Newspaper Page Text
The Incomes of Some of the
Leaders in the Various J
LIFTERS THE BEST OFF.
The Fee for Organizing the Sngar
Trust Put at $250,000.
A. GOOD MANY $50,000 MEN
tie Insurance, Railroad and Other
B1L1KIES PAID ACTORS, AETISTS. ETC
rronREEPoyDEJTCE or Till DIrAT0H.l
New Yoke, Nov. 5. Recently I talked
with some of the leading and best in
formed professional men ol this country on
the question of income. The facta and
figures they gave me I believe to be the
nearest accurate obtainable.
In no profession are the financial rewards
which attend success more munificent than
in the legal profession, but it is neverthe
less a fact that the average income of the
successful law ers of this big town is not
much over or under ?5,000 a year, and in
few instances is it equal to the capacity of
the man who receives it Many of the large
law firms of New York have in theiremploy
lawyers, bright and capable men, too, who
try their minor causes and receive salaries
of from 51,000 to 52,000 a yet". Some law
yers of this class receire as high as ?10,000
James C. Carter.
a year, but their number is small, and, as
their lot is an arduous one, lawyers avoid it
whenever possible. The incomes, even of
the most successful lawyers, vary greatly
from year to ytar. and this probably con
duce!) to making many of them the inveterate
spendthrifts they are known to be.
Spending Fifty Thousand a Tear.
The late S. 31. L. Barlow was long one of
the largest money-makers at the New York
bar, but died a bankrupt, and James
Strahan, whose annual earnings for many
years seldom fell below 550,000, left his
heirs nothing but his law books. At the
present time the earnings of John E. Par
sons are probably larger than those of any
other New York lawyer. He earns regu
larly from 580,000 to 5100,009 a year, and it
is the general Opinion o the profession that
the fee which be received for organizing
the sugar trust, which has since been dis
solved by the conrts, did cot fall below
200,000 and some estimates have put it at
treble that sum. It was without doubt the
largest single fee ever received by an
The earnings of James C. Carter are
nef rly as large as those ot Mr. Parsons, and
it is said that the annual income ot Bourke
Cockran has for several years exceeded
100,033, but a portion of this great sum
has come yearly irom the successful specu
lations ior which the brainy and eloquent
Irish lawyer is known to have a fondness.
A list of the New York lawyers who rcgu
Jarly earn more than 539,000 a year would
include, besides thore already named,
Joseph H. Chelate, Benjamin F. Tracv,
Frederick R. Coudert, Robert G. Ingersoll,
Eliliu Root, Artemuc H. Holmes, Horace
2ussell, S. T. C. Docd and George Hoadley.
Brains Come Trom the West.
Iniersoll, Dodd aud Hoadley are West-e-n
men, Dodd now being chief counsel for
tie Standard Oil Company, and it is an in
testing tact that in recent years nearlvall
olthe strongest recruits to" the New York
Henry S. Hyde.
bar hae come from the West. David Dad
ley Field, now retired from practice, made
over 51,000,000 in the law, and Theodore W.
Dwigh , who died last summer, was found
alter his death to have been a millionaire.
Both vere what is known as corporation
The receipt of large fees is not the privi
lege solely of members of the metro
politan bar. The income of the late
Lewis C Casidy, of Philadelphia, long ex
ceeded 550,000 a year, and the yearly earn
ings ot John C. Bullitt, of the same city,
seldom fall short ot the sum named. Bul
litt is now generally regarded as the leader
ot the Philadelphia bar. Chicago has sev
eral lawyers whose incomes are very large,
seldom less than 550,000 a year, prominent
among them being A. S. Trude, William C
Goudy and William J. Campbell, who is
counsel for Phil Armour. Senator Hill,
when he practiced law in Elmira, 10 or 12
years ago, seldom earned over 55,000 a
year, but not long since he divided with
Charles P. Bacon, a former student of
his, n lee of 5400,000. This was paid them
by the plaintiffs in the famous Fiske will
case against Cornell University, and was
compensation for services extending over a
period ot ten years or more.
What Leading Insurance Men Earn.
The heads of nearly all the big life and
fire insurance companies receive princely
ta'.anes. Henry IB. Hyde, who not so very
long ago was a modest insurance solicitor,
draws a salary of 550,000 a year as President
of his company, and the "VicsN Presi
dent or the "same concern receives
540,000 a year. Others areas well paid.
P. B. Armstrong, when he disposed of
his tire insurance business a year or so ago,
was guaranteed 5100,000 a year for the term
of five years if during that time he would
not again engage in the fire insurance busi
ness. Armstrong is a pushing, keen-witted
Canadian, who came to New York a decade
ago with hardly a dollar in his pocket. He
now owns an orange grove in California and
takes lite easy.
Dr. Norvin Green, President of the West
era Union Telegraph Company, is paid
550,000 a year, and John Hoey, w'hile Presi
dent of the Adams Express Company fared
equally welL The chief officers of the lead
ing banks and trust companies of New York
are all well paid. Frederick P. Olcot,
President of the Central Trust Company,
receives 530,000 a year; R'.chard King,
President of the Union Trust, $50,000; Gen-
Angus A. McLcod.
eral Louis Fitzgerald, President of the
Mercantile Trust, 530,000; while the salaries
of the bank presidents of New York range
from 510,000 to 15,000. It is generally con
ceded (that the latter earn their pav.
The heads of the great railroad corpora
tions are nearly all well paid. What sal
ary Cbanncev M. Dcpew receives as Presi
dent ot the Now York Central is known to
few save himself and his employers, the
Vanderbilts, but it cannot fall below 5100,
000 a j ear. George B. Roberts, Pres
ident of the Pennsylvania, receives
a salary of 550,000. and President
A. A. Mc&eod is paid the same amount ev
ery 12-month for his services to the Read
What the Doctors Can Earn.
