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Visions That Are Prophetic of
PHANTOMS OP THE NIGHT
Bringing Presages of Happiness or
Forebodings of Evil.
HELPED BI HER ANGEL BROTHER.
The Strange Story of the Lady 171111 the
ACCIDENTS FORESEEN AND FORETOLD
tWWITlX rOK TBI DISFJLTCn.2
The following article has been prepared
from material collected by the American
Society of Psychical Research:
The insight we have into our dream-life
a life in which we pass fully one-half of our
existence is at the best very incomplete.
The keenest minds have worked at the
problem, irom the Greek philosophers down,
but in every case they have proved too little
or too much. Multitudes of facts are
known about dreams, sheets of statistics
have been written, but our very material,
founded as it is on actual experience, shows
how infinitely varied are the conditions of
dreaming. They seem to admit of no law.
Some persons dream constantly, others not
at all. Plutarch tells of Cleon, who lived to
an advanced age without ever having
dreamed. It would seem .sometimes as If
onr dreams depended solely upon our bodily
health, as in the case of a man mentioned by
Locke, who, taken ill with a fever at 26
years of age, dreamed forthe first time. But
as against this it has been gradually ac
cepted that the most cemmon age for
dreams is in the early twenties. Darwin de
clared that our dreams toward morning were
much more varied and colored than those of
the early night. Again, it is said that in
the deepest sleep processes of the mind are
apt to fall into more normal operation and
we have the most vivid dreams. Elsewhere
we read of the sweet, dreamless repose of
the laborer contrasted with the nightmares
of the nervous and wakeful.
THE LATVS OP DREAMS.
In trying to deduce the laws, many a
writer fias declared that all mental opera
tions that are independent of the will may
be active during sleep. But the very fact
that we recollect our dreams proves th'at we
have paid attention to them, or, in other
words, have exercised our will. Others say
that in our dreams the reasoning iacultv is
absent, but we know of many a dream that
would refute this assertion. Condillac, the
eminent metaphysician, was more than once
enabled to untangle, while asleep, problems
that had posed him on the previous day.
So Condorcet often solved his problems.
Tartini composed his "Sonata del Diavilo"
in a dream wherein the devil challenged him
But in spite of the variety of conditions
attendant upon our dream life, many gener
al facts have been collated. The nerves, so
far as we know, varying infinitely in the de
grees ot sensibility (the finest in the brain),
are the most direct means of communication
between the mind and body through which
they run. The brain nerves, being much
more susceptible to loss of energy through
their extreme sensibility, must at times sus
pend their operations and become repaired
by sleep. 2sow ourMreams go to prove that
this suspension is not always complete; that
while the grosser nerves, susceptible of ex
terior influences, may be inoperative, the
fine branches are sometimes active, which
seems to show that impressions too light to
disturb the -coarser nerves can still be tar
ried through them to the finer mechanism
of the brain. Examples of this are com
mon. Persons talkintr in their sleep are
often led from one subject to another bv
questions being put to them sometimes dis
closing very dear secrets.
1,000 YEABS HT A NIGHT.
Just as in this case of transmission throuch
the sense of hearing, so all the senses may
act upon tne Drain in toe sleeping as well as
in the waking state, the difference being in
the comparative vividness of the sensations.
We do not hear loud noises in our dreams,
nor are we conscious of brilliant lights; onr
impressions are more subdued and quiet.
How noiselessly we runl With what slip
pery glides do we float down staircases and
Another curions fact is that while the
combinations of time or place, situation or
incident, in dreams are generally incongru
ous and confusing, the individual forms are
never so. but are clothed in the same char
acteristics that we recognize in our waking
state. This confusion is accounted for by
the depression of the discriminating or com
paring power which serves in our conscious
state to sift the probable from the improb
able. Xet the depression or cessation of
this power is not by any means constant, as
witness the anecdote of Condillac above.
Gabanis tells us th3t Dr. Franklin was
wont to form remarkably correct estimates
on personal character through his dreams,
and so much so that he used to regard them
almost with reverence.
The rapidity of thought in dreams is sur
prising. De Quincy declared that he had
lived a thousand years in one night. Lord
Brougham tells how, dictating to an amanu
ensis, he often fell asleep between the pauses
of the dictation to be awakened by the
writer's repeating the last word. The in
tervals could not have been more than a few
seconds that is. sufficient time to write
eight or ten words yet Brougham declared
that his short-lived dreams covered immense
stretches of time.
One of the most difficult things to dispose
of in dreams is the so-called prophetic or
portentous clement; where events have
either been foretold, or communicated at the
time of or after occurrence through the sole
medium of the dream. Records of such
portentous dreams are at hand from the Old
Testament times to our own days. The
greatest men always had astounding dreams.
Socrates, while in prison,"is said to have
dreamt that a fair woman, clad in pure
white, appeared to him and announced the
day on which he should die. Tne dream
was fulfilled exactly. Oliver Cromwell de
clared that when very young, a tall power
ful woman appeared to him at his bedside,
and, After regarding him thoughtfully for
awhile, assured him that he would grow to
be the greatest man in England. We com
monly put aside such stories as being of too
uncertain coinage or, if on some founda
tion, as being too plainly adulterated with
coloring matter. Chance is an ample waste
basket, and items of this kind even, when
authenticated, generally find a resting
Very lately, however, some considerable
serious interest has been aroused in collect
ing strange cases of dreams and apparitions.
So frequent is the occurrence of remarkable
dreams, well authenticated by responsible
witnesses, that societies of scientific men
have been formed devoted to their examina
tion. Their scientific researches have awak
ened an enormous interest outside, as is
evinced by the cases that are continually
REBECCA IS KILLED.
- DjInK iinn Foresees on Accident In
Wblcb BI Wire Is Injsred.
The following case, one of presentiment,
was reported early in January, 1888, by a
lady residiag In Jamaica Plain. Her
father had been ill for some weeks, and she
had had almost the entire care of him day
and night. She says: "One sight I was
awakened by a loud cry from Kim no un
usual thing, for he was often delirious, and
talced loudly in his sleep. 1 heard him
sav: 'Is she killed? Stop himl and when
I ran to his bedside I found him trembling
violently, bathed in a cold sweat, and yet
seemingly awake. I tried to soothe him,
but he clung to mv arm, repeating his cries.
