Newspaper Page Text
OIL Of! RAILROADS
How tlio Locomotiyes of Rus
sia Use Petroleum In
stead of Coal.
WOOD USED IN THE NORTH.
The Eondbeds Are Models and the
Train Service Excellent.
GIELS GUARD THE CROSSROADS.
In the Sleeping Can TniTelera Furnish
'j heir otto Eeddinp.
IX ABUNDANCE OF GOOD THINGS TO EAT
tcOKXrtrOSErxcr or th DnrATo.t
MOSCOW, Sept. 12.
HE English are
greatly excited at
of the Russians
upon the Ariatic
ing upon their In
-The faet is that
Central Asia as her
territory, and she
is adding to her
rmch faster than the world realizes. While
I was in Pekin a year or so ajo I heard the
Cbnee prowling at the way in which she
was inching npon them. Every Tear or so
Russia would moTe the boundary line a lit
tle bit further down, and she has so en
larged Siberia that the country contains
more than 4,000,000 square miles, and it
promises to be one of the most rateable
cocnlries of the world of the future.
Tae wheat area of Siberia is rapidly in
creasincr and there is a vast emigration
g .n; on from Russia into Siberia, which
promises to change the face of that country.
T e Siberian trade of Russia already
amounts to millions of dollars a year, and
on the Volga you see caravans of boats
loaded with iron and wheat and salt, which
have been brought from Siberia to Perm
at i thence floated down the Kama river
'ntn the Volga and up the Volga to IT ijni
Ixorgorod, from whence they go by rail
over the empire.
The Effect of a Xeir Ballroad.
The increase in Asiatic exports and im
ports since the building ol the new railroad
I o Samarkand is wonderful. This road has
cen in operation only about five years, and
i already paying expenses and a moder
e interest on the investment It runs
rvT-e than 1,000 miles right into the heart
t Asia, and it brines von within about COO
i'es ot the railroads in India. Indeed, I
Tad thought of taking this road to Samar-
I -and and thence makinz my way by caravan
',r.- bv boat across Afghanistan to Quetcaor
Peshauwr, whence 1 would have taken the
ail road to Calcutta and thence I ave gone
iack to America by way of San Francisco,
aLmg a tour of the world in this way. I
and, however, that my time is too limited
f r me to carry out this project, but I pro-
e it for one of the globe trotters of the
The recent famine has increased railroad
a. I ling in Kussia and a number of new
-r-ads have been commenced in order to give
He starving peasants something to da
There is a new line being built along; the
".I'pian Sea, and the Tartar city ot Kazan
lieing ccmnected with the railway system
jl me Volga.
Around tho World in Tifty Days.
The chief of the railway branch of the
interior department of St. Petersburg, with
whim I talked the other day, tells me that
the work on the Trans-Siberian road is still
going on, a.id it is estimated that when it is
completed passengers will be able to go
irora Moscow to Vladivostock in 15 days,
anr the time around the world ouzht to be
Carrying Wood for the Engine.
then reduced to less than-50 days. General
ArnenkoS, the builder ot ti e Trans-Caspian
road, estimates that by 1897 w mav have
tra as running from the Baltic to tbe Pacific.
This road will open some of the richest
wheat-growing countries in the world and it
wi I enable machinerv to be taken to the
Siberian cold mines, which are now practi
ce v un worked lor the lack ot it.
T le fate ot this Siberian road will prob
ab'v be thetame as the Trans-Caspian. It
is being buili bv the Government as a mili
tary line, but it will eve tually become a
great commercial highway. The Trans
Caspian road is well constructed and well
ma- aged. It as largely made by Asiatic
labor and it cost only a little over $10,000 a
mile. The ordinary workmen upon it re
ce ved only 15 cents a day for their labor
and the probability is that the Siberian
rond will find cheap workmen from China,
Mongolia or Siberia. Tne trains on the
Traoi-Caspia now run at the rate of 30
mnes an hour and the locomotives burn
nothing but petroleum.
How Coal Oil Uauls Russian Cars.
