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fTHEl PHTSBTJEGr DISPATCH. :j31JNDAY. - DEQEMBEB
.THE FULL OF 11
A 2?ew Account of tlio Last
Days of Africa's Most.
MSIRI LOST HIS MIND
And Changed From an Enlightened
fcovi'reisn to a Tyrant.
(HE MET DEATH AS A TRAITOR.
(Poring !'is larly I'nle He Gave Women
Iqcal Political Kijhts.
STUB DISMEMBER JIEXT OF HIS EMNKE
nvrlTTEV FOB THE ntSPJLTOlf.'
In the last month of 1891 the most famous
and powerful native ruler in Central Atrica
was shot hv a white man, and Garenganze,
-which He ha ! consolidated into a powerful
kingdom, wai shattered and broken. The
e orr of the old King, Msiri, who, from an
humble trader, became the most despotic
and leared ot all African rulers, reads like
a romance. If in his declining 3 ears he had
not lost the vigor of brain and body that
English missionaries in Garenganze, has
just publisned in the organ of his mission
ary society, an account of the old King's
latest v"irs and of the disintegration ot
tho emture ho had consolidated. Mr. Craw
ford ..it that within the past four Tears,
while Msiri's rule nominally extended over
an enormous area, his subjects were in a
constant state of revolt The AVasauga,
the original people ot the old chief who
made Msiri his heir, were particularly
actire in revolt against the King. They
carried on what Crawford calls "a night
guerrilla warfare" around the capital and
ran cfl" with many of Miiri's slaves.
His people grew rapidly to bate him on
account of his relentless and colossal cru
elty. For many years he had been kind to
his subjects. Even the tribes whom he had
conquered and upon whom he had inflicted
great cruelty until he thoroughly subju
gated them, were won by his subsequent
justice and kindness to give him loyal obe
dience. As he grew old, however, his atti
tude towards both his subjects and the
whites changed. Crawford savs "he became
wrapped in the solitude of his own origin
ality. A look of cunning craftiness came
into his shriveled features and his general
demeanor was overbearing and haughty."
When he met his death, he was only wait
ing fo powder to carry on a war of ex
termination against every Sanga man who
had thwarted or opposed him. In the last
year of his life the faculties ot the once
feared conqueror became greatly impaired.
He took no steps against the night attacks
of the 'Wasanga. He was "in a strange
lethargic condition quite.iinlike his former
self." . t.
Policy of the Kongo State
The first of King Leopold's envoys to
reach Garenganze was Lieutenant Le Mari
ne, and up to the end of last year the King
had bent three large expeditions to
Mukurru to establish the State's authority
there. In an earlier period ot his career
Msiri would either hae made treaties with
'They are English, do-you, hear, sons of
the dust?" he shouted to a crowd of his peo
ple, "and we know the English to be a true
people." The white men were invited to
hasten on to the capital. Msiri asserted
joyfully that the English were his friends
and that he knew he could obtain from
them a large amount of powder with which
to destroy his enemies. What was his dis
appointment when Stairs arrived and said
he had come to raise the flag of the Free
State over the country. The King de
manded a large supply of cloth and powder
before he would consent to raise the flag.
Stairs then built a stockade and raised
the emblem of the State, informed
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I hi r t jt&rlT .Z zrzr-- 2iio'.i rs-i- S-iW -J W.
a rnT op jiCKrunr as sees from aunot's cottaoe.
had given him asceidencv over hundreds oi
chiefs, he and his kingdom would not have
been doomed, for the whites would gladly
tare made him their ally. He chose in lm
last months to treat them with treacherv,
and he was trying to kill a white man who
had been sent to him when a bullet pierced
Msiri was the son of a TJnyamwei
trader, and his youth was spent in his
father's home, almost midway between the
Indian Ocean and Lake Tanganyika. Some
times his father took him hundreds of miles
to the southwest, beyond the big lake, to
trade in the Garenganze country, among the
western heaiiwaters of the Kongo. In his
early manhood his father sent him alone to
to this country to buy ivory and slaves, and
it was then that he won the lasting grati
tude of Chief Sanga by helping him de
stroy enemies who were sorely pressing the
Tllado Heir to a King.
The aged ruler made the young man his
heir, and not long after, upon the death of
Sanga, the young foreigner became the
ruler of Sanga, or Garenganze. Then Msiri
conceived the idea of making the Sanga
people the nucleusof a great kingdom. He
permitted nothing to stand in the way of
his ambition. He put to death all who op
posed him. The only ruler in Central Af
rica who had guns, and who knew where to
renlenish his stock of firearms, he was su
perior to any combination against him.
