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Zlbe Xextngton (5a3ette
VOL. 108, NO. 27 LEXINGTON. VIRGINIA, WEDNESDAY, JULY 3. 1912
$100 PER YEAR
CONVENTIONS OF PAST
Baltimore Has Been Meeting Place
The Democratic National Conven?
tion which mat io Baltimore last
weak, was the twenty-first national
assemblage ol the Democratic party.
Born io the back controversy of
178-1, chi isteoed by Jefferson, its
founder, in 1792. and strengthen?
ed in the division among the people
with the neutrality ol Washington's
proclamation at the beginning of tbe
Anglo-French war io 1793, the Dem?
ocratic party passed its centennial
mark more than a decade ago.
But the history of the party's
conventions dates back only to 1832,
in which year tbe national delegate
convention method of nominating
candidates for President and vice
President was adopted. The first
Democratic National Convention,
held on May 12. 1832. at Balti?
more, adopted two rules which
have guided the actions of all sub?
sequent conventions. One of these
provided that tbe delegates, when
so instructed, should cast the votes
of their States as u unit, and the
other tbat no candidate should be
nominated without a two-thirds ma?
jority. Andrew Jackson was nomi?
nated for President, and Martin
Vao Buren for Vice President.
The second Deni'jcratic National
Convention met on May 25,1830, also
at Baltimore, and nominated Martin
Van Buren for Presidentand Rich?
ard If. Johnson for Vice President.
The third convention, held on May
5, 1840, at Baltimore, renominated
Van Buren, but named no candidate
for Vice President, leaving tbat to
the several States. It also put for?
rard the first complete platform
ever adopted by the party.
In 1844 tbe Democratic National
Convention again assembled at Bal?
timore. Van Kuren had a majority
of the instructed delegates for his
nomination. James K. Polk was a
candidate for Vice Presideut. After
a three days' struggle the nomina?
tion was given to Polk.
In the convention of l?4.s, also at
Baltimore, took place the first of
the great "walkouts" in Democratic
national assemblages, the others be?
ing in 1800 and 18u6. Lewis Cass
of Michigan, was named for Presi?
dent and William O. Butler of
Kentucky, for Vice President.
Since 1848 the national conventions
and nominees of the Democratic
party have been as follows:
1852, at Baltimore, Franklin
Pierce of New Hampshire for Presi?
dia, and William P. King of Ala
bama for vice-President.
1856, at Cincinnati, James Buch?
anan of Pennsylvania for President,
and John C. Breckenridge of Ken?
tucky for Vice-Prt sident.
186V, at Charleston, S. C.. party
split and named two tickets. Stev?
en A. Douglas of Illinios for Presi?
dent and Herschel V. Johnson of
Georgia for Vice President; John
C. Breckenridge of Kentucky for
President, and Joseph Lane of Ore?
gon for vice-President.
1864, at Chicago, Gen. George B.
McClellan of New Jersey for Presi?
dent, and George H. Pendleton of
Ohio for vice-President.
1868, at New York, Horatio Sey?
mour of New York for President,
and F. P. Blair of Missouri for
1872, at Baltimore, Horace Creely
of New York for President, and B
Gratz Brown of Missouri for Vice
1876. at St. Louis, Samuel J. Til?
den of.New York for President, and
Thomas A. Hendricks of Indiana
1880, at Cincinnati. Gen. Win?
field S. Hancock of Pennsylvania
for President, and William M. Eng?
lish of Indiana for vice-President.
1884, at Chicago, Grover Cleve?
land of New York for President,
and Thomas A. Hendricks of Indi?
ana for Vice-President.
1888, at Chicago, Grover Cleve?
land of New York for President, and
Allen G. Thurman of Ohio for Vice
1892, at Chicago, Gtover Cleve?
land ol New York for President, and
Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois for
1896, at Chicago, William J. Bry
TO GATHER BY THE SEASHORE
Rural Carriers to Meet in Norfolk
Great preparation is being made
for tbe entertainment of the dele
Kates to tbe meeting of tbe Virgin
ia Kural Letter Carriers' Associa?
tion to be held in Norfolk this week.
Officers of the organization are W.
