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The Horses That Will Gatner Together
the Beauty and Fashion Next Week
A Vc-n- or the Many Entries Late Im
portance of the Hackneys.
icoimisroxDEXCE or the dispatch.
New Yoke, Nov. S. The horse show
tullbetbe opening society event of the
year in New York. Pittsburg people can
hardly estimate the importance of this
gathering of equine beauties. When they
realize that during the week boxes have
been sold for as much as S6S0 each, they
may get some idea of what it means to
.New York society.
The show opens on the 14th of this
month. It is given by the National Horse
Phon- Association of America, and this is
-sWi5ual exhibition. This prom
jees to be the cut successful ever held in
Madison Square Garden. There hare been
over 1,500 entries made so lar in the list
of prizes offered, and the votaries of society
of Dame Fashion can promise themselves a
week of social dissipation, such as is rarely
seen in New York.
Every One In Society 'Will Go.
"Why this collection of horses in the
Madison Square Garden should be espe
cially chosen by society as the ODening of
the winter season is a question far too com
plicated to be readily answered. Society
demands that all its votaries shall be pres
ent, and the man who would absent himself
Ifrom such a feast of beauty must indeed be
reft of all gallantry. To the aid of the
lai?s the unqualified success of the horse
tur heretofore is considerably indebted.
Ths horses entered for the coming show
arc the best and choicest in the land. Only
a few understand, the high entrance and ex
acting conditions in proportion to the
prizes olicred. In 1SS3, which was the
lirst horse show held, there were only 440
entries, as compared with 1,500 and odd
this year, and at that time many specimens
won "prizes that now would not even be
admitted into the show ring. The associa
tion has yearly increased the value ot its
prizes, and now there is. over $35,000 for
competition, being the largest amount ot
money eTcr offered by any horse show in
the world. This amount has been divided
among the thoroughbreds, Arabians, trot
ters, hunters, hackneys, four-ln-hand
and tandem teams; the park police and
metropolitan police classes; the brougham
and victoria parade, and the saddle and
Hard to Get the Thornnsliorpds.
The choice of place is naturally given to
the thoroughbred, which has tour entries,
and, judging by the quality of the horses
entered, the competition will be a keen one.
There is Saxony, by Saxou; Imp. Lunar
Eclipse, Imp. Dandy Dinniont and Mikado.
The thoroughbred classes have never been
fully filled, on account of the apparent re
luctance ot the breeders of the thoroughbred
horses to risk theiralmost priceless stallions
in the show ring. Most oi 'the great breed
ing farms arc located in Kentucky and
California, and the long journey in itself
would be a scere tax on such nervous
horses. Even fTOO, the large first prize in
this class, would not be the slightest in
ducement to have Charles Reed bring St.
Blaise from his Eairview Stud in Tennessee.
It will be a pretty contest between the four
entered, and as each one is of a distinct
type, the judges have a hard task before
The class for Arab stallions, 3 years and
over, is likely this year to be ot unusual
interest. Mr. S. S." Ilowland, of Mount
Morris, X. Y., has always secured the prize
In this class, owing to no competition, not
that in any way, Leopard, Mr. Howland's
entry, should bedispamged, for he has an
exceptionally beautiful poise of head and
-neck, and his jaunty carriage shows the
blood of the desert. Leopard was a present
to the late General Grant from the Sultau
of Turkey, and is a beautiful dapple gray.
But Luckv Baldwin, of San Francisco, in
tends, if possible, to have his stallion Ac
cionista w ear the blue ribbon this year.
The Growing Interest In Hackneys.
The cream of the trotting world will con
test for the champion prize valued at f 1,000,
won last year by Bundle & "White's Quar
termaster. Over 20 horses will compete
lor the Eoadstcr prize, and the Boad Big
prize, where appointments are considered,
lias always called forth a keen competition.
A dozen or more competitors will show
their taste and what they call "road form."
Although the prizes for the heavy draught
stallions have been eagerly contested lor,
this year the Canadians are' sending down
vme ot their best.
The hackneyi this year, under the aus
ices of the American Hackney Horse
ciety, will excel themselves. The kack
y is essentially a show horse, and the
erest in this- tvpe has wonderfuuly in
sed. Next to the thoroughbreds, more
ley has been invested in the hackney
t in any other horse. The increase in
th in the large cities ot the United
.s demands a horse with pace, action,
manners and good temper, fit to draw
oria or familv carriage, and no better
if this desired horse could be secured
the hacknev. Another thing that
nds the hackney to the breeding
especially to the farmers, is that he
used untilfour years old on the
id then thoroughly bitted and man-,
id sent to the city where he brings
ce. It will take many years to till.
nd for such horses in the New
j lino Animals In This Class,
those entered for this show are A.