I have traveled on many cars hera in
Ki-ssia wh.eh are moved by petroleum, and
nil the encines ol Central and South Russia
are worked with this fuel. It takes 60,000
tons ol petroleum every year for thisTrans
Ca plan road alone, and though the first
C06t of this is greater than the same weight
is coal General AnuenknS estimates that
coal oil is tour times as chop in its steam
pricing power as coal, and I am told by
engineers here that a pound ol oil will pro- t
duee twice as much' steam as a pound
ol coal. I have been traveling this
week south of Moscow and I
have taken a look at the engines
which use this oil lueL The oil is kept in
a tank back of the eneine and it is injected '
into the furnace through a pine so made
that it meets a jt ol steam and this steam
converts the oil into a spiay before it meets
the flame, and it is so regulated that a j
steady, hot fire is produced. The fire in I
the boiler is first started with coarse, heavy
grass or wood, and it takes a pressure of
about fire pounds to work tbe steam jet. I
The engineers like it much better than
wood, and I found that most of the boats on
the Volga river used petroleum lor their
Tne petroleum comes from the vast Rus
sian oil fields which lie alone the Caspian
sea, and it is shipped up the Volga, in bulk
in oil ships, which are great iron tanks in
the shaps of barges, and which carry thou
sands npon thousands of gallons. At vari
ous points along the Volga there are at
oil tanks such as vou see in Pennsylvania,
and a great deal" of oil Is stored under
ground in wells that are rdade for it. It is
carried into the cars br means of pipes, and
tbe same sort ot tank cars are used here lor
the shipplns of petroleum that you find in
America. These cars ship about two hun
dred and fifty millions of gallons of oil
rear, and tboagh the big city of Moscow is
last on tbe edge of the Russian forests, a
large numbsr ot its taotories use petroleum
for fuel and find it much cheaper.
In the Land of Forests.
North Russia is the land of forests, and
if you will draw a line right across Russia
through Moscow or a little above it, nearly
all ol the territory north of this will be
mads up of dense woods. Tbe locomotives
ol North Russia burn wood, and they have
engines like our old camel backs, with high
smokestacks shaped like a tunnel, aud with
great racks at the back of the engine, which
are piled high with oordwood. The wood
is loaded by men who carry it up on their
backs. It keeps two firemen constantly
busy throwing this wood into the engine,
and at nearly every station you will see
acres of wood piles ready lor the reloading
of the engines. The engine which took me
from the frontier to St. Petersburg was
fired up in this war, and the sweet smell ot
the burning wood' was pleasanter tar than
the sulphnno coal which was burned by the
trains which carried us through Germany.
I find the roads here well ballasted, and
in the thousands of miles which I have now
traveled in Russia I have yet to find a
A. Railroad Policeman.
rough road or one that is badly manaze 1.
The trains are always on time and the road
beds are wonderfully well kept. The road
between St, Petersburg and the frontier Is
weeded as carefully as the best kept garden,
and I saw women on their knees scraping
out the weeds between the ties with knives.
In trarelins over the black plain J saw men
smoothing up the ballast on the road where
it had become routrhened and nowhere have
I seen a piece ot bad road bed.
The Girls at the Cross Roads.
The ties are wooden, the rails are of steel
and at every cross road there stands a Rus
sian peasant girl with a flag in her hand,
which she holds tip until the train goes by.
New styles are coming in daily, and we are showing the choicest effects
in coloring and design of the best looms in the world. The stock is im
mense, so is the variety. Manufacturers' prices are advancing, but our
prices for the time remain the same, and they are extremely low.
You can't do a more sensible thing than buy at once anything you are
likely to need in the carpet line during the next six months.
i CI I T I '
lO II 1 i
Kl 11 ftj I
u I 1 I
923, 925, 927
This picture is one of the most lasting ones
ol Russian travel. Whether'the iron horse
ploughs his way through the black plain,
whether he shrieks as lie gallops through
the mighty'forests or whistles going tErough
the rich agricultural lands of the West,
this bare-headed bare-looted Russian Venus,
in a calico dress, is there to meet him. She
Keeps guard over the road and she is the
emblem of tbe Czar.
Another emblem of the Czar is the police
man at the station. Each station has its
civil officers in uniform, -id in addition to
these there is a gendarme or a ppliceman
who is appointed from St, Petersburg, and
who marches up and down the plattorm all
day long with spurs on his nigh-topped
boots, and with a great sword at his side.
He wears a red cap, with a feather in it,
and be acts as though he owned the road. I
took a photograph of one of these men. and
came nar being arrested for it The man
objected riolently, but he did not know that
the picture was taken until the train wai
about to leave, and I laughed at him as I
stood on the rear car with my kodak in my
hand while the train was carrying us away.