Ls. Hamersley. Randolph, Va, pres?
ident, and C. B. Conner, Lexington,
secretary-treasurer. The secretary
has prepared the following .n forma
tion for tbe benefit of those caring
to attend the convention:
The ninth annual convention of
the Virginia Letters Carriers' As?
sociation will be held in Norfolk,
July 4, 5 and 6, 1912. The meeting
will be called to order tbe evening
of tbe 4th at8:30. Among the prom?
inent speakers are Hon. P. V.
OeGraw, Fourth Assistant Post?
master General; Hon. W. D. Brown,
Editor R. F. D, News; Hon. Edgar
Allen, Postmaster at Hicbmond;
Hon. Stetb Bolling, Postmaster at
Petersburg; Hon. P. St. J. Wilson,
State Highway Commissioner, and
several Norfolk speakers.
Every Carrier is urged to attend
this meeting. This is tbe first time
we have been able to get Mr. DeG raw
to meet with us and be would like to
meet every Carrier in the State.
Mr. DtUraw bas been to quite a
number of conventions and says
that be finds that tho Carriers that
are interested in tbe Association are
the oaes tbat are doing the most in
upbuilding the service. There are
many interesting places in Norfolk
and vicinity: Virginia Beach. Cape
Henry, Ocean View, Hampton Roads
and Navy Yards.
Value of Good Roads
The editor of tbePeinberville, (O.)
Lrader has condensed the library
written up_m the subject of good
roads, into a single, short para?
graph, lt is one of the things
wno ty commissioners ought to paste
n their bats. It is reprinted here?
Roads are to a city or village what
he arteries are to tbe human body.
rVithout them, no community can
ixist, and it naturally follows that
.he better the roads the greater the
prosperity of the community. Many
>eople will go miles outof their way
o trade in some place to which they
nay travel over good hard roads,
md in so doing will avoid tbe town
lear at hand to which approach is
lifticult because of bad roads. Yet
here are so many places so des
itute of good sense and business
mterprise that they never improve
he roads. These are tbe places
bat vegetate and die and whose
leoplecurse their fate and complain
>f hard times. The people of Wood
minty began to realize this some
ears ago, and this subject bas been
ippermost in their minds, until
iow nearly all the townships in the
ounty are building excellent roads
nd tbe work should continue until
loor roads are a thing of the past.
Peculiar Accident Near Riverside
An unusual accident occured on
be Norfolk and Western railway
ear Riverside a few nights ago,
nd while the damage was slight,
he naturo of the trouble was such
s to delay the night train from Roa
oke north exactly five hours.
This train was on time when it
rrived at Buena Vista, but between
.iat town and Ri versidf. tbe next
talion, the locomotive collided with
horse and the impact caused the
reaking of a pipe tbat emptied tbe
ngine of all its steam and it was
ecessary to delay tbe train until
not her locomotive could bb run
om Basic City to take tbe place of
ie crippled engine. The horse
as literally torn to pieces.
3, of Nebraska for President, and
rtbur Sewall of Maine for Vice
1900, at Kansas City, William J.
ryan of Nebraska for President,
dlai E. Stevenson of Illinois for
1904. at St. Louis, Alton B. Par?
er of New York for President, and
enry G. Davis of West Virginia
1%8. at Denver,William J. Brvan
Nebraska for President, and John
'. Kern of Indiana for Vioe-Presi
Resolution ls Adopted Rebuking
GREAT DISORDER FOLLOWED
W. J. Bryan and H. D. Flood Have
William Jennings Bryan wrote
the most sensational and dramatic
chapter of the Democratic National
Convention when he rose upon the
floor of that body Thursday night
and. after declaring that tbe Demo?
cratic party was about to be sold
into bondage to the predatory inter?
ests, demanded tbat Thomas F.
Ryan and August Belmont be cast
out of the convention.
Stunned for a minute by the sud?
denness of the blow dealt by the
Commoner, the convention appeared
it first not to know what to do or
wbicb way to turn. Recovering a
uoiuont later, however, the body
broke into a storm of protest and
lalf a hundred jelegates leaped to
iheir feet crying for recognition.