When I asked a clear-headed, well-informed
member ot the medical profess! on
what was the average yearly income ofNew
York's thousands ot doctors, be replied that
it was not over 51,200, and added that the
metropolitan doctor, who. at the end of his
first ten years' ot practice, finds himself in
receipt of an annual income ot 53.000, can
count himself one of the lucky ones. The
phvsicians who earn the largest incomes
and with the smallest expenditure of labor
are the specialists, and among this class are
many big money makers. Dr. T. Gaillard
Thomas, the specialist, probably makes
more money than any other doctor in
America. His annual income is uot less
than 5100,000, and Dr. Salisbury makes
nearly as much. Dr. William A. Ham
mond, during his last year in New York,
is credited with having made 5153,000.
My informant told me that there are per
haps 100 doctors in New York who have an
annual income of 510,000 and over, and
possibly a score who carnover?20.000 every
year. Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi, a daugh
ter of Putnam, the publisher, is in a mone
tary way the most successful woman doctor
living. "Philadelphia has several physicians
whose incomes are very large, among the
number being Dr. S. "Yeir Mitchell, thp
specialist in nervous diseases, who a year
or two ago refused a fee ot 525,000 to run
over to England, give an opinion and return
by the next steamer. The largest fee ever
paid to a physician, 5100.000, was received
Dy the late Dr. Willard Parker for the suc
cessful removal of an execresence from the
face and neck of the son and heir of one of
the wealthiest families in the vicinity of
New York. Should he succeed in curing a
St Louis heiress of a slight mental trouble
that has bothered her lrom childhood, Dr.
William Bradlcv, of that citv, is to re
ceive a eash lee" of 556,001 Dr. Bradley
has had the case under treatment for some
time and believes that he will earn his fee.
Acting Is a raj Ins Profession.
Acting, all things considered, is now one
of the best paid callings in which a bright
man or woman can engage. The average
leading man or woman receives from 5100 to
5300 a week. The second man or
woman (juvenile) in' a first-class
company is paid from 575 to 5100 a
week, and the comedian and soubrette
abone the same. Tne leading people of the
variety stage are all well paid. Harry Ker
nell, when in health, was always sure of
5150 weekly, and Gus Williams before he
became a star, used to demand and receive
a salary ot 5150 a week. Carmencita earns
5200 a "week, ai.d the late Pat Rooney, the
prince of improvisatores, for a long time
commanded 400 a week. But it is upon
the kings and queens of the legitimate that
the golden rewards of the theatrical pro
fession are bestowed. Daniel Frohman,
three or lour years ago, paid
Modjeska $1,750 a " week for her
personal services, and considered that
he had made a profitable investment.
Booth and Barrett, at the end of the first
season they appeared together, divided up
5362,000; Henry Irving, on his first Ameri
can tour umler Abbey's management,
played to c405,000 in 27 weeks; one of
Bernhardt's American tours netted her
$300,000; and Lily Langtry made her first
American tour on a guarantee of 52,000 a
week. The earnings and investments of
Jnsenh Murphy have male him a million
aire; Dcnnmn Thompson often makes from
53.000 to'54.000 a week, and Evans and
Hoey in seven years have made 5300,000.
Comedy Pays Better Tlian Tragedy.
Joseph Jefferson, who for several years
paid William -J. .Florcnee'51,t)00 a iweez:
Stuart Robson, William JE. Crane, Neil
' JWSif ryT
T. DeV?d lalmige.
Burgess, Nat Goodwin, Sol Smith Russell,
Edward Harrlgan, Oliver Doud Byron,
James H. Wallick and Richard Mansfield
are all large and steady money makers and
all are well-to-do, Jefierson being probably
the richest of the lot Comedy, with a few
exceptions, always pays better than tragedy,
and Francis Wilson, of comic opera fame,
is probably the largest and steadiest money
maker now before the American public.
He relinquished a salary of 5800 a week to
become a star, and his starring tours have
all been immensely profitable. Wilson is
economical in his ways, and if he lives ten
years will be a very rich man.
Mary Andersonbefore she left the staze,
frequently made 54,000 a week, and Lillian
Russell, Pauline Hall, Lotta, Modjeska,
Fanny Davenport, Maggie Mitchell, Clara
Morns and Annie Pixley each made a com
fortable fortune every year. Lotta is worth
close to a million. Patti never sings for
less than 55,000 a night; Sembrich bas
often received 51,500 for a single
performance; Campa.iini has been paid
58,000 a month and Jean de Reszke, dur
ing his Amcricun tour last year, was paid
51,500 for each performance, aud 20 per ceut
ot the box receipts. His brother Edonard
was paid 5500 for each performance. Play
making, when one succeeds at it, is one of
the most profitable of callings. Bronson
Howard, Charles H. Hovt, Henrv C de
Mille, David Belasco and'William'H. Gill
ette all make not less than 825,000 every
year, and Howard's income in some recent
years has often trebled that amount
Illustratlns at Eight Thousand a Tear.
What docs the professional artist earn? is
a question to which no definite and explicit
answer can be given. The leaders earn
large incomes, the beginners are thankful
for what they can get, and between the two
there is a large middle class whose skill as
sures them a comfortable living. Jx A.
