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THE PlTSBTJRGr DISPATCH, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 27,'f 1892.
TO A REALTREASDHY
A Bailroad Running South
From Pittsburg "Would
Cost lut Little, and
EAPIDLY PAY FOR ITSELF.
Great Desirability of a Direct Route
to the Carolinas.
MEASURES THAT ARE NECESSARY.
CoL T. P. Eoberts Ixplains Fome Features
of the Situation.
THE RESOURCES OP WEST TICGINIi
The staS correspondence of The Dis
patch from various poind in AVest Vir
ginia showing tie mutual desirability of
closer connection with Pittsburg by rail
and water has aroused considerable local in
terest in the subject. The benefits of im
proved transportation facilities are every
where conceded. The pressins question is
one of "ways and means.
ColonelT. P. Koberts, the well-known
civil engineer, is an authority on West Vir
ginia as upon most sections of the broad
area of which Pittsburc is the center. As
long ago as 1875 Mr. Hoberts'made a survey
for the Government showing the work nec
essary to continue the slackwater in the
lilonongabela above Fairmont. In con
versation yesterday he said: "There can
be no doubt as to tbe great need of Pitts
burg for more direct communication with
the South. This city is due north of
Charleston, S. G. Yet when 1 wanted to
go there a year or so ago I had to first
travel 200 or 300 miles either East or West
to "Washington or Cincinnati. The Cin
cinnati people got together and buit a road
at a cost of $20, 000,000, surmounting great
engineering difficulties, that has been the
making of their Southern trade.
There Are No Natural Obstacles.
"From Pittsburg south through the cen
ter of West Virginia," continued Mr.
Koberts," there are no engineering diffi
culties whatever. I surveyed a road from
here to Grafton some years ago. The best
plan, though, would be to follow the Monon
gahela until the section of West Virginia
which is practically a glade is reached.
Here the country is so level that you could
hardlr tell which way the grades would
run. The idea would be to connect with the
Chesapeake and Ohio or Norfolk and West
ern. Either one of those systems would be
very willing to provide a connection for
Pittsburg to the seaboard. This would
make a direct line clear to the Carolinas,
not only for Pittsburg, but for such points
to the north as Buffalo, Cleveland and tbe
"There being no natural obstacles such a
road could be constructed for 512,000 to
515,000 a mile, and it wonld pay for itself
nearly as fast as it was built Pittsburg's
building interests are positively suffering
for the lack of such a lumber supply as the
West Virginia forests can furnish. The
coal freights, of course, would be a great
feature, and of that tbe supply is inexhaus
tible. West Virginia is certain to be de
veloped. If Pittsburg assists in the work
it will stare in the benefits. It we stand
aloof we may create a hostile and dangerous
A Difficulty to Be Met.
"One trouble with Pittsburg," said Mr.
Boberts, "is that it has little ground for ex
pecting much from the management of the
railroads that now secure such a great busi
ness here. This is the most important point
on the Pennsylvania system, yet none of
the chief officials live here. They make an
annual tour of inspection, but the facts
, called to their attention then do not linger
in their memories throughout the year.
Pittsburg people mnst take the initiative in
this work themselves. There are plenty of
persons in West Virginia who would
readily join hands in the enterprise if the
proper encouragement was extended."
Upon tbe subject of tbe further improve
ment of the Monongahela, Colonel Boberts
referred to his official report This recom
mended the construction of six masonry
locks and dams, similar to the work at
Hoard's Bocks, at a probable cost of 5650,
D00. But as prices have fallen since then
the cost for such construction would be
, considerably less than tbe estimates of
Mr. Boberts, in describing the course of
the Monongahela from Fairmont to Hor
gantown, a distance of 27 miles, states that
tbe fall in that distance is only 55 fett,
which is an average of about two feet per
mile, and that much the greater por
tion oi the fall occurs in
tbe lower half. Each of the two
npper dams proposed has a lift of 10 feet
and ponds back the river for a distance of
nine miles. This flat place on the river is
a marked and important feature. From
Horgantown to Pittsburg, a distance of 102
miles, the course of the river is almost due
north and tbe fall in this distance is 93
An Ample Supply of Water.
In seasons of drought the sole reliance
for water is Tygart's Valley and West
Fork rivers, and at such periods there is
always more water at Fairmont than at
Horgantown, thus giving an ample supply
for slackwater purposes. On this point Mr.
Boberts says: "As there need be no rush
of business at any time at the locks, the
dams will remain full, and a 6-foot naviga
ble depth can be maintained in the Upper
Monongahela at all times, save when the
river may be closed by ice."
Prof. 1. C. White, of Moreantown. is rec
ognized as a geological authority through
out the United States. He sneaks with
pardonable enthusiasm of the mineral
resources of West Virginia. In discussing
the subject he says: "West Virginia has
been damaged somewhat by those who have
claimed too much for her resources. There
is no need for such harmful exaggeration.
In view ot these facts it is necessary for the
benefit of onr own people as well as for the
information of others, that a list of things
wc do not have should be given. Those
who would seek gold, silver, copper, tin,
cine, lead, or any other of the rare or prec
ious metals should give West Virginia a
wide berth. She has none of these. Traces
there .may be of all, but not in quantity
sufficient to render mining profitable, and
hence it can be truthfully said, these things
are not among onr possessions.
Can Afford to Be Frank.
"We have so much of natural wealth in
other things that vrs can afford to be per
fectly irank about all those matters to
which "we can make no honest pretensions.
Bountiful nature has given to West Vir
ginia neither precious minerals nor precious
stones, but sue has lavished upon us sflch
an infinite wealth of common minerals and
common stones, and other common things,
that our heritage is vastly richer than that
of tbe people who can number the precious
metals among their inheritances.
"What we do have are these: Coal in
greater quantity and variety than any other
State in the Union; fire and pottery clays
unexcelled; limestone in great abundance
and purity; building stones of most excel
lent quality, and inexhaustible quantity;
petroleum and natural gas, the modern Juel;
iron ores we havo in considerable quantity,
and glass sands in great plenty. These,
with some manganese, and one or two
others oi small importance, make up the list
of our available minerals.