One fear alone oppressed him. He
was dependent for munitions ot
war upon traders east of him. He
thought some dav they might wish to ruin
i tin and so would reluse to sell him fire
arms. He had heard that iar to the west
was another sea coast which the whites vis
ited. He sent a large expedition from the
center ot the continent in search of tnis
western coast. The party, heavy laden
b ltn ivory, went west until they met Portu
guese tridcrs, who sold them guns and
powder. Msiri had thus opened a new
trade route, and secured a new source of
V. hat a Missionary Found Him.
So he went en conquering tribe after
tride, until his country'extended from the
1 ills dividing the Zambesi and the Kongo
water systems on the south to the TJpemba
aia Moero lakes on the north, and covered
a., the countrv between the Luapula and
I ualaba headwaters of the Kongo. A
i..rge region beyond these limits was tribu
tary to him, and paid heavy tribute in
lvorv. His capital was Mukurru, which
n,eans "inhabited plain," and the towii is
0 e oi the largest in Central Africa. It is
a fair day's walk across this populous cen
ter Gardens and fields stretch auayfor
naif, and hundreds of clusters ot huts are
scattered all over the district.
Ninevears ago the Missionary Arnot
f nnd Msiri at the height of his power.
1 he King gladly welcomed the solitary
white man who had come to live in his cap
ital Arnot was the historian of Msiri's
palmv rtavs, and the Missionary Crawlord,
ci the King's deline and falL Arnot says
m Ms "Garenganze" that the King had
hundreds ot uites, many of whom he era
yl yed as officers of State, and they were
respoas.ble lor the government ot large dis
tricts. All the ivory in the country be
longed to the King. Minor chiefs were ex
pected to bring very tusk they secured to
Msuru They might 'keep for themselves
the rubber and slaves, but the man who re
tained a tusk of ivory was put to death if
h s siu louud him out
H!s Toller Toward TTomen.
If the Kongo Free State had known of
the existence of this powerlul empire when
tne State was lormed, ic all probability it
would not have been included within the
fatate's domain; lor the policy of King
Leopold and his advisers was to leave out
b. e the State the powerful native rulers
no were likely to give trouble. It was
th.s policy that gave to the Kongo State
lis remarkable southern boundary, the
empire 01 Lunda being left outside. But
v hen the State was orgauized Garenganze
was not known, and so it was included
within the State's territory. About two
vears ago the Kongo State, hearing that
Msiri had given a friendly reception to the
w li.tc missionaries who had visited him,
pec ded to make its sovereignty over the
cojntry eflective, endeavoring at the same
time to keep on good terms with the King.
Msiri was then very well known, and his
great power and his kindness tp the whites
had given Europeans a very favorable im
1 r-ss.on of him, while thev were much
erested in the remarkable features of his
-overcment. Many women read with in-
-est ot the Garenganze country where
Ms r had given unusual rights anil pnvi
.rees to their sex. He had not only given
iaoy districts Jo his wives to govern, but
vom-n were also allowed to attend the
courts and to have a voice equal to that of
the men in suggesting the policy of -the
Jua-e. Msiri was popular with the women
01 his country. He frowned upon wife
bca.ers. Anv woman who was habitually
1 reated by her husband was permitted by
t' e King to return to her father without
k v compensation to the cruel husband,
even though he had paid the father a heavy
now the Empire Fell.
Mr Daniel Crawford, one of the later
the whites or declared them his enemies
snd trusted his fate to the issue of war. In
his days ot weakness, however, his attitude
nas most unsatislactory. The envoys of the
State could not learn what he intended to
do. Sometimes he declared he would ac
cept the protection of the State, and at
others he was almost openly hostile and
treated the whites with great discourtesy.
They soon found that it was dangerous to
enter his presence unless with a strong
guard. They believed he was likely, under
the guise of "a friendly invitation, to lure
them to their death.
Late in November last year news was
brought to Msiri of the near approach of
King Leopold's third expedition, com
manded bv Captain Stairs. It had marched
overland from the Indian Ocean, while the
preceding expeditions had ascended the
Kongo. Stairs was an Englishman, and
the leaders of the other expeditions were
Belgians. The missionaries who had been
at Msiri's court were British, and the King
had learned to trust them. He therefore
heard with delight the approach of the
Englishmen, as he mistakenly thought all
the white members of the expedition to be.
the King that in future he must obey the
white men, and that no more skulls would
be permitted to hang from the walls of the
town. The King sent back the messengers
with the answer that he would continue to
kill as many people as he pleased,and show
their heads as trophies. He, however.fixed
the following day for the ceremony of blood
brotherhood with Stairs. Next'morning,
December 28, it was found that he had left
his town and gone to the suburb of Munema.