I said: "What is it, father? No one is
killed. You are here with me!' 'Oh, nol
Rebecca, my wife, is hurt Do you not see
the horse running? The hueerv is all bro-
Jken and Bebecca is lying there. Gfo to her
ana see it sue is Killed. J. tnea in vain u
quiet him; he moaned and cried, repeating:
'The horse is running, and my wife is hurt.
It must have been a half hour before I could
awaken him sufficiently to know he was at
home and mother upstairs safe. Then he
would say: 'It was so real so reall' In
the morning I asked him if he remembered
his dream. He said he did, and that it
seemed as though he was awakeall the time.
Then he said again: 'I thought "mother
was in South Middleboro the adjoining
town, and that the horse ran away and she
was thrown; but I could n6t see if she was
alive; she lav on her face, but the horse ran
awav down the road, and the buggy was
broken all to pieces.'
"I told my stepmother that father dreamed
she had been hurt by the horse running.and
we both thought no more about it then. But
about 10 o'clock my stepmother prepared to
drive to South Jliadlehoro.saymg she would
be back by 12. Father seemed rather nerv
ous after she had gone, and when 12 o'clock
came and mother had not arrived he seemed
very much troubled, and begged me to
watch at the window for her. An hour later
a messenger appeared with the news that the
horse had become frightened and had ran,
throwing Mrs. W. from the carriage, and
that she had been taken up unconscious,
and was unable to be brought home then.
Inquiry showed that all had happened as
my lather dreamed. The next day, when
she was brought home most severely cut and
bruised, she told us that during all her drive
she had thought of father's dream, and felt a
sense of danger. This was my father's last
illness, for he never recovered even enough
to leave his room between January and the
THE LADY WITH THE PURPLE EYES.
Dreaming of a Japanese Actress and Then
Meeting Her in New Tork.
Here is a case wherein the narrator hap
pens upon the living counterpart of a strange
dream creation. His letter, dated from New
York, December 8, 1887, was, in substance,
as follows: His dream carried him to Japan.
He appeared to be in a theater or in some
hall where a play was being given. Near
by he noticed three young women, one of
whom attracted his attention particularly.
His description is minute: "Her face was
of a very light yellowish hue; her hair was
very yellow, strangest of all was her eyes
they were perfectly round, the white ot the
eye showing very little; they were purple
in color, and they were without pupils the
iris appeared to have grown all over the
eye. The young lady separated herself
from her companions and I followed. We
came to a bridge over a small gully; as she
reached the center of the bridge she stopped
and leaned over the hand-rail, which in
stantly broke, and she fell into the gully.
I awoke a few minutes before 8 o'clock,
with the face and peculiar eyes still
before me. I lived in Thirty-first
street then, near Eighth avenue. After
breakfast I got into an Eighth avenue
car to go down town. At Twenty-second
street the car stopped to let a gentleman get
off; he was lame, and moved slowly. The
driver became impatient. Unknown to the
driver or conductor a young lady was wait
ing to get on the car, on the same side the
gentleman was leaving. As soon as the
gentleman was off the car, the conductor
pulled the bell strap, and the same instant
the young lady attempted to mount the
step. I stood upon the. platform and saw
her face distinctly. It was the young
woman I had seen in the dream of the
night before, absolutely the same in every
feature except the color of the skin. At the
instant she put her foot upon the step the
car started quickly and she was thrown
violently to the pavement. Several people
went to her aid, and the -car continued on
its way. I had never known her or any
body resembling her. I. had completely
forgotten the incident, when, as I was doz
ing upon the sofa, I fell asleep, and in a
moment I saw the young woman again;
this time in her own home, sitting in an
easy chair, and her husband standing bv a
grate fire holding a little girl on his
snouiaer. iter eyes were exactly lite those
of her mother, whom she creatlv resembled.
I have never seen this young woman ex
cept tnat one instant when she was thrown
from the car. I have searched dilieentlv.
but I cannot find a trace of her. Perhaps I
snail near inrtner irom you.
A MOTHER'S VISION.
Hearing From Her Dcnd Son the Story ot
Differing from the cases just cited is this
one, an extraordinary instance of thought
transference. The particulars were con
tributed by a thoroughly responsible person,
and seem to be amply supported. During
the fifties, a certain Mr. and Mrs. Stewart
were residing at Bushford, N. Y. Their
only son, having just finished his school
days at the time of this story, had left home
for Kansas. This State was in the midst of
the slavery troubles, and the boy found him
selrdeep in the turbulent excitement of the
time. The mother, far East, felt no little
anxiety for her son, and as the Kansas
troubles increased her worrying began to
prey seriously upon her.
One night not far from midnight, she
woke her husband with a scream. He
always addressed her as mother. "Mother,
what is the matter?" said he. "Why! don't
you see Johnny there? He says to me:
Mother, they've shot me. The bullet
entered right here,' and he pointed to a hole
right over his right eyel" Mr. Stewart (the
man's name) replied: "I don't see any
thing, mother. You've been dreaming."
"No, I have not been dreaming. I
was as wide awake as 1 am now."
He tried to calm her, bat she wept
all the rest of the night "The next
morning he called me In," writes a friend,
"and they both told me of her experiences,
she still maintaining that she was wide
awake. They always slept with a lamp
partially turned down in their room. She
maintained that she both saw 'her son
(Johnny) and heard his voice. She be
came more calm, however, after a few days,
and quite likely nursed a hope that Bhe had
been the subject of a hallucination. Two
weeks afterward, however, the yourig man
that went with young Stewart to Kansas re
turned. The first thing he did was to visit
Mr. Stewart at his law office, and to narrate
to him there that on a certain day, at 4
o'clock P. M., s. Missouriau shot Johnny,
the ball entering his head just above the
right eye. Moreover, the day of the shoot
ing proved to be the very day on which
Mrs. Stewart had her vision, at night,
about six hours after the shooting. I was
their nearest, most familiar and most
trusted neighbor. I never knew that before
this she entertained anv ot the superstitions
of the low. I think not Prom that expe
rience, however, she became a stanch be
liever in spiritualism. 1 had, myself, in
1856, lost a little daughter. 9 vears of ace.
and after her son's death she told me that
Johnny came to her window one night,
tapped oh it, and she asked, 'Who's there?'