"Few realize the immense value of the
coal fields in our State. Goal is such a
common and abundant mineral that most
people when thinking of valuable minerals
generally do not count it at all. But a
short time since, and many people supposed
that coal was soon to be a thing of the oastj
that natural gas would entirely supplant it,
and render coal lands valueless. No greater
mistake could be made.
Largest Coal Field In tbe World.
"To the largest and most valuable coal
field in the world, geologists have given the
name Appalachian. It covers an area of
nearly 60,000 square miles, and beginning
near the northern line of Pennsylvania, ex
tends southward across the State, and, tak
ing nearly the whole of West Virginia,
and a broad strip from the southern part of
Ohio, passes on through Eastern Kentucky
and Tennessee to end in Alabama, nearly
900 miles from its northern terminus. The
shape of this great field is roughly that of
a canoe, and West Virginia lies within the
zone of its broadest and richest portion.
In only four of the fifty-four counties in
West Virginia is it impossible to find
bituminous coal, viz: Jefferson, Berkeley,
Morgan and Monroe.
"This coal series enters West Virginia
from Pennsylvania in Mnnnnfalia and Pres
ton counties, with a thickness of 250 to 300j
feet, and contains two valuable coal beds.
the upper Freeport and tbe lower Kittan
uing.the latter locally known as the"Austin
coking" coal and the latter as the ''New
burg shaft" seam on the Baltimore and
Ohio Bailroad. These two beds are sep
arated by an interval of shales and sand
stones 100 to 180 feet thick, and they are
both easily accessible over a very large
Excellence of the Product.
"Ths universal excellence 'of this coal for
all purposes of fuel, eas, coke and every
other use to which coal can be put, renders
the field in question one of the most valu
able in the, country, or in the world for that
matter, and the railroad that first opens it
up to market will have a monopoly of good
things iu tbe coal traffic lor a long time.
"It was formerly supposed that this coal
would not make merchantable coKe, but
the successful working of nearly 200 ovens
at Montana, on the Fairmont, Morgantown
and Pittsburg Bailroad, together with the
successful plants at Fairmont, Clarksburg,
Tyrcounell, Mononga, etc., have set this
question happily at rest 'and proven that
the coal in question will make a coke but
little inferior, if any .at all, to that from
the celebrated Connellsville region, ot
which the Monongahela country is simply
a southward extension. The West Virginia
coal field is one, and a halt times larger
than that of Great Britain, the production
of whose mines are now nearly two hun
dred million tons annually."
A local Baltimore and Ohio official yes
terday stated that the contracts for tbe re
mainder of the Morgantown-Unioutown
link had been let, including tbe bridge at
Port Marion, and that the work would be
pushed as rapidly as possible.
THE COLUMBIAN, POSTAGE.
Government Series of Stamps for the Four
The special series of postage stamps to be
issued by the Government rn commemora
tion of he discovery of Columbus will be
ready for use on the 1st of January. The
stamps will be sold during 1893, and will
then be retired for the regular issues. The
series consists of 15 stamps, as follows:
One-cent "Columbus in Sight ot Land,"
after the painting by William H. Powell.
On the left is an Indian woman with her
child, and on the right an Indian man with
head dress and feathers. The figures are in
a sitting posture. Color, autwerp blue.
Tuo-ceut "Landing of Columbus," after
the painting by Vanderlyn in tbe rotunda
of the Capitol at Washington. Color, ndr
Three-cent "Flagship of Columbus," the
Santa Maria in mid-ocean, from a Spanish
engraving. -Color, medium shade of creen.
Four-cent "Fleet of Columbus," tbe
three caravals Santa Maria, Pinta and
Nina in mid-ocean, from a Spanish en
graving. Color, ultramarine blue.
Five-cent "Columbus Soliciting Aid
From Isabella," after the painting by
Brozik in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Color, chocolate brown.
Six-cent "Columbus Welcomed at Barce
lona," from one of the panels of the bronze
doors 'in the Capitol at Washington, by
Randolph Rogers. On each side is a niche",
in one of which is a statne of Ferdinand
and in the other a statue of Boabdilla.
Color, royal purple.
Ten-cent "Columbus Presenting Na
tives," after the painting by Luigi Gregori
at the University of Notre Dame, South
Bend, Ind. Color, Vandyke brown.
Fifteen-cent "Columbus Announcing
His Discovery," after the painting by B.
Balaea, now in Madrid. Color, dark green.
Thirty-cent "Columbus at La Babida,',
after the painting by B. Maso. Color,
Fifty-cent "Becall of Columbus," after
the painting by A G. Heaton, now in the
Capitol at Washington. Color.carbon blue.
One-dollar "Isabella Pledging Her
Jewels, after the painting by Munoz De
grain, now in Madrid. Color, rose salmon.
Two-dollar "Columbus in Chains," after
the painting byLentze, now in Providence,
B. L Color, toued mineral red.
Three-dollar "Columbus Describing His
Third Voyage," after the painting by Fran
cisco Jover. Color, light yellow green.
Four-dollar Portraits in circles of Isa
bella and Columbus, the portrait of Isabella
after the well-fcnown painting in Madrid,
and that of Columbus after the Lotto paint
ing. Color, carmine.
Five-dollar Profile of the head of Colum
bus, alter a cast provided by the Treasury
Department for the souvenir 50-ceut silver
piece. Tbe profile is in a circle, on the
right of which is tbe figure of America rep
resented by a female Indian with a crown
of leathers, on the left a figure of Liberty,
both figures being in a sitting posture.
USE OF THE NAPKIN.
It Was First Employed Only by Children
and Scorned by Elder.
Curiously enough, that article, now con
sidered almost indispensable, the table nap
kin, was first used only by children, and
was only adopted by elder members of the
family about the middle of the fifteenth
century. In etiquette books of an earlier
date than this, among other sage pieces of
advioe for children, are instructions about
wiping the fingers and lips with their nap
kins. It seems that the tablecloth was long
enough to reach the floor, and served the
grown people in place of napkins. When
they did begin to use napkins they placed
them first on the shoulder, then on the left
arm, and finally tied them about the neck.
