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title: 'Pittsburg dispatch. (Pittsburg [Pa.]) 1880-1923, June 30, 1889, SECOND PART, Page 16, Image 16',
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&ILL ME ON BEES.
Ie Studies the Habits and Business
Ends of the Busy Hymenoptera.
TflE ACTIVITY OP THE INSECTS.
'Berionsly Interferes With His Scientific
Eesearches, tut He Grasps
I 2&W PACTS AND HAKI SIIKGS.
tWWTTXX ZXS THE BISFATCH.1
T i now the appro
priate season for
hiving bees. Bees
should not be hived
until they swarm.
Bees begin to swarm
as soon as the new'
queen takes the
oath of office. The
queen is a long
waisted bee who
does the toiL The honey bee proper be
longs to the order hymenoptera. All bees,
according to Iiimseus, who kept several
- stands of bees himself, are included in the
genus apis, but they are now divided into
I love to study the bee and at one time
ieptbees myself. I kept several of them
longer than I should have done. But honey
bees are full of interest to me. I olten think
of thelangnage of a late writer who goes on
to state "that within so small a body should
be contained an apparatus for converting
the various sweets which it collects into one
kind of nourishment for itself, another for
the common brood.glue for its carpentry, wax
Jor its ceKs, poison ior its enemies, honey
for its master, with a proboscis as long as the
body itself, microscopic in several parts,
Hye JBegxra to Get Restless.
telescopic in its mode of actton, with a sting
so exceedingly sharp that were it magnified
by the same glass which makes a needle's
point seem a quarter of an inch across, it
would yet itself be invisible and this, too, a
hollow tube that all these varied operations
and contrivances should be included within
half an inch ot length and two grains of
xnatter,is surely enough to crush aU thoughts
of atheism and materialism."
THE BUST BEE'S HABITS.
I also compare sometimes, the new colony
just starting out to hustle for themselves,
witn tne r ngrim x atbers wnere are tneyr
who came to these wild inhospitable shores,
taking their long, tedious, uneventful voy
age across the unknown ocean with no re
laxation whatever except prayer.
Prof. Jaeger, referring to the pronounced
habits of industry born in the bee and fre
quently allnded to in school books, says:
"It is impossible for any reflecting person
to look at a bee hive in full operation with
out being astonished at the activity and
surprising industry of its inhabitants. We
see crowds constantly arriving from the
woods, meadows, fields and gardens, laden
with provisions and materials for future
nse, while others are continually flying off
on similar collecting expeditions. Some are
carrying out the dead, others are removing
dirt and offal, while others are giving battle
to any strangers who may dare to intrude.
Suddenly a cloud appears and the bees hur
ry home, thronging the entrance by thous
ands, until all are gradually received with--in
the inclosure. In the interior of the hive
we see with what skill they work their
combs and deposit the honey, and when
their labor is over for the day. they rest in
chains suspended from the ceiling of their
habitation, one bee clinging by its fore feet
to the hind.'eetof the one above it nntil it
seems impossible that the upper one can be
strong enongh to support the weight of so
SESULT OP XTE'S BESEABCHES,
The queen, during the propagating season,
lays as high as 2.000 eggs in a day, and I
have aiven much thought to the grafting of
the queen bee upon the Plymouth Bock hen,
with a view to better egg facilities, but so
far to meet with very little success. My ex-
The Sees Are Swarming.
periments have been somewhat delayed by
the loss of time in taking the swelling out
of myself after each perusal of the bee char
acter in his or her home life. The queen
lives much longer than any other class of
inhabitants and hangs on to the throne, as
the historian Motley says, like a pup to a
,root She has a stinger, but does not use it
,on boys. She uses it simply for the pur
pose of fighting other queens.
The ancients were aware of the existence
of a governing bee in each hive, but they
thought it was a king. But a scientist with
keen insight and massive brains one day
raw the monarch come off the nest and leave
,124 warm eggs. Then it was settled in his
Bind that It could not be a king, for he was
a deep, deep man. His name was Swamer
dammtmd he made this discovery 200 years
Ago last week. Aristotle and Virgil claimed
in several articles, signed Veritas and Tax-
.. --...:...ii.. i .1
)jcrjjcvuicijt wab mc iucca or King,
r as they caned it then, did not lav at all.
but secured some kind of pollen or other
material from flowers, which produced the
isaggots from which the bee was hatched.
' .AN UNSUCCESSFUL EXPERIMENT.
A writer on the bee savs that the best tot
"to ascertain the location of tbe queen is to
divide the swarm, after which it will be no-
tieed that the one having the queen will be
Terr restless indeed. I tried this mvself
and noticed that they were restless. Thev
' aleo communicated their restlessness to me.
All of bs got restless.
Swamraerdam tied the qneen by means of
s long hair to a high pole in order to ascer
tain whether tbe swarm would follow. In
ten minutes he had the whole colony on top
ef the pole.
Tke drones are the male bees of the hive.
C"; Cbev do no work excent to act In a Darental
l . . . . . i
y.aaa vow. xcey save so stinger, i
but in its place they have a good appetite
and a baritone voice. They are destroyed
by the workers soon after the honey season,
and the widows have it all their own way.
The drone leads a quiet and rather sunny
life, lasting about 16 weeks, after which he
is put to death by the females ot the hive
by the Mavbrick method.
About nine-tenths of the hive are workers
or females, say 12,000 or 15,000. They are
the busv bee referred to in the books. They
getupearlvin the morning, eats a iasty
meal and go out looking for honey. They
fly with great force and as straight as a bul
let. Sometimes they try to go through a
man on their wav to the hive, but only get
partway. A bee likes to have a tender
young man with linen trousers sit down
OBICira OF THE BEE COLIC.
