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LOS ANGELES HERALD.
Stand* for the Interests of
SUBSCRIBE FOR IT.
VOL. XXXV.—NO. 51.
ON THE RAGGED EDGE
"Away With Him !"—"Cru
cify Him I"
Choice Expletives Hurled at
Another Stormy Session of the Irish
Clancy's Compromise Meets With Encour
agement—A Committee Appointed to
Treat With Gladstone.
Associated Tress Dispatches.
London, Dec. 4.—At a caucus this
morning of the opponents of l'arnell, a
resolution was adopted not to accept the
Clancy compromise, which would be
offered at today's meeting, but to force
matters to a decisive issue forthwith.
The report from Cork last night that
the municipal authorities had adopted
a resolution against Parnell, was erron
eous. On the contrary the resolution
was in support of Parnell.
The Nationalists met at noon today,
to further consider the question of Par
nell's leadership. All the Irish mem
bers in London Avere in attendance.
Parnell occupied the chair.
After the meeting had been called to !
order, one of the members read the
manifesto issued yesterday by the
Catholic hierarchy in Ireland, declaring !
that in consequence of the revelations of
the O'Shea divorce case, which convict
Parnell of the gravest offences known to \
religion and society, the Catholics of j
Ireland cannot accept as leader a man
wholly dishonored, and that his contin- !
ued leadership would imperil the cause
of Ireland. The reading of the mani
festo was greeted with cheering by Par- ;
Sexton denied that he had ever pro
posed that Parnell should retire from
public life, and said he only meant that
he should retire from the chairmanship
of the party.
Clancy offered his amendment, which '
provided that, in view of the difference '
between Gladstone and Parnell, the
party whips be instructed to obtain from
Gladstone, Morley and Harcourt, befoie
any further consideration of the main !
question, information on the departure i
from the bill of 1880, made by Gladstone
iv his suggestions, affecting the control
of the Irish constabulary and the settle
ment of the land question.
A prolonged debate took place on the
amendment. Parnell intimated that if '
me party took the responsibility oti his
shoulders and would insist upon the
Liberal leaders promising to carry an
acceptable home rule bill through the
commons in the face of all opposition, :
he would retire from the leadership.
He asked the meeting to accept Clancy's
resolution, whereupon he said the alii- ' :
ance between the Nationalists and Lib
erals would be renewed.
Healy refused to submit to Parnell's
stipulations. He declared tbat they i
were even beyond the lines of the com
promise suggested at yesterday's \
Sexton declared that the majority of
the members were firmly determined to
adhere to the main question, and would
■imply vote that Parnell must resign.
Parnell proceeded to deal at length
with Clancy's proposal. He decided
that he could not bind himself to retire
until he could see Gladstone's reply. '
His position had been granted him, not
merely as a leader of the party, but
leader of the nation. This had been
derived from circumstances in which,
speaking with the greatest respect, his
hearers had no share. After speaking
of his services in assimilating and sooth
ing the prejudices of the discordant ele
ments of the Irish throughout the 1
world, Parnell said: "You know,
and I know, that there is no j
man living, if I am gone, who j
could succeed in reconciling the feel
ing of the Irish people to the Hawarden
proposals. As you wish to withdraw
from me this responsibility, I think it
only reasonable that you shoald give
judgment on these matters for the ben
efit of your constituents; therefore, I
■nbmit this resolution, that the party
accept no home rule bill unless it gives
immediate control of the police and
power to deal with land."
He said he was willing to do his best
to reconcile the prejudices of the Irish
people in regard to the control of the
police, in the bill of 1883, "and Glad
stone knows," he continued, "in strik
ing me down he strikes down the only
man that could make that measure ac
ceptable to Ireland. Was 1 to keep the
Hawarden seal on my mouth ? Glad
stone himself put it out of my power to
remain longer silent."
In conclusion Parnell made references
to what he termed Gladstone's ambig
uity, and said: "I have had many deal
ings with him, but never got a straight
HEALY DETERMINED TO DEPOSE HIM.
Healy expressed amazement at Par
nell's speech and protested against add
ing new conditions to the Clancy
resolution. Parnell, he said, wanted to
withdraw the question of leadership,
and substitute a discussion on home
rule. They could get neither straight
conduct nor straight answers from him.