A French writer, who evidently was con
servative and did not welcome the napkin
kindly, records with scorn:
"Tbe napkin is placed under the chin and
fastened in the back, as if one were going
to be shared. A person told me that he
wore his this way that he might not soil his
Napkins became popular in France -sooner
than in England. At one time it was cus
tomary at great English dinners to change
the napkins at every course, to perfume
them with rose water, and to 'have them
folded a different way for each guest
Profits Thrown to the Winds.
lake your pick of any ulster in the house
Irrespective whether they are marked '$30,
$2S, $25 or $20 for the nnliorm price of (IS.
This is the most sweeping cut ever made on
seasonable garments. Bead onr big ad. for
particulars. Solohos & Eubiot,
ttixnitbfleld and Diamond streets.
IT WAS 'STILLED HERE.
Another Authority Is Heard on the
First Barrel of Crude Oil.
COALPORT, OHIO, PRODUCED IT.
The Oil Was Plngfjed off Because It Hurt
the Salt Water Flow.
LETTERS QUOTED ON MB NEW THE0RT
"In 1851 oil was first discovered in flow
ing quantities in tbis country," said Mr.
L. O. Cameron, who has been in the oil
business here for the past 45 years, while in
conversation with a reporter for The Dis
patch yesterday. "It was in Coalport,,
O., it was first found. Most of the people
of this great State will pitch' into me for
saying this, as all seem to think that the
credit is due this State. But that cannot
be helped. I am an old resident of Penn
sylvania, but I have proof of the matter.
"I have read with great pleasure the in
teresting statements of Judge Mellon and
others in the Sunday Dispatch as to
the first use cf petroleum. Most of the
gentlemen I am and was personally ac
quainted with. I am one of tbe oldest oil
men here, and permit me to give my expe
rience as to tbe first distilling of the oil.
in doing so I would not detract one iota of
justice due A. M. Kier. To him alone as a
man the world owes universal praise for his
interesting effort to harness petroleum and
make it universally helping to mankind."
Mr. Cameron's story was told as follows:
His Story of tbe Finding.
In 1S51, while boring for salt at Coalport,
Meigs county., O., near Pomroy, the Coalport
Salt Company struck petroleum, or rock oil
as It was then called. Tbe first oil ever dis
tilled for Ilsht was from that oil, In 1S51, at
620 Liberty street, third floor. The oil flowed
in zraHt quantities, and run from the wells
into the Ohio river, which was quito a dis
tance, and as tbey baa no use lor tne stun,
they hardly knew what disposition to make
They soon learned that IMr. Samuel Kier.
of this city, was using oil as a medicine and
they sent him a can of it see U be could
make any use of it It was very light In
cravity, black In color, and very combusti
ble, lie could do nothing with It At that
time I had a contract to manufacture stove
ware for Messrs. Pennock & Mitchell, nt No.
620 Liberty street, on the third floor. I had
spent years ot extra time trying to improve
light as lat and lard lamps were the only
things used at that time. The lamps that
Mr. lilor used were of my make. In 1844 I
carried on the business in Freeport. Pa.,
making lamps there lor miners in which to
burn oil that was taken from tbe wells
above that place. While at Pennock's, I
made a still to distill resin, hoping to get a
light from that, but It was not a success for
Samuel Wickllne worked for Mr. Eier ac
the time the oil was sent to him, and Wick
lino told me or tlio circumstance. I told
him to ask Mr. Kier to let me have It, and
the next evening he brought it to mo. 1
used a large cannon stove to beat my room,
which extended from,Liberty street to Vir
Tbe Oil Promptly Exploded.
I prepared my still to test the oil and
placed it on the stove. It soon began to
make a loud rumbling noise. I went to the
rear of the room, but upon hearing an explo
sion, looked around and siw the oil had
scattered over the floor and walls and was
all on fire. I did not want to raise an alarm,
so ran back, took my coat from the wall and
commenced battering itaronnd and around,
until I became exhnusted. By that time the
oil had spent its lorceand died out Had I
known the nature of it I would have let it
alone, as it will burn on and do no harm.
Not finding that effort jx success, I made a
still on the principle of a farina boiler, and
put that In operation. It soon began to run
a clear liquid, as carbon oil, and It aston
ished me. I took some of tbe liquldand
what I called the sediment in bottles down
stairs, to show it to Messrs. Pennock and
Mitchell. 1 asked them what it was. They
pronounced one clear water and the other
tar. I told them to din a piece of paper into
It and bold It to the fire. They did so, and
it blazed up beautifully. They became ex
oited and asked me what It was. I brought
them a sample or tbe crude oil and told
them where It came from. They asked me
to go to Pomroy, O , on the first boat and
secure it. I took samples In bottles, went
to the salt company's office in Pomroy and
showed my samples to Mr. Horton, then
manager of the salt company. He was de
lighted with it, and we went down to Coal
port to the wells, but they had nluggod it
off the dny before, having no use for it, as it
spoiled the salt water. Mr. Kier heard of
my success, and came to roe, examined the
oil and consulted with me as to the process
and the making of his new still. He had a
small still, but It was stolen while he was
moving. It was after this that Mr. Kier
made his developments.
He Had the Proofs.
"I have here the copy of a letter," said Mr.
Cameron, "which I wrote to the postmaster
at Pomoy, O., on August 17th, in order to
get proof of my statement" It read? as
Pardon me, a stranger, for troubling yon
with these lines. There is a controversy
now as to who stilled the first petroleum,
and where It came irom. Awiiy back in the
forties oil was struck in quantities in one of
the oil (salt) wells, owned by a salt company
In your place. The well, I think, was located
below your town, at a place called Coalport.
It was managed by an old gentleman, Mr.
Horton, and I think the office was In vour
town. Some of the oil was at that time "sent
to me at Pittsburg and I stilled It, taking
some of the product to Mr. Horton. He was
aelighted with it. We went to the
wells, but on account of it spoiling the salt,
and having no use lor It, it wai pluged off.
Is Mr. Horton living yet he was a fine
gentleman? If so, ass: him if he remembers
the circumstances or if he can give me the
late ot the striking of that oil. Ic was in tho
'40's. That will enable me to settle one
point In 'stilling, ir Mr. Horton is not liv
ing, perhaps some one of tne company can
give the information desired as to the
Btr.klngof tbe oil, at or about what time.