From the time tno egg is deposited until
a perfect bee is turned out requires about
three weeks. A queen gets her growth in
16 days and begins to reign.
Moths get into the bee hives frequently
during the winter season and destroy the
(0, l HO MM If
When the Beet Save Ceased to Swarm.
insects. Tor this reason bees should be
packed in snuff or fine cut tobacco in the
fall. This nauseates the moth and dis
courages him. Great care should be used
notf to let the bees out too early in the
spring. A good writer S3ys that frozen
fruit will stiU remain on the trees in he
spring, while it contains a certain amount
ot sweet, it is liable to ferment and cause
wide-spread colic in the hive, followed by
cholera infantum and coma.
Ljmteus says that nothing is more pitiful
than the picture of 15,000 or 16,000 colictv
bees suddenly called forth in the dead of
night, running hither and thither looking
forhot cloths and Jamaca ginger, after
eating too heartily of frozen: apple juice.
Bees swarm about 10 A. si. or 3 P. ax. and
enjoy doing so on Sunday, if possible.
Selecting a hot Sabbath and waiting pa
tiently until the farmer has shaved one side
of his face and lathered the other, the bees
decide that they will swarm. The farmer's
wife notices it whilt she is in the garden
getting a sprig of caraway to take to meet
ing. She calls Henry and tells him
THE BEES ABE BWAK1IIHO.
He starts out with a new hive, and, look
ing up in the air, he falls over a croquet set
and injures himself. His wife says:
"Henry, you ought to put on that mosquito
bar arrangement I made for you the other
day. They are real cross this morning and
they will certainly sting you if you don't."
"Git out with vour peskv nonsense." he
straightway doth reply. "I never put naw
thing on me before and I won't do it now."
''But, Henry, they are so feverish to-day,
and you have cot vour other clothes on
so they won't know you. Do try it this
So he wraps up his head in a green mos
quito net and puts on a pair of cowhide
mittens. The bees alight on a tall elm tree
and he gets a ladder up there against it.
Then he slowly ascends the tree with a'bee
hive under his arm. Just before he put on
the mosquito net he took a large chew of
tobacco. He now wishes that he kid-not
People begin to go by on their way to meet
ing and see him up in the tree with a large
green head on him and hot leather mittens.
They speak to him but he cannot reply, be
cause his mouth is full of tobacco, it is
very hot, indeed. The sun pours down
through tbe hot leaves and the breeze is
taking much needed rest. He gets -up in
the top of the tree and looks like a new style
WHT HENBY GETS AN GET.
Sabbath school boys wearing chip hats
faced with gingham pause on their way to
the house of worship and watch him. He
reaches ont to scoop in a handful of the
brown fuzzy insects, but the leather mitts
smell strangely to them. They do not recog
nize the proprietor by his paws and his odor.
Three or four bees fall down inside those
mittens and feeling that they must defend
themselves, make a hot highway across the
back of his hand. Then Henry yells and
drops the hive on the bible class. Some
bees get under his green vail and his hair,
and finding that they cannot get out, they
sink on him with their little, heated hypo
dermics and he says things which bring the
blush to the features of his sad wife.
For days afterward they sit opposite each
other at the table and do not say anything.
He looks at her savagely with one eye, the
other being closed by its creditors. It is
three days before he will even ask her to
pass the butter, he is so mad.
.Bees are very industrious, but fool them
selves by accumulating more than they
need, forgetting that they will soon die and
leave their substance for the use of those
who did not earn it. "We should learn a
lesson from the bee and not run the matter
of Industry into the ground. "We should
not strive to accumulate so much that it
will prevent our enjoyment during our life
time and only enrich the idlers after death.
Bees should remember that their shrouds
will not hold honey. The bee could learn
much from man, I think, in this way.
Why Ton Should Bay Your Clothing at
First "We manufacture all clothing we
sell right here at home.
Second All suits costing $10 or more are
warranted to be kept in repair free of charge
for one y ear. ,,
Third Our working pants at $1, $1 25
and $1 CO are guaranteed not to rip.
Fourth All goods marked in plain figures
and at prices to compete with all.
Fifth Satisfaction in every case or money
Sixth Honest value for hard earned
Clothiers, tailors, hatters and furnishers,
954 and 956 Liberty st Star Corner.
1828, Imperial Amontillado Sherry,
full quarts , , $3 00
1828, Imported Brown Sherry, full
quarts...... 3 00
Femartin Sherry, full quarts 2 00
Choice Old Brown Sherry, full quarts. 2 00
Harmony Sherry, full quarts 1 60
Fine Old Topaz Sherry, lull quarts.... 1 00
For bale by G. "W. Schmidt, 95 and 97
Mother., Brine tbe Children
To Aufrecht's Elite Gallery, 16 Market
st, Pittsburg. Fine cabinet photos fl per
dozen until September 1. Come early, use
elevator. No other gallery can compete
with our1 work in quality.
a good-ntting suit go to Pitcoinrs.
No. 434 "Wood street.
FBAUEifHErM & Vilsack's Iron City
beer is the best in the market. Pure.whole
some, nutritious. xzssa
Hendricks & Co. invite your attention
to their low prices; best work in the two
cities; cabinets only $1 a dozen. 68 Federal
Elegant cabinet photo?, any style, 1 SO
per doz. Panel picture with each doz. cabi
nets. XEESPOPULAB Gallsby, 10 and 12
Sixth st. sumwp
Ass for the
Alberts cigar, 3 for 25c, or
Wjl J. Fblday,
633 Sznithfield si
6 60 per 100.
THE SPEAK EASIES.
Institutions ot tbe Great Gas
With Karnes That Fit.
THE LAWLESS SALE 0F.LIQU0B
And Gome Interesting Facts Concerning
the Places of Sale.