's Cadet and M-"" ssofLondes
lased by Dr. ward Webb
v Fairiax, to "ood judg
ment is due the addition of the finest horse
ot his class to the stock of this country;
Beau Lyons, the property of Mr. T. East
man; Bonfirc,John A. Logan's beautiful
stallion, and the old favorite, Fashion,
owned by Mr. Prescott Lawrence. Mr.
Lawrence also enters Nero; W. D. Sloan
sends Berk?erker, who helped Matchless
win the championship prize last year, and
Glccdale, owned by F. G. Bourne. Mr. A.
J. Cassatt's Cadet will be seen in the show
ring this year for the first time, and judg
ing from his magnificent list of prizes, won
in the keenest competition in England,
Matchless will have to look to his honors.
Mr. Cassatt will also be represented by that
good little horse, Little Wonder, who has
the strength ot a draught horse with the
quality of a thoroughbred. Mr. Cassat is
an expert whip, and President of the Phila
delphia Coaching Club. His four-in-hand
team of Little Wonders excites the admira
tion and envy of all the lovers of a per
fectly appointed break team.'
The pony class was never better filled,
and some of the entries especially that of
George Green, of Forestview farm, who has
recently imported largely of Shetland stock,
will, from their diminutive size and play
fulness, delight the children. Then an
other feature of the pony exhibit is that
the masters and mistresses of the diminutive
horses have entered more of their pets in this
show than at any previous time, and the
parade ot ponies and carts and little run
abouts promises to be especially good.
Tho Sixteen Tandems Entered.
An especially attractive feature will be
that of the 1C tandems competing in the
ring. Among those exhibiting will be T.
Sullern Taylor, A. J. Cassatt, John A.
Logan, Harry Hamlin and S. Sv'Howland.
1'here will be a dozen four-in-hands entered
bv such well-known enthusiasts as H. Mc
Kini Twombly, Dr. W. Seward Webb, O.
H. P. Belmont, T. Suflern Taylor, F. O.
Beach, George Curtis and E. Widener.
The list of exhibitors in the other carriage
horse classes are splendidly filled, and there
will be no lack of interest at any time for
those viewing the ring.
The saddle horses are unusually promi
nent this year, as riding has been taken up
b7 Dame Fashion, and the bridle paths in
the park are more crowded every year. Of
course, every man or woman who rides,
thinks his or her horse a perfect hr or, and
over 100 horses are entered in the arious
classes for the prizes. There is an espe
cially large entry for the High School class.
The hunters and jumpers that every year
delight the visitor and draw the crowd will
be plentiful Among the exhibitors are
Mayor Grant, F. Gray Griswold, F. Geb
haril, Thomas Hitchcock, Jr., H. L. Her
bert, George Pepper, J. a Hewitt, Mrs.
Marsland. Vanderbilt Allen and others.
Elbeet T. Biddick.
LIZZIE BORDEN'S HEAD.
The Verdict of a Xew School Phrenologist
Upon the Young Woman Accased of
Murdering Her Father and Step-Mother
Principles of the Science.
IWMTTF.X TOR THE DISrATCH.l
Lizzie Borden was held "probably
guilty" at the court hearing last August.
Her trial by jury will occur the latter part
of this month.
Miss Borden cannot be easily character
ized; her nature as described by the neigh
bor?, none of whom knew her intimately, is
cold, passionless, self-sufficient They say
she had no confidants, and that she was
dominated only by her stern New England
creeds of right and wrong. But it was not
until the crime had been committed that
they molded into words their impressions
of her, and with the best Intention in the
world, subsequent events must have had an
influence in the estimate ot human nature.
NeUon Sizer is President of the Amer
ican Institute of Phrenology, but be claims
tn read dispositions best by the contours ot
the head and face. I submitted to him the
photograph ot Miss Borden from which the
following cut was made. I did not tell him
that it was a photograph of Mis Borden
and he had no means of ascertaining who
the original was. - At the end of 15 minutes
Prof. Sizer wrote out the following which
he calls his "analysis-and criticism:"
A Delineation of Character.
Oct. 27, 1S91 ,
Ladt We boo In this portrait practical
talent. The fullness across the loner part
of the forehead evinces large perceptive
faculties as :t croup, making her bright,
quick to see, to know and remember, giving
tuo talents necessary for practical educa
tion, for art, mechanism and for , business.
Iho head seems to his broad In the sides"
above and about the ears, showing bravery,
energy, severity, and a strong desire for
ownership, and laying the foundation for
good business talent and tho tendency to
push the cause which has business Involved
in it to a successful termination.