Any information yon can gather for me, or
having someone correspond with me as re
gards to it or on tho subject will be a great
lavor. .Respectfully, '
L. O. Camerox.
Another Interesting Document
Mr. Cameron then handed the reporter a
copy of the answer ho received, which was
irom Edward Turnbull, to whom the post
master bad handed the letter. The letter
is printed below:
PouEitOY. Meigs county, O., )
December 25, 1892.
My Dear Sib Tours of the 17th instant
banded me yesterday by our postmaster.
In renard to your inquiry. I will try and
give you the answer. The first salt well
borea at the Coalport Salt Company's works
was in the summer of 1351 In boring the
same tbey got oil, which flowed in such
quantity as to run into tbe Ohio river, con
tinning for some time. This was prior to
my being engaged with the salt company in
tlin wlnffli nf IfKUFi Thn a.nntiri i.U.ll
was bored, but no oil was found in boring
tbe same. In June, 1852, 1'put the pump into
salt well No. 2, and on June IS started to
pump the suit well. Alter pumping the
same for an hour or so tlio oil came very
proluselv. To stop the oil, as there was no
demand for the same, I took the pump out
of the well, put a flat seed bag on the pump
at the depth of 230feotand shutout the oil.
Oil was lound In some of the salt wells on
the Kanawha river in the '40's, but it was not
very plentiful. What I have stated I know
from my own experience at both places.
Mr. F. B. Horton has been dead lor several
years. I do not know of but ono peison liv
ing now besides my self that had any business
with the works at that time. I was engaged
as their manager in January, 1832. Tbe first
salt well alluded to or the Coalport Sale
Company never showed any sign of oil alter
starting to pump salt water.
But Found No Oil.
I had a hole bored only three feet from tbe
original to tbe depth of 830 feet, hut never
got any oil. I was with the said company
until May, 1851. If you wish any further
testimony In regard to my standing, call on
the firm of Messrs. C G. Hussey & Co., No.
49 Fifth avenue, Pittsburg, Pa. I think I
have all tbe important points you wish to
kno w. Trusting the foregoing will be satis
factory, I remain
Yours most respectfully,
On receiving this letter Mr. Cameron
immediately wrote in regard to some other
points and received the following reply:
Poiikbot, Deo. 29, 1891
Mr. L. O. Cameron:
Mr Deab Sib Tours of the 26th received
on the 27th nt 3 r. K. and contents lullv
noted, il would have replied lortbwltli, but
my heul th has been so very noor lor tho mit
J lew days; hence tne delay. I am norvery
robust, having passed my 72d milestone and
may not pass another. I will try and com
ply with your request, as you say the oil was
very light in gravity nut very dark in color.
Correct. One person I know mixed it with
paint and painted two cottages. The oil
evaporated and the balance penetrated Into
the wood so that tho white lead all pealed
off, leading the wood as before. I win send
yon your original letter, also a copy of same,
as I have no use that I Know of to wish to
keep the same. I did not make any copy of
my reply to you, thinking I would never
hear from it again. Yes, I know something
about slavery times. Hived six years in
the Kanawha Salines. I was superintending
the works known at the time as the Cowey
Furnace, now known as the Daniel Boone.
Away Back in the '40's.
Tbe well was put down that got the oil In
1847, a little back from tho river and near to
tho pike, but on the bottom between river
and pike. The K. & O. R. It ruus close past
same on tho north side of the welL ' e
gathered the oil by nslug blankets irom the
top of salt water In the reservoir, then
using the oil out or blanket. Shonld yon
come to Pomeroy soon shall be glad to see
you. I remain yours most respectfully,
Mr. Cameron is confident that the above
letters substantially prove him to have been
the first distiller of erude petroleum oil.
He remembers hearing of oil being report
ed at Kanawha, and he footed it to that
town, a distance of 61 miles. This was dur
ing tbe slave days, and he was arrested
three times on the way as a suspicious
character. When the cholera visited tbis
locality in the '40's he savs he had it very
badly. Mr. Cameron lives at Bellevue
with his wife. He has four children and a
large number of grandchildren.
"What is your age, Mr. Cameron?" the
"What do you think it is?"
Tbe reporter thought the gentleman must
be much older than he looked, and put the
figures at 70.
"I was born in 1818," said Mr. Cameron,
"and I can beat yon running yet," he
added, with a laugh and a slap on the knee.
Mr. Cameron does not look or act a day
over 60, his step being light and his man
ner much younger thanot most men 74 years
THE OVIDE MTJSIN C0NCEBT.
Highly Successful Entertainments
Given at the Old City Hall.
It is not often that so many artists ot
equal skill assist at a concert, where a well-
known star appears, as was the case at Old
City Hall yesterday when the Ovide Musin
Company was the recipient ot one of the
most enthusiastic welcomes ever accorded
any body of performers.
Mr. Eduard Scharf opened the matinee
programme with Saint Saens' arrangement
of "The Kermesse," from Gounod's
"Faust" It is a very brilliant piece of
music, with many technical difficulties that
were all satisfactorily surmounted by
tbe player's rare power of execution.
Mr. Scharf is not only a very able ac
companist, but a soloist of considerable
merit, which bejdemonstrated in the render
ing of Liszt's intricate "Rhapsodie No. 12."
Mr. Pier Dehsco, the basso, was last heard
here with the Minnie Hauk Opera Com
pany and sustained favorably the impres
sion he created at that time. His voice is
not verv uowerful.notablv in the low tones.
but his singing is so sympathetic and his
general appearance so Impressive tha,t it is
to be regretted he has left the stage for the
concert platform. Miss Inez Parmater is
without doubt one of the best ballad
singers that has been heard of late in this
city. Her mezzo soprano is remarkably
clear and full aud her phrasing carried out
in the minutest detail. Her rendering of
Beginald de Koven's simple song, "Oh,
Promise Me," captivated the sympathies ot
the audience more than did any ot the other
Miss Annie Louise Tanner-Musin dis
played a voice, ot uncommon range , and
purity. Her high notes are delivered with
an ease and precision' that are positively
comfortable; tbe roulades are exquisite and
shaded with perfect grace, while her sing
ing throughout is so thoroughly artistic,
scholarly and finished, without suffering
from any conventionality, that her
place rightly is among the very
best concert 'singers before the Amer
ican . public,, to-day. With due
respects to the well known name of Mr.