UNCLE SAM ABOUT 10 TACKLE THEM
"Whisper I SpeaTceasyl The police are
No man knows who invented the term
"speak easy," now famous as the generic
name of such places as circulate the flowing
bowl among presumably trustworthy per
sons, unrestrained by any consideration save
a fear that the limbs of the law may be
lingering somewhere in the vicinity and be
attracted by indiscreetly boisterous conver
sations to the fact that something illicit is
"What is a "speak easy?"
It is a place where people speak easy
while they are taking a glass of beer or a
drink of some other liquor. Not that it is
an offense against the laws of the Common
wealth or of the United States to take a
drink of liquor in that or any other way,
but that it is an offense against both to sell
without permission of the- law. It is the
man who sells it who is in danger and it is
the man who sells who says to his cus
tomers: "Whisper! Speak easy! The police
The genius who heard this warning, and
from it evolved the name "speak easy" as
the common designation of those places
where liquor-is sold without leave or
lice.'-s of the legally constituted authorities,
is thus far anonymous. Many men can tell
who it was they first heard using the term,
but these, invariably, when chased into a
corner, had heard it used by some one be
fore them. An eminent restaurateur is tbe
person one man first heard telling about
"speakeasies," A certain police officer of
Muernian extraction, is tbe hrst individual
another man heard using the term. And
so it goes.
a pittsbubg invention;
"Speak-easies" have always existed, no
matter who first called them by that name.
They have been "hole in the wall" and va
rious other things descriptive of their lead
ing peculiarities, but it is only within very
recent times, and in the city of Pittsburg,
that they have been dubbed "speak-easies."
Travelers who come and go between the
city of natural gas and other centers of
population have caught the name and borne
it with them all over the country. Johns
town, however, has perhaps been the great
est disseminator of the name. The sale of
liquor has been absolutely prohibited there.
Only in quiet and secluded places, and in a
quiet and unostentatious manner, can it be
obtained without the knowledge of the
constituted authorities, and it was
the Pittsburgers, who were first at Johns
town with relief, who gave the familiar
Pittsburg name to such places, and so had
it spread broadcast by1 the crowds of sight
seers who came with the opening of the
railroads and at once recognized its appli
cability. But the first Pittsburger who
used the name is yet among the missing.
Even his remains have not been found.
"Whether he will ever be discovered is a
question, and his unsolved identity will
probably go bowling down the aisles of
time in a parallel line with the conundrum
concerning who it was that lilted a certain
Mr. Patterson a blow abaft the wheel-
;house or elsewhere, and thereby made him
lamous. xnat tne gentleman was ot Hi
bernian persuasion seems to be an admitted
fact. Quick Hibernian wit, it is felt, would
have caught the idea readily, and until it is
disproven that an immigrant from the green
Bod" originated the term let it be laid at his
"Speak-easies" are commonly reputed to
be thick as leaves that strew the brooks
of Vallombrosa. This, however, is a sup
position, not a certainty. That there are
such places, few or many, is proven
by prosecutions frequently brought
by the police, mainly the result
ot the greater rush or business to such
places on Sunday, when licensed saloons
are closed by law. There are also other
prosecutions brought before the, various
aldermen of the fcity and county by private
individuals. Sometimes these are pushed
to trial and sometimes they stop short of
court, being settled in one way or the other.
The aldermen say that charges of
VIOLATIONS OP THE LIQUOB LAW
being only misdemeanors, they cannot re
fuse to permit withdrawals of suits. Con
sequently they take little or no account of
these matters nnless there is a hearing.
The greater number ot these suits, they
think, are simply outgrowths of neighbor
hood rows, and cooler reflections or a clos
ing of the imminent deadly breach by
peaceful advances is the cause of withdraw
als of suits. Of course there are other
allegations, and there are those who say
that "speak easies," being vulnerable and
fearsome of the bright light of publicity are
often glad to pay something to prosecutors
to be relieved from prosecution. This re
port cannot be nailed as a fact for black
mailers are not spoiling their trade by tell
ing on themselves, and the proprietors of
"speak easies" are compelled by their pe
culiar situation to keep quiet in fact to
speak even easier than they desire their
customers to speak.
But an enemy bigger than any that has
yetrevealed itself is "camped on the trail"
of the "speak easy." Each seller of ardent
beverages is liable to Uncle Sam to the ex
tent of .$25 a year, and provided said seller
fails to come to hand at the proper time the
fee is increased as a penalty and the sur
plus in the National Treasury is made to
groan as it moves its un wieldly bulk up one
more peg. Tbe duty of collecting the Gov
ernment license fee rests with Collector
"Warmcastle's deputies, and they are pre
paring to act. Theywould have acted be
fore, but other business has interfered.
Just now the business of the internal
revenue office has been greatly increased by
the transfer from the outgoing to the new
collector. That rush will soon be over and
then comes the summer quiet. Curing the
heated term distillers and others engaged in
the production of taxable beverages take a
rest The consequent lull will give the de
sired opportunity for the minions of your
Uncle Samuel to turn their attention to
the "speak-easies." They have been keep
ing their eyes open and have some spotted
or at least they think they have. They will
spot more, or think they will. "Then
the proprietors of the "speak-easies"
will be forced to pay 25 and
the added penalty or take the consequences.
They will also hate the doubtful satisfac
tion of knowing that they will have to take
other consequences if they pay, for they
will thereby discover themselves to the lo
cal authorities, and under Mr. Brooks' law
no payment can then save them.
SOME POLITICS TS IT.
The fact that the federal machinery that
will be set in motion against the "speak
easies" is in the hands of Mr. Quay'sfriends
will not dispose the federal officials to move
gently in the detection of places where
liquor is Illicitly disposed of In Mr. Magee's
political domain. There may be no intent
to show that Mr. Magee's city government
z- six;-:A ..... r 2. il. R.. .r r.2.M1
IS JBCUlCICUli, UUI 11, IU U1C UUC Ul ICUCItU
duty, it can be so demonstrated, the Quay
element in Allegheny county, and Mr.