The reply was, 'Johnny. I have found
Plorett' That was my daughter's name.
FOREWARNED OP DEATH.
Strange Visions Preceding a Visit From
the Grim Reaper.
Often the visions point to no definite con
clusion, as in an instance cited December
28, 1887, at Westerville, O. The writer had
lost his daughter nearly two years previous
to .the event about to be related. "My son,"
he writes, "lived at Paris, Ky., about 220
miles from us. We had contemplated visit
ing him about Christmas, but on the night
of November 22 I dreamed of seeing my
daughter at aome distance; then, in a fen-
moments, I saw in my dream my son and
daughter meet together just in front of a
heautifuMmght cloud; thea, inlay dream,
I called to my wife and said to her, 'O, Mar
garet! look, yonder come Johnny and
Martha, coming hornet Come and see,
quick!' Then, in my dream, I -took hold of
her to show to her our dear children. Then,
in my dream, when I turned and looked for
them they had disappeared ont of my sight
I then woke up, and the clock struck 12.
The dream impressed me so I could not get
it off my mind, and at 10 o'clock next morn
ing we got a telegram that our dear boy had
been thrown from a buggy and killed. Now,
as to anything further, when I related my
dream to my wife at the breakfast table the
morning after the dream, she said to me:
'Mr. James, I don't know why it is, but
the college bell disturbs me so I can hardly
eat, and has ever since yesterday, saying,
'it sounds like it was tolling for the death
of somebody.' Ity about two hours after
that we got that dreadful telegram telling
us of the death of our dear son, who died
and passed out of my sight just as I awoke
out of my dream. Whether there was any
thing in the dream tending to warn us of
the death of our dear son or not, I shall
never forget the strange dream or vision I
had in regard to his death and our daugh
ter meeting him. One thing I do know,
God is able to give us visions and tells us
what He does. Now we know not.but shall
know hereafter: so we will take God at His
word, trusting in Him, and waiting for His
Very often a tendency for strange dreams,
or presentiments, seems to run through a
whole .family. In the instance just cited
among letters received corroborating what
had been stated was one from a married
daughter of the writer of the above. This
lady, who, by the way, persists that she is
not at all superstitious, declares that some
days before her mother's death she distinctly
saw a hearse roll up to the door. The
hearse was drawn by white horses. This
vision made a deep impression upon her; so
much so that upon relating it the next
morning she remarked that she knew some
one in the family would die very soon.
Again she had seen this strange vision
shortly before the death of her husband
some years previous.
A CHILD'S DREAM.
Her Dead Brother Helps Her la Her In
In all the cases so far cited the dreams
have foretold a calamity. It is pleasing to
turn to a child's story, a story that is as
beautiful as it is simple. The dream has
been thoroughly investigated, and the truth
of the case is beyond doubt The writer is
a Southerner, residing in Texas. He says:
"About five years ago I lived with my four
children, one boy and tnree girls, on a farm
in Massachusetts. This only son, at the age
of 14 vears, lost his lite in an accident
about six months previous to this narration.
The youngest of my girls was) the pet sister
of his since her birth. My wife had died
some six years previous to this story; being
motherless made these children unusu
ally affectionate toward each other.
One day I had occasion to buy for
my girls each a very small lady's knife,
about 2 inches long. A few days after
ward the girls received company irom our
neighbors' girls, some five or six of them.
My youngest one, some 8 or 9 years old, was
so delighted with this, her first knife, that
she carried it with her at all times. During
the afternoon the children strolled to the
large barn, filled with hay, and at once set
to climbing the xnow to play, ana jumping
on the hay. During the excitement of the
play my little girl lost her knife. This ter
rible loss nearly broke her heart, and all
hands set to work to find the lost treasure,
but without success. This finally broke up
the party in gloominess. In spite of my
greatest efforts to pacify the child with all
sorts of promises, she went to bed weeping.
"During the night the child dreamed that
her dead dear, beloved brother came to her,
taking her by the hand, saying: 'Come,
my darling, I will show you where your
little knife is,' and, leading her to the barn,
climbing the mow, showed her the knife,
marking the place. The dream was so life
like that she awoke, joyfully telling her
sister that her brother had been here, and
showing her where she would find her knife.
Both girls hastily dressed, and, running to
the barn, the little girl, assisted by her sis
ter, got on top of the hay, and walked direct
to the spot indicated by her brother, and
found the knife on top of the hay. The whole
party said they had all looked there many
times the day before, and insisted that the
knife was not there then." The little girl,
when questioned, declared that, on awaken
ing after her dream, she felt really sure
that she could walk right to her 'knife.
After reaching the loft she ran'ahead of her
sister, and without the slightesfchesitation,
reached down for the knife, saying: 'Here
brother picked the knife up out of Uhe hay,
Uh, here it is.
SIFTING THE EVIDENCE
The Care Exercised by the Psychical Society.
In Its Researches I
In testing the mass of cases and evidence
reported experience has taught the Exam
ining Committee exactly where to look", for
error1 exactly how far allowances are to be
made. Inaccuracies spring mainly from two
sources, error in narration and error in
memory. The percipient may be a most
trustworthy person, but in his enthusiasm
he may so desire to convert his readers o
his view of the phenomena as to uncon
sciously color his narration. Again, a strong
desire to interest the reader may influence'
the percipient to assume a graphic stvle.and,
thus while the interest is heightened the1,
details lose in accuracy. Counterbalancing
these tendencies are decided motives for ac
curacy. The percipient who takes the
trouble to write down his experience and
collect his evidence will, from the desire t o
create belief, stick closely to the actual
facts. Moreover, his narrative is in black
and white, and he measures carefully what
he states. Errors in memory, however, are
very frequent. Imagination is often the
cause. The percipient may be a super
stitious person, and unconsciously exagger
ate very ordinary coincidences. He makes
definite perhaps what was really far from
being definite. The chief points are round
ed into, form: details change, or perhaps are
left out altogether, and all this most un
consciously. To decide the value of a case,
open as it is to such inaccuracies, is very
nice work. In a large number of cases, how
ever, the chance of error is utterly removed.