Musin, it is a serious question whether his
wife does not surpass nim as a perfect ar
tist. He has, of course, still the tame com
mand ot his instrument that carried his
tame across the Atlantic; his playing is
brilliant and glittering, his execution mar
velous to a degree, and his technique as
magnificent as can be acquired with indus
try and firm intent of purpose.
But Mr. Ovide Musin is no longer a
young man. The enthusiasm that filled his
soul when younger is to some extent
lost; he is heard to-day with the
true admiration due to a mnsical
genius, but a genius that knows its own
worth and is satisfied with the victories
already won. There are no new fields to
conquer for him and no new honors to be
obtained; his violin does not sing with the
exuberant feeling ot a youth nor tatk with
a man's convincing power. While his
technical lorce is the same his sympathetic
power has lost some ol its charm, and sym
pathy is as necessary to music as aroma to
For that reason Mrs. Musin was a bigger
favorite with a greater part of the audi
ence than the famous violinist himself.
Withal, he still .possesses his old time
popularity. His reception in the evening
culminated in a demand for six encores,
which were readily given. For once Pitts
burg's lukewarm audiences melted before
the genuine musical charm ot all the ar
tists, and every number at both the mati
nee and evening concerts was vigorously
applauded and followed by encores.
BETIEB THAN THE AUSIBIASS.
The Australian Mounted Police Break All
r.ecords in Biding.
In Australia, where population is sparse
and distances are great, some remarkable
feats of endurance in horse riding are cred
ited to the mounted police, feats more re
markable in some instances, taking into
account all the circumstances, than those
accomplished by the winners in the .mili
tary ride between Vienna and Berlin.
Trooper Power, in February, 1880, un
dertook an arduous journey across a most
inhospitable country in pursuit of a horse
stealer named John Smith. This zealous
officer traveled 766 miles in 26 days with
out changing horses. For one stage of 80
miles he was wholly without water, and the
country was in such a bad state for 130
miles that his two horses had nothing to
eat His powers of endurance may be
judged Irom the statement that he did 30
miles day on worn out horses, along long
dry stages, aud with bad water or no water
at all to drink. Trooper Wiltshire, on an
other occasion, rode 85 miles in 20 hours on
one horse. This was on May 28. J887, two
days after the native had "stuck up" Eri
The same man traveled 200 miles in four
days when he heard that a comrade named
Shirley had died ot thirst He did not have
the macadamized roads and plenty of fresh
water like trerman omcers, but ne bad a
broiling sun to endure, sand hills to climb,
"mulga" scrub to penetrate, and was some
times compelled to take dead animals out
of native wells before he could use the
Ex-Votos Prom Palos.
In the old church of Polos there are a
number of small ex-votos of beaten silver,
representing arms, hands, a man, a nun, the
eyes, etc., hanging over the altar. Some of
these objects are said to be ot great an
tiquity. A recent visitor found a shop at
Uuelva where they are still made and sold,
and purchased for the Museum of the Uni
versity a set ot these interesting objects
identical with those in the church, where
Solomon JS Buben's Generous Offor.
Choice of any ulster in the house, no mat
ter whether tbey are marked 130, $28,
$26,124, S22 or $20, for $15. Come quick, tbey
will be snapped up In a burn-. Early comers
wuivnavn tne uess cnoice. ueau our uu aa,
Greatly Interested in the Movement
for a Higher Whisky Tax.
IT WOULD BOOH THEIR TBADB
And Also Force Uncle Fam to Double tbe
BOMB LIGHT ON TBIS INDUSTRY
The report that Congressman-Owen Scott,
of Illinois, Is collecting Information
with a View to securing the passage of a
measure increasing the internal revenue
tax on whisky has created more interest in
the mountainous districts of Southern Ken
tucky and Northern Tennessee than any
proposed legislation since the days of re
construction, says a correspondent writing
from Glasgow, Ky., to the St Louis Globe
Democrat. The very suggestion of an in
crease of 40 per cent in the tax on distilled
spirits has been sufficient to cause hun
dreds of people of the "moonshine" ele
ment in this section of tbe country to begin
figuring on the price of stills, and to induce
a number of the small army of revenue de
tectives who frequent this territory to send
in their resignations in anticipation of too
much hard work.
The opinion of an expert alone can deter
mine just how much of an impetus the suc
cess of Owen Scott's scheme will give to
trie business ot moonshining. Colonel Tom
Wells, the veteran revenue officer, is gen
erally regarded as authority on this subject
throughout several States of the South.
He has seen twenty-one years ot this ser
vice. Most of that time he has spent rov
ing through the mountainous districts of
Kentucky and Tennessee in search of illicit
stills and their desperate owners, Curing
this time he has received numerous wounds
and has frequently escaped death mirac
ulously where other men equally brave
lost their lives. His nerve is never ques
tioned by those familiar with the desperate
fights in which he has figured with moon
shiners. In a moment ot confidence Tom
Wells once admitted that he 'had killed
seven men at different periods of his life
who insisted on distilling liquor withont
the ordinary formalities prescribed by the
A Determined "Kcvenooer."
Withal Colonel Wells is a modest fellow.
When he is quietly resting at his home in
Bowling Grean he rather resembles a pro,
fessional man. When he is in the saddle in
a locality in which his favorite game is
known to exist be undergoes a wonderful
change. His orders are given to the posse
in a quick, nervous tone. He knows tbe
nature of the half-savage men he deals with
and the danger ot being assassinated at
every turn iu the road. It the moonshiners
fight from behind protection thev are sure
to nnu v ens auu ins men uoing likewise.