The Ceremony of Starting a Train.
It takes about five minntes to start a train
in Russia. There is a bell at every station,
and this is rung three times before the train
leaves. Yon can tell by the tans just bow
much more time you have. First there is
one tap, then alter an interval of a couple of
minutes two taps are sounded on the bell,
and two minutes alter this three taps are
rung, when, altera shrill whistle from the
station master, the train gets ready to start.
There are many queer tenures in Russian
railway management. The Russiati cars
are like no other cars in Europe. They are
half European and half American. They
are of three classes and the rates are no
'higher than the; are in the United States.
The distance from St. Petersburg to Mos
cow is 400 miles and the road is as straight
as a string. There are five trains every
day. There is a difference in fare on the
express over the ordinary train and the
first-class express rates are 3 cents a mile,
while the second class, whioh is almost as
good, are only 2 cents, and the
third class are less tnan 2 cents a mile. I
have traveled quite a good deal In second
class cars and 1 find them very comfortable.
The most of the well-to-do Russians patron
ize the second-class cars, and as one is ex
pected to carry his own be Iding, bv the use
of a little feeing yon can save money and
make yourself comfortable. I fouud It
very inc mvenient even in the firt-class
sleeper during the first part of my present
tour. I bad neither soap nor towels with
me and I had to rely npon the guards for
these as well as for my pillows an I bedding.
In none ol the sleepers do they expect to
furnish you much more than a place to lie
Getting Bedding at Hotels.
Ton are expeoted to carry your own
sheets and in a first-class hotel, which I
found at Saratnff, I had to make a very pro
nounced kick before I could get any bed
ding. There was a mattress on the iron
And every article needed for the complete furnishing of the Household can be effected by taking advantage of our SPLENDID
FALL STOCK at present remarkably low prices. And this is especially true while the last few days of September remain and
our matchless terms still remain in' force.
ELEGANCE, RELIABILITY and ECONOMY are united in our present offerings; a trinity of attractions. It will be
money in your pocket to buy what you want this week.
Our line of these embraces everything in the
rocker line from the plain wood rocker up to the
finest and most handsome upholstered chair on
We can suit you in five minutes In an
We Can Please You in the Price.
TKEK "PnTSBIJUG DISPATCH.
springs, bnt there were neither aheeti nor
pillow cases and the nights were cold.
Alter a time I got a rather comfortable out
fit for the night, but the next day I found
that this was all charged up in my bill and
I have had to pay for bidding at half a dozen
hotels since then. Tbe passenger boats on
the Volga, whioh, by the way, are very
comfortable in other respects, do not furnish
bedding, towels or soap, and you always
par extra for these when yon order them.
If vo4U don't understand the Russian
sometime you pay when you don't order
them. I remember a swallowtail waiter
who made me pay 33 cents for a cake of
snap at the hotel NijnL I wanted a towel
and in order to convey that i lea to him I
rubbed my hands over my face as though I
was drying it He rushed off and brought
me a piece ot snap. It was wrapped up in
tinted paper and tin tore ofTthe wrapper be
fore I could tell him that I didn't want
soap. He then took the soap away and I
noted that It was charged in my bill, where
upon I ordered him to bring it back and
( took it with me, as I had to pay tie bill
The Russians Aro Great Eaters.
The Russians are always gorging. The
average man is a glutton, and I h.ive seen
A Jiuuian Travfer.
slender, etherial, esthetic-looking Russian
girls during the past week who onuld get
away ilth more solids nd liquids than any
beefy Englishman I have ever met. The
people seem to eat at every station, and the
beauty of it is you can find something good
to eat every time the train stops.
I wish I could show you a plate of Rus
sian soup. One plate is big enough for a
meal, but the Russia is take it only as an
appetizer. The favorite soup is culled
stachee, and it is made of cabbage and other
snrrp-v. "' '?vm&z$.v
BUND AT, SEPTEMBER '25;
vegetables with a piece of meat about four
inches iguart and to Inches thiok in the
middle of it. In addition to this they bring
you a bowl of thick oream, whioh ia aoraa
times o ir and sometimes fresh, to pour
into it in order to gira it a body, and this
molasses-Uke mixture yo"u eat, and you
like It. It is not bad, I assure yon.