Abbey has for several years been paid an
annual salary of 520,000 by the Harpers,
but Abbey is in, a class by himself. The
best known illustrators of books and peri
odical1! are Remington, Graham, DeGrimm,
Reinhardt, Church, Kemble, Taylor, Rog
ers, Gibson and de Thulstrup. These men
Joseph Howard, Jr.
earn all the way from 54,000 to 512,000 a
year and their incomes, like those of law
yers, vary greatly from year to year. The
illustrator ho makes 58, 00J a year is con
sidered lucky by his fellows. Nearly all
artists in black and white aspire to become
painters, and with good reason, as the
painter whose reputation is established
generally makes money rapidly, and espe
cially is this true of portrait painters.
Upon no subject is more misinformation
afloat than there is about the earnings of
the artist's first cousin, the author. Several
ot our leading authors are credited with
fabulous lu comes, which to their infinite
regret, they do not receive. Mark Twain
is rich but he has made the greater part of
his fortune as .a publisher and not as an
author. Joe Howard probably earns more
money than any other American newspaper
worker who iias no proprietory wterestin
newspapers; but there are to-day in New
York 2,000 newspaper workers who average
525 a week, and there are less than two
sco.re.who earn more than 5100 in the same
Preaching Pay Well Sometimes.
The,, leading ministers ot New York city
are well cared for iu a financial wav. Dr.
John Hall, pastor of the Fifth Avenue
Church, whomRobertBonnerfound preach
ing to a small congregation in Dublin, and
induced to come to America, heads the list
of ministerial money-makers. He is paid
520,000 a year by hi church, receives 55,000
as Cbancellorol the University ot New York
aud doubtless makes as much more by his
writings lor the New York Ledger.
T. DeWitt Talmage is paid 12,000 a year
by the Brooklyn Tabernacle and his edito
rial work and lectures bring his yearly in
come up to 525,000. Dr. Morgan" Dix, the
rector of Old Trinity, receives 615,000
yearly; Dr. Brown, ree'tor of St. Thomas',
515,000; Dr.. Huntington, rector of Grace
Church, 515,000; Dr. Greer, of St. Barthol
omew's, 515,000; Dr. Rainsford, ot St
George's, 510,000; Dr. Charles Hall,
who is very eloquent and whose
church, the Fifth Avenue Presbyte
rian, is always crowded, 515,000; Rev. Rob
ert 'Collyer, ot the Park Avenue Unitarian
Church. 510,000; Dr. Charles R. Parkhurst,
of the Madison Square Church, 512,000, and
Dr. John R. Paxton, who preaches to Jay
Gould and other millionaires, 515,000. To
the average country clergyman, who must
worry along on $1,000 a year or less, the
salaries ot his favored city brothers must
seem, indeed, princely.
EtJFUS R. WILS02T.
JAIL EEEAKEK3 FOH-EU
By the Aid of an Infernal Machine They
Kad Nearly Escaped.
Boston, Nov. 5. SpcciaL The in
mates of the State prison, with the aid of
an infernal machine, made last evening one
of the boldest attempts at an escape by
burning the prison itself that has been
attempted for many a year. Had not the
plan been prematurely discovered all or
part of the prison wou'd be in ashes. At
lock-up time the men all passed to their
cells and the regular routine watch was set
A little before 11 o'clock the officers on
watch smelt smoke coming from the direc
tion of the shop, and proceeding there
found a vjry lively little blaze under the
benches. An alarm was pulled at once
lrom the prison box, while the officers
themselves starred fighting the fire and ex
tinguished it without much trouble.
On examining the debris a very neat in
fernal machine, made of the traditional
wooden box, was discovered. Inside of
this there was a clock movement, arranged
with an alarm so that tne descending lever
would strike a bunch of matches and fire
the handful of oiled cotton waste that was
placed in the bottom. The entire arrange
ment was placed in a box ot shanks and
carefully hidden. , a
A HEW KAMUOTH OLAS3 W0BK3
Opens at Monde, Ind., With a Tank Built in
MUXCIE, Isn., Nov. 5. Special The
great continuous tank at the Maring-Hart
glass and window-glass works has been fin
ished after several months' work, and to
day the first glass of the silver-clear kind
was pulled from it. The tank is about GO
feet long, and it requires over CO carloads of
material to fill it The cost of constructing
the mammoth masonry was over 5100,000.
The tank is the Siemens regenerating
patent, and was built bv Dixon & Woods.
ot Pittsburg. It is the largest tank in the
The furnace is a 48-pot concern, with
three turns daily, and the factory now em
ploys about 400 hands, turning out 250,000
square feet ot glass a week, with an annual
pay roll of over 5250,000 pe'r annum. Mr.
Hart, who has the general soperintendency
of the factory,' is President of the Western
Window Glass Manufacturers' Association,
and is Chairman of the Wage Committee.
TEACHING IN ENGLAND
The Bequirements Very High and
tho Wages Eitremely Low.
$375 A YEAR THE AVERAGE.
Six Tears of Special Training Necessary for
THE EDUCATIONS SYSTEM IS GOOD
CCOBUESrOKDENCIt OP THE DISPATCH.
LosDON, Oct. 28. The adult teachers em
ployed in the public elementary schools of
England and Wales are returned at about
75,000. Popular education is a thing of re
cent origin over here. Prior to 1870 the
board school was unknown, all the training
possible to the children of the masses being
wholly, before that time, in the hands of
the church or at the discretion of private
individuals. But in the year indicated a
marvellous adance was made. Not only
were school boards instituted, with liberal
provisio'n for their maintenance by grants
from the State, but increased grants of
money and varions other incentives to en
terprise were offered to private and denomi
national schools, and, in fact, the entire
educational machinery of the country was
overhauled, with the object of shaping it,
as far as'scemed practicable at that time,
after the best models afforded iu Enrope
aud the United States.
Since then "the schoolmaster has been
abroad" in old England in a fashion qui'e
beyond anything Lord Brougham could
have known when he first used that phrase.