He sent word to Stairs that he would re
ceive him on condition that he came unac
companied by soldiers. It was very evident
that he was plotting treachery.
The Death of the King.
Stairs sent four of the head men of hip ex
pedition to Msiri, but they did not return.
Captain Bodson, accompanied by six Zanzl
baris, was then sent to see the King, pro
vided he would consent to come out of his
stockade with only a small escort. Stairs
had warned Bodson not to run into danger.
Bodson, however, entered the stockade,
where he found Msiri surrounded by 40 of
his warriors, and carrying a fine sword.that
had been presented to him by Stairs. Mr.
Crawlord's account of what follows hardly
differs from that which has already reached
America. Bodson saw the lopr men under
guard. They had been detained as prison
ers. The Captain began to ask Msiri why
he had imprisoned the messengers of Cap
tain Stairs, when the King suddenly leaped
forward and thrust at Bodson with, his
sword. Bodson avoided the thrust by
springing aside, and at the same moment
he shot Msiri through the heart.
As the King dropped dead, several of his
soldiers fired at Bodson, who fell desperate
ly wounded, and soon dieiL A considerable
force of Zanzibaris under the Marquis de
Boncbamps had been sent to support Bod
son. They heard the gunshots, rushed for
ward, and were so infuriated by the treach
erous murder of Bodson that they cut off
Msiri's head and carried it away on a pole.
A Good Tiling for the People.
Miri's great kingdom at once fell to
pieces. His son, Mukandudanpu, a young
man of considerable influence, was appoint
ed by Stairs to the chieltainsbip of a re
stricted district The minor chiefs who
were in control of small districts, came to
the capital and accepted the flag of the
State. King Leopold's ageqts had at last
taken some sort ot effective occupation of
the country. Forts were built at Mukurru
and at other large centers ot population.
The great empire ot Garenganze now no
longer exists, but is divided into numerous
small chieftainships, all submissive to the
State. The country is very elevated and,
compared with most parts of equatorial
Atrica, it is salubrious. The people are in-
dustrious, and now that the Kongo Free
State has relieved them from the tyranny
of their old kings, it is hoped thai peace
and comfort will rapidly be restored, and
that this great region will become, as it
deserves to be, one ot the most prosperous
portions of the Free State.
Last summer, however, great many
people in Garenganze died of starvation,
because.owing to the disturbed condition of
the country, nearly every industry had been
neglected. Cynus Q. Adams.
ANALYZING AN AEOMA.
The I"layor or the Woodruff Chemically
Examined by Specialists.
Several chemists have recently spent
much time in examining the aroma of the
woodrull or the German "Waldmeister,"
which lends such an aromatic bouquet to
Bhine wine, and is the flaror par excellence
fur the annual May wine.
They have ascertained that its base is
coumarine, which is contained in various
other plants, chiefly the seeds of the tonka
bean, the flower of tho Hartz glover, the
blossoms of the spring grass and the rind of
the agriot tree.
A short time ago Dr. Hans Molisch
discovered coumarine also in the American
maudlin, the Ageratum mexlcanum sims,
which is found all over this country. This
plant exhales no coumarine aroma while in
fresh condition, but it is strongly apparent
as soon as it is pulled from, the earth and al
lowed to die. when thawing the plant af
ter it bad been frozen the aroma is exceed
ingly penetrating, and the same holds good
for its leaves, as soon as they begin to dry
and shriye! up. The leaves of the maudlin
which have been thrown into boiling Water
impart to the latter the delicious flavor. It
is well known that dried woodruff is much
more fragrant than the fresh.
THE NAVAL BATTALION,
A Company to Be Organized Here and
Another One at Erie.
Pennsylvania will have a naval bat
talion. There are now two companies of
the battalion in Philadelphia, and it is pro
posed to organize two more companies one
in this city and oue iq Erie, these two
cities being ports of entry and "having suffi
cient water in which to drill the compan
ies. Adjutant General Greenland will, at
the next session of the tLegislature, en
deavor to get on appropriation of 51,500 for
each of the lour companies, or (6,000 in
The Secretary of the Navy has written to
Adjutant General Greenland that he is de
sirous that the two companies already
formed in Philadelphia shall perfect them
selves in the handling ot heavy ship ord
nance, and to that end be proffers the loan
of two guns. They have been accepted,
and will be shortly sent to Philadelpnia.
F0EHEE OUTLET OF THE LAKES.
Frof. Wright, of Oberlln College, Says
Is Through the Ottawa Klver.