But I have never found myself able
to get beyond the first course, for after you
haveaken the liquid part of the soup you
are expected to carve up aud eat the
meat, and the meat forms quite a meal in
itself. The trains usually make 'ong stops
at the stations and from 30 to 40 minutes
for a dinner is not uncommon. At every
station peddlers come around with fruits,
cakes and drinkables, and a common sight Is
the old fellow with the samovar In which
he makes tea and tervejs to all who will
buy. It makes no difference how hot it is
this man always wears bis overcoat, and a
long-vlsored cap usually shrouds his eyes.
He is generally bearded and he has a fat,
jolly face like 'that of Santa Claus.
Sngar That Grits the Teeth.
His tea is good and he serves it with a bit
of lemon and a lump of the hardest sugar
you ever put between your tisth. It you
drink the tea like he does yon will pnt a
lump ol sugar between your teeth and suck
the tea through this, and the chances are that
when you get as old as he Is your teeth will,
be in the decayed condition of his. Nine
tenths of the Russian peasants hare bad
te!tn, and tbere is more cnance tor goon
enterprising dentists here than any place
else in the world. I don't doubt that there
are 600,000,000 cavities readr at this writing
in this empire for 600,000.000 gold or
amalgam plugs, and the 'Russian with
sound teeth is the exoeptlon.
It is wonderful how much travel Is done
bv the poor class in Russia. The third
class oars are always tulL They are more
like cattle cars than anything elso. There
are no cushions on the seats, and- the peo
ple are crowded in in all sorts of avs.
They are not supposed to have any rights
that the railroad officials are bound to re
spect, and I saw one man knocked down
nnd shoved back into the station jnst as the
car was about to start because be did not
have bis tioket in his hand He told the
guard that the party of peasants with whom
he was travelinu had the ticket and they
had already gotten on the cars, bnt this did
him no gobd, and though he cried and
howled he was held back while the car bore
his friends aud his family away. The
peasant cannot travel in Russia without a
passport. I have not had to show my pass
port at the railroad depots exespt when I
came into Russia, but the peasant dare not
go ftom one part ol Russia to the other
without permission of the local government
The Old Man TTifft the Samovar.
jH n IimVHii I.
"M:fffrrV I ' r
O 'sU M -Tigg"T'flJ " Trx&z-
MARKS' RECLINING CHAIR.
It furnishes luxury for the well, ease and comfort for the sick. Among
the many chairs of its kind in the market it takes the lead, easily, as the
one perfect article. An ideal Chair at a moderate price. Easily adjusted
to any position of the body, not complicated in construction, not likely to
get out of order.
In cane seat as low as $15. Leather cushioned at $22 and so on in
various degrees of luxury and elegance up to $75. We are sole agents
under which be Uvea, and be it asked to
show his passport at tbe ticket office.
The ItnggazB Arrangements,
It don't pay to carry much luggage in
Russia. I have a trunk with me that
weighs about 200 pounds, and It costs me 9
every time I move. Only 40 ponuds of
baggage is allowed with a ticket here and
the excess is always charged for. There is'
no charge, however, for packages carried
inside the cars, and the result is that every
passenger has a half dozen bundles and the
cars are filled with packages and baskets
aud trunks with handles ou them.
Railroads are Russia's greatest need. The
present era of railroad building is produc
ing but little in comparison with what Rus
sia should have in iron tracks. One of the
great causes of her recenf famine was the
laok of transportation, and there are mill
ions ot acres of good land here which might
be made valuable by railroads. The United
States is very much like the Russian em
Dire in that it is au agricultural country,
and with us the average distance of the cen
ter of production from the neasest railroad
is less than four miles. Here in Ruwia it is
240 miles. In Belginm this distauce is
about two miles, in England It is three
miles and over the whole ereat American
continent it is only 13 miles. Russia is,
perhaps, the most undeveloped good coun
try in the world to-day. What it needs is
good capital and railroads allied to good
government. If it ever gets these it will be
the great country of the future.
'Frank G. Carpenter.
Tho German Catholic Congress.
On the occasion or the meeting of tbe Ger
man Catholic Congress, wliloli Is to be bold
at Newark, N. J., Sep ember 28 to 29. the
Committee of Arranuemants oi tbis body
has arranged wttli the l'ennsylvanla It ill
road at a very satlslactnry rate of single
Tarn fur tbe round trip (In other woids
$10 80), tickets to be sold from September H
to 26, (food to return until October 3,181.