The face indicates power. The broad
cheole bones and the prominence ot them,
the maaslvcness ot tho lower Jaw, as it
makes an angle to get up toward the hair,
show vital power and the tendency to he
thorough and severe. The month indicates
determination and resolution. The bi eadth
or the head above and about the ears shows
courage, selfishness and executive ability.
She appears to have large firmness, that is
shown in the heizht of the head, on a line
fiom the opening of one ear to that of the
other over the top. We think she has a
pretty good share of self-esteem. She is
self-willed, courageous, high tempered,
secretive, fond or property. She is not a
thinker und reasoner; she is a critic, but
she is rather light in the reasoning power,
thouzh amply developed in the abilities
which relate to practical knowledge and
the ability to be Ingenious and artistic. If
tho back and top of the head were available
it would be an aid to the full estimate of her
She appears to have mora courage, than
prudence, more determinatioilVthan plia
bility, moro force than restraint of mind.
Tho New School of Phrenology.
This is certainly shrewd and rather keen,
and Prof. Sizer asserts that it is scientific.
However that mav be, there is an incorpor
ated Institute which, after a lecture course
of six weeks, bestows a diploma, entitling
the graduate to read human nature with his
chart. It is a system which has been
bounding into public credulity with its
lines and angles and technical expressions,
and is interesting because of its multitude
of claims. It is not "bumpology," for that
has been exploded by various people. Bor
rowing the definition used in the .institute,
phrenology is "the . estimation' of the
size ' of the phrenological organs by the
radial distance Iron the brain center to the
A brain fiber Iga'dingio the,eye is.one of
the, organs of sight. Whymay not another
fiber, whose origin is the medulla oblongata,
leading to the top of the head, be the organ
of firmness? asks the new school of phre
nology. If the head, at a fiber's terminal
point, is roundly developed, it proves that
the organ (which, by the way, was located
there by observation of 1,000 cases) is in a
state of constant activity. If the fiber is
seldom required, the development of. sur
rounding organs will produce, compara
tively speaking, a depression in the skull.-'
A VAMPIBE GOES INSANE.
And Fights Like a Tiger When Taken From
the Ohio Penitentiary.
Columbus, O., Nov. 5. Special Dep
uty United States Marshall Williams, of I
Cincinnati, this evening removed James
Brown, a deranged United States prisoner,
from the Ohio penitentiary to the National
Asylum, at Washington, D. C The pris
oner fought like a tiger against being re
moved, thinking he was being taken to his
execution. He has a wonderful criminal
record. Twenty-five years ago he was
charged with being a vampire and lived
on human blood. He was a Portu
guese sailor and shipped on a fishing
smack from Boston up the coast in 1807.
During the trip two of the crew were miss
ing and an investigation was made. Brown
was found one day in the hold of the ship,
sucking blood from the bouy of one of the
sailors. The other body was found at the
same place and had been served in a similar
Brown was returned to Boston and con
victed of murder and sentenced to be
hanged. President Johnson commuted the
sentence to imprisonment for life. After
serving 15 years in Massachusetts he was
transferred to the Ohio prison. kHe has
murders since his confine-
A SOLID 0EGAKIZATI0H.
Ot Railway Employes That Is Promised for
an Early Day.
St. Louis, Nov. 5. Special Grand
Chief W. F. Missimer, of the Brotherhood
of Carmen, of St Joseph, Mo., is in the
city on an important mission. He said to
d ay, while talking about the recent trouble
between railroad employers and employes:
"We have a surprise in store for them in
the shape of an international organization
of .railway employes, to include every rail
road employe, from the truckman up. This
organization will be in shape belore Jan
uary, and meetings in regard to it are be
ing held all over the United States. We
have all our plans ready, and all we want
to do now is to issue the final calL The or
ganization will take in all the railway
brotherhood now in existence, and will
have something like 180,000,menibers."
"Who are the men backing this scheme?"
asked the reporter. '
"I am not at liberty at the present time
to make that public, but you can say that
they consist of some of the leading.railroad
men of this country. I leave to-morrow for
Chicago, to confer with some of the leaders,
and will probably be able to give the press
more about the organization then."
New Mexico's Bishop a Citizen.
Washixgtox, Nov. C This morning
EL Bev. Placcdus L. Chaepello, bishop of
New Mexico, appeared before Justice Cox,
with Bev. Father J. A. Walker, of St. Pat
rick's Church, as his witness, for naturali
zation. By taking the necessary oath that
he had resided here for more than five years,
was attached to the principles of the con
stitution of the United States, well disposed
to peace and good order, and bad "arrived in
the country fhree years before, he reached
'the age of 21,, he became a citizeq by swear
ing allegiance to the. Constitution, and, re-
nounciagr allegiance to the Hep ubiic of
France, I ' , ' ''
SPEEDY SNAP "SHOTS.