Illiteracy, which was disgracefully common
before, is now rapidly disappearing. The
elections afford a good test ot the progress
along this line. A polling clerk in one
of the poorest districts in London expressed
to me his delighted amazement that in a
vote of nearly 2,000 at the last election the
ballots cast by those who could not read or
write were only about 50. In the Strand
division there were only 27 illiterates out of
6,808 voters; in North Hackney only 19 out
of 7,477, with similar evidences ot improve
ment both in town and conntry all over the
nation, not excepting even "Suffolk and
Cambridgeshire, although these counties at
present stand lowest in the list
Statistics on Education and Crime.
Another gratifying result of this exten
sion of school privileges' to the masses is a
marked diminution in the number.of crim
inals. On the assumption that the public
schools of England give only a little educa
tion, which is all that can be reasonably
expected Irom them, the old saying that ''a
little knowledge is a dangerous thing" is
completely refuted by the criminal statis
tics of Great Britain. Since 1869 the pop
ulation has increased about 7,000,000, but
notwithstanding this, juvenile offenders
against the law, while they numbered in
tha,t year about 10,000, have decreased at a
steady annual rate until now the average
per year is only about 4,000 And the pro
portionate falling off has been almost as
great among the worst classes ot adult
Alter this showing, one is quite prepared
for the exhibition ot progress w liicli the
schools themselves afford. In 1869 the
pupils enrolled were less than 1,000.000; last
year they were nearly 5,000,000. There has
also been an unbroken tiend of improve
ment during this time in the curriculum of
these elementary schools, as well as in the
standard of scholarship among the teachers.
There are numerous schools now whose
head masters write the suffix of M. A. after
their names; and this, it will be remembered,
carries more weight than in the United
States, because, for the generality of
students, it is much harder to obtain. There
is an elementary school iu Cambridge which
has in it. I am told, three or four teachers
who have taken a University decree, and
I am assured by those well "up in educa
tional matters that it will probably not be a
great while before, in all urban schools, the
acquisition bv the master of a badge of
scholarship 'like this will be a universal
condition of his employment
The System of Examination.
The most recent evidences of improve
ment in English elementary schools are the
abolition, to a large extent, of the payment
of school pence bv the pnpils, and a change
in the form ot inspection which virtually
abolishes the old "push and cram system"
in preparing for examinations. Formerly
the pupils in schools sharing in the State
grant could be assessed from 3d to !M a
week at the discretion of those in charge.
Now, these schools which are willing to
lorego this source of revenue, or to modify
it in proper ratio, are paid by the Slate an
extra 10 shillings per annum for etch pupil
in attendance, and in the majority of
schools this effort of. the Government to
make education free to the children of the
masses has been cheerfully acquiesced in.
The other change referred to affects the
basis on which the State erant is appor
tioned. For many years each scholar
was examined individually, and the amount
of money received by the school depended
largely upon the individual passes. This
was hard on the children, and, with their
own pay depending somewhat on the re
sults, it was "very hard on the teachers.
Happily, this bas now been so changed that
a school is judged and rewarded upon its
merits considered as a whole, a system
which proves to be a great boon to anxious
pedagogues and a great relief to dull aud
All tcbools share equally in the Govern
ment grant, whether controlled by school
boards or otherwise; and this means that
under the peculiar educational system of
England the majority of the schools sharing
in this grant are not board schools at all,
but are church and denominational schools,
among the latter being a fair proportion
belonging to the Roman Catholics.
Bequirements of Denominational Schools.
The only conditions imposed are that cer
tain branches shall be taught, that not more
than 9d a week shall be charged lor tuition,
that the schools shall be open to Her Ma
jesty's inspectors, that instruction shall
cover a given number ot hours per day and
days per year, and that within the Lours
specified there shall be no infringement of
the rights of conscience by forcing upon the
pupils any teaching that is distinctly re
ligious. Complying with these require
ments any elementary school in the realm
may claim its share ot Government help,
and the number of day schools thus assisted
in.England aud Wales last year was 19,535.
The number of adult teachers has been
given roughly at 75.000, but in order to a
proper understanding of the matter a classi
fication is necessary. Those holding cer
tificates its fully qualified teachers number
45,597. and of these 18,264 are masters and
27,333 mistresses. Besides these there are
23,508 assistant teachers, and still lower in
the scale, -28,131 pupil teachers, most of the
latter, who are learning the trade, so to
speak, being minors, with the probability,
we should say, that among both pupil and
assistant teachers the' ratio of the two sexes
would be about the samo as among those
holding certificates. In the sending forth
of those who are to teach the voung idea
how to shoot the Government takes a hand.
To all aspirants a Queen's Scholarship is
held out. This is obtained by passing-suc-cesslully
a somewhat rigid examination.
Last year there were more than 10,000 con
testants lor this prize, and something less
thau three-fourths of this number, I am
told, bscame entitled to it
The Ordeal or the Teachers.
This distinction qualifies the aspirant to
either enter one of Her Majesty's Training
Colleges for a term, of two years, or to serve
for the same length of lime as an assistant'
in the actual work of teaching. Then, for
both classes there is another rigid examina
tion, and then, that ordeil passed with
credit, they are turned out upon the land a
certificated teachers. Previously to all this,
however, most of them hjave served four
years In the capacity of pupil teacher, and.
with only a small pittance In salary, have
had to work hard in the school all day and
occupy themselves at night in preparing
for their annual examinations. Thus, the
normal process by which an English school
teacher is manufactured involves a prepara
tory oourse of training, beyond the usual
school period, of something like six full
Iu approaching the question of salary, I
am fain to let others speak rather than my
self. The last Parliament was petitioned
for a Select Committee to Inquire into the
need for a superannuation fund for these
.English pedagogues. Such a committee
was appointed and has made its report
Naturally, the question of wages came
within its pervlew, aud what it savs upon
this subject is, in substance, that at their
present rate of pay it is utterly impossible
for teachers as a class to do anything but
eke out a bare subsistence. They can lay
by nothing for old age or for the ordinary
emergencies ot active life.