Quay himself will not be displeased, and
the demonstration will certainly not result
in the calling off of the federal detectives
from the good work. So let til "speak
easies" consider and tremble.
Some people, as hereinbefore mentioned,
consider the "speak easies" numerous.
JThey believe there are sufficient of them in
the city to mace up tne ainerence Dciween
the present number of saloons and the num
ber that existed before the Brooks law and
Judge "White took the liquor -question in
band. This is mere surmise, however. No
one has taken a census of them, and it
would be a very laborious .task ior even one I
There are a great many people who think
they are pot nearly so" numerous as
the foregoing estimate. One who thinks
so is B. S. P. McCall, and his
experience as a prosecutor of illegal
sellers ot liquor makes him something
more than an ordinary authority on the sub
ject. But "speak, easies" are sufficiently
numerous, especially in the many and ex
tensive "dry" districts of the city, and any
person in search of a "speak easy," if he be
sufficiently remote from official life to make
him appear reasonably "safe," will have
little difficulty in finding a friend to intro
duce him to one.
"Speak eaisies" are of all kinds and con
ditions, just as "one star differeth from an
other in glory." It is the custom for people
unacquainted with these resorts to imagine
them all up narrow and noisome alleyways
or down dork, damp and disagreeable cel
lars. There are these kind, and they are
detected oftener than others, for the reason
that disturbances more frequently occur In
them. Some of these are very difficult of
access. Some of a more respectable charac
ter, for there are
DEGREES OF BESFECTABILITY
in all forms or law breaking, are equally
difficult of access. There js one in the
heart of the city, for example, that mnst be
reachecTby a low door leading from an alley
way into a low semi-tunnel, through which
a stream of water of no conspicuously
cleanly nature is flowing, or where,
when the water does not flow
it stagnates and smells bad.
The seeker after the evanescent
joys of the "speak easy" must enter this
door, bend low and straddle the water till
he comes to an entrance to tbe house. There
he enters the family room, and if be passes
inspection is admitted to the apartment
where the "speak easy" business is done.
And those who know (of whom the writer
is not one"), say that the whisky sold at this
particular "speak easy" is unexcelled, and
is acquiring so great a reputation that
people travel long distances for it, some in
neighboring towns buying almost their whole
There are "speak easies" in Pittsburg
luxurious in their appointments surpris
ingly so. People who imagine that insti
tutions that sell liquor illegally are not
often as gilded as the most choicely decor
ated saloons of tbe city, would be aston
ished to know that there are "speak easies"
even more elegant and attractive. There is
one in one of the busiest sections of Pitts
burg the walls of which are hung
with choice paintings, the floor covered
with brussels carpet, the large table in the
center of the room of heavy walnut, the
curtains heavy and rich, the whole bril
liantly illuminated with electric lights. In
an inner room is the bar, served by two
men, the "proprietors of tbe place,
while a colored man is kept busy
nearly all his time opening bottles. "Every
thing found at a well appointed bar is found
here, and Pommery Sec, Mumm's extra dry
and similar expensive beverages are handed
out as freelv as beer to those who have the
price. Nothing is sold by the drink and
the bottles are in no case smaller 'than
quarts. The barroom is backed by a huge
refrigerator, and the whole is in keeping
with the elegance of the outer room.
VVHEBE SILENCE EEIGNS.
From this brief description one may
readily imagine the class of patrons who
go there to drink. It is not s- club room,
but is free to anyone who is considered safe
and who has the price to pay. But after
midnight the common herd is excluded and
only certain ones are admitted. Then a
select game.of poker with "no limit" pro
gresses around the walnut table referred to.
On election day this speak-easy was
open all day lone, thoueh it is
usually only at night that it doesbusiness.
Sunday, of course, is the regnlar weekly
exception to this rule at this and all other
"speak-easies," and because of the increased
patronage brought them by each recurring
Sunday, many "speak-easies" are detected
and come to grief. At this genuinely bon
ton "speak-easy" the conspiouous leature is
silence and everybody seems to fall natur
ally into the way of the place.
Do speak-easies pay? There is a story
told of one man who was given a license at
the last License Court, and who. to nse a
vulgarism, has been kicking himself ever
since, because he made more money withont
it. And a man who has a license to sell
liquor is generally reputed in these days to
have something equivalent to a goldmine.
A question agitating some people is, what
will be the effect of the recent decision of
the Supreme Court on "speak-easies?"
Some say it will increase them. They point
ont that certain wholesalers, brewers or bot
tlers were refused a license because they
would not agree to ascertain what purchasers
proposed to do with the liquor they pur
chased whether they intended to retail it;
if they did to refuse to sail it to them. Now,
argue some, wholesalers will feel perfectly
free to sell to whom they please, and
"speak-easies" can get all they want
But, say others, "speak-easies" have
been able to get all the liquor
they required and the result of the Supreme
Court's decision Will be "harmful to them,
ior wholesale places "will be distributed oyer
the city and people will buy what liquor
they want for consumption in their homes,
rather than sneak around to back doors and
through alley ways. The offset to this is
that there are wholesale places now and wet
goods can be delivered freely from them to
any part of the city.
There is but one thing certain: The
"speak-easy" is with us and is no novelty.
Its disposition is yet one of the unsolved
A QUICK CURE FOR DYSPEPSIA.
Surprise ot the Smallness of a Bill Makes a
Man Forget HIa Ailment.
Said a watch repairer: "It is wonderful
and at times astonishing how little it takes
to make some men happy. The other day
a middle-aged man, well known on
"Wall street as a chronio dyspeptic
a man for whom I had done
a great deal of work entered the
store and asked me in his nsual surly man
ner to place a new crystal on his watch.