Against this wave of furious pro?
test rose another wave of approba?
tion from the Bryan men throughout
Members of the Virginia and New |
fork delegations, resenting the
nove of Colonel Bryan, turned ,
iercely upon him with a refusal to
ueet such a challenge. They de- i
lured that Mr. Bryan had no right i
o dictate to their Staten who should i
r should not sit in a Democratic :
:onventiou as their representatives [<
The Bryan resolution as adopted k
ran as follows: I <j
"Resolved, Tbat in this orisis in '
ar party's career, and in our conn- ; '
rvs history, this convention sends i-s
reeling to the people of the Unite** I ^
tates, and assures them that the I
arty of Jefferson and Jackson is I
till the champion of popular gov 1
rnment sud equality before tbe j c
aw. As proof of our fidelity to the e
eople we hereby declare ourselves n
pposed to the nomination of any i Q
*ndidate for President who is tbe fi
apreseotative of. or under any ! c
bligation to, J. Pierpont Morgan, tl
homas F, Ryan, August Belmont, ti
r any other member of the privi si
ige-huntngand favor-seek class." u
The part withdrawn and not ic
Med upon was as follows: >'
"Be it further resolved, Tbat we : c<
;mand the withdrawal from this ?
invention of auy delegate or dele- ' v<
lies constituting or representing 'E
ie above named interests."
Mr. Bryan, in his argument for P
io resolution, said in part: |
"This is.an extraordinary resolu- '
on, but extraordinary conditions w
jed extraordinary remedies. We
e now engaged in conducting ? ai
invention that will place before ', ?]
e country the Democratic nomi [ n'
*e, and I assume that each dele- j
tte is here because he wants that J
iminee elected, and it is in order j
at we may advance the interests j
our candidate that I introduce j '
"Tbere are questions upon which m
b may assume the American pen tx
e are are informed, and tbere is
it a delegate in this convention B
bo does Dot know 'hat an effort is bi
ting made right now to sell the' cc
*mocratic party into tbe bondage j
tbe predatory interests. ; ?
"lt is most brazen, impudent and ? B
solent attempt to make the nomi- oe
e of this convention tbe bond- w
ive of tbe men who exploit the j F.
opie of this country." j tit
Colonel Bryan declared, in un
er to tbe statement that he was rix
ying tc rob a State of tbe right to , to
me its own representatives, that j co
either Virginia or New Vork tb
mid take a poll of its delegation* M
d say openly and on the floor of th
b convention that a majority of .th
cb delegation stood by Ryan and i sti
ilmoot, he would withdraw tbe j Sti
ter part of bis resolution. no
Congressman H. D. Flood from
rginia, from whose district Mr. to
an was a delegate, advanced to tit
a platform and said: | mc
'In the name of the sovereij<u ii>j
tte of Virginia I accept tbe in so j an
it proposition made by tba only (ri
MORAL INELUENCE IS
HER GREATEST ASSET
Educational Power of Washington
EVER TRUE TO TRADITIONS
Fundamentalism and Thoroughness
BY ll. WATHON JAMIES, M.. D.
It is a very broad assertion that
Washington and I.ee University
stands to day as one of tbe corner?
stones if not the corner-stone of the
American Republic. Yet the thesis
is absolutely, argumentatively and
historically defensible. On the
ruins of Liberty Hall Academy is
builded an institution with nearly
a million of dollars of endowement,
Carrying on a work of modern educa?
tion in classics, science, law, but
illustrating tradition, holding fast
to tbat which was good and pres?
sing forward to tbe high mark of
forming characier. Ti ere is hard?
ly a prominent incident in the con?
struction period of the rep.iblic in
which the progenative of Washing?
ton and Lee does not figure. She is
impressed on the baptismal sacred
ioss of the nation. Anything that is
written about her must necessarily
In Convention that carried Vir
tinia into tbe Union men who were
irustees of Liberity Hall Academy
held the balance of power, and vot
:d against the instructions of their
constituents. Otherwise the in
luence of Patrick Henry and Dr.
braham would have prevented Vir?
ginia from becoming a party of the
:ompact. The name of the Liberty
Jail Academy was changed to Wash
ngton Academy by the act and re
olution of the board in honor of
Vashington and in recognition of
i is donation to the institution cf stock
n the old James Ri ver Company,
'here is, however, a curious mis
onception of the motive thatactuat
d Washington in tbe gift. He has
ever been credited with the states
lansbip that was behind it. So
ir as bis religious views were con
erned Washington had a leaning to
ie Episcopal Church. But at the
me be came into possession of the
Lock a great wave of French in
delity?free thought ?was sweep -
igover Virginiaand bad infected tha
outh of the land. Washington
meei red that the best way to
reast it was to bulwark and de
slop, not in a religious sense, but
i tbe political sense, the cast iron
L*otch-Irish Presbyterianism re
resented in Liberty Hall Academy. |
ence the donation.