Prof. George Frederick Wright, of Ober
lln College, claims to have discovered a
former outlet of the great lakes by way of
the Ottawa river. The outlet is in a low
pass in the Canadian highlands leading
from Lake Nipissing, which is only about
70 feet above Lake Huron, into the Matta
wan river, a tributary of the Ottawa.
There Prof. Wright found a delta terrace
about 100 feet in height and half a mile
wide, extending up the valley of the Matta
wan for a distance of a mile and a half.
The material of it was coarse, consisting
of thousands of boulders from one to ten
feet in diameter. So great was the force of
the current down the Mattawan that it
pushed a bar of this coarse material entirely
across to Ottawa, so as to make a slack-water
navigation for some distance above. If this
discovery should be accepted it will have
an important bearing on the age of the
Niagara gorge, which has generally been ac
cepted as the chronometer of the post
Couldn't See a Sea Serpent.
There wasactptainofaCunarderonce who
was called on to the bridge by his first of
ficer to see a supposed sea serpent. "Sir,"
said he, "I once knew a man who saw one
and put his name to a document to that ef
fect He was a captain, too, and when he
came into harbor his employers dismissed
him, because they said they couldn't have a
skipper who got so drunk as that. He was
the sport of the press for a month, and his
friends all put him down for as big a liar as
Captain Drake's great-grandtather. I'm
going below. I can't afford to see sea serpents.
We pack and store rurniture, clean, dry
warehouse, low insurance.
iUCQH & KKiNAif, S3 Water street
Gossip of the Guard.
. The annual report of the Adj utant General
is oxpected this weoir.
The Guard will encamp In Chicago next
summer. The encampment will be by bri
gade. The company rooms have mostly all been
deserted by the troops since the weather has
become so cold. The boys will again get
down to drill after the new year sets In. In
spection orders will soon he sont dnwh from
the Inspector General's oflioe. Officers and
men will have plenty of hard worlc to meet
the necessary requirements of the ordeis.
The switchmen's strife-" at Buffalo, N. I".,
last summer cost ' dtato $193,617 30, di
vided as follows, subsistence, $51,175 67;
transportation, $13,072 51; pay, $31,260 85;
clothing, camp and garrison equipage,
$8,711 11: Quartermaster's stores, $i,7 16.
Pennsylvania will probably get off with
$450,000 as the outcome of the Homestead
An armory to cost $50,000 Is to be built by
the Fourteenth Segiment An officer of the
regiment silted the other day that they
would experience notioublein raising the
fnnds ror the purpose of building an armory,
that they had a snug sum' already donated,
and that they were snre of one-foaith the
purchase price of the Fifth Avenue Market
House if it was sold.
The new blouse Is still being talked about
throughout the army and the National
Guard. The main objection to tho new pat
tern blouse is tbat it is too expensive to be
worn as one for common nse on the drill
ground, fatigue and the target range. No
complaints as to its adoption, however.hava
been beard in this yiclnity. All officers
In the local commands favor the proposed
change, and consider the new garment tho
necessary thing. A numDer ot the local
officers have already had their blouses
ohanged to correspond with the require,
mentsof the ilay Older, although it will bo
five months before the. blouse will bo
A bill of Interest to the Guard was intro
duced at the opening last session of the
FUty-secopd Congress, and If it Is fortunate
enough to pass the ordeal of such bills It
will be ot considerable benefit to the Na
tional Guaid. The bill provides for a camp
of instruction at or near Chicago, to be com
posed ot such number of regulars as the
President may direct and 60,000 vol
unteer for 15 das, In . August,
1E93, who shall be members of
militia organizations In existence at
the time of tho passage or the act, one-half
of whose membeis, at least, must volunteer
and who have had at least three months'
previous military instruction and training.
Transportation, subsistence and medical
supplies are to be supplied to the volunteeis
by the United Status, but no par is to be
given for service. A general officer of the
army is to be designated to command the
camp, nnd tho Secretary of War shall detail
such officers of the array as may be neces
Bary to carry out the provisions of tho act
am: also for the pnrposa of instruction:
$l,5Q0,Xr is appropriated to carry out the
provisions of the act.
THE PITTSBDItG FILTER COMPANY,
8 II! i liS
S UBi 1 IIL
30 Sandusky Street, Allegheny,
PA VIS VILTEB.
Its use insures a constant nnd undimin
ished supply of clear, pure, bright, whole
some water for every household purpose.
Send postal lor catalogue and price' list.
Branch office, lioom 409 Hamilton building,
Make up your mind NOW to set by from ONE TO THREE DOL
LARS A WEEK as a Pleasant Home-Making Fund. Then call on
The Reliable Home Furnishers,
27 SEVENTH STREET, '
'Konnd the Comer from Fenn Avenue, Pittsbnrg, Pa.