To Be Savoil From Beggary.
Therefore, says this report, to save them
from beggary and the workhouse, the State,
as it commissions them, ought to provide
some pension scheme for thejr benefit. It
is quite expected that before many years
some scheme of this kind will be formulated
into law. Strange to say, what the teach
ers themselves ask is that a system shall be
created under which, after all, most of the
cost of their superannuation shall come out
of their own pockets. Most of them, they
think, might at least contribute 515 a year
to such a fund, and if at the end the Gov
ernmen t would disburse to them what had
been laid by, with the addition of 55 or so
per annum for every year ot active service
thevhad rendered, they sem to think that.
as things go over here, the time of old age
and disability would find them in fairly
What their situation is at present they
shall tell us in their own words. We may
surely accept as a proper representative of
these teachers the President ot their Na
tional Union, and this gentleman, Mr. J.
H. Yoxall, of Sheffield in a comprehensive
and able addresSj delivered at their last
annual meeting in April of this year, said
in reference to England's elementary school
An Average or S375 a Year.
"They are the only body of teachers in
the country specially trained and taught to
teach. Theirmoral and economic value to tho
country can hardly be over estimated. They
each receive on au average about 29 shillings
per week, or 75 pounds per year (5375).
Charity and the .poor law are practically
the only provision for them in the days
'when all the weary wheels stand still.'
There arc 44,415 of them certificated, hold
ing the State's guarantee of complete effic
iency to teach."
Then he gives the subjoined table. The
only change I have made in it is the substi
tution of the value in dollars for the
amount given in pounds. It will be noted
that Mr. Yoxall's statement of the number
of certificated teachers is lower than mine.
This is because I have ha 1 the advantage)
of the educational returns just published,
wnereas in April last, wnen tnis table was
made, the latest figures available were those
of the year before.
SALARIES OF CERTIFICATED TEACHEBS IK THE
PUBLIC ILK5IEXTABT SCUOOLS OF ESQLAJfD
ters, tresses. Total.
Salaries tinder 1550. 213 4.453 4.671
SBO and less tliaa S5M 7.IJ9 1S.SU) 24,UjS
S500 and less than S50 6.G75 4,113 10.7td
7o0andlesi than $I,(X 2,188 672 2.83s
1,000 and over 1,5)1 419 2.049
ToUls 17.79 23,616 44,415
These figures, it will be observed, are
only for certificated teachers, those who,
ior the most part, have qualified themselves
lor their important duties by six years of
special training. Assistant teachers, as a
matter ot course, get much less, aud pupil
teachers, as is quite proper, a smaller allow
ance still. Moreover, teachers here have
only a short hpliday in summer. In towns
it is a month; in villages from a month to
six weeks according to the length of the
harvest season. I can .hardly wonder that .
bllCJ ttlB Up IU HUJ3, -OUU NIC OSlWlU fcMC
Government, as they really are, to save
them lrom charity or the poorhouse when
old age forces them to retire, and I feel that
I shall only voice the sympathetic wish of
all American teachers in hoping that their
petitions and appeals may yield a rich and
speedy fruitage. HEXKr TuoKLEr.
A P2INCE GOING MAD.
The Malady of Royalty Has Overtaken the
Czar's Closest Friend.
Another sprig of royalty is showing symp
toms of mental collapse, the curse that has
haunted so many of the princely houses of
Europe. Nicholas of Montenegro, the Czar's
friend, is now the sufferer a remarkably
handsome man, a prince who combined rare
intellectuality with beauty of person, he
fell a victim to the love of luxury and in
dolence fostered in his early life. Al
though the kingdom ot Montenegro is a
small affair with a population of but 236,000
souls at the Inst census, the reigning prince
enjoys the distinction of being the Czar of
Russia's greatest friend, and in consequence
the couriers who have been dispatched to
Russia's ruler to secure hi co-oppration in
an effort to force Nicholas' abdication may
have some difficulty.
While in a measure to bla me for his pres
ent condition, some sympathy must be felt
for Nicholas' unfortunate ending. For
awhile after he succeeded his assassinated
uncle, Danilo, he manifested a desire to
Trince of Montenegro.
attend strictly to business. He took great
delight in the schools he pl&nted through
out the country. He had a farm at one
place, where he experimented in coffee cul
ture, while at the same time his poetic gift
was given out through a published volume
of spngs and a tragedy. In any Monte
negrin village one can hear some of the
Prince's pretty ballads sung to the accom
paniment of the plaintive toned gusla, the
iiatioualmusical instrument In spite ot his
accomplishments, the Prince has iu recent
years done nothing but enjoy himself, leav
ing his country to take care of ItselC
TOTAL ABSTINEBCE HOTE&
Nattokai, Union per capita tax Is now
due. Bills arc sent out in Xovcmlior.
Up to dato. Iiwlu Society is the banner
one. One hundred strong! One hundred Is
a good niaik for all to aim at.
From efcjut socfetios that have sont in
October leports a gain of 81 over last year Is
loportcd. Keep up thetgood woik.
The now circular prepared by tho Liter
ary Committee, calling attention to the
pledge curds. Is now ready for mailing.
The indefatigable wortrer. Mr. P. W.
Joyce, has been in active service for 18
years. Jlr. Joyce nnd tho Pittsburg Union
are inseparable names.