A Method of Taking Photographs in
One Ten-Millionth of a Second.
ELECTRIC TOOL FOR CARVING.
Signaling to Mars From the Great Cities
cf (lie United states.
THE TELEPHONE FOE STREET CARS
IWItlTOJT FOR THE DtSrATCH.t
Electricity has been doing some pretty
work in the photographing of drops of
water, and Prof.- C. ,V. Boys, in a recent
lecture, gave several illustrations of what
has been accomplished. He first showed
photographs taken by the electric spark of
soap bubblos in the act of bursting, and ex
plained the process by which it is possible
to ascertain the respective speed at which
different soap bubbles burst. One photograph
showed an issue of liquid from a very small
pipe, which to the naked eye appeared to
be a perfect stream, but which, on an elec
tric photograph being takeD, was resolved
into a beautiful and regular scries of drops.
In connection 'with this Prof. Boys re
marked that the Ecience of liquids and of
the forces involved in the phenomena of
the surface of liquids was one of the most
interesting branches of physical science.
The effect on a fountain of playing or sing
ing was to change its appearance into one,
two or three apparently separate, clear
streams ot liquid, but a photograph taken
as a tuning fork was struck, demonstrated
that the water was disposed in drops in per
fectly regularity. A picture of a rifle bal
let passing through the air at the rate of
2,000 feet a second, was also exhibited.
Prof. Bovs, 'however, showed that if it
were wished to investigate what was really
happening when a. rifle bullet was being
projected through the air at the maximum
possible speed, it would be necessary to
i have recourse to a method of illumination
infinitely more rapid than the electric
spark. For this purpose, a mirror of steel,
about the size of a 25-cent piece, is now used.
It is so mounted as to revolve with ease
without getting hot, at the enormous speed
of about 1,000 times a second, and the cud
of the beam of light given off from this
mirror passes across the screen at such a
rate that it enables photographs to be taken
in about one ten-millionth ot a second.
An Electric Carving Tool.
The announcement was recently made
that a tool bad been invented whereby
sculptors and others into whose occupation
the carvine of marble, stone or granite en
tered largely could, in future, dispense with
slow and laborious handwork, and avail
themselves in a most thorough and satis
factory way of the application of electricity
to their calling. Details of this tool have
now been made public It is worked by
two or three cells of storage,batterv, giving
giving four to six volts and eignt to ten
ampheres of current. It is claimed that
with this tool a stone carver can do as much
work in one'day as four or live men with
chisels and mallets. The device weighs
about six pounds, and is provided with a
plunger, the rapidity of whose
stroke is regulated by a button
on the side of the tool. The stroke can be
made to vary from one-eizht of an inch to
one inch, at a speed varying from 300 to 600
strokes per minute. The practical value of
such a device is evident. Instead of having
to strike the tool itself, the operator need
only guide its movements, and is thus able
THE INVALID BECLIXIKO CHAIR,
not only to do the work much more rapidly
but to give greater attention to the work
ing out ot the design. Although six
pounds is the heaviest tool thus far con
structed, the principle of the machine can
be widely extended, and applied to all pur
poses, from the most delicate sculpture
work to the heaviest of granite drilling and
mining. It has been found to be 'particu
lar! v -useful for the carving of letters and
similar devices where it is necessary to fol
low accurately straight or curved lines. In
ordinary stone carving the operator has
first to carve out the letters in the rough,
and then to finish them, but the action of
this tool is so-troe and fine that only one
application is required.
Starting Cars by Telephone.
The latest method of starting street cars
in Denver is said to result in a saving ot at
least 80 per cent over the cost of the ordi
nary system. The difficulty of maintaining
schedule time with a large number of cars
is well recognized,, aud on many lines if n
car be delayed by an accident for a quarter
ot an hour or 20 minutes the whole line will
be so demoralized th.it schedule time, will
not be overtaken during the whole day. In
the city ot Denver there are 74 miles of
electrical and 13 miles of cable tracks, re
quiring 103 trains in daily operation. To
obviate the inconvenience which a break
down ofany kind inevitably causes a system
of trleuhone circuits has been arranged,
with various call points, all communicating
with the head office. Every conductor on
arriving at the terminus ot the route im
mediately reports the number ot his car to
headquarters aud receives in reply his
proper leaving time and any instructions
that may be necessary. The dispatch clerk
is in this way advised of the whereabouts of
each car and is very often enabled to fill un
a space of from 30 to GO minutes caused by a
"paraae. xue saving or -triers at the
various termini is taken as jst off against
the expense ot the telephones.
A New Anemometer.