While Xwas complying with his request he
sat at the end of the counter contemplating
my work witn nis uaoituai scowl.
When I passed him the timepiece and
received the 20 cents I had asked his whole
bearing seemed to change. He departed
with his face wreathed in smiles, and it was
evident that he was in an exceedingly happy
frame of mind. I marveled greatly at the
time; but it was the next day before I could
comprehend the change.
"I had charged him but 20 cents for the
work that I had previously done for not less
than a quarter."
MOQUETTE CARPETS AT SI 95
That Have Been Selling; at 81 SO Per
Turd All Season.
These carpets are worth every cent of SI SO
a yard, but to close out the line we have
concluded to run them out at $1 25,
Body Brussels reduced from $1 35 to $1 a
uur large sales keep up tne supply of
snort lengtn carpets on nrst noor, notwith
standing the rush for them. Bemnants of
every grade at one-third tho. regular prices.
627 and 629 Penn avenue.
Embroidered fichus, jerseys and summer
shawls closing ont cheap at H, J. Iiynch's,
438 and 440 Market street. Xhrsu
I Gness Noil Well, I Gneas Not!
After Retting married everything" rocs
along swimmingly between husband and
wife nntil he asks her to repair his clothes,
then comes, "I guess notl Well, I gues3
not! Take them to Dickson, the Tailor, of
65 Fifth avenue, corner. Wood street, second
floor, who will make them look new at. a
trine." xeiepnone ioo.
SENS yourbroken furniture to HaagnT&
Keenan, 33 and 34 Water st. .'Phone 1626.
Excursion to Cleveland
VJa theT: &L. X E, B., tickets sold July
3 and 4, good to return nntil the fith, in-
-, J- Rlt.'V - t jrf J f ' E- - . .. .. ..-MIiW - - ... .ISJJJBiJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJiJv-ri.
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STOm&Y4 JTJ. 30
THE HIGH HAT TO GO.
Artistic Milliners ,of Paris Decree
That Its Time Bas Gome.
MARKET YALDE OP LONG HAIB.
The Peculiar Occupation Followed in the
A YEEI FRET1I SUMMER CEEEMONI
IcoBBXSFOxpxircx or the dispatch.j
PABis, Jane 20. Sing Bailelujah, O ye
theater goers, for the pyramid hat has had J
its day, at least it seems so over here. A
few weeks ago I might have compared it to
a bushel basket; but now it is nothing more
than a flat spring dish covered with sea-,
weed, lilies of the valley, hawthorn or prim
roses. This is quite as great a revolution as
that which drove the British out of North
America, and a little thing known as caprice
was what accomplished this wonder.
Yes, caprice, for when I asked six or
seven milliners to explain me the reason for
the change, no one could reply to my ques
tion. The fact of the matter is a new shape
of hat or bonnet appears without anybody
giving much thought about it, the principal
thing being to vary the fashion so as to
oblige clients to send in fresh orders. A
new model an hour after its appearance will
be proclaimed in rival workshops by ap
prentices passing through the streets. One
.girl who saw it on her way to some lady's
house with a bundle relates minutely the
mannerin which it was trimmed, and, set
ting to work immediately, does not leave off
until she bas produced a fac Stmile, and the
next day, as if by enchantment, the new hat
is exposed in all windows.
Nothing so nearly resembles an artist's
studio as the shop ot a Paris milliner, but
you see, instead of pupils, the different
classes of working girls. Pirst of all comes
the "trottin," a child of 12 or 13, who runs
all the messages, and whose principal oc
cupation consists in continually moving
But she must not be confounded with the
apprentice or even with the girl "au pair"
who no longer takes her meals outside, but
remains in the workroom learning her trade,
sewing on bows, bending and cutting wire,
puffing tulle, etc If intelligent, she passes
rapidly from one stage to another, until at
last a salary is allowed, and henceiorth she
puts on ruches, although it is only one of
the first hands or the milliner herself who
trims and finishes the hat or bonnet. Sal
ary and wages vary, a dresser or appreteuse
gets from 80 to 150 francs a month, but the
principal workwoman often earns from 2,500
to 6,000 per year, and at the same
time is fed, nor does she work more than
eight or nine hours, although during the
busy season it may last from 9 in the
morning until the same hour at night, de
ducting, of course, time allowed for meals
and the many minutes spent in viewing
one's self in the mirror, for Paris milliners
are a coquettish lot and fond of being well
Many have a diploma and speak several
languages. These, provided they are pretty,
do not wait long before establishing them
selves on their own account, and should this
dream not be realized, the most ladylike of
the lot become sellers, thus beingthe me
dim of intercourse with the clients. Tbe
milliners are a numerous class, and new
shops are constantly being opened, but their
existence is often ephemeral. The establish
ments may be classed under those selling by
commission, that is to say, not working for
individual purchasers, but for large houses
and for country milliners; the cheap modiste
who sells readymade hats at low prices, and
lastly, the woman who takes a shop in order
to increase her capital, leaving to her head
milliner the choice of shapes, trimming, etc.
The grand, or first-class milliners, who are
veritable artists, have a commerce more or
less extended. They employ as many as 60
workwomen, and each hat bears their mark
and signature. Before choosing a shape
they take into consideration the style of
beauty and the color of hair and complexion
of the purchaser, keeping in miud at the
same time her character and fortune. A
Parisian lady of bon ton never knows exact
ly what her milliner will send her.