Parnell replied that he had given his
answer. He regretted that it was not
considered straight; but by it he would
stand or fall.
Healy—Then you will fall. What's
the use of further discussion?
A tremendous uproar followed. Leamy
shouted: "Away with him!" John
O'Connor yelled: "Crucify him!" and
a scene of wild disorder followed.
When quiet was finally restored,
Healy said nothing could change his
determination to depose Parnell. The
latter was no greater than the majority
of the party; yet he talked of defying it.
Healy believed there would be enough
statesmanship left in the benighted ma
jority who opposed Parnell to take a
course as statesman-like •as • that of
Then Healy read portions of Parnell's
speech delivered at a birthday banquet
six months after the Hawarden. inter
view, declaring the independence of the
Irish party, and eulogizing the alliance
AN ANGRY DUEL OF WORM,
An angry duel of words followed,
Healy repeating Parnell's recent re
marks about Gladstone, and finishing
by asking: "Who broke the alliance?"
Parnell and Nolan both exclaimed:
"The Gladstone party."
Healy retorted : "It perished from the
stench of the divorce court."
Parnell replied that if the Gladstone
letter had not been written, the alliance
wou'd have been maintained.
Healy defended Gladstone. He said
Parnell had bespattered that gentle
man's gray hairs with mud, and now
wanted Irish members, hat in hand, to
go and ask Gladstone for terms. Ii Par
nell succumbed, he was only one man
gone. The heads of greater leaders had
been stricken off at the block before now
for Ireland, but the Irish cause re
Sexton said he had listened to Ilealv
with regret. Would Parnell resign, he
asked, if the majority voted for the ac
ceptance of Gladstone's reply?
Barry asked for a further explana
tion, and Parnell vehemently replied:
"I have stated with distinctness that I
will not give a further answer."
At (i p. in. the meeting adjourned till
If Parnell's resolutions are accepted
and the Liberal replies are satisfactory,
he will place himself in their hands.
A PUOSPKCT FOR AN AGREEMENT.
A rumor was circulated this afternoon
to the effect that Clancy's amendment
had been rejected. Inquiry proved that
there was no truth in the rumor. On
the contrary the latest phase of the situ
ation bids fair ior an agreement, a com
mittee having been appointed to wait
upon Gladstone and endeavor to obtain
from him the assurance desired by Par
nell. The committee consists of Parnell.
Sexton, Healy, Justin McCarthy, John
Redmond,Deasy,Powers and Leamy. Par
nell will take no part iv the negotia
tions with Gladstone. Before the
appointment of the committee Parnell
asked the meeting for an informal show
of hands on Clany's amendment. This
disclosed the fact "only that the chances
continued to holdout against the amend
ment. Besides Gladstone, the commit
tee will also see Harcourt and Morley,
and endeavor to conclude negotiations
The committee decided to entrust
Healy, Redmond, Sexton and Leamy
with the conduct of the negotiations
with Gladstone. It is reported that at a
meeting of his adherents last night, Par
nell promised to abide by the decision of
the majority of the Irish members on
the value of Gladstone's assurances. The
supporters of Parnell are confident that
Gladstone's assurances will prove inade
The committee has sent a letter to
Gladstone, asking him to open negotia
tions for a future home rule bill. Glad
stone expressed a willingness to inter
change views with the committee, but
reserved the right to choose the mem
bers with whom to negotiate.
CARDINAL MANNING SPEAKS.
The Chronicle publishes an interview
with Cardinal Manning, in which he
fays his opinion is admirably expressed
by the manifesto issued by the Irish
hierarchy, which, he believes, will gain
in influence, because it took due time to
consider the question before issuing the
manifesto. He thought the manifesto
would carry great weight, both in De
land and America. He agreed entirely
with the views it expressed, both polit
ically and morally, but Parnell's retire
ment should be made compulsory on
moral grounds, politics being a second
ary consideration. Parnell's followers,
however, are justified in demanding his
resignation on political grounds.
Lincoln, Neb., Dec. 4. —The executive
council of the Irish National League of
America, comprising President Fitzger
ald of Lincoln, Judge Fitzgerald of Cin
cinati. Dr. O'Reilly of Detroit, M. V.