We are with the people working with them studying their interests
helping them to make housekeeping easy aiding them to make their
homes attractive places selling them the Furniture, Carpets and fixings to
do it on less ready cash, on better terms and at lower prices than any
other house in the credit business.
FIFTY CENTS TO THREE DOLLARS A WEEK That's all we
ask on from $12 to 100 worth of such goods as you may want from our
immense stock of
Furniture, Carpets, Eugs, Oilcloths, Stoves,
Blankets, Comforts, Curtains, Clocks, Bronzes, etc.
WE WISH YOU ALL
SIXTH STREET AND PENN AVENUE.
FOUR LARGE STORES
In Pittsburg, Baltimore and Wilmington enable us to do an enormous busi
ness. We manufacture and buy heavily get the pick of the market in
goods get them at the smallest percentage above actual manufacturers'
cost saye heavy discounts on bills by buying for cash, and in consequence
CAN AND DO SELL FOR LESS MONEY and give longer credit than
our competitors on these terms:
$12 Worth. 50c Cash 50c Weekly
$25 Worth $1.00 Cash $1.00 Weekly
$50 Worth $2.00 Cash $2.00 Weekly
$75 Worth $2.50 Cash $2.50 Weekly
$100 Worth $3.00 Cash $3.00 Weekly
DO YOU INT TO FURNISH 1 HOUSE?
We guarantee to satisfy you to the fullest extent in Goods, Prices and
Terms. Our first payments are as we advertise they are so small that
they come within the possibility of everyone's purse the weekly payments
touch the pocket lightly, and make Home Furnishing come easy.
INVESTIGATE OUR STOCK AND METHODS We are sure to
please you, sure to win your confidence and esteem.
MAKE A BEGINNING NOW.
MURPHY BROS. CO.
27 SEVENTH STREET.
, , i ,
The holiday trade just closed has been
by far the largest and most successful in
the history of our house.
We made this season extra and un
usual efforts to serve you well and
promptly, and our efforts have been fully
appreciated and amply rewarded.
We hereby extend our thanks to the
many thousands of patrons who have
thronged our store during the past week
or so. To each and all a Merrv Christ
We accompany Santa Claus in his eleventh annual tour of the various Orphanage's, Homes, Asylums and Institutions of the
two cities, and shall have the extreme pleasure of presenting to the inmates thereof suitable Christmas gifts. Th,e proces
sion will.be divided into two large divisions, and the time at which the various points will be reached is given below:
St. Michael's Orphan Asylum, Southside, 11:30 A. u.
Southside-Hospital, 12:30 p. M.
Homeopathic Hospital, Second avenue, 1 p. m.
Children's Temporary Home, Washington street, 1:45 P m.
St. Paul's Orphan Asylum, Tannehjll street, 3' p. M, .
West Penn Hosgital, 4 p. m.
Episcopal Church Home, Fortieth street, 5 p, m.
Little Sisters of the Poor, Bloomfield; 6 P. M.
German Protestant Orphans' Asylum, West Liberty borough presents
taken to Sixth avenue and Smith field street
Children's Aid Society Presents taken to Dispensary building, Sixth ave.
Concordia Orphan Home, De Lano, Pa. Presents sent.
Roselia Foundling Asylum, Cliff and Gum StreetsPresents sent.
Odd Fellows' Orphan Home, Ben Avon Presents s'ent.
G. A. R. Home, Hawkins station, P. R. R. Presents sent.
Oakland Day Nursery, DiSoto Street Presents sent.
Ridge Avenue Orphan Asylum, 9:30 a. m.
Colored Orphans' Home, Greenwood avenue, 11 a. m.
Woman's Christian Home, Locust street, 11:45 M
United Presbyterian Orphans' Home, Monterey 'street,
Allegheny Day Nursery, Nprth avenue, 1 p. m.
Allegheny General Hospital, 'Stockton avenue, 2 p. m.
Protestant Boys' Home, Anderson street, 2:30 p. M.
Home of theFriendless, Washington street, 3 p. m.
Little Sisters of the Poor, Washington street, 3:30 p. m.
Home of the Good Shepherd, Troy Hill, 5 p. M.
St Joseph's Orphan Asylum, Troy Hill, 6 p. m.
Our announcements in the daily papers.
Between now and New Year's we intend
to close out, regardless of cost or value,
all our odd lots and broken sizes both in
staple and fancy goods.
. Prices will be struck with the lightning
of reduction, and we'll offer you the
greatest money-saving chances ever with
in your grasp.
' 3 I