If the httt is pretty, and suits, she is de
lighted, and not even tbe prospect of a heavy
bill will dampen her joy. The profession de
mands a sure eye, business-like genius, and
talent in selling at a very high price an ob
ject in which taste and imagination have
more value than the real materials. Thn aim
of a good milliner is to know how to gain a
high price for what is made up of inex
pensive materials. Formerly she had a
serious competitor in young girls who make
hats not only for themselves, but for others,
and it used to be considered part of a good
education for heiresses to be able to know
how to fabricate their headgear without the
help of a prolessional.
But times are changed, and now instead
of a young lady being praised for her handi
work she is only laughed at if she does any
thing but a little "crowshaying"or now and
then a bit of tatting. '
I went the other morning to the Gare de
l'Ouest, or Western Bailway station, to see
some friends off for Brest, and while there
a commercial traveler, called my attention
to a number of men taking tickets for
A ?EOTJIiIAB OCCTJPAMOH.
"They are shearers," he said, "not sheep
shearers, but hair shearers, or rather, to
give them their business appellation, they
are 'coopers.' "
Yes, they were traveling hair cutters, and
in about six weeks they will bring back a
quantity of tangled hair, fair, chestnut,
black or red, and it will not be yery long
before it is transformed into chignons, curls
and plaits, ready to adorn the noble brow or
tfell shaped head of some grand lady.
Sappy those peasants who have white hairs,
because white is ten times more valuable
than black nowadays, and I may say by the
way, that the capillary business is looking
A little while ago there was a lull in the
trade which caused some uneasiness among
those inthe business. The native girls of
Brltfany refused to longer yield their locks
for 10 francs ahead, and the Auvergnats,
although more greedy at takiuir a bait, had
discovered a more lucrative market. So
desperate did the h'air cptters become that
the jails were applied to, but the prisoners
persisted in refusing to have their hair cut.
In this grave state of affairs necessity be
came the mother of invention. France,
deprived of sugar cane, discovered that beets
contained the necessary ingredients for
sugar, and so, when adaira were at their
worst, the rag gatherers came lorward.
Thanks to the combings thrown away every
day no less than a nnnarea pounds weight
of hair is fouud by them 6a the streets daily,
but if the chifibnnier saved this important
trade he din not become the arbiter of it, J
for the "couper still continued to nourish,
and what is better still tbe arena of his in
vestigations continues to extend, the natives
of Piedmont having long since allied them
selves to those of Brittany and Auvergnat.
THE TEMPTING BAIT.
The habitual ''couper" travels through the
country,-tarrfing at small market towns,
where he puts his merchandise under a tent,
and he hangs over the door, as an attractive
sign, a heavy lock of hairf then the village
drums make known his arrival, and im
mediately young and jold are- flocking
around his ostentatious display. The
women and girls are tempted, some with
lace caps others with dress materials, and
not having ready money to pay for their
purchases, they trade their hair for it. ,
Of course, the longer the hair tho more
valuable it is, for while a chevelure of 40
centimetres is only paid about SO cents, hair
2 feet long will fetch nearly as much as $2
to $2f50., - Moreover, the female is sustained
bv the hone that ina few Tears her hair will
I be fit for cutting again, and that in ..four
years, or flve'at the most, she willreap
About 300 peasants annually offer their
heads to each wandering hair cutter, that is
to say, some 6,000 girls and women of all
-ages, and even hundreds of men, sell their
flowing locks. The average harvest oteach
head represents a weight of 200 to 250
grammes; and collected in bundles of equal
length, but without regard to color, it is
sold to Parisian hair dressers at prices vary
ing from 25 to 100 francs the kilo, but red of
a good shade brings in'five times as much,
and snowy white, which is very valuable.
sometimes-even'800 francs the kilo. The
coarser hair of Auvergnat is more sought
after than that of Brittany, the shade being
more uniform In any case it is all sub
mitted to certain wastings before passing
into the shop windows; and these processes
raise the price considerably. " '
X PBETTT CUSTOM.
Last Sunday the annual crowning of the
rosiere took place out at Nanterre. Every
year the girl who can prove the best charac
ter is crowned with roses and receives valua
ble presents from the town. This year it was
not easy to make a choice, for four other
young ladies fulfilled ail conditions. But
after due and I hope grave deliberation the
Municipal Council of that village chose Ernestine-Anne
Collet, a sewing girl by pro
fession, to be the rosiere for 1889. She is 21
years of age, and this is the third time she
has been awarded this honor.
Her father is a gardener: he has four
children, and as one of them is at present
doing his term of military service, perhaps
patriotism had some consideration with the
gentlemen who decided in Ernestine's
favor. The other chaste demoiselles who
competed were Laure Beine Christy, who
grows vegetables, Prancoise Celesta Hu
bert, a dressmaker, and Josephine Marie Le
Monnler, a day laborer, so to speak, who
would have got the prize had the matter
been left to me, ior she is an uncommonly
fine-looking servant girl,
"Well, the Mayor, Municipal Councilors
and invited guests all formed a cortege, and
with M odd nremen. wearing helmets, to
the sound of music marched, followed by a
gymnastic society and seveial residents, to
Mile, Collet's father's house. Arriving
there the Mayor offered his arm to the
rosiere, his assistant paid the same atten
tion to the young lady who won the prize
last year, and an old Alderman walked with
the maid of honor.
THE BEWABD OP YIEOTE.
Then we returned to the Mayor's special
sanctum.where the offering of the ornaments
on behalf of the municipality took place.
These presents, to the value of 500 francs,
consisted of a pretty little stem-winding
watch with chain and medallion, a brooch
in the shape of a rose, touched up with
pearls, and earrings to match. Bnt Mile.
Collet, who is a hard-working girl and has
little time for personal adornment, her little
brothers requiring so much attention, had
never had her ears pierced, and so it was
not easy for the godmother to insert the
pendants, and we saw tiny drops of blood
come from the attempt.