Gannon of Omaha and Secretary Sutton
of Lincoln, will hold a meeting in this
city tomorrow. Judge Fitzgerald, who
is now here, today cabled the following
to Parnell: "The hasty action of the
(Cincinnati Parnell branch misrepresents
Irish sentiment. You have ever been
faithful to Ireland, while Gladstone, un
til lately, was always her oppressor.
Hence the Irish reject his dictation and
demand your retention as leader."
WAST TO COME HACK.
The Iloneirade Indians Anxious to He
turn to the Agency.
Washington, Dec 4. —General Scho
field received a telegram from General
Brooke this afternoon, saying forty
lodges of Indians left Rosebud agency
since the removal of the camp across
the White river, to the edge of the Bad
Land, and there are strong symptoms of
disintegration, as about half the
Indians seem willing to come back to
the agency. General Brooke also says
from all he can gather as to their inten
tions, the majority of the Indians want
to come back. The war department
officials are much gratified at this intel
Chicaoo, Dec. 4. —At army headquar
ters tonight, General Miles reported
that all the advices today indicate that
everything is quiet at the scene of the
Itellef for Ireland.
London, Dec. 4. —In the commons to
day, Balfour made a motion that parlia
ment vote £5000 to provide seed pota
toes for distressed land cultivators in
Ireland. He explained that seed pota
toes would not be given the people
gratis, but as a loan, and any one pay
ing ready money would obtain 20 per
cent, discount. This was only a small
part of the measure to be taken by the
government to meet the impending dis
tress in Ireland, in railways and other
public works to be undertaken. The ap
propriation asked for was approved.
A Slice of Ulytiie's Wealth.
San Francisco, Dec. 4. —In the case of
S. Mattingly against the estate of the
late Thomas 11. Blythe, for the recovery
of $125,000, commission for arranging a
sale of stock of the Blue Jacket mining
company, the jury today found a verdict
for plaintiff for his claim in full.
FRIDAY MORNING, DECEMBER 5, 1890.
FREE FIGHT IN COURT
An Exciting Episode at Spo
Mayor dough Hauled Up for
Crimination and Recrimination
Leads to Blows.
A Pugnacious Lawyer Knocks the Mayor
Down and Climbs His Frame.
Associated Press Dispatches.
Spokane Falls, Dec.4, —Judge Blake's
department of the superior court was
the scene today of an exciting free fight j
in which Mayor Clough, Attorneys Tur
ner, Graves and Flinn, and the officers
of the court participated. In a few mo
ments there wa3 a tremendous uproar.
The lignt was the result of a conflict be
tween the city and the judicial
authorities. Judge Blake rendered
a judgment against the city
for $2000 in favor of ex-Police
Justice Curry. Mayor Clough refused to
sign the warrant, and was arrested for
contempt of court. Charles P. Voorhees,
attorney for the city, in addressing the
court, said it was an outrage that the
mayor should be summarily arrested on
a charge, the penalty of which was im
prisonment in the penitentiary. Attor
ney George Turner, a prominent politi
cian, retorted that it might have been
better for the city if the whole municipal
government had been in the peniten
tiary for the past two years.
After the court adjourned, and while
the men were leaving the room, Mayor
Clough approached Turner and said that
his remarks were uncalled for, and that
his law firm had been mixed up in every
dirty case in the city ; whereupon Tur
ner struck at Clough. Some say the
mayor was knocked down, others that
he dodged the blow, and slipped and fell
over a chair, and Turner jumped on the
prostrate man. Thereupon Attorney
Quinn sought to pull him off, and
Graves, Turner's former law partner,
jumped on Quinn, and the sheriff, depu
ties and constables rushed in. The
judge pounded the bar and called for
order, and confusion generally reigned.
Finally the combatants were separated,
and it was found that nobody was hurt.
Turner served as United States mar
shal in Alabama under Grant's admin
istration, and was one of the 300 who
supported Grant in the Chicago conven
A Oreat Impetus Given to Farming
San Francisco, Dec. 4. —Indications
are tonight that the storm in this city is
over. A light sprinkle of rain fell this
afternoon, but the stars are shining this
evening, and there is little or no wind.
San Luis Obispo, Dec. 4. —The storm
closed today with a total rainfall of 3.92
inches. A general impetus has been
given all farming operations.
Merced, Dec. 4. —Rain still continues,
with a heavy wind from the southeast.
The fall for the storm is 1.0(5 inches.