Is ordering tracts societies would be
better.served by paying for the full year in
advance. Iu this way time and postage
would he saved. Send the Union Secretary
$8 for I0J a mouth by mall.
Blanks for October reports sent ont by
General Secretay Nolan, come In very
slowly. Local secretaries stionld bomoio
prompt! no society can hope to get alone
with a negligent secretary.
TOPICS OF THE TIME,
A Dutch Officer Who Claims to Bo
the Last Dauphin of France.
CURBING CHINA'S' YELLOW E1YEE.
French Feeling as to Their Ambassador at
the Court of H. James.
JEAN IXGEL0W AS POET LAUREATE
rWlUTTOT FOB THE DISFATCH.
One of the most celebrated claimants to
the throne of France is just now recalled
by a Ian suit in the French courts against
one Nauendorfl, a Dutch officer, who claims
to be, at least so the cables state, the genu
ine Dauphin or heir to tho crown of France,
who disappeared at the time of the Revolu
tion. It the officer actually claimed to be a
descendant of the son of Louis XVL there
would be something within reason in Ms
pretensions, but, inasmuch as the Dauphi n
was 9 years of age in 1791, the year of his
disappearance, and then practically half
dead with diseases acquired in prison, the
absurdity of Nauendorft's claims becomes
However, the agitation cannot fail for
the time being to recall the sad story of
the lost heir to the throne of France, par
ticularly in the conntry in which he is said
to have lound refuge. The little Prince's
awful imprisonment; his disappearance; the
arrival in this country of a family from
France with a child answer! ng to a dot the
describd appearance aid condition of the
child at this time; the miraculous return of
reasoning powers; his adoption by Iroquois
Indians, and the later eilorts ot Prince
Louis Phillipe to silence his claim by pur
chase, are all matters of history, but very
interesting. There are perfens liv
ing to-day Who "will remember
when, during the '40's, the matter
was brought to Its most interesting
point Such men as the Hon. John Jay,
Minister to Austria; Hamilton Fish, Bishop
Potter, of New York, and Bishop Kep, of
California, took' sides with the American
claimant. Thelatter was then known as Rey
Eleazar Williams, a missionary among the
Indians. An effort was also made to
organize a party in France to push the
man's claims, but it fell through and the
clergyman remained until bis death in 1858,
without having proved his claims or being
the gainer by them. He had married a
Miss Madeline Jourdau, a French-Indian
lady of great beauty, but I cannot say to a
certainty that he left any descendants.
What may be the history of this man
Naueudorff, would he interesting, perhaps.
if this thing of naving pretensions to royal
honors were not so oppressively common.
We still hare a few claimants left in
America, while in Fiance if all the pre
tenders, Bourbon, Imperial, Orleanist and
others were requested to declare thsmselves,
halt the population of the country would
rise to its feet
Tho Wandering Elver or China.
The "Curse of China," or as it is perhaps
known, the Hoang Ho or Yellow river, is
once more ravaging China, destroying hun
dreds of lives and millions of dollars' worth
of property. To some it may seem strange
that efforts are not made to prevent the
recurrence of these tremendous calamities.
Many 6uggestions4'have" been offered, but
the Chinese Government is not disposed to
adopt any of them, on account ot the im
mense cost entailed. However, it would
seem the best plan, and the cheapest, at
almost any cost, to curb the destructful
stream, it that be possible. Within tho
last 20 years it ha3 destroyed enough prop
erty to pay twice over for the engineering
work of the most costly plan proposed.
The "Wandering River" would seem a
bettername than "Yellow River." Dur
ing the last 2,500 centuries it has changed
its' course completely ten times, about 500
miles separating its most northern lrom its
its extreme southern course. The striking
peculiarsties of the overflow are that when
it breaks from the course it has been pur
suing, it goes wandering are vast plains
forming lakes here and rushing along there,
consuming everything it comes in contact
with, like' some great creeping monster.
The plains of the Hoang Ho'over 400 miles
wide and COO miles wide: millions of peo
ple cultivatd the rich soil which his been
deposited here during previous floods aud
when the terrible river overflows no one
knows what direction it will take. Flight
Is useless, the lugative pprhaps running
right into the teeth ot the monster. And
then the terrible stream goes wandering
about, months sometimes elapsing before it
finds its way to the sex
A Woman to Succeed Tennyson.
The suggestion which really came from
America, and was very early made in The
DisrATCir, that Miss Jean Ingelow be ap- I
pointed poet-laureate of England seems to
be taken quite seriously by our cousins
across the water. It comes, too, when the
fights of women are occasioning cousidcr
able discussion, even in Parliament. One
member of that body, Sir Wilfred Lawson,
emphatically insists that women are per
fectly able to take their places alongside
the men in intellectual pursuits and pro
fessions. ."Why should not women be Bishops?"
hotly contends Sir Wilfred, which, strange
ly enough, arouses t.'.e ire of some ot the
stanchest woman'a rights advocates. They
are seemingly afraid that Lawson'i remarks
may be really a delicate piece of sarcasm,as
he is known as a funny man in Parliament.
Say the ladies: "Sir Wilfred Lawson may
have met a Bibhop here and there who was
something of an old woman, but it docs
not follow that all old women would make
Author of a Popular Sonff.
A writer in a prominent eastern journal
fj't IOWI4 A. I'll I 'I 'ff v.
The Lost Dauphin.
stated recently that the author" and origin
of the lamous song, "Dixie," is not known
to a certainty. This is rather hard on old
Dan Emmett, the negro minstrel, who
proved, it is said, to the satisfaction of a
convention of publishers as early as 18G0
that he was the author and composer of the
melody. It is certain that W. A. Pond,
the music publisher, paid Mr. Emmett a
royalty on the song, aud numerous min
strels of the early 'GOs paid him 55 lor the
privilege of using it Mr. Emmett claims
that it was written in New York one morn
ing in the year 1853, and snng the following
evening at Mechanic's Hall, Broadway.