This ceremony over, everybody tramped
in a terrible rainstorm to the parish church,
and it was soon full of spectators. The
young lady was led to the altar, and left
there for a short time in prayerful reflec
tion, then her godmother ascended tbe plat
form, and to the left stood Mile. Navin, the
last to obtain this honor with her last year's
crown on her head. - Msgr. Hults ascended
the pulpit and delivered a discourse, in
which he referred to the event of the day and
its institution, laid stress on the duties of
women in these times, saying they were
much the same now as they were long
years ago, and were well defined by the
apostles ot Libristiamty.
After the sermon the Mayor led the young
girl to the seat that had been reserved for
her on the platform, where the godmother
placed on her brow the rose crown that was
emblematical of the virgins in antiquity,
whereupon the rosiere of the last year had
to remove hers, as two rosieres are not al
lowed to be in town at the same time, that
is not officially.
A DELIGHTFUL SUIT.
Presently the procession reached the
Mayor's office again. Che town band
played its choicest selections;, the choral
society favored the company with musio
from tbe "Muette de Portici, and the
rosiere of 1889, amid hearty applause was
kissed on the cheeks as qneen of the day,
by Monsieur le Maire. After this osculato
ry performance he made a speech, in which
he stated that this was tbe ninth time,
thanks to the sympathetic confidence of his
fellow citizens, that he had had the delight
ful duty of presiding at such occasions. In
the evening he gave a grand dinner.
I may tell you that this ceremony of
crowning the most virtuous girl of the
village is ol anoient origin. St. Medard,
then Bishop of Noyon and Lord.of Salency,
started it in the fifth century, the first
rosiere being his own sister, end she was
unanimously chosen as worthy of the honor.
Now this ceremony has come down through
the many intervening ages, and regularly in
June, every year, some good girl receives
a rose crown and money prize.
On that day, in many parts ot prance, the
crowning of one or more rosieres takes
place, especially in the environs of Paris,
but the ceremony par excellence is that of
Nanterre. Henet Hatnie.
AET ITEMS OF INTEREST.
Miss AknaWoodwabd has a large three
fold screen on exhibition at Gillespie's. The
three panels are decorated in oil. of which tbe
one showing grape leaves and clusters droop
ing over an old whitewashed wall is much tho
Ms. D. B. Waielet has gone to work in a
glasshouse. This statement is literally true,
but it must not be understood as asserting that
he hasanandoned art for the more prosaic
pursuit of making glass. Hs has taken his
ketch box and canvass with him. and intends
to make the dull and commonplace realities of
labor subserve the purpose of art. Tbe work
he is at present engaged upon is a representa
tion of the interior of McCully'sjfindow glass
factory on the Southside, with the processes of
glass manufacture in full operation. The
subject Is one that not only admits of but de
mands a considerable brradth of treatment,
and since this artist has already famished evi
dence of his ability to handle such work the
picture bids fair to be one of tbe most notable
which has yet been prodnccd here. The east
ern portion or Ohio will probably be the scene
of Mr. Walklev's out-of-door labors this sum
mer, and he intends to produce some pictures
of woodland and farming scenes.
A "STtLl Live," by W. 8. Reynolds, shown
at Boyd's, la a work of a character calculated to
greatly please those who know but little about
art. This must not be understood as meani ng
that the work Is devoid of merit. On the con
trary, it has many points in Its favor, some of
them very strong ones, among which may be
mentioned good drawing and coloring that is
true to nature. From its appearance it would
seem to be the work of an amateurand, if so,
it indicates the possession of a considerable
degree of native talent, but in spite of all that
may be said in its lavor, it is yet possessed of a
quality which artists most earnestly endeavor
to avoia, viz: coiuness ana naraness. r.acn one
of tho ma.nv different oDlects of which it is
composed is painted with the same degree of
truth and .fidelity as to form and color, but
with a total disregard of quality and texture.
With a little attention given to the correction
of the faults noticed above, the artist who ia
able to produce such work would very soon do
BEVEEAn small landscapes, effects 4n mid
summer and early fall, occupy the easels in
Mr. George Hetzel's studio. They are of a
much more diminutive size than he usually
paints, but In most of them he has managed to
introd ace considerable character and artistlo
expression. One ot them, a little upright pic
ture of a cloudy day in autumn, may be seen
at Boyd's. Mr. Hetzelwas unable to pay bis
proposed visit to tbe Cowansbanhoc last week
and has about abandoned tbe Idea of spending
a portion of the summer sketching season in
that locality, for the reason that the scenery,
although forming very good subjects for tbe
artist, is of a character such as we are already
quite familiar with through the work of our
local landscape painters." This season Mr.
Hetzel will probably spend a portion of his
time along the line of the Pittsburg and West
ern Railroad In search of views of a more open
and extended character, such as will admit of
a greater degree ot light and brightness in
their treatment. The picture which he has on
view at Mayer's is a scene on the Cowansban
noc, and conveys a very clear idea of the class
of subjects which are to be found in that part
of the country. The work in question
is In Mr. Hetzel's best style, full of
the quiet merit ior which his pictures are
noted. It is a very pleasing subject, cleverly
bandied and particularly good ln 'color. The
polSISnJof thTtres In ths baeouniaSa - -- - --- "J-i- U-LOW U- K
their bright yellowish greens serve by contrast JfHHPv
to enhance the richness of the dark tone of Mrvneas. S&tttrda V Nlelrta till 10 o'oloolrl JaslHK?' "
shade, whtls the glimpse of Mae sky above W '"'?' ""Jr u w. &SsM
leads lift and cheariuineM W t& waoi. . , - ,,, -, r J122S2r
ni nrrnr irfat rainiv in Tvtvm vna air iifrnTB Tin i m. . m v m mm k. hb - .
.Week Commencing' Monday, July 1,
Every afternoon and Evening.
'4th of July Matinee.