A lew davs ago Colonel Wells was in
Glasgow witfi two prisoners from the hills
south of this place. When questioned on
the subject of the proposition to increase
the tax on distilled spirits he was at once
"Of course the plan will largely increase
the revenue of the Government from the
source," remarked Colonel Wells, "but I
am satisfied the force of men now required
to even keep the moonshiners in checK will
have to be more than doubled. When the
present enormous profit of the moonshiners
is considered, with the small investments
necessary, and the slight chance of detec
tion they run, it is really a" mystery to me
how the Government is able to handle the
offenders. None but those in the business
can know the enormous profits the industry
Vays. Thes6 big distillers who form the
trust think they have a great advantage
over the moonshiner in their modern meth
ods and costly machinery, but my experi
ence teaches me to regard tbe skill ot the
average moonshiner witb more admiration
'than he commonly receives.
A Splendid Simple Secured.
"Now, observe that .sample," said the
Colonel, holding up to the sunlight a quart
of as finely colored liquor as ever graced a
sideboard. "I secured that in a raid sev
eral days ago. It is as fine whisky as I ever
drank, and the still in which it was manu
factured did not cost $10. The beautiful
golden color of that liquor is not the tinge
ot old age, either. It is not a year old. It
was made by an artist He knew too much
to carry distillation to the furthest point.
That produces fusel oil. That is what gives
tbe nverace product of moonshine stills the
very white appearance and bitter, biting
taste. Too many moonshiners, in their
anxiety tosecurc the greatest possible quan
tity ot alcohol, carry the distillation too
far, thus increasing the quantity of fusil
oil and producing liquor that can always be
recognized by an expert as the product of
an illicit still, because the modern ma
chinery avoids this trouble.
"The wholesale distiller, with modern
machinery, produces bis liquor at a edst of
about 13 cents' per gallon.- He places it on
the market at a cost of about $1 15 per gal
lon. The difference represents tbe internal
revenue tax and shipping. The moonshiner
avoids all expenses except the original cost
of distillation, and this is less than in tbe
case of the legitimate.
Tne Illicit Still Is Cheep.
"The illicit still is simply constructed. A
kettle fixed in a small rock furnace, in
which the mash is boiled; a copper worm,
similar to a piece of water pipe, through
which the distillation may "be conducted
through a vessel of water, In which the
vapor may be cooled, aud a tnb to hold the
product, is all the average moonshiner re
quires to make hundreds of gallons of cood
liquor annually and give employment to
several posses of Revenue omcers. He
raises all his product for the still. This is
another nav in which he has an advantage
over the distillers of the cities. In the
reparation of an article as fine as any
bourbon whisky that the Government over
collected a tax of 90c per gallon on, the
moonshiner will use 50 to 60 per cent of
corn with 40 or 50 per cent of small grain."
One hundred pounds of tbis mixture willr
produce 4U pounds ot nne whisky, 25 per
cent alcohol. II the distillation is not
carried too far the result of the "run" will
be a superb drink. If it is boiled too much
and fusel oil is developed it may be redis
tilled by adding more water, and the fiery
taste thus done away with, bat tbis is
seldom done because of the time required.
Big Pre fits la Moonshining.
"With the internal revenue tax at 90
cents, is at present, the profit of the moon
shiner is $1 where tho trust makes 10 cents
on a gallon of whisky. And with the reve
nue officers in all these hills stills are being
operated night and day. In 1875 more
than 61,000,000 gallons of distilled spirits
were manuiaciureci iu mis country, on
which the Government tax was pai 1. I
estimate that the moonshiners made and
sold for the same period one-third as much.
At the same time there were more than
3,000 high-salaried detectives operating in
these Southern hills to suppress the illicit
traffic It can't be done. The penalty
when a conviction is secured is from one to
five years, and tbis is nothing compared to
the chances in the business to make a for
tune. I know a number of fellows who
have retired from the business after a few
years with big fortunes. Tbe mar
ket is inexhaustible and the income is cer
tain. They are so well proteoted and so
desperate that the efforts of tbe secret
service annoy them about as much as a fly
does a cow. Very seldom can they be con
victed of murdering tbe officsrs. They do
their fighting from ambush, though they do
not lack courage, as I have frequently no
ticed, and in the excitement of flying bul
lets it is Impossible to identity the men who
are doing tbe fighting even if they are ever
caught Their instincts and surroundings
teach them that they have a right to make
and sell whisky withont the payment of any
kind of a tax. Their fathers before them
Jmoonihined and fought revenue offlcen,and
they take a pride in following in tbe pater
nal footslep '
The Chleror tho Moonshiners.
"The acknowledged chief of the moon
shiners of this entire section of the country
is Joe Bowman. There is a remarkable fel
low and it is a pity he is so wedded to his
lawless ways. I am not certain that these
illicit distillers are banded together in a
secret manner, bnt ii they are Joe Bowman
is at the head of tbe organization. He is a
brainy fellow and with more nerve under
trying circumstances thsn any man I ever
saw. For more than ten years his head
quarters have been near tbe Kentucky line
In the southeast portion of the State. There
is a great mystery surrounding the fellow.
He has no family and, though he
has made thousands of gallons of
fine whisky annually and put it on
the' market, I am told he is a poor
man to-day. A whole army of revenue offi
cers could not arrest Bowman, became all
who knew him liked him for his liberal
ways. He must have given awav all his
money to the people he knows. We have
tried repeatedly to catch him in tho past
ten yean, but it is impossible. He seldom
leaves his mountain fastness except to at
tend to business, and then he appears scared
to death until he-gets bark to his native
wilds. I have always thought Bowmsn was
wanted somewhere for some seriousDfTense,
on account of the mystery with which he
surrounds all his movements. He is one of
the few moonshiners the money of the de
tectives has been unable to reach. In most
cases someone can be found to give informa
tion about this class of outlaws, but it is not
so in Bowman's case.
Quick With Shooting Irons.
"I met Bowman once. It was three years
ago. I was hunting him. I was accom
panied by Andy Boshford, one of the best
revenue detectives in this State. We found
Bowman and he shot us from our horses
single handed before we could pull a gun.
It was in the western part of Johnson
county. - We knew Bowman was in that
locality, as Andy had followed him from
the southern part of the State the day be
fore. We were on horseback. Neither had
seen tbe noted moonshiner, bnt knew him
by reputation, as he had killed a mutual
friend tbe summer before in a regular duel
near his mountain home.