Prof. Bnrney, of the English society,
writes: "One of the points to which we
have throughout our inquiry attached the
highest value, is the proof that evidence of
the percipient's experience was in existence
prior to the receipt of the agent's condition.
This prior evidence may be of various sorts.
The percipient may at once make a written
record in a diary or in a letter which may
'have been preserved, or he may have men
tioned his hallucination or "impression to
some one who made a note of it, or who dis
tinctly remembers that it was so mentioned.
Evidence of this class affords comparatively
little opportunity for the various sorts' of
error which have been passed in review. Vn
amount of carelessness or narration, or of
love ol tne marvelous, wouia enable a wit
ness to time his evidence in correspondence
with an event of which he was ignorant, nor
to fix on the right person with whom to
connect his alleged experience. But apart
from the actual record of the experience in
writing or in some one else's memory, it
may have produced action of a sufficiently
distinct sort on the percipient's part; for in
stance, it- may have so disturbed him as to
make him fake a journey, or write at once
for tidings of the agent s condition; and
even if he has done none of these things,
yet it he describes a state of discomfort or
anxiety, following on his experience and
preceding his receipt of the news, this must
at any rate, be accounted a fresh item of
testimony, connrmatory or the mere state
ment that such and such an unusual expe
rience had befallen him." J. B. M.
KIYALS OF TEE SUM.
Methods of Illumination Used in All
Ages and Countries
TO THROW LIGHT IN DARK PLACES.
Using Sea Shells and the Stalls of Animals
THE FUTURE OP ELlSCTBIO LIGHTING
Just what the first attempts to produce
light were are unknown at the present day,
but it is certain that for a long time they
were of a rude and primitive character.
Wood fires, kept constantly burning,
torches, rush lights and faggots, are first
spoken of in history as the means most com
The most primitive of lamps were the
skulls of animals, in which fat was burned,
and certain sea shells formed admirable
lamps for those who could procure them. In
some of the cottages of Shetland, at the pres
ent day, shells of the roaring buckle are
still in use, and undoubtedly form the most
ancient kind of a lamp now in existence.
When pottery and metal began to be
used the principle of the natural lamps was
for a long time retained, as seen in the
ancient Egyptian, Greekund Roman lamps,
and in the stone boxes and cups of northern
nations. The invention of lamps some
writers have attributed to the Egyptians,
but, more probably, they received it Irom
the older civilization of India.
Among the northern nations of antiquity
lamps were in use, but the difference in cli
mate necessitated a different kind of lamp.
These were in the form ot stone boxes, and
solid fat being placed in them, a wick was
thrust in the middle, which being lighted
consumed the fat
The Esquimaux still form square boxes
of soapstone and use them in the same way.
The North American Indians, in their
journeys through the caves of Kentucky,
used cane joints filled with tallow for ligkt
Succeeding these lanfps of antiquity came
the various forms of lamps for burning
CANDLES I THE CATACOMBS.
Although candles are spoken of as in use
at a very remote period, it is thought that
the use of the modern candle really began
during the early persecutions of the Christ
ians. Being forced to seek hiding places in
caves and catacombs, the need they found
for some form of artificial light brought
about this result.
As late as the sixteenth century candles
were used to a very limited extent, and as
late as 1800 they were considered a great
luxury. About this latter date candles had
become the light largely employed at pub
lic meetings. They were the thick wicked
variety, and demanded the constant atten
tion of some one to snuff them. The divine
or lecturer qf that period was often com
pelled in the midst of his discourse to resort
to that operation in order to obtain sufficient
light. While candles have for many years
lost the place they once held, yet for certain
occasions they still remain unrivalled.
During several centuries a certain class
of philosophers, styling themselves al
chemists, flourished in Europe and else
where, and in their vain and foolish at
tempts to find the philosopher's stone
stumbled upon the facts which led to the
discoverv ol gases.
But the honor and merit of the first ap
plication of coal gas to nsetul purposes,
though disputed by one or two others, seem
to belong to William Murdock, a resident
of Redruth, in Cornwall. This gentleman,
who had lighted several buildings in an ex
perimental way, constructed gas works and
lighted an extensive manufacturing estab
lishment in 1802. In this case the gas
proved so satisfactory as to immediately
take the place of all other forms of light
The following year he lighted another estab
lishment at Soho, on the occasion of a gen
eral illumination in honor of peace. This
peace proved of short duration, the bloody
battles of Trafalgar, Austerlitz and Jena
following within a few years.
COAL GAS IN PABIS.
In 1802 a Frenchman named Philipe
Lebon lighted a house in Paris with gas.
This created the greatest wonder and amaze
ment from the thousands who witnessed it,
and the local newspapers were loud in their
praises of this new means of producing
artificial light French authors still claim
forliebon the honor of having first sug
gested that gas could be used in a practical
These demonstrations in England and
France, made by Murdock and Lebon, by
means of the press became rapidly known in
various parts of Europe, and attracted the at
tention of a certain German named Wintzler,
gas company in existence. His offices and
laboratory were located in London, and
under his direction on the 28th day of Janu
ary, 1807, a number ot the streets of that
city were lighted with gas. Shortly after
this a fund of 20,000 was raised and a
petition presented to the King asking an
art of incorporation. From that time for
ward the manufacture and sale of gas made
rapid and constant progress.