He Is Too Friendly to England.
But little more than a year has gone by since
the memorable visit of the French squadron
to England, on which, occasion the English
public found opportunities to express their
satisfaction with M. Waddington, the
French Ambassador at the Court of St
James. They noted bis many good services
toward perpetuating the good feeling be
tween the nations. Now, the French peo
ple are clamoring for M. Waddington's re
call. They think their representative's
friendship for England a little too warm,
and cite as proof his opposition to the
From his appearance and name Wadding
ton would be readily taken for an English
man and, barring bis having been born in
Paris, he is really a Briton, as both of his
parents certainly were. His father was
the son of a London merchant, who settled
in France in 1815. Waddington was edu
cated entirely at Rugby and Cambridge.
While at the latter college as an under
graduate he was one ot the Cambridge crew
in the university boat race. Mr. Wadding
ton was 39 years old before he began to take
an interest'in politic;, but he had already
achieved a great reputation as an authority
on numismatics and epigraphy and written
several excellent works on his travels in
Greece, Syria and Asia Minor. He bad
been iu politics six yeara when he was
elected, in 1871, to the National
Assembly by over 69,000 votes. From
that time on his career has been excep
tionally brilliant. In 187J he was Minister
of Public Instruction in M. Thier's Cabi
net and three years later was elected to the
Senate. A few weeks afterward M. Du
fanre became Premier and again Mr. Wad
dington was civen the Public Instruction
portfolio. In 1877 he was foreign Minister
and the following year was sent to Berlin
cs First French Plenipotentiary. On his
return he succeeded Dufaure as Premier,
but only for a few months, M. de Freyeiuet
taking his place. He still remained an
active member of the Senate, and in 1883
was sent to Moscow to represent France at
the coronization of the Czar, and a month
later made Minister to England, where he
has since remained.
Mr. Waddington is well liked bv those
whom he calls friends, but to others his
cold, dignified manner is somewhat repel
lent He is of medium height, with gray
hair and whiskers and blue eyes, and bas
the appearance of robust health!
A Famous Music Teacher.
There died recently in England a man
whose name was scarcely known, if at all,
in this country, and yet many ofthemost
distinguished members of the lyric, dra
matic and olher professions owed a very
considerable part of their fame to him. Be
he actor or orator, lawyer or clergyman,
there is nothing that so quickly earns
favor as the possession of a good voice and
as M. Emil Behnke had strengthened and
cultivated the vecal organs of some of the
most famous persons in England, he
is entitled to some part ot this
fame. M. Behnke arranged a system
of cultivating the voice, which is now con
sidered one of the best known. The volume
which he published on the subject: "Voice,
Song and Speech," was not remarkable for
its style, composition or construction, but
it fairly teemed with information on the
subject discussed. It is now in its thir
teenth edition, while his "Voice Training
Exercises" bas reached its sixtieth thou
sand. Her Face Is Her Fortune.
The Miss Dorothy Dene, who has just
arrived in this country in company with a
sister iu search of a theatrical engagement,
is one of the type of women who think that
comeliness of person is all that is required
to.insure a successful stage career. I well
remember the furor she caused in London
some forfr or five fears ago, when Sir
Frederick Leighton made her famous 'oy
using her as a model for "Iphigenia."
Everybody raved about Iicr charms then,
aud ball a dozen artists painted her into
some of their strongest works. Then she
went on the stage, and was quite a favorite
in England for some time, but her beauty
seems to have palled on the British public,
else why shonld she be put to such straights
r.s to enter this easily gulled countrvun
heralded and practically begiing a Job?
W. G. Kaufjiamt.
THE LOKD MAYOR HOT SHUBBED.
Iiyslclans Orders Compelled Gladstone
to Decline to Attend tho Banquet.
LoNDOjr, Nov. 3. Mr. Gladstone has
written a letter to Mr. Kuill, announcing
his inability to attend the coming banquet,
and expressing his regrets. His decision
not to attend the banquet is due, he says,
to the explicit advice of his physician, who
has insisted for the last seven years that he
should absent himself from all public ban
quets, and who will not permit an excep
tion to be made on the present occasion. In
concluding Mr. Gladstone says:
"I must congratulate yoa on the spirit
and success with which yoiisustaine 1 iu the
discussion preceding the election the prin
ciple of religious freedom."
FITS Alt tits stopped free by Dr. Kline's Great
Nerve Restorer. No fits after lint dj' use. Mar
rcloua cures, 'treatise and i U) trial bottle free to
fit cases. r. Mine, uu Arch t, f ntla,, l'a. en
THE CLUB WOMEN.
Mrs. C. L Wade.
The PIttsbnrs Woman's Clab.
The Pittsburg Woman's Club is the old
est club in Western Pennsylvania devoted
to the intellectual improvement of women.
It is 21 years of age. Everyone has heard
of the blue tea given by Mrs. Helen M.
Jenkins at her home on Arch street, Alle
gheny, and at which the Woman's Club
may be said to hare been founded.
The women's club movement in Pittsbnr
goes back farther, however. The idea of
such a club may be said to have originated
with the women wboyears ago used to meet
in the old Baptist Church at the corner of
Grant street and Third avenue. Mrs. Jano
Grey Swiashelm, Mrs. a L Wade and Mrs.
Helen M. Jenkins were among the ladies
mo3t active in the proceedings. Most of
them stood very much in awe of Mrs.