"It was about noon when we turned into
a by-path to eat a lunch we carried. I was
opening my saddlebags when I heard the
report of a gun a long distance away, and at
the same moment my companion threw up
his hands with a scream of agony and fell
from his horse. My horse sprang baek into
tbe road we, had abandoned and before I
could cast myself from my saddle I felt a
bullet tear through my shoulder, and a
second later I heard tho report of the sec
ond shot. Again my horse jumped and I
was thrown to the ground. I was scared
terribly, because I could see no one. The
suspense was awful. The possibility that I
was liable to be shot to pieces from ambush
was more than I could think ot without a
shudder. From the ground I could see
nothing, and I crawled to my companion's
side. His face' was covered with blood
from a big hole in his head. I thought be
was dead as I could distinguish no signs of
ife. I covered his face with his coat and
hen examined myself. A Winchester
bullet bad torn a terrible wound in my
shoulder, from which blood was pouring.
I bound it up tbe best I
could and crawled through the woods to a
creek we had crossed a lew minutes before
the shooting. I carried my revolver, de
termined to get a shot at our assailants if
possible. I taw nothing till I was return
ine, when I observed a man crawling toward
me from tbe way I had just come. I was
getting ready to shoot him when he raised
his-face, and I recognized Andy. The ball
had only produced a flesh wound, and he
was coming down to get a driuk of water
when I met him.
"We remained in tbe woods till night and
then reached a cabin where we were as
sisted out of the neighborhood. I afterward
heard that Bowman had done the shooting
from almost half a mile awayC He said be
shot just to try his rifle, and knew that,
while he had hit us both, we were not
killed, because the gun was not fatal that
far. He could easily have waited and killed
us both. No, I anTnot anxious to meet him
again, though if I do one of us will get
POTtEBT W03ZEBS IN E07PT.
What They Produce In Ceramics and
Dainty Articles de Luxe.
Jewelers' Chronicle. 3
Some very Interesting particulars respect
ing the home industries of Egypt are given
in a recent report which the Austrian Con
sul at Cairo made to his Government. The
greater part of the goods manufactured find
a sale principally among tourists and for
eigners visiting tbe country. Speaking gen
erally, the Egyptian industries of to-day
may be divided into three groups: The
minor or "house" industry, agriculture,
and the factory industry. Of the first
group, one ot tbe oldest is the ceramio in
dustry, which is carried on in pottery works
on the river sides in Cairo, Alexandria
and Bossetta. The chief articles of this
class produced are the porous bottle-shaped
vessels and bulging refrigerators known by
the name of Alkaraza, as well as filters
known as Sir, tbe latter chiefly made at
Keneh. The finer classes of goods, such as
ornamental vases, lamps, and ornamental
articles ceneraliy, come irom Assiout and
Cairo is tbe chief center of tbe metal in
dustry. Articles of gold and silver are
manuiactured in small quantities indeed
ana chiefly for the peasant population and
tourists. They mostly consist of massive
silver rings for decorating the arms and
ankles, twisted bands, chains ind filigree
work of fine gold and silver. There are
several lapidaries in Cairo and Alexandria,
chiefly engaged in cutting turquoises.
Tbe wood industry, besides employing a
large number of joiners engaged in pro
ducing ordinary European furniture, in
cludes also some establishments in Cairo
and Alexandria, where art furniture in the
Arabian style is turned out. This mainly
consists ih wall screens, presses, chairs,
fauteuils, small tables, so-called Koran
stands, mirror and picture frames, pier
tables, etc, generally inlaid with mother-of-pearl,
bone or metal. The principal pur
chasers of these articies,too, are foreigners,
either settledin or journeying through the
country. Assiout docs an export trade in
articles of ebony of finer workmanship in
laid with ivory .
Custom of Balslmrthe Bat
The custom oi raising the bat to a woman
arose in the days of chivalry and knight
errantry during the period hetweon tbe
eleventh and fourteenth centuries, when a
youth's great object was to be admitted to
the order of knighthood, one of the qualifi
cations for which position was tenderness
and gallantry toward women. Each woman
in those days had her chosen knight, pre
pared to do battle on her Denair, who on
entering the lists, would raise to her his
helmet as a mark of respect and obedience
to her commands and it gradually became a
mark of respect and deference to raise the
hat to all women.
Bobbers In Northern China.
In many districts of Northern China or
ganized robbery is the regular winter em
ployment of so large a proportion of the
people that travelers are forced to avoid
these regions, it is said. Bobbers prey
upon the people of the country as well as
upon travelers. In many places families
are obliged to have one member sit up all
night with a light to discourage tbe thieves
from attack, hut the robbers are so well or
ganized that in many instances they bese
and overpower the watchers.
For a sore throat there is nothing better
than a flannel bandage dampened with Cham
berlain's Fain Balm. It will nearly always
effect a cure in one night's time. This reme
dy is also a favorite for rheumatism and has
cured many very severe cases. CO cent, bot-tkl.
OIL WELLS SHUT DOWN.
Operators and Drillers Taking TwoDayi'
Vacation Miles or Pipe Lines Frozen
TJp-Theory Regarding the Change of
Ohio Dusters to Producers.
There was scarcely a string of tools run
ning yesterday in the southwestern oil
fields. The drilling wells were shut down
Saturday night, and will not be started up
until to-day or to-morrow. There was ne
change reported in the flowing wells.
The People's Gas Company expect to
get in one well on the Wallace farm and a
couple on the Dixon this week. They are
located in the Gordon sand district, below
There were only one or two pipe line
pump stations running yesterday, and the
majority of the field men spent Christmas
in Pittsburg. The pipe line people in tbe
3IcCurdy field are having trouble with the
lines on account of the cold weather. Tho
statement was made that there were four
miles of pipe in that region which wero
clogged up. "No statement of the runs and
shipments of the various lines were sent
out last evening.
Theory in Regard to Ohio Wells.
The following theory in regard to a pecu
liarity of the Northern Ohio fields appeared
as an editorial in a recent issue of the New
Xork Morning Advertiser:
Press dispatches state that an oil well
flowing 2,030 barrels an hour was "struck"
the other, day in Portage township, Han
cock county, O., somo two or three mllea
outside tbe city limits ot Flndlay. Tha
peculiar thing about this Is that a number
of wells were drilled In Portazo township
four and five years ago, and they all "came
in dnsters," showinfj neither oil nor gas.