You have your choice of two mutes return
ing: yon oan retnrn direct borne, or yon can
return via Washington; those ictnrntmr di
rect will have privilege or stop-off at Phil
adelphia, those returning via Washington
will nave the privlle.e or stop-off ac Pulls,
delpbla, Baltimore and Washington. When
you purchase jour tickets state to tbe agent
which route you wisti to return, either di
rect on via Washington.
W. A. Boeveler Storage
Will contrnot to clean bouses for private
families, offices, stores, cbnrobes, etc. Tney
do moving in cohered vans or wagons, re
lieving the cntouier of ail nnnounce and
trouble. Watch for Hoeveler'smovlnij vans.
Men or women, who are expert packers of
silver, glass, china, wearing apparel, furni
ture, bric-a-brac, etc., furnished by tbe
Separate rooms for tbe storage of house
bote! effects. All kinds of household ponds
sold at public or private sale. Telephone 5J.
TBE EXPOSITION has secured tbe attrac
tion of ilio year. Black l'.itii. ono week, be
ginning September 20, a.ternoon and even
ing. PfeLfer, the Dry Cleaner,
Is cleaning fall overcoats In a very superior
manner. Does your coat need cleunlngT
We can do it.
Offle.s- i. '"". "S"''.
1913 Carson street. 8. S.
Bearer Fair Excursions Via FenVsylranla
Seventy-tlve cents ronnd trip from Pitta
burg September 27, 23, 29, 80; valid returning
until October 1.
Via Pittsburg and Lake Erie Railroad Sep
tember 26 and October 21, exenrxion tickets
to points in the Northwest, West, Southwest
and South will be sold at very low rates.
EXPOSITION Blaok Pattf, the surprise of
surprises, the musical phenomenon, begin
ning September 26, altcinaon and evening.
One week only.
Pxiotct action and perrect health result
from ibeuseol De Witt's Little Early RUers.
A perfect little pllb Very small; very sure
Bittbolstibt of furnttnm a specialty.
Hacoh A Kiutau, S3 Water street.
BY CONAN DOYLE.
"It air strange, it air," he was saying as
I opened the door of the room where our
social little semi-literary society met; "bat
I could tell you queerer things than that
'ere almighty queer things. Yoo can't
learn everything out of books, sirs, nohow.
You see it ain't the men as can string En
glish together and as had good eddications
as find themselves in the queer places I've
been In. They're mostly rough men, sirs,
as can scarce speak aright, far less tell with
pen and ink the things they're seen; but if
they could they'd, make some of your
Europian's bar riz with astonishment.
They would, sirs, yon bet!"
His name was Jefferson Adams, I believe;
I know his initials were J. A., for yon may
see them yet deeply whittled on tbe right
hand upper panel of our smoking-room
door, lie left us this legacy, and also some
artistic patterns done in tobacco nice upon
our Turkey carpet; but beyond these
reminiscences our American story-teller
has vanished from our ken. He eleamed
across our ordinary quiet conviviality like
some brilliant meteor, and then was lost in
the outer darkness. That night, however,
our new Mexican friend was in full swjng;
and I quietly lit my pipe and dropped into
tbe nearest chair, anxious not to interrupt
"Mind you," he continued, "Ihain got
no grudge azainst your men oi science. I
likes and respects a chap as can match
every beast and plant, from a huckleberry
to a grizzly with a jaw-breakin' name; but
if you wants real interestin' facts, some
thing a bit juicy, you go to your whalers
and your frontiersmen, and your scouts and
Hudson Bay men, chaps who mostly can
scarce sign their names.
There was a pause here, as Mr. JeSerson
Adams,prodnced a long cheroot and lit it.
We preserved a strict silence in the room,
for we bad already learned that on the
slightest interruption our Yankee drew
himself into his shell again. He glanced
around with a self-satisfied smile as be re
marked our expectant looks, and continued
through a halo of smoke
"Now, which of you gentlemen has ever
been in Arizona? None, I'll warrant.
And of all English or Americans as can
put pen to paper, how many has been to
Arizona? Precious few, I calc'late. I've
been there, sirs, lived there for years; and
when I think what I've seen there, why, I
can scarcely get myself to believe it now.