Tbe direct question is asked,
hat are the educational influence
I this section of the South? The '
newer of Washington and Lee is in
ae wo.-d: "Education." Thorough
Ma is her power. Of a student :
ady of over six hundred you hard
i see a dozen on tbe campus. Why?
hey are working. Moral in
uence of Washington and Lee is
sr strongest asset. Tbat is never
st sight of.
an in this convention who wants
> destroy Democratic success.
"Virginia asks nothing of Mr.'
ryan. We do not feel that we
ive to go to him for advice or
"A convention of 1.000 Virginians
as honest men as William J.
ryan ever was. and as good Dem
rats as he ever can be?elected
ithout a dissenting voice. Thomas
Ryan a delegate to this .woven
When Mr. Bryan was allowed once
jre to defend his resolution he
ld the convention that no man ' e
old accuse him of reflecting upon j t
e Democracy of Virginia He _
id his father had been born in j
at State, and tbat four years ago >
a Virginia Democrats bad in- y
rucied every delegate from that j
ite to support him for a third j
mi nation. T
"And it is not necessary for me ?'
defend my own Democracy,"con- o:
med the Nebraskan. "My De- ti
icracy would not be worth defend.j tr
I if it were necessary to resent J
y charge mada against it by aju
aod of Thomas P. Ryan." ?
TOWN PLANNING IN AMERICA
The Model Town Must Be Planned
On a Business Basis
If for no other reason, therefore,
the model town must be considered,
organized and developed on a busi?
ness basis; and tbe value of the ex?
perience acquired or any success
achieved will depend first and last
; on obtaining results in the face of con?
ditions no more favorable than
[ordinarily met with in other land de
I velopments, and by the useof means
ordinarily available in other in
l stances. In fact the future of town
planning in America depends on
whether it can be shown to pay.
Tbe so-called model town must
succeed on a commercial basis. It
must even do better in this respect
than the ordinary commercial or
speculativedevelopment. Itu educa?
tional, architectural, and sociologic?
al possibilities, therefore, in the
last analysis, deuced on its economic
success. The equation is funda
mentally an economic one, however
aesthetically it may be put upon the
slate, and its solution must he
found in terms of dollars and cents.
?From "Model Towns.in America,"
by Grosvenor Atterbury, in the
Find Bones of Three-Toed Horse
Marvlous discoveries of pre?
historic mammals in thc shale fields
on the desert 28 miles east of Mina,
Nev., are announced as the result
of the explorations of Prof. Law?
rence Baker, of the department of
geological research of University of
California. Professor Baker is as?
sisted in his researches bv Profes
sor Buwaldo, also of the university
The investigations disclose tbe
fact tbat tbe region Mina was once
an immense body of tropical water.
The bones of a three-toed horse
about the size of a lamb, have been
unearthed. The teeth, well preserv?
ed, and the entire remains of a pre
historic dog have been brought to
light. It is believed tbat this
animal lived at least 5,000,000 or 6,
000,000 years ago. The scientists
say that the fields about Mina are
tbe most marvelous in tbe world.
Thunder and Lightning
The season for thunder and light
ning has come again, which brings
anxiety to many who flinch at the
flashes and are appal led by the claps
An authority on the subject, D. C.
Shafer, states tbat lightning is not C
half as dangerous M going out of ti
tbe bouse on an icy morning, walk- tl
ing downstairs, or a hundred other tl
things ? e do every day without a t;
thought of personal harm. More o;
people are killed each year by fall- f?