Abont 2i years ago oil was found in spots la
good paring quantities.
The puzzle has been to account for the
fact that whereas there was no oil in this
locality a few years ago Jt Is now found,
there in great abundance. The most
plausible theory is that the escape of the
gas from tbe great field north and east of
Portago township which supplies Detroit,
Toledo, Flndlay. Fremont, Sandusky, Nor
wnlk, Fostoria, Tiffin. Kenton. Ferrysburg,
Bowling Green and 100 smaller towns, be
sides tbe majority of tbe farmers living ad
jacent to tbe pipe lines, creates such a suc
tion as to draw tbe oil in from remote terri
tory where It lies in pools and reservoirs
connected with the Flndlay field by crevices
in tbe earth which serve as conduits
through which it may flow.
Indeed, this seems to be the only reason
able theory. The force of the suction may
be estimated wben it Is stated that In the
hundreds, perhaps thousands, of gas wells
iu Hancock and Wood counties the pressure
is from 250 to S00 pounds to tbe square inch.
There are various other points in the
Flndlay field which held neither oil nor gas
a lew years ago in which fortunes have re
cently been made from abundant flows of
oil, but the increase bas been especially no
ticeable in portage, ana tne inaications are
that tbe field will always remain a jrood one.
Tbe Ohio oil does not command so good a
price as tbe Pennsylvania product but ic
pays well enonzh to have already yielded a.
great many fortunes to skillful and fortu
nate operators, and will probably continue
to do so. The farmers in that field are ex
ceptionally lucky, as tbe soil is very rich,
yielding splendid crops, while their royal
ties from oil are so large that in many cases
the amount received lor agricultural prod
ucts cuts but a small figure In their yearly
Cattle Higher, Hogs Barely Steady and
JI03DAT, Dec 28.
The supply of stock on sale at the opening
of the markets at tbe Central Drove Yards
this morning was unusually light, particu
larly with respect to cattle, but it was mainly
because a train or two had becomo stalled
west of Pittsburg. They were expected in
dnring tho day, bnt had not arrived when
the market closed at 11 x.
Receipts at the opening: Cattle, SO loads;
hog,33 double-deck loads; sheep, IS double
deck loads. Lnst Monday: Cattle, 99 loads;
hog", 25 double-dock loads; sheep, 20 double
Owing principally to the vory light sup
ply the market opened 1015o per cwt
niznoron common ana medium grade-, and
2025o on top grades. Snme of the early
transactions are appended:
William Holmes & Co. sold 19 head, weigh
ing 24,050 lb. at $1 83: 19 bead, 22,660 lb, at
i 30: 1 bull. 1,"3J lb. $3 30.
Laflcrty Bros. & Iladden sold IS head,
welshlnz 13,000 lb, at S3 5; six head,
6.210 ll. U 23: eight bead, 7,7:0 lb, $3 40; one
coa-, 970 ll 12 35.
Drnni, DyerJfc Co. sold 18 hnad, weighing
20,890 lb. H 35: 15 head, 19,770 lb, $5 00; IS
hind. 17.000 11,$0: 1 bull. 1.610 lb, $3 23;
21 oxen, 3.C40 lb, $2 75; 1 heifer, 8101b,
John llesknt & Co. sold 19 head, weighing
23,'juu id, at $ MJ-. i ueau,B,-u " ' w; jo naa.
12,790 lb, at $3 10: 11 head, 15.710 In, $1 50: 20
head, 22.390 lb. $1 00; 3 cow and calves, $65; 1
bull, 1,93010, S3 00.
3eneker, Linkborn & Co, sold 8 head,
weighing 7,41011), nt $2 63: 13 head. 110601b,
$3 20; 18 head, 17.6SJ lb, $3 53: 7 oxen, 7.9V) lb,
$3 20; 1 cows. a750 lb, $2 60; 23 head, 22.510 lb,
$3 60; 5 bulls, 6,980 lb, $2 70.
ilcCnll, Kowlen & Newborn sold 16 head,
weighing 17.080 10, $4 00; 24 head, 22,840 lb,
$3 50; 19 head, 20,030 lb, $4 10: 9 head, 12.610 lb,
$3 35:17head,23.t2Jlb.$4 40: 7 head, 7,C631b,
$3 75; 2 bull, 2,010 lb, $2 50; 7 heifera, 5,860 lb,
HnlT, nazelwood & ImbonT sold 25 bead,
23,110 lb. $3 63: 2 oxen, 3.140 lb, $2 65.
8. B. Hodge & Co. sold 9 head, weighing
9.140 lb. at J4 00; 1 cow, 1,090 lb, $2 60; 1 spring
er, $21 00.
The supply was light about 19 double
deck loads, bnt the market was slow and a
shade lower, as follow: Extra, 93 to 100 lb,
$5 0O5 25; good. E5 to 93 Hi, $4 4001 70: fair,
70 to ;0 lb, $3 253 90; common, SI 0J3 0O
yearlings, $3 O0JJ5 00; good to prime Iambs,
65 to 80 lb, $5 806 25; common to lair Iambs,
$3 CC4 50.
The offerings were fairly large numerically
and rally up to the averago in quality, but
the market was Mow and barely steady, on
the ra-tl3 ! 16 755 83 lor best Philadelphia
and $6 60Q6 70 lor best Yorkers.
for all forms of
restorer, and health
will cure you.
23! AND 240 JfXB" I'll
UEOKEKS- FXN ANC IAL.
John M. Oakley & Co.,
UA-NKERS AND BUOK&K3.
45 SIXTH ST.
Direct private wiro to New York and CM
cogo. Member Sew York, Chicago and Pltej
local seouriilei bought and sold for casl
or carried on liberal margins.
Investments made at our discretion anl
dividends paid quarterly.
Interest paid? on balance (since 1833.)
Honey to lean on call.
Information books on all markets mailed
on application. ie7
Whitney & Stephenson
57 Fourth Avenue.