Coal gas was first introduced into the
United States at Baltimore in 1816, and tor
some time its progress was slow and unsat
isfactory. General Charles Roome, still
connected with the Consolidated Company
of New York, stated in an address which he
delivered in 1876, that when he first became
connected with the Manhattan Company of
that city there were but four or five com
panies in the country. This company at
that time lighted less than a dozen private
dwellings, and there were but tew street
lights in which gas was used.
i In contrast to this there are now over
1,000 gas companies in the United States,
which furnish employment to more than
25,000 men. ,
DISCOVERY OP "WATEE GAS.
n 1793 a French chemist named Lavois
ier, in a series of experiments, stumbled
uponUhe process by which water gas is
made) He passed steam through a body of
chatcoal which had been highly heated and
obtained, as a result, water gas. Just how
far he might have pursued these investiga
tions can never be known, as he perished
by theguillotoine during the Reign of Terror
in the lollowing year, May 8, 1794. On his
way to the place of execution he begged to
be allowed one day more of life to make
known to.the world an important invention,
but the party in power refused to grant his
Sundry experiments similar to those of
Lavoisier were made from time to time, but
while coal gas came rapidly into use and its
manufacture rapidly increased, the produc
tion of water gas in a practical way and its
introduction as a means of illumination are
quite recent. As late as 1873 Prof. Lowe
built the first water gas works in this coun
try. Four years later the Municipal Com
pany erected, water gas works in New York,
adopting what is known as the Tessic da
Motay process. Perhaps no better illustra
tion of the growth of this business can be
furnished than the facts which relate to this
company. If now uses the buildings which
contained itsjoriginal works as a store house;
its business lias increased enormously, and
one of the group of its holders is the largest
in America. I
While it it true that natural gas has not
been used far practical purposes iu this part
of the world until within a verv few vears.
I - ..U 1 1 . JiL.'l T
it is equal'
y iruo luai it una oeen Known
ite extensively in some parts of
and used rf
Asia for a r
ery long time. In China, for
m time immemorial, it has been
used for 11
hting. and for boilin? the brine
The fir worshipers of Persia have for cen
turies mfcde pilgrimages to Baku, onthe
Caspian fiea, where the natural gas blazes
forth, awl was venerated by them as holy
fires. iListory tells us of a gas well in
SUNDAY, APPJL ' 7,
France, which wa)s burning at the time of
The first recorded discovery of a natural
gas well in the United States of America re
sulted from borings made within, the present
limits of the city of Charleston, B. C, in
1815, but in tr.'s case the gas does not ap
pear to have been put to any use. In 1821
natural gas was discovered issuing from a
spring at Fredonia, in New York State.
From the dawn of history petroleum has
been known to mankind. This was true in
the ancient cities of Egypt, Persia and
Mesopotamia. There is also strong evi
dence that it was known in Peru before the
Spanish conquest, as a mummy oi date
Srior to that event, now in the Peabody
fuseum of Harvard University, has been
prepared with it
The Indian tribes dwelling in the vicinity
of our great lakes called the attention of the
earliest explorers to petroleum in 1629. In
1750 the French commander or a fort in the
oil regions ot Pennsylvania wrote thns to
General Montcalm: "The surface of the
stream nearby is covered with a thick scum,
which, upon applying a torch to it, bursts
forth into flame."
THE SLIPPERY Tt,V10.
While petroleum, or rock oil, has been
found to exist in various parts of the world,
the bulk of it,, as is well known, has been
obtained from wells in Western Pennsyl
vania and the region about Baku, in Russia,
Prof. Lesley, in a recently published ar
ticle, says: "I take this opportunity to ex
press my opinion that the amazing exhibi
tion of oil and gas which has characterized
the last 30 years, and will probably charac
terize the next 10 or 20 years, is, neverthe
less, geographically and historically, a van
ishing phenomenon, and one which young
men will live to see come to its natural end.
And this opinion is the result of active and
thoughtful acquaintance with the subject,
as I have been professionally familiar with
it ever since Colonel Drake sunk the first
well on the plains of Titusville. The
science of geology may well be abandoned
as a guide it such a production as our sta
tistics exhibit can continue for successive
generations. This can not be. Our chil
dren will merely, and with difficulty, drain
Directly opposite views are taken by
Hon. Lorin Blodgett, who has also given
great attention to the subject. He says: "I
venture to assume that a long period will
elapse before the supply of oil and natural
gas will fail. The force with which the gas
comes to the surface is great yet is uniform
and continuous, such as a constant supply
alone can create."
The electric arc was first discovered and
commented upon by Sir Humphrey Davy at
the Royal Institute in London, in 1808,' on
which occasion he made his famous experi
ments with a battery of 2,000 pairs of plates.
In some early experiments by this same
man he speaks of heating to Inminosity cer
tain wires, which principle forms the basis
of incandescent lighting.
The possibility of economic lighting by
electricity is due to the fact, discovered by
Faraday in 1831, that the motion of a mag
net, in relation to a conductor, would de
velop a current of electricity in the latter,
and in this way electricity'might be devel
oped by the expenditure of mere mechani
cal energy. Thus coal burned under a
boiler to generate steam, which steam was
to be used in turn to generate electricity,
became in that way a direct rival to coai
placed in a retort to produce gas.
From the wonderful improvements made
in the system of arc and incandescent light
ing within a comparatively few years have
sprung the electric lighting business as we
see it to-day, and its practical development
and constant and rapid growth give evi
dence that both of these systems have a great
future, before the close of the first century
in which they have been known to man
A CHAPLAIN TURNS JESTER.
The Han Who Pray for Minnesota Legisla
tors a Fanny Fellow.
Minneapolis Tribune, j
Chaplain Lathrop, of the Senate, sat in
the Senate during the debate on the bill re
quiring inspection of animals on the hoof
yesterday. He came to the conclusion,
early in the debate, that the bill would pass,
thereby driving refrigerator beef out of the
State. . '
"What's going to become of this dressed
meat?" someone asked him.
"Thev are going to put the foreign dressed
meat all in the soup," replied the chaplain,
w,ith a face which was as sober as it is when
he is offering prayers.
C00LEI ON THE PENCE.
The Lake Erie Will Stick to the Party Kate
for a While at Least.
Judge Cooley has not yet actually decided
that the party rate is illegal. He merely
says it is "bad policy," and calls it a "per
nicious practice." However, the Balti
more and Ohio and Pennsylvania, like the
sinner! who fleeth when no man pursueth,
have abolished the 2-cent rate for parties of
ten or more.
Until Judge Cooley puts his .decision on
record, the Lake Erie will continue to issue
this rate on its own road, but the officials'
will not ass other roads to accept the rate,
STILL AHEAD OF LAST IEAR.