Oakdale, Dec. 4.—One and seventy
four hundredths inches of rain fell dur
ing the storm, and several windmills
were blown down.
Anaheim, Dec. 4. —Rain fell heavily
during last night and yesterday after
noon. The weather was showery teday,
with indications of more rain tonight.
The fall for the storm is 2.50 inches.
San Bernardino, Dec. 4.—Rain fell
up to 0 o'clock this morning. It rained
all day by showers, and is raining to
night, with indications of a heavy down
pour. The streams are rising; no dam
Stockton, Dec. 4. —The rainfall for
the storm measured 1.02 inches tonight.
The indications are that the storm is at
Fresno, Dec. 4. —The rainfall in the
last 48 hours, up to 5 o'clock, was 1.35
inches, with a total of 2.83 for the
San Dieoo. Dec. 4. —The total rainfall
for the past twenty-four hours is 1:43;
still raining this evening.
Tiie Northern Citrus Fair.
I M.uiysvilt.e, Cal., Dec. 4.—The exec
utive committee of the Marysville Cit
, rus Fair association met this evening
i and selected January 12, 1891, as the
| date for opening the Northern Califor
nia citrus fair. President.Norman Ride
out and Secretry (Jr. W. Harney were in
structed to invite the Southern Cali
fornia Citrus Fair association to make
an exhibit in Marysville. The state ap
propriation of $2,500 will be given away
as premiums to growers of citrus fruits,
raisins and olives, outside of the Sixth
congressional district. A premium of
$100 will be given for the best essay on
orange culture. Competition is open to
anyone, the essay to be limited to 2000
words. All growers of citrus fruits, rai
sins and olives in the Central California
counties are entitled to representation
and the right to compete for the prizes
given at the Marysville fair.
After His Victim's Estate.
TUCSON, Ariz., Dec. 4.—The grand jury
today returned an indictment against
George W. Reed for the murder of
James Farrell, at Nogales, last October.
The deceased was a resident of San
Francisco, but the last three years has
been mining in lmuris, Mexico. A
former grand jury ignored the charge,
believing the killing justifiable. Subse
quently Reed applied for a letter of ad
ministration on his victim's estate,
worth about $200,000. This caused a
close investigation of the murder, which
disclosed evidence tending to show that
the killing was cold-blooded and pre
Merced, Cal., Dec. 4. —The prelimi
nary examination of Olsen was resumed
this morning. Dr. Cassity, one of the
physicians who held the autopsy, testi
fied as to the wounds on Ivett. How
the body lay, the size of the bloody foot
prints near the corpse, etc. While the
doctor was explaining the fractures in
the skull, the district attorney offered to
produce the skull, but the defense ob
jected. Another physician who held an
autopsy corroborated Cassity's state
A number of other witnesses were ex
amined, but there were no new develop
ments. The examination is expected to
close tomnrrow, with the testimony of
The Hawaiian King In California for
San Francisco, Dec. 4.—The United
States steamer Charleston, with King
Kalakaua, of Hawaii, on board, entered
the harbor at 11 o'clock this morning.
The U. S. S. Swatara met the Charleston
near the heads and saluted her, as did
the forts, afterward accompanying the
Charleston to her moorings. The offi
cers of the Charleston reported a good
trip from Honolulu until Tuesday, when
the gale which has raged along the coast
Colonel McFarlane, chamberlain to
King Kalakaua, stated that the king
visited California ior the benefit of his
health and eyesight, which is somewhat
impaired. The king would probably re
main in California five or six weeks,
and during that period would visit the
southern part of the state, but would
not go east. The king is accompanied
only by Colonel McFarlane and a few
Kalakaua left the Charleston in the
the admiral's barge late this afternoon,
and a few moments later arrived at the
('lay-street wharf. The Charleston and
Swatara again lired a royal salute as the
king left the ship. Upon arriving at
the wharf, he was received by General
Gibbon, commanding the division of the
Pacific, and (Consul-General McKinley of
Hawaii. A battalion of United States
cavalry was drawn up in line facing the
wharf. Great crowds of people sur
rounded the landing place, and, as the
king left the barge he bowed right and
left in acknowledgment of the cheers
which were given by the spectators.
He immediately entered a carriage
drawn by four horses, and was driven to
the Palace hotel, where a reception was
given him, which was attended by
Governor Waterman, Mayor Pond, rep
resentatives of the commercial organiz
ations and a number of prominent citi
THE PRESIDENTIAL RACE.
