millinery ever shown in either city as
was shown at our grand opening of the past week. All the new shapes are now
in. Among the vast collection are found the Palmetto, the Nadjy, the Dlrectoire,
the Regent, the Normandi, the Albert!, and every shape and style worth seeing or
showing. No charge for trimming your hat or bonnet when materials are pur
chased of us.
Extraordinary Bargains this week in Silks, Dress Goods, Millinery, "Wraps and Jackets; '
Trimmings and Buttons, Umbrellas, etc. "
WRAPS AND JACKETS.
Ladies' and Misses' real Scotch Cheviot
walking coat in pretty patterns a perfect
fit and make. Special price, $1 74.
Ladies' Stockinette Jackets, all wool, per
fect fit Special price, $1 99.
Ladies' black all-wool Stockinette Coats
a beautifully fitting garment and well
made. Special price, $3 24.
Ladies' Grenadine Beaded Capes, hand
somely jetted, with lace shoulders. Special
price, ?3 24.
Ladies' all-wool Spring Newmarkets, new
shape, all the new colors; a good-fitting,
stylish and serviceable garment. Special
price, $9 48.
100 26-inch Silkena, Gold Mounted, 96c.
100 28-inch Silkena, Gold Mounted, $1 19.
. 100 23-inch German Gloria, Gold Mounted, $1 CO,
100 26-inch Gloria, black stick, $1 89.
100 28-inch Gloria, Paragon frame, oxidized handles, 51 99.
100 26-inch "Windsor Silk, Gold Mounted, 52 99.
100 28-inch La Tosca, oxidized, 53 24.
100 26-inch Eureka Silk, oxidized, $3 99.
100 23-inch La Tosca, natural stick, 54 99.
100 26-inch La Tosca, Eureka Silk, Gold Mounted, $4 49.
, All the latest novelties in new Dress Trimmings are now ready for inspec
tion. "We are snowing an endless variety in Gimps, Galloons, Applique Embroid
eries, Persian and Tinsel Embroideries, Jet and Steel Gimps. Buttons in all
conceivable colors, designs and qualities.
Plain Gimps, in all colors; 1 inch wide, at 19c. '
Tinsel Mixed Galloons, 2 inches wide, at 25c.
Embroidered Persian Bands, 2 inches wide, at 59c.
Applique Embroideries, 2 inches wide, at 52 25. .
Jet Fringes for trimming wraps, 3 inches wide, at 59c. ,
Jet Ornaments (6 inches) for wraps, at 19c each.
Handsome Pearl Buttons, with steel centers, worth 25c, at 14c.
All the latest novelties in large Buttons, Directolre, etc, at 25c per dozen, and ;
np. ' ',
SPECIAL PURCHASE OF SILKS AND DBESS GOODS
At the great trade sale during the past week of Field, Chapman & Fercer, of .
New York, our Mr. Shoenberg, who was on the spot for the purpose of securing
any bargains that might be offered, made some purchases which you will hear ..
about in a few days. ,'
N". B. Ladies should not fail to visit our new HouseFuruishing Department
when in. The largest stock of Crockery, Glassware, Tinware and House Furnish
ings to be found in the city.
DANZIGER & SHOENBERG,
MORRIS H. DANZIGER,
ffos. 42444648-50-52 Sixth Street 538-540-542 Penn A?e.
jliolisapds of Jhese
iirni w .tuainuiizirMLj'TJVjr .- . i imjr ju-"
rERE DISTRIBUTED GRATUITOUSLY BY KAUFMANNS'l
yesterday; thousands more will
day during this week. Remember, they are the only original and!
genuine "Pies in Clover" ouzzles in Pittsbur?. all others being butjj
weak and unsightly imitations. If vou want to have fun
get one of these puzzles gratis
ARE GIVEN AWAY
Our Millinery Department
1 EVERYBODY PLEASED. j
50 pieces plain China Silks, all new
colors, 37J$c, wortn boc.
SO pieces 23-inch Shanghai Silks at 53c:
worth 51 25.
40 pieces black Gros Grain Silks at file,
20 pieces novelties in Checks, Stripes and
Mixed effects, at 17c, worth 30c.
40 pieces double width all wool Bannock
burn Suiting at 43c, worth 75c.
30 pieces 46-inch all-woof Cashmere la
black and colors, at 69c, worth $1 00.
COTTON DBESS DPAJBBICS
3 cases good Apron Ginghams at 4c,
5 cases Lawns at 4Jc, worth 8c.
3 cases French Satines at 12c, worth 18c.
And all of new and elegant 12o Dress
Ginghams at 7c.
ojt Iptereslipg toizzlej
be distributed to-morrow, and everyJ
at Kaufmanns' this week. THEY"