Bad Western Roads Cat Down Eastern
Division Fre'ight Agent E. T. Affleck, of
the B. & O. at Columbus, was in the city
yesterday to confer with General Freight
Agent C. S. Wight on freight matters.
Mr. Affleck said the freight business is a
little slow at present, but the volume
handled is still ahead of- last year. The
Eastern shipments are light, and Mr.
Affleck said this was caused by the bad
roads in the West The farmers are unable
to take their products to the railroad
GOOD FREIGHT BUSINESS.'
Western Shipments Much Heavier Than
Those Coming; East.
Division Freight Agent Means, of the
Panhandle, said, just before he went East
the other night, that the freight business is
improving, and so far has been better than
last year. For some reason the shipments
west are very heavv, but those coming east
are comparatively light
Mr. Means did not care to be quoted on
the Carnegie letters, but he thought Mr.
Carnegie hadn't any reason to complain.
Closing Ont at Great Sacrifice
Fine and varied assortment of lace cur
tains, portier curtains, furniture goods,
poles, etc. Elegant styles in Madras and
silk curtains below cost Call soon to se
cure choice patterns. Entire stock must be
sold in next 15 days, to vacate store.
H. Holtzman & Sons,
ttssu 35 Sixth street
An experienced clothing salesman, capa
ble U dress windows; also four experienced
clothing salesmen. Liberal salary; steady
position. Address, stating experience,
Bronner Bros., 401 to 418 Main St., Buffalo,
The Pittsburg Beef Company, agents for
Swift's Chicago dressed beef, sold at whole
ale, for the week ending April 6, 125 car
scasses; average weight, 640 pounds; average
price $5 68 per cwt.
In Yonr New Home.
Don't worry about the baking while you
are getting settled in your new home. Give
Marvin's bread a trial and you will never
use any other. Fresh every day at your
Dbsss Goods A positive bargain, gen
uine West of England cloth suitings re
duced this week from (25 to only 916 a
pattern. r HUOUS & HACKS.
HERE'S AS ARGUMENT
Faith Templeton Excepts to Gail
Hamilton's Idea of the
SCIENCE OP, CHRIST'S MIRACLES,
And Asks Why, if They Can be Duplicated,
No One Has Obtained a
PATENT TO MAKE WINE FROM WATER
WBITTEX FOB THE DIS PATCH. 1
It was argued and decided in last Sun
day's Dispatch; that the miraeles"of the
New Testament were neither unscientific
nor unreasonable, but in strict harmony
with God's laws. It is refreshing to have
tbjs fact established with so little difficulty
and apparently beyond a peradventare.
Still, as assurance is not always set down as
argument, perhaps we may be pardoned for
asking a little more Jight upon certain
points, not so clear to us as to this trained
"thinker" and-scientific expounder oi pro
She says: "With the wider and higher
views that theology shares with and learns
from all other sciences, theologians see that
a miracle is not the violation of law hut the
action of law. Miracle is not even a
deviation from known law." "The
wont of science is not to deny the ap
pearance of the delation but to account
Now, will Miss Hamilton, with her
thorough knowledge of the modus operandi
of miracles and the processes of the Deity,
for the benefit of those who have not at
tained to her state of mental proficiency,
deal a little more in specialties and a little
less in generalities in her next letter to the
A TTMELT DISCOTEBT.
Will she tell us, in regard to that first
miracle upon which she touches so lightly,
yet comprehends so clearly by what pro
cess of reasoning she sees "that instead of
being inconceivable, it is conceivably credi
ble and scientific?" Water was instantly
turned into wine of the finest flavor, with
only the action of pouring it into jars and
drawing it forth again. She modestly con
fesses that the science is not her's, bnt we
would suggest that she make a careful study
of it, in view of the amendment being car
ried, and the marvelous industry that would
result from a comprehensive knowledge of
this special science in the near future.
She informs us not in the concise man
ner of one who says of God's work in the
creation: "He spake and it was done; He
commanded and it stood fast" but we
gather this one idea from a column or more
of verbiage, that Christ was an advanced
scientist playing upon the credulity of the
ignorant by flashing his superior knowledge
of the chemical affinities of elements He
had created upon the world; 'and never
pretended any miracle more absurd to all
but the credulous than to hear a man talk
ing 100 miles away."
Without this positive assurance we should
undoubtedly have continued in the ignorant
belief that not one of the miracles of Jesus
Christ had ever been duplicated; that not a
single patent bad ever yet been taken out
upon even the least of these, by any erudite
scientist of any age or nation, appropriating
the idea involved, with slight variation of
process, as bis own. Will Miss Hamilton,
in her next treatise upon science and theol
ogy, cite to us an instance of this kind, and
explain the analogy between either miracle
and any known science, with which she is
so competently equipped.
FOB CHINA'S SAKE.
Will she inform us how five loaves and
two small fishes can be made to satisfy the
hunger oi 5,000 people? Such knowledge
would be the salvation 'of famine-stricken
China atJthis moment The natural and
easy acquirement of walking upon the
water, if properly understood, would be
come a saving act, in the event of a sinking
ship at sea; and any hint aiding' in the at
tainment of such knowledge would be grate
fully appreciated by ocean travelers, and
generally utiliied in all cases where toll
bridges embarrass the pedestrian.
In the realm of medical science, instan
taneous healing, we might suppose, had
never been so successfully and and perma
nently performed, in cases of original mal
formation or pestilential disease, as in the
few remarkable instances recorded in the
New Testament Scriptures.
But these and all other miracles seem
minimized, as in fancy we stand beside the
grave of Lazarus, with bowed and reverent
head, surrounded by a group of mourners
and hear the anguished voice of Mary, the
broken-hearted sister, sobbing out (he des
pairing thought: "Lord, by this time he
stinketh, for he hath been dead four days."
And then to listen to the simple appeal to
the Father, and thrill to the magnetic and
"LAZABUS, come fobth!"
And to behold the solid earth rent and
the grave to give up its dead I We should
have exclaimed with another: "Surely this
man is the son of God!" At the summons
of that voice, we are told, Lazarus came
forth, bound hand and foot with the cere
ments of death, and the Master only said:
"Loose him and let him go."