Senator Stanford Is Not in It, but Gov
ernor Hill Is.
Albany, N. V., Dec. 4. —Governor
Hill has declared himself not to be a
candidate for United States senator. He
will not try for a third term as governor,
but will make a fight for the presidential
nomination in 1892.
New York, Dec. 4.—"1 have no
thought of the presidency; I have no
expectation of being a candidate now,
or at any time in the future." It was
in these words, says the Herald's Wash
ington special, that Senator Stanford, of
California, set at rest the stories that he
is seeking the presidential nomination
"It was my intention within a few
days, he continued, to call up my farm
mortgage bill, introduced at last session ;
or, if that be not possible, to reintroduce
it. It has been said lam using that bill
to advance my presidential aspirations.
Nothing could' be further from my pur
pose. I felt satisfied when I prepared
that b\\l that it would create
antagonism, and that it would injure
me in the estimation of a good many
conservative men who do not under
stand the subject. But I believe it con
tains a proper principle, and furnishes
means, without cost to the government,
of supplying the people with such an
amount of circulating medium as the
SLASHED WITH A RAZOR.
A rroiuirientCouple'sTerrible Encounter
With a Burglar.
Norfolk, Va., Dec. 4. — Surgeon Wil
liam A. Wheeler, ot the United States
marine hospital service, and his wife,
were seriously slashed with a razor
iv the hands of a negro bur
glar this evening. Tiiey had
just finished tea and going
into another room, found a burglar
calmly looking through their effects.
The doctor grappled with him and was
getting the best of him, when the
negro drew a razor and began
slashing right and left with terrible
effect. Mrs. Wheeler rushed to her
husband's assistance, but was soon
slashed in a terrible manner. Though
faint from loss of blood, she rushed into
her husband's room, secured his pistol
and handed it to him. The burglar
broke away and escaped, although the
doctor thinks one of the shots he fired
hit the man. The doctor and his wife
are not fatally injured, but will be laid
up some little time. The police are
searching for the negro.
Large Flow of Gas.
Stockton, Cal., Dec. 4.—A large flow
of gas was struck today in the well being
bored by the county to furnish fuel for
the new court house. Several gas flows
have been struck in the well, but the
largest was reached today at a depth of
nineteen hundred feet. It is estimated
that today's flow will measure 30,000
feet every twenty-four hours, which
with other veins tapped, will make a
daily flow of more than sixty thousand
A Drunken Ouarrel.
Cu)Vep.dai.e, Cal., Dec. 4.—Last night
Charles Worth, who was drinking heav
ily, met a stranger named Edward Ar
dell. The men quarrelled over a trifling
matter, and Ardell struck Worth. The
latter drew a revolver and shot Ardell,
it is feared fatally. Worth was arrested.
Diamonds Increasing in Value.
"Diamonds are nearly a third dearer
than they were a year ago," says a Bos
ton dealer, "and if the indications can be
relied upon they are going still higher.
I have been in the trade for a good many
years and have handled three or four
bushels of the 'sparks,' but during all
my experience I have never known a
time when diamands were in greater
favor than now. It seems as if every
body has a penchant for them. Why, 1
know a hundred young men in town
whose salaries are not above $15 a week
who wear 6tones averaging in cost all
the way from |50 to $100. They buy
them on the instalment plan."—Boston
A CONVENT BURNING.
Catholic Institutions in
A Series of Conflagrations at
A Terrible Accident in the Illinois
.Eight Men Crushed by the Collapse of a
Associated Press Dispatches.
Pittsburg, Dec. 5, 1:15 a. m.—St.
Mary Magdilene's Catholic church and
school, at Homestead, Pa., caught fire at
1 o'clock, and the ofeureh is already
totally destroyed. There are no hopes
for the buildings on either side. The
convent is now burning, as is also a
dwelling house. It now looks as is three
other dwellings near by will also go, as
there is absolutely no water to be had
on the hill.
The McGinn cracker house and Jen
kins warehouse next door, and Harris's
drug store were damaged by fire $150,000
at an early hour this (Friday) morning.
An explosion of chemicals caused a wall
to fall, severely injuring several firemen.