A new method of recording wind phe
nomena has been adopted at' the Odessa Ob
servatory. By this device the direction and
velocity of the winds are marked on a cylin
der by one symbol. The record consists of
arrows, which are printed on the paper
covering the cylinder. Their position shows
the direction of the wind, and the number
ot them marked on a length ot paper corre
sponding to one hour furnishes data for find
ing the velocity by an empirical soale, the
value of whose readings are determined by
comparison with Bobinson's anemometer.
The recording apparatus is actuated by clock
work, . and the indications are made by
Signalling to the Planet Mars.
In commenting on a recent proposal that
an attempt be made to signal- Mars by a
systematic and periodic adjustment of the
DISPATCH, SUNDAY. NOVEMBER
lights of the city of London, a correspond
ent stated that America is in a position to
carry out such a scheme better than any
other nation at the present day. He now
supplements that statement by showing how
North America offers the best facilities for
a terrestrial signal. The continent is over
run with telegraph lines, and dotted with
towns enjoying the use of the electric
light. He considers that it would be easy
for the towns on the great plains between
the Bocky Mountains and the Alleghany
Mountains to combine in making systems
of electric lights which would convey
intelligence to the supposed inhabi
tants of '.Mars. Conjoint action would
be secured by the use of the telegraph.
Squares, triangles, or other figures could be
picked out by the electric lights on the
background of the prairie. He estimates
the average thickness ot the atmosphere on
each planet at not more than 50 miles, and,
as the beams, being directed upward, would
suffer the minimum absorption, the lights
would be sufficiently powerful to penetrate
the.100 miles of atmosphere. It is well
known that the flash of the heliograph can
be seen 100 miles in the pure air of high
mountains, such as the Hymalayas, and
that an electric beam from a lighthouse is
visible for 20 or 30 mile? in the thicker at
mosphere near the surface of the earth.
An Electric Invalid Chair.
Captain Alexander Johnston, of Wash
ington, D. C, who is now visiting his
mother at 511 Shady Lane, Fast End, this
city, has invented an electric invalid chair,
a model of which is now running in Balti
more. Captain Johnston is a brother of
the late Dick Johnston, District Attorney
for this county. As can be seen
from the accompanying sketch, the chair is
mounted upon a case which contains the
motor and storage cells. The guiding ap
paratus is like that of an ordinary low
seated tricycle, and at one side of the seat
is a lever connected with a resistance box
for controlling the motor. 'At the other
side of the chair is the brake handle, which
is an ordinary lever friction brake. The
motor is wound for a low E. M. F., and is
ot the slow speed design, connected to the
driving shaft by a single reduction gearing.
Captain Johnston gives the following de
tails of this chair: "Five aud one-half
ampere hours to each pound of weight.
Speed, eight miles an hour for five hours,
though at lower speed battery will last for
CO miles of travel. Total weight, 150
The whole design appears to be one of
great compactness and efficiency, and the
vehicle is not quite as cumbersome as
might be expected. Perhaps we shall see
electrically propelled invalid chairs in
great force at the Columbian Exposition in
1892, And Captain Johnston "says that
while he does not expect horses will become
so scarre that we will have to go out to the
Schenley Park Zoo to see one, he does ex
pect that vehicles on the principle of his
chair will make them considerably less nu
merous on the-streets than now.
Electric Eight and Bird Life.
Dr. Morris Gibbs, in analyzing the causes
of the decrease in the numbers, or the ab
solute extinction, of certain of our birds,
says that the lighthouses of onr great lakes
and coasts destroy many thousands each
year, and possibly hundreds of thousands,
the birds killing themselves by dashing
against the lights when migrating season
ally. He doubts whether there exists an
invention, with the exception of the gun,
more dpdly to birds than the electric
light. Another indictment is brought
against the headlight ot the locomotive,
and also against the telegraph and other
wires which form a network through the
country. All these causes unquestionably
contribute in a greater or less degree to the
destruction ot birds, but it has been con
clusively proved that when the number of
birds destroyed at any particular place by
any of these agencies has been carefully
determined by a series ot daily records, the
result lias inevitably been such as to lead
to the belief that "the accounts generally
given of the aggregate destruction of birds
by various forms of the electric light have
been greatly exaggerated.
Electric l'illar Ladder.
An excellent means of facilitating the
labors of workmen who are mainly em
ployed in ascending high lamp pillars has
been provided in a newly invented electric
pillar ladder. The object of the invention
is to do away with the necessity of the car
rying of long ladders on movable pins by
workmen. By a turn ot a key at the base
of the pillar a rod or chain is raised which
causes steps to shoot out on either side of
the pillar. These form a safe and strong
ladder, and they can be withdrawn within
the pillar when no longer requited by a re
verse turn of the key.
1W0 LESSONS OF A WBECK.
English Signal 3Ien Are Overworked and
American Cars Are tho Safest.