Will Miss Hamilton tell us now that this
voice that broke the dead was but the key
note of sound, for which patient search is
beipg made, the vibrations of which are con
fidently expected to yet revolutionize the
forces of nature? We wait her lucid expla
nation of these rather marvelous events.
Mrs. Humphrey Ward says: "Miracles
do not happen." We agree with her. They
were specially designed by omnipotent wis
dom to establish the divinity of Jesus
Christ and to set up His kingdom upon the
earth, and the history of almost 1,900 years
is incontrovertable evidence of their ef
ficiency. " Faith Templeton.
A IHntual Benefit.
Francis P. Dooly, formerly of Hugus &
Hacke, and subsequently of Messrs. Jo
seph Home & Co.'s Penn Avenue Stores, is
pleased to inform his friends and "the
Ladies" of bdth Pittsburg and Allegheny
City that he has entire charge of the dress
making department connected with Messrs.
Truesdell & Co., of No. 20 West Fourteenth
street, New York, importers and retailers
of not only drygoods generally, but the
choicest costumes of every leading house in
Paris, London and Vienna. Hats and bon
nets imported to match every garment.
Street, reception, evening and ball cos
tumes manufactured at the shortest possible
notice. All orders promptly attended to
and samples of silks, dress goods, etc., sent
gratuitouslv to any part of the country.
N. B. Magnificent opening in all de
partments on Wednesday, the 10th inst
FbjsJcis P. Dooly,
20 West Fourteenth street, New York'City.
Look to Tonr Interest.
Those contemplating buying furniture
will look to their own interests and save
money besides getting the best quality of
home-made goods bv coming direct to
where this furnitnre fs made.
We have, and can shqw you in our large
warerooms, the greatest line of best-made
chamber suits and wardrobes, as well as all
other kind of furnitnre that is needed in a
house. We have had many callers and
buyers since opening ourretail department.
All expressed their greatest surprise to, use
their own words Why, what a placet we
had no idea of such a place being in the
city. The large roome, the nice goods;
why, it is jut grand. If you are looking
for furniture come and see for yourself
come to the largo furniture works ofM.
Selbert & Co., Lacock and Hope street, near
railroad bridge, Allegheny.
Gloves fitted to the hand, and every pair
guaranteed. Come to tha grand opening to
morrow. F.SchoBnxhal, 612 Penn aye.
K0TES OPART SALES.
Proceeds of the Blelman Collection as
Largo as Its Predecessors fHoro Plet
nres br Modern Master Secured for
All local lovers of art were glad to know
yesterday, when Mr. Bleiman packed up to
go away, that the sales from his collection
aggregated as much as from the Eeichart
or the Collins, which preceded it. Mr.
Bleiman brought 23 good canvases here,
some of them excellent, and .everybody
must be pleased to learn that a majority of
of the best remain with us. He sold, alto
gether, 11. Pittsburgers and Alleghenians
of taste and wealth who take these fine
paintings are not indulging solely In selfish
gratification. They are providing delight and
instruction in the future for thousands whom
they possibly do not now even now.
It is seldom alone the owner of a good pic
ture who derives gratification from it, or even
his immediate circle of friends. If in our
American cities we have not as yet any great
public art galleries, such as are common in
European towns of less means and population,
there is growing a worthy enstom of loanex
hibitions, which, at seasons, to some degree
serve the purpose. An admirable opportunity
for one ot these is presented by the coming
Pittsburg Exposition. On that occasion all
paintings of any merit -in Pittsburg will no
d ubt be cheerfully loaned: and some of the
best products of bright artists from abroad
will also be sent on to be viewed by more than
a million of residents of the two cities and
Popular taste runs in waves. .Never have
there been so many collections ot fine jpaint
ings offered at sale in New York as in the
past six months. At the sale of several of
the collections the prices realized were enor
mous. In others they fell below expectations.
Hot all the pictures with great names, loudly
advertised, are deemed valuable by the con
noisseurs. Ic is an open secret as to some of
the modern masters that there is a good deal of
forgery abroad. Works purporting to be by
Corot, Diaz, Forhany.Daubigny andsome other
celebrated artists, are too numerous to comport
with the possible executive capacity of these
artists, allowing them to work 25 boars a day.
But the genuine paintings by these artists are
rarely doubted. Their history is known to col
lectors as thoroughly as the pedigree of race
horses to lovers of the turf. They always bring
large figures. The forgeries impose only on the
ignorant Reputable dealers or Intelligent
buyers are seldom caught by them.
The house of Allard & Son, by the way,
which has gotten into trouble about duties
in New York, is one of the best known in
the country. It has elegant rooms on Fifth
avenue, where the visitors ring the bell and
observe very much the formalities which
would be required in calling at a private house.
No particular display of paintings is made in
the parlor fronting on the street, but if tha
visitor inquires he will be shown to a back
room where tremendously large canvases .are
on exhibition bearing the most eminent names,
and offered, many of them, at prices that would
mean a fortune to people in ordinary circum
stances. The visitor to Knoedler's and Reich
art's places, in New York, and to Haseltlne's,
In Philadelphia, is struck by the money repre
sented on the walls and in the cases of these
houses. Mr. Haseltme alone has a capital of
31,500,000 in his business.
Besides the Diaz, the Jacques, the Perez
and theMunier pictures which were sold by
Bleiman early in the week, he was yester
day gladdened by disposing of a Yibert,
whose price he had put at $4,000. This will
be remembered as the picture of a couple of
red-coated schoolboys struggling on a green
sward. To the same purchaser, an East End
gentleman resident not far from Hiland
avenue, was sold the beautiful interior scene by
Heger and a little pastoral work by Troyon.