It was nearly 3 o'clock yesterday
morning before the fire in the Dickson
flat was subdued. No more bodies were
found. All the occupants are accounted
for. There were about forty, and many
had narrow escapes. Mr. Irwin per
ished in an attempt to rescue his wife,
after giving the alarm to the inmates on
the other floors. Mrs. Irwin was suffo
cated in an attempt to reach the door.
The loss by this was $40,000. The
building was four stories high, with no
fire escapes and no watchman. The
department of public safety will prose
cute the owner of ttie building for fail
ure to put up fire escapes according to
Saliva, Kan., Dec. 4.—Half the busi
ness portion of Brookfteld was destroyed
by tire this afternoon.
San Francisco, Dec. 4.—The Mission
pottery works on Harrison and Seven
teenth streets, was completely destroyed
by fire tonight. Loss $50,000, partially
insured. The business was conducted
by Tracy Bros. & Co., who owned the
building, a rambling one-story frame
edifice. The fire was caused by one ot
the kilns exploding.
Where Did Ii Get That Cut?
It is perfectly right for a man to ask
Such a question as that, and to take to task
A man so wretchedly clad.
No wonder his indignation rose,
When he looked at that shocking suit of clothes;
'Twas enough to make him mad.
While it might be a little difficult to guess where such
miserable attire came from, it is not at all hard to find out
where it did uot come from. Such a suit as that was never
purchased and never sold at the store of THE LONDON
CLOTHING COMPANY. They keep only such clothing
as will make a man presentable wherever he may go, and
you can depend on it their prices are right. They have the
best stock of RUBBER CLOTHING in the city.
Cor. Spring and Temple Streets,
-)isB A YEARK-
Buys the Daily Hfbai.d and
|2 the Weikly Hkrald.
IT IS NEWSY AND CLEAN.
MISHAPS ON THE RAIL.
Accidents of More or Lem Seriousness.
Marysville, Cal., Dec. 4.—The north
bound Oregon express ran into an open
switch in the yards here this morning.
Luckily the train was just leaving and
was running at a low rate of speed. No
one was injured. It is believed the
switch was turned by miscreants who
desired to wreck the train. A track has
boen built around the derailed engine,
and trains are now moving.
Vacaville, Cal., Dec. 4.—The south
bound train was derailed this morning,
seven miles north of here and one mile
south of Wolfskill's ranch, by the engine
breaking a rail. The track was torn up
for a distance of 200 yards. The bag
gage car was badly damaged. No one
was injured. The passengers were sent
to Elmira in a box car.
»St. Louis, Dec. 4. —The south-bound
Chicago and Alton passenger train was
wrecked at Jacksonville, Illinois, early
this morning. Fred Smith, of Jfekin,
Illinois, and Judge J. K. Riffell, of
Kansas City, were instantly killed. Half
a dozen others were hurt.
Philadelphia, Dec. 4. —James Hel
ferty, William McOowan and Michael
Newline, were instantly killed this after
noon by being run over by a train on
the Reading railroad.
A TERRIBLE ACCIDENT.
Eight Men Crushed by the Collapse of a,
Joliet, 111., Dec. 4. —A terrible acci
dent occurred in the Illinois Steel com
pany's works today. A blast furnace
which had been blown out for repairs,
suddenly fell to the ground' without
warning. Eleven men were at work in
side, and six on top, when the accident
happened. The masonry work and fur
nace lining were piled upon each other
in a confused heap, mingling with the
dead and dying workmen. The relatives
of the unfortunate men quickly gathered
about the scene of disaster and urged
the rescuers to renewed efforts. Within
half an hour the men had taken out
eight bodies five of the unfortunates
were dead, and the other three appar
ently fatally injured.
The Santa Fe Stops Work.
San Bernardino, Dec. 4. —On account
of the jury, in the condemnation suit
for a right-of-way for the Belt Line rail
road, running out by the asylum site,
bringing in a verdict for damages which
the company regarded as exorbitant,the
Santa Fe management has ordered all
work stopped on their line, and it will
probably interfere with the laying of the
asylum corner-stone on the 15th of this
Fatal Explosion of Chemicals.
Cincinnati, Ohio, Dec. 4. —By the ex
plosion of a tank in the chemical works
in the eastern part of the city, this
morning, three men were fatally
injured, and two slightly. The tank was
used for making prussiate of potash. No
one knows what caused the explosion.