London, Nov. fl. The signal man
Holmes, who is held responsible for the
railroad disaster near Thirsk, shows signs
of mental derangement. Holmes had
passed Tuesday night at the bedside of his
dyins child. After the death of the child
he asked the station master for leave of
absence, but his request was refused and he
was compelled to take his place at the sig
nals. Pnysically worn out by the fatigue
of his sick-bed vigils, and tired mentally,
he fell asleep and thus precipitated the
Another lesson taught by the accident is
the superiority of the American car over
the Engiiih car. In a collision the latter
collapsed like egg boxes.
A PLAIN TALK
On a Plain Subject In Plain Lanc;nage.
A winter is just before us with all of its
biting winds, cold drizzling rains, sloppy,
muddy streets, and sudden changes of tem
perature. This will cause at lea-t one-half
of the people to have catarrh, colds, coughs,
pneumonia or consumption. Thousands of
-people will lose their lives and tens of
thousands will acquire some chronic ail
ment from which they will never recover.
Unless you take the necessary precautions
the chances are that you (who read this)
will be one of the unfortunate ones. Little
or no risk need be run if Pe-ru-na is kept
in the house and at the first appearance of
any. symptom take it as directed on tho
label. No one. who values his welfare
should bewithout a copy of The Family
Physician) No. 2, a complete guide to the
treatment and prevention of all climatic
diseases of winter. Sent free by The Pe-ru-na
Drug Manufacturing Company, Colum-
ADRIFT ON THE SEAS.
Involuntary Wanderings That Peo
pled the Isles of the Pacific.
THE EVIDENCE OF LANGUAGE
Tending Toward the Oriental Origin
Lven the Indian I.'acs.
INSTANCES OF BEJIAEKABLE JODRXEIS
fwniTTEf FOR THIS DISPATCH 1
In the earliest days of navigation across
the Pacific Ocean the myriads of islands,
big and little, scattered over the broad ex
panse were found to be inhabited. Ques
tions as to the origin of thee people and
how they reached their island homes, sep
arated as they often are by hundreds of
miles of ocean, have long interested anthro
pologists. It was certain that the oceanic
people could not have originated where
they were found, for their relationship, not
only with one another, but also with the
inhabitants of the Malay archipelago, was
ea-ily apparent. An hypothesis that had
SOUTH SEA KATITE
considerable vogue was that these islanders
were merely remnants of the people of a con
tinent that years ago Bank beneath the
waves with only its mountain tops peering
above them. This hypothesis was proved
to be worthless.
In the course of the investigations it has
become perfectly evident that these islands
were peopled by migrations and that very
many of these migrations were involuntary.
It has been observed that the greatest and
most eastern of these Pacific races, the
Polynesians, in their traditions, mode of
life, religious practices, resemble in many
respects the Papuans, Malayans, and even
Even Oar Indians Itelated.
Some careful observers also have found
analogies between the Polynesians and the
natives of North and South America, and
it may be that our Indian races had some
part in peopling the Pacific islands, a sup
position tnat derives tne more prooaoimy
from the fact that the prevailing winds aud
currents south ot the Equator move from
east to west.
Since the Pacific became well known
numerous instances of migrations from con
tinental lands to the islands and from archi
pelago to archipelago have been recorded.
Rectus tells of "a Japanese junk which, in
1832, was carried by a typhoon far east of
the island home of the nine poor fishermen
who were on board. The ICuro Sivo cur
rent bore the castaways still further east
They lost all their bearings, knew not
whither they were drifting, and for ten
months they were buffeted here and there
on unknown seas until finally their helpless
vessel brought np on the coast of Oahu in
the Hawaiian Islands. Thanks to their
load of fish and the rain water they caught,
four of the unfortunates lived to tell the
story of their terrible sufferings.
Hawaiian Besexnnlance to the Japs.
"It is plain now that we came from Asia"
said the Hawaiians as they recognized the
resemblance between these foreigners and
themselves. Pine trees brought from the
coasts of Oregon or Vancouver Island ar;
often stranded on the shores of this archi
pelago and the traditions of Hawaii have
handed down reports of red men from the
far East whom some chance has cast upon
One of the greatest geographers has said
that nations push forward to possess new
lauds in a direction opposite to that of the
general movement of the air and waters.
This is the case in the Pacific To be sure
the general movement of air and currents
flowing west produces reflux currents mov
ing east, which have undoubtedly been of
great importance in scattering people among
tne eastern arcnipciagos. xsut inese
tort-ilm of Crefrrt-h 11
ItACES OT THE
counter currents are almost wholly north of
the Equator, where oceanic lands ar? rare.