Elaborate Production of Tom Tailor's "Wortd
The Ticket of Leave ' Man,
With the Favorite Actor,
FRANK TOT, DAY
Supported by a
Bealistio Mechanical Ejects,
The Atmosphere of this Theater is Always
Next Week-J. Z. Little in "The "World."
Grand Fourth July Reception
THE IMPERIAL CLUB,
SEVENTH AVE. AND NEW GBANX ST.,
Thursday Evening, July 4.
Mozart Orchestra Col. Christy.
Admission SO cents. Daneinz from 8 to 1
You will enjoy yourself much better here
than at a picnic.
Of Coney Island, N. Y., Coliseum, Allegheny.
Cool summer amusement. Steam Biding Ca
rousel, largest and finest In the world. Steam
ower organ and lull trass band. Cornet solos,
ysteiy of London one-half lady.
Our entertainments are moral and refined in
Admission 6c, Including ride. Ladles admit
ted free. Doors open at 2 p. x. and 7.30 p. sr.
At Ross' Grove,
FRIDAY, JULY 5L
Round trip. 23 cents.
Fair white hands.
Bright clear complexion
Soft healthful skin,
FEAfsS'-TfiB M English Completion SDAP,-Sg&ferjieri
LET US TELL YOTT
IN AIL EARNESTNESS AND SINCERITY,
that, if you have any intentions at all of furnishing your
home, of being in present or prospective want of any Furni
ture, Carpets, etc., you could not select a more advantageous
or favorable purchasing time than during the month of July,
when Keech is bent on closing out tens of thousands of dol
lars' worth of desirable goods previous to receiving his new
fall and winter stock. If the saving of dollars has any charms
for you whatever, "take time by the forelock" and make your
purchases without delay. Our present offerings in Furniture
are without a parallel.
FOR THE PARLOR:
Everything that is new, novel and desirable. Magnifi
cent Divans, handsome Easy Chairs, cozy Rockers, elegant
Center Tables, entrancing Cabinets, etc. And (what is the
best of all) the price of each article will be a source of much
surprise to the closest buyers.
FOR THE CHAMBER:
An excellent variety of Suites in oak, cherry and ma
hogany, from the cheapest up to the very finest And mind
you it makes no difference how low a price you may pay you
can rest assured of getting a good and reliable article furni
ture that was not only made for the eye, but for years of use
FOR THE DINING ROOM:
An assortment of Sideboards, the like of which is not to be
found under the roof of any other Pittsburg Furniture house,1
Prices, styles and qualities not one leaves anything to be de
sired. And the same state of affairs exists as regards
Keech's stock of Extension Tables, Dining Room Chairs, etc.-
Carpets I Mattings! Curtains! Refrigerators!
Ice Cream Freezers ! Filters ! Baby
Carriages ! Dry Goods, etc.
"Special bargains in every line during this week, at
L -XT! "TJ1 (T TIT"3
rS. J2j JQj j JtL
Cash and Credit House,
Ukiu ana uo enn ave.,
pfe&HgAXlbJf fAttK.i4g.-B: Tfm-
PHILADELPHIA VS. ALLEGHENY
MONDAY. JDLYL """
TUESDAY, JULY 2.
There will be no game on Wednesday should
there bo any postponement on July I or 2.
Trains leave at 3-40 p. x. le3M
RECREATION :-: PARK,
BOQUET ST. and ALLEGHENY AVE.
THE GLOBIOTJS TOTJBTH!
TWO GRAND LEAGUE GAMES
THURSDAY. JULY 4,
s 10.30 AM. and 4 P. M
The Famous World's Champions
MEW YOBK GIANTS is. ALLEaHEMS.
Admission 60 cents
Grand Stand (extra) ;..36 cents
Reserved Seats in Stand, including ad
mission " ji oo
Seats In Boxes, Including admission.... I 00
Reserved Seats and Boxes for July 4 on sals
at McClurg's Cigar Store. Fifth avenue and
Wood street, commencing Monday, July r
Trains on July i at 10 Jo and 3 JO.
FRIDAY and SATURDAY, Jnly 5 and 8,
NEW Y0RKS VS. ALLEGHENIES.
Last Games Until July 25.
Excursion Bates on All Railroads.
Official score cards are only on sale inside oX
FOURTH OF JULY
Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railroad,
Will sell Bound Trip Tickets on
CTTXXTZ" 3 am.a. 4
Good to return until JULY 5.
To Cleveland and return.. SI 00
To Ashtabnla and return , 3 SO
To Erie and return 4 40
To Jamestown sno return... 5 S3
To Lakewood and return.... 5 25
To Meadvilie and return 3 35
To Kent and return 3 30
To Akron and return 3 60
To Cincinnati and return 8 40
Also to alt local points on the P. & L. E. and
P.. McK. & Y. Railroads at half fare. Also to
points un the McK. & B. VK. R. For rates to
other points and time of trains call on or address
C. V. WOOD. Ticket Agent, Depot: J. J. Mo
CORMICK, Ticket Agent, 401 Smithfield SL,
E. C. DUNNAVANT, City Passenzer Asent;
CHAS. DEVLIN, Ticket Agent. 958 Liberty st;
E.HOLBKOOK. General Superintendent: A.
E. CLARK. General Passenger Agent Js30-3
EACES JULY 4, 1SS9. AT SOUTHSIDE
Driving Part. Association 3-mile trot, 2a0
pace, 2 JO trot. Address all communications to
the Secretary, G. A. ULRICH, 1726 Carson
street. Southside. Entries close on July 2, at 3
o'clock p. H. Je303
. . ' i, . t ., . . r.r; .j:.cv. -.. - .--jv4 i3fti U, .'S.v -. ;.-' Qt - .af - . ..ij .n-j&t&ahdjLs aiHsHsWEi