An Allegheny purchaser, who was also a lib
eral patron of the Reichart and Collins sales,
took a study of a head by Henner at a hand
The result of the several sales at Gillespie's
within the past ten weeks is that works by
Vibert Schreyer, Kammerer, Van Marque
Diaz, Jacques and Troyon are now for the first
time owned in Pittsburg. The"se alone would
make an interesting nucleus for the Exposition
The interest shown in these sales continues to
stimulate the market for the local artists. It
also puts them on their mettle to do their very
best when their productions a'o to show
alongside of those by men whose renown is In
ternational. Fob a finely cut neat-fitting suit leave
your order with Walter Anderson, 700
Smithfield street, whose stock of English
suitings and Scotch tweeds is the finest in
the market; imported exclusively for his
ODE SUCCESSFUL GABEER
Must be 'attributed' solely to our efforts ta
please our many patrons. '
WE HAVE THE GOODS, i
No matter what price, from the cheapest ta
the most expensive, at prices that sell on sight
No person who wishes to buy leaves the store
OUR CARPET DEPARTMENT
Is teeming over with brilliant designs and,
beautiful colorings, 4and whole handfuls ofi
wool for the money. Also all styles of Rugs, '
Lace and Turcoman Curtains, etc.
Our Bedroom Furniture Department
Is not to be excelled in Pittsburg for variety
of styles and woods; as for prices, as we say
above, no one leaves the store without buying.
Our Parlor Furniture Department
Every piece in this department is our own
make, personally superintended by one of the
firm, who spent 12 years at the business, and
we can safely say that the truck you see ad
vertised at such extremely low prices is dear
at any price. We take special pride in the
manufacture of Parlor Suits or odd pieces.
Our stock is now full and complete in
Refrigerators and Ice Chests.
We also have an
T 1 r . 11
mDy carnages at an
SOLE AGENTS FOR THE
HOPPER BROS. & CO.
UU VV i-MJU. J3U. OU"
N. B. A discount of 5
o ciock noon. -
ATE NEWS IN BKIEK
There has been no change In the Rochester
street car strike. A. few cars are running: and.
all is quiet.
Captain Otto L. Hein, the new military
attache to the United States Legatlofi is
Vienna, has arrlved-at his post.
The Northumberland mine owners have de
dined to grant the 1(1 per cent advance in. wages!
asked by their miners. The outlook, is uncer
tain. -W. H. McGinnis, ot Ohio, has oeen ap
SolDted Superintendent of the Railway Mail
ervice, and assigned to duty In the. office of
the Second Assistant Postmaster General.
The body of a wood ranger named Gildorf
harbeen found in the river Nore, at Kilkenny,
with the skull crushed. It is believed that tha
man was murdered on account ot agrarian
Captain Wissman, the German Imperial
Commissary, has assumed supreme command
on the mainland at Zanzibar, Admiral Deis
bard, the commander of the German squadron,
Dald Klein, an old shoemaker, lies In a dy
ing condition at Bordentown, N. J., from tho
effects of drinking' coffee which contained
rough on rats. Bis wife is supposed to navel
administered the poison. FShe has fled. Do
tectives are nowlooking for her.
The President made tha following appoint,
ments yesterday: Eben . Rand, of Maine, to
be Appraiser of Merchandise in the district of
Portland and Falmouth, iie.: George C"
Sturglss,ofWestVirglnla,to be Attorney of fbo
United States for the district ot West Yb
A dispatch from a friend who accompanied
Colonel Livermoro from London to Paris
(Colonel Livermore representing the Calumet
and Hacla in the negotiations for the reorgan
ization of copper affairs), datd Paris, April 4,
has been received In Boston, and reads:.
"Nothing final yet Proposition now before
bankers to establish price at lu and curtail
A man named Wheelock was married at
Chester Center, Iowa, Wednesday night and
party set out to give him a charivari, armed,
with the usual improvised musical instruments.
The noisa was kept up until about 12 o'clock,
when a young lady relative of the parties went
out of the house, and, returning with a shot,
gun, fired a charge into the crowd, fatally
wounding Fred Bacon.
Following the recommendation of Com
missioner Stockslager, the Secretary ot tha
Interior has requested the Attorney General
to cause suit to be Instituted to recover title
to the lands known as tie Des Moines River.
Lands, in Iowa, provided the Attorney Gen
eral, after examination, is of opinion that suctt
suit could be maintained, and that such action,
would be to the interests of the Government
The black sand placer mines near Lampoc,
CaL. bid fair to bo a miniature bonanza ac
cording to reports just received. A contriv
ance for taking out 90 per cent of the gold has
been invented. Four men washed out fl,S00 in
four weeks, and one miner is said to have se
cured $50 a day. Each tide washes in a fresh
supply ot the gold-bearing sand, and every Inch,
of beach is taken up. Tne sand is black in
color, very light, and magnetic Great excite
ment prevails in that region.
Ex-Governor Porter, recently appointed
Minister to Italy, is quite ill at his residence in
Indianapolis, and his physician will not permit
anyone except members of his family to sea
him. Three days ago Mr. Porter took a long,
walk, and when he returned his feet were so
swollen that he could hardly remove his shoes.
The next morning the skin began to peel off,
and great and continuous pain followed. Dr.
Jamleson was called, but so tar he has not been
able to make a satisfactory diagnosis of the
The list of losses by prairie fires In Dakota
increases, and the descriptions of hairbreadth
escapes are very thrilling. In Yankton county
alone the damage is placed at 5150,000. Near
Rapid City, Prof. G. E. Bailey's ranch was de-.
stroyed. The fire came up so suddenly that
the inmates were compelled to run for their
lives. Mrs. Bailey and William Ashton, tha
hired man, had a very narrow escape with th'eii
lives, and both were badly buxned. Eloisa
Madison, a yountr girl, was caught by tha
flames and her clothes burned off. It la doubt
f ol if she will recover.
Away with Tom, Dick, Harry's grand
mother's recipes. Take Dr. Bull's Cougbii
Pure and wholesome, made especially fat
the Passoyer season. It won't pay yon to
bake your own when you can order direofc
from your grocer. S. S. Maevtn & Co.
Wash Goods The finest printings ancj
latest designs in fine American and French
sateen from 12c to 40c a yard.
hwfsu Huotra & Hackk.
Gloves fitted to the hand, and every paif
guaranteed. Come to the grand opening to
morrow. F. Schoenthax, 612 Penn ave. .
elegant assortment oil
DAVIS SEWING MACME.
per cent to all buyers befdreVi:. jj
,.- t WMi