,'Ah there's a country I" I was one ol
Walker's filibusters, as they chose to call
us; and after we'd busted up, and the chiei
was shot, some on us made tracks and lo
cated down there. A reg'lar English and
American colony, we was with our wives
and children, and all complete. I reckon
there's some of the old folk there yet, and
that they hain't forgotten what I'm agoin'
ONLY A FEW DAYS LEFT OF THESE TERMS:
On a bill of $10 $1 down and 50c a week.
On a bill of $25 $5 down and $1 a week.
On a bill of $50 $8 down and $2 a week.
On a bill of $75 $10 down and $2.50 a week.
On a bill of $100 $12.50 down and $3 a week.
In addition to the above we will give FREE this month
WITH EACH BILL OF $10 A good Jute Rug 36x72
inches, worth $1.50.
WITH EACH BILL OF $25 A good Oak Center Table,
WITH EACH BILL OF $50 We allow a selection of
anything in the stock to the value of $5.
WITH EACH BILL OF $75 Your choice of any article in
the store to the value of $7.50.
WHHtACH BILL OF $100 Choice of any article in the
store to the value of $10.
Don't Fail to See
The "Gunn" Folding Bed. It is the only perfect folding
bed in the market We have all the other kinds, and can
show you the difference. All the points of advantage and
no single point of disadvantage. We are sole agents in
the city. Come in and see- it
to tell you. No, I warrant they hain't,,
never on this side of the grave, sirs.
"I was talking about the country, though)
and I guess I could astonish you consider
able if I spoke of nothing else. To think
of such a land being bnilt for a few 'Greas
ers' and balr-bredst It's a misusing ot the
the gilts of Providence, that's what I calls
it. Grass as hung over a chap's head as ha
rode through it, and trees so thick, that yoa
conldn't catch a glimpse of blue sky for
leagues and leagues, and orchids like um
brellas! Maybe some on you ha3 seen a
plant as they calls the 'flycatcher,' in some
parts of the States?'
"Dlancea musclpnla," murmured Dawson,
our scientific man par excellence.
"Ah, 'Die near a municipal,' that's himl
You'll see a fly stand on that 'ere plant,
and then you'll see the two sides of a leaf
snap up together and catch it between
them, and grind it up and mash it to bits,
for all the world like some great sea squid
with its beak; and hours after, if you open
the leaf, you'll see the body lying half
digested, and in bits. Well, I've seen thoss
fly-traps In Arizona with leaves 8 and 10
feet long, and thorns or teeth a foot or
more; why, they could but darn it, I'm
going too fasti
"It's about tbe death of Joe Hawkins I
was going to tell you; 'bout as queer
thing, I reckon, as ever you heard tell on.
There wasn't nobody in Arizona or New
Mexico as didn't know Joe Hawkins 'Al
abama' Joe, as he was called there. A.
reg'lar out and outer, he was, 'bout the
hardest case as ever man clapt eyes on. He
was a good chap enough, mind re, as long
as you stroked him the right way bit rile him
anyhow, and he were worse nor a blizzard.
I've seen him empty his six-sbooter into a
crowd as chanced to jostle him agoing;
-into Simpson's bar when tbere was a dance
on; and be bowied Tom Hooper 'cause ha
spilt his liquor over his weskit bv mistake.
No, he didn't stick at murder, Joe didn't;
and he weren't a man to be trusted when
he had tbe devil's drops in him.
"Now at the time I tell on, when Jos
Hawkins was swaggerin' about the town
and lay in' down bye laws with his shootin'
irons, tbere was an Englishman there of tho
name of Scott Tom Scott, if I ree'lecta
aright. This chap Scott was a Britisher to
his boot heels, and yet he didn't freeze
much to the British set there, or they didn't
freeze much to him. He was a quiet simple
man, Scott was rather too quiet for a
rough lot like that; sneakin' they called
him, but he weren't that. He kept hisself
mostly apart, an did i't interfere with no
body so long as he were left alone. Soma
said as how he'd been kinder ill-treated at
home been a Chartist, or something com
bustible, and had to up and git; Dut ha
never spoke of it hisself, an' never com
plained. Bad luck or good, that man kept
a stiff lip on him.
"This Pcott was a sort o' butt among the
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