ing building materials, more die I"
from fright than are killed by light ir
ning. The United States Census i ti
Bureau shows only 1M people kill- lg
sd by lightning in the entire country t
luring oue year, and only thirty of
ibese people were killed in the ti
Mties. Heat and the sun killed 763 d
luring the same year; 308 died from
?old and freezing, and 4,3i?5 were
Soiled Money Will Be Laundered al
Laundered paper money, clean
md crisp as new, will soon be in 's
tirculation thorougbout the United p
it at es. Secretary MacVeagh has fa
nstalled a currency washing ma- cc
hine in the Treasury Department, sc
,t Washington which is expected to b
..ve the government at least 9601V
00 annually. te
The money-washing machine was
levised after some months of study
nd experiment by the Bureau of
Engraving and Printing. Millions l"
f notes, which previously would er
ave been destroyed, will be wash- de
d, starched and ironed and return- SP
d to circulation, lt is estimated co
hat at ieast 60 per cent of tbe bills en
resented to the treasury for re- D''
emption can be so revived. The oe
lacbine, ii is said, will wash 25,
00 notes daily. SP
Assaulted Mrs. Bertha Ferguson tu
hursday, given a preliminary trial i er,
'riday, indicted, tried, convicted j w;
o Saturday and sentenced to elec- j ]
rocution August U is the record
lade in Appomattox county before
udee Hundley, all in less than sixty
ours after the crime. The negro rq
'as refused a new trial. ma
IN BOTH BIG PARTIES
Historic Incidents Gathered from
In pointing out what Colonel
Roosevelt's bolting party shojld
expect in the light of history, the
Phildelphia Public Ledger calls at?
tention to thes? historic facts
"The Republican party had ita.
bimble origin in the conventions of
the Liberty party in 183!'and 1840?
in the latter year the Liberty party
nominated James a. Hirney for
President, and in 1844 put forward
the same candidate. Hirney, in
1840, got exactly 7,05;' votes, as
compared with Harrison's 1.276,017.
and in 1844 be got iio.tJOS to Pile's
1,387,343, and Clay's 1,299.068.
Their successors, the Fret*
ers. got but 291,863 votes in lMv
which dwindled to 156.149 in ItibS,
out in 1856 the total allied forces of
the Republicans, with whom the
Free Soilers had now coalesced,
were able to get 1,341.265 votes as
against 1,838,168 votes for Buchanan
>n the Democratic ticket. Even by
I860, 20 years after the convention
A the Liberty party, which is syn?
onymous with the birth of the Re?
publican party, the vot? for Lin?
coln on the Republican ticket tvaa
nearly a million less than the con?
fined *-ote tor the other candidates.
Lincoln received in this election
I.S66.352 votes, while Don,
Democrat) got 1.375,157: John C.
Jreckenridge (Independent Demo
?rat) got 847,514 votes, and John
3ell (Constitutional Union) recei veal
"When Grant, 1-72. got 3,597,070
otes as tbe regular Republican
lominee, and <ireely received 2.
34,070 votes from the Democrats
nd Liberal Republicans, Ch.i?
''Connor of New York, the secea.
ag Democratic candidate, got just
9,406 votos. To take a more re
ent example, still fresh in the
nods of the electorate, in lSiHi the
)emocrats who abandoned tbe free
ilver heresy, chose as their stand
rd bearers John M. Palmer of 111
:ois, and Simon B. Buckner of
kentucky. Palmer got 133.542 to
IcKicley's 7,107,304. and Bryan's
Sold Crops for Benefit of Schools
Needing more money for their
;hoois tban was being raised by
lxation, the inhabitants of Wake
ounty, North Carolina, adopted
ie unique expedient of cultivating
ie land surrounding the schools,
ie money obtained from the sale of
ie crops beiug used for the benefit
[ the school. Seventeen such school
inns were operated last year,
bey were worked by 1,200 persons.
len, women and children, who con
?ibuted their labor free. The net
ain from tbe enterprise was nearly
This new movement to raise addi
onal funds for the county schools is
escribed by A. C. Monahan, ussist
at in rural education in the I'uited
tates Bureau of Education, in a
lonograph just issued for free dis
?ibution by the bureau. Mr. .Mon?
"The plan has been called tbe
chool-farni movement,' and com
rehends the establishment of small
rms of from two to ten acres in
innection with every country
mool. This farm is to be cultivated
? tbe children and the parents,
orking together on certain days
rmed 'school-farm working bee-..'
Spraying Destroys Bees
Reports from various sections of
e county show that there are few
honey bees than formerly. Their
istruction is attributed to the
Tay ing fruit trees, lt is said the
mposition of the spray is suftici
tly poisonous when lodged in the
.'ssouis of fruit trees to kill the
es tbat suck these blooms.
Late spraying causes the trouble,
raying after the trees are in
xiin or just as they are beginning
bloom. If greater care is not ex?
cised by orchard ists, honey bees
ll soon become a rara avis.
Rev. B. G. Pressly, who recently
ni med the pastorate of the Tim
r Ridge A. R. P. church, bas
alined in the Circuit Court of
ckbridge to celebrate tbe rites of