Swisshelm, who undertook the office of
critic whenever she thought anyone particu
larly needed admonition. One day an un
lucky young woman in her paper chanced
to make some statements Mr. Swisshelm
did not like. When the speaker bad finished
and was seated, Mrs. Swisshelm arose
Planting herself in the aisle between two
window?, she squared her shoulders and
looked over her glasses in a war that to tho
initiated indicated that the distinguished
suffragist was about to file a series of objec
tions. "Madam President," said she, 1 was to
have read an essay on Macbeth. I put on
ray black silk dress to-day. The essay is
in the pocket ol mv other dress, and I for
got it. If you will permit me I have a few
criticisms to make on the essay of the
young lady who preceded me.
The few criticisms quite demolished the
young ladv and the paper. Ever after the
ladies as they read were wont to keep one
eye on their manuscript and the other on
When the Woman's Club was organized
Mr. Swisshelm, however, was not among
its members. Tae club's avowed object is
"to bring together women interested in art,
literature, science and philanthropy for
the purpose of mental culture and mutual
help or whatever tends to thejidyancement
of women." Mrs. C. I. Wade is Tts-Presi-dent
aud Mrs. Hugo Rosenberg Secretary.
The club's past presidents include Mrs. XT.
J. Prentice and Mrs. George Taylor.
Officers are elected annually in January,
and the meetings are held on alternate
Tuesdays of each month in the Central
Board rooms. The club membership is
rated at about 40 active members and in
cludes many of the most talented and
prominent women in the two cities. The
topic for study during the present year is
Of the President,Mrs.C. LWade, a prom
inent educator said not long since: "Sha
is the wittiest and best informed woman I
have ever known." She is a native of
Pittsburg, was once a teacher, and was
principal of the Ralston school at the
height of its prosperity. She has always
been interested in woman suflrags, and her
articles criticising the masculine J w
have occasioned, that self-satisfied por'tioi
of humanity many a squirm. Her literary
work has been varied and of a high stand
ard. Her firBt article, due to the encour
ment of Mr. Robert Nevin, appeared in
the Pittsburg Lender, and was widely read
and commented upon. A number ot peo
ple claimed the credit of it, even vouch
safing the information to the real author,
mucn to her amusement Since then she
has gained a repntation more than local.
She is the oniv woman who is a member at
the Pittsburg Press Club.
Mrs. Wade has a pretty home at Edge
wood where every .Tone she entertains the
Woman's Club. She has been President of
the club for many years and usually repre
sents it at conventions. Unfortunately ill
ness prevented her attendance at the con
vention of Pennsylvania women's elubs
held during the week at Philadelphia.
Following is an abstract from a history of
the club read by Mrs. Wade in the spring,
at the assembly of women's clubs in
The stromr minded woman It "popular V
supposed to be a shockingly awful creature
who will not temple to lead a prayer meet
ing or speak in public. Women are usually
us dumb and dead as doornail in any meet
ing that has u man in it When we sug
gested "The Woman's Club" as a name for
onr organization some of the members
thought "cluli" did not .-sound roiU-aiid-watery
enough and suggested card p!.yin-j
aud drinking, but, as the dictionary in
dorsed it as a perfectly respectable word,
the majority of unvoted in favor of It The
success of onrcinb has demonstrated to the
public that women can get alon? without
thchtin!;, and uo not, wnen they cannoc
have tlielr own way. taKe tneirai-nea and
go home. Women's main topics of conver
sation are supposed to bo dress, disease and
domestics. Club life has not made us love
the dear luetnern less, but respect ourselves
more. The mmt enthusiastic toast at onr
anniversary banquets Is 'The Jlen. God
Notes From the Clab Rooms.
Tns Woman Suffrage Club will meet
Thursday next in the Carnegio Art Eoom.
The Saturday Club of Wayne, Pa., gave a
tea for the delegates to the clab convention
held ut the Century Club November 2 and 3.
Hits. W. n. Siviter. of the Women's Press
Club, had a sketch, "A Swiss Love Story."
an exquHite piece of word painting, in Oo-
touer snore & ones.
TnE live topic at last Tuesday's meeting of
the Woman's Chib was whether the World'i
Fair should be kept open on Sunday. Tho
question was argued pro nnd con, princi
pally con, and with great vigor.
Sins. Makt Temple iiAvno, of Philadel
phia nnd I'lttsburs press representative lor
Pennsylvania on iho women's auxiliary to
World's Fair Commissioners, ai visiting
relatives in Allegheny during the weelr..
The Vassar Students' Aid Society has
pent two young women to Vassar College
this year, instead of ono as expected. The
scholarships are awarded through a com
petitive examination. A mee:lng of the so
ciety will be held soon, to arrange for tho
TnE ladies of the Travelers' Clnb are deep
ly interested in tho newspapers theso days
beennse a serios of political discussions has
been inaugurated in the club. Next Friday's
subject is "Keciprocity," and If wme ofthn
fair orators do not give air. James li. Blaine,
pointers, l.e may considernnoselt "smarter"
than this town thought ho was1. "Free
trade" comes next on the list and as thera
are only two "iree traders" In the clnb,
free tracto is likely to have a very poor show.
The Travelers Club has decided to ap
point each month two committees, one a
press committee, whose duty it shall bo to
offer to tho dally paper notices of approaoh
ing meetings and other announcements;
the other a committee to seoure muslo for
each meeting of the club during their
month. November's press committee- is
compo-cd or Miss Martha Grlegs, MUs M.
Klcanora Anderson and Miss Uda C. Kin?.
Tho music committee comprises Mrs.
Georgo King, Miss Bojlo and Miss Bessia
Testings, tronserinss, overcoatings and
rendy-made ovorcoats at Fltcaixa's, 431
Dn. Sieoebt's Angostnra Bitters, lndone&t
Dy physicians for purity.