Most of the Polynesian islands are south of
the Equator, where strong currents move
across the ccean from the Western world
ton ard Australia and New Guinea; a'ld to
reach these Eastern islands the boats of the
unfortunate casiawsys or voluntarv trav
elers must have been driven by wind and
wave over a tortuous course until at last,
when far towards America, they struck the
westward currents .nd wind zones and were
carried to the new homes of which they had
Driven Tar From tho Direct Course.
Olten, if ijiey could have traveled in a
straizht line, a'iournev of five of six hun
dred miles would have taken them to their
new places oi aooac. dui, as jiecius nas
said, the authentic records of these invol
untary voyages, made during the past three
centuries, "show that many times the actual
journey was two or three times as
long as the shortest route. It is certain
that comparativelv few of these castaways
were spared to Se the seed from which
future peoples were to spring. How many
of them with their frail crafts were swal
lowed up in the deep?
There is proof, also, that these migrations
have not onlv been the result of accident,
but, sometimes, alo, of deliberate purpose.
Two scholars, the late Prof. Quartrefages
and Mr. Otto Sittig have given great atten
tion to collecting the evidences of authen
ticated cases of involuntary wanderings in
the Pacific. A mere catalogue of the known
instances recorded by Qjartrefages in his
"Les Polvnesiens et Leurs Migration,"
and by Sittig in his study "Ueber Un
freiwiliige Wandernngen im Grossen
Ozean" would fill several columns.
Drifted for Seycnty-Two Days.
A remarkable instance is that recorded
by missionaries in the Philippine Islands as
occurring in 1606. Twenty-nine natives of
Palau, which at that time had never been
seen by civilized man, were driven by a
storm far West of their home and then
drifted with the current to Samal one of
the Philippine Islands. Their two boats
drifted for 72 d.iys and five of the men died
ot exhaustion during the u00 mile journey.
A few days later two women lrom the same
island were brought by the same chance to
the same plaee of refuge.
Kotzebue tells of Japanese who were
blown away from their native shores and
actually lived to reach the American
coast having traveled across the North
Pacific in the ICuro Slvo and the eastward
drift north of the Equator. Now and then
junks hare been driven from Chinese
waters to the American coast.
Another very interesting fact is that
there are many records of involuntary voy
ages made from Eastern to Western is
lands. The longest journies on record have
been north of the Equator where little land
is found and the drifts have extended from
Asiatic waters to Hawaii or North Amer
ica. These accidents ot navigation some
times have curious linguistic results. Di
alects closely allied to the Tongan, tor in
stance, are found hundreds of miles away
with other dialects intervening.
WlUte Castaways In the Ocean.
Last year a solitary white man, the sole
survivor of a shipwrecked "crew, was res
cued from an uninhabited island in the
North Pacific. There is no doubt that
white castaways are to-day living on out of
the way islands, seldom visited by ships,
and are scanning the horizon anxiously for
the relief that is long in coming. In 1887
13 sailors of the French ship Tamaris took
South Sea Catamarau.
refuge, after the sinking of their vessel,
upon one of the Crozet Islands, south of
Madegascar and far towards the Antarctic
Circle. There they lived for nine months,
subsisting on biscuit they had saved from
the wreck, penguin eges and" fish. They
would doubtless have been rescued if their
patience had held out. Bnt, as the record
they left behind them shows, tbey sought
to reach in small boats another island 80
miles away, which they believed ws nearer
the track of whalers; and thev pershed in
the attempt, for they were never beard of
The breadth of the Pacific would seem to
interpose ah unsurmountable obstacle to
the immigration of savages in their tiny
crafts. But this obstacle has been more
than counterbalanced by the myriads of
islands that have served as stepping stones
for the human race on its way across the
great waste of waters.
Cvkus a Adajis.
Won't Sing TLronsh a Telephone.
During late years the theatrophone has
become more and more common in Paris,
nearly all the larger cafes, etc., being thus
connected with the theaters and the opera.
Now, however, a tenor vocalist at the Opera
Comiquc !ai entered a protest against this
apparatus, maintaining that he is engaged
to sing iorthapublicand not for subscribers
to the telephone, and that his renown as a
singer sutlers, inasmuch as his voice heard
through the telephone is, of course,
. A Smart Business Triclc
The thrifty Scotchmen who manage the af
fairs of the,town of Paisley recently discov
ered a new means of tnrning an honest
bawbee to the town's benfifc They have leased
the public street lamp posts to an advertis
ing firm to be fitted up with frames j'cr tLe
display of advertising posters. The lease
carried with it the provision that any work
required in connection with fitting up the
lamp posts should be done by a Paisley
Without doubt the most wonderful remedy
for pain la Salvation OIL It sells for 25c
THE VISITING . CAED.
What Good Form Requires as to It
Material Get-Up and Use.
SIMPLICITY IS THE FIRST RULE.
Usage as to the Folding Down of the Upper
Left. Hand lorner.
THE PERMISSIBLE ABBRETIATI0N3
rwnrrrEj foe the dispatch. J
Visiting cards are capable of bestowing a
great deal pleasure, since their appear
ance at yonr door usually denotes that the
persons whose names they bear desire to
show yon courteous attention. They 'may
be used to express welcome to the neighbor
hood, kindly congratulation in the case of
any piece of good fortune, or sympathy in
the event of sorrow. Sometimes, too, they
Not Tn; Leaving His Card.
onnounce with the mystic P. P. C. in the
corner, the departure of some undesirable
There is a great deal of character in a
visiting card. The slightest exaggeration
or departure from the strictest simplicity,
either as ngards the size, texture or letter
ing, is distinctly bad form. Men's cards
nowadays should be quite small and nar
row, the name printed in script without
any flourish or ornamentation, and the card
perfectly plain white, without any sus
picion of glaze or analogous kind of fancy
work. The Mr. should be prefixed to the
name unless the bearer possesses any rank
above that of Lieutenant in either the reg
ular army or navy.
A 3Ilstake Commonly Made.
There are many people who resent this
restriction and who are of the opinion that
a visiting card should indicate the various
honorary distinctions to which the owner
13 entitled. In a manual recently pub
lished, claiming to describe the etiquette
ot New York society with regard to visit
ing cards, I read that it is customary to
affix the abbreviated intimation of strictly
honorary distinctions as LL. D., D. D. or
M. D. to the name. This i altogether
wrong, and all such lettering is de trop, for
if once this were permitted, there would
be no reason why all sorts of other infor
mation concerning the status and social
rank of the owner of the card should not
be described on the pasteboard. This, I
may add, however, is done in certain con
tinental countries of Europe.
Dropped His Card on the Altar.
Visiting cards are meant for use among
friends and acquaintances who are supposed
to be acquainted with all the claims to dis
tinction ot the owncrof the pasteboard. To
mention them on the card is an act of self
assertion bordering on discourtesy, since it
implies that the proprietor of the card con
siders that the recipient thereof requires to
be reminded of his social eminence and
Sending the Cards by 3Iall.
One of the most unpardonable pieces of
rudeness which, I regret to sav, is becoming
more and more frequent, is that of sending
visiting cards by mail. There is only one
case in which this is admissible, namely,
when the owner of the card leaves a locality
so suddenly that he has not had time1 to
make his lnrcwell calls in person. In that
event his visiting cards, bearing the letters
P. P. C. in the left hand corner, may con
vey his adieus and the announcement ol his
The P. P. C. in the lower left-hand cor
ner of the card stands for the prench words
"poor prendre conge" (to take leave).
When the card is sent by nail'unde'r the
circumstances above described these mystic
letters should be written in ink, and in pen
cil when the pasteboard is left in person.
Other abbreviations of the same character
admitted by social usage are the letters P.
P., standing for "pour feiiciter" (to con
gratulate), while P. C. is meant for "pour
condoler" (to console). When, however,
the owner of the card calls to inquire ac
the house where there is sickness, the pen
ciled words "To inquire" are written out
The Corner of tho Card.
There are manv theories in existence with
regard to the practice ot turning down the
corner of the card. The rule" most gen
erally accepted, and the one which is in
vogne in the diplomatic service throughout
the world, is that the card should be turned
down at the upper left had corner, when
the call is made in person, and the-. recipient
is not at home. It indicates that the call
has been made in person. When, however,
the call is not mace in person, and the card
is left, either bv one's wife or some other
relative or friend, it must not be cornered.
One ot the most amusing cases of the
Dunctiliousness with which this rule is
observed in Earope is that of an old Span
ifh gentleman who went to payhis'devo
tions at the shrine of a saint, but'discovered
that the church was undergoing repairs and
that there was no priest officiating at- the
altar. Unwilling to lose credit for his de
vout intentions, he drew a visiting card
from his pocket, and carefully tnrning
down the corner, reverently deposited it oa
the altar. Good Point.
A FEMALS PAUL PET.
She Tampers With Other Teople's Mall Out
of Sheer Cariosity.
Pitmait Grove, N. J., Nor. 3. Post
office Inspector William Watkins yester
day caused the arrest of Maggie Wriggins,
the 10-year-old daughter of Postmaster
Wriggins, of Pitnran Grove, and she was
held by United States Commissioner Cos
sidy in S500 bail for court.
Mageie is charged with tampering with
the mail for the past 18 months, although it
is not charged that she has taken an'y money
or valuables from sealed packages. At the
hearing the girl broke down and confessed,
saying she had opened people's mail out ot
11 'I'M lArJ
70 1 IP