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OT. B. MASSER, EDITOR ANll FEOfrftlETOii.
office, Worker of centm alley & market street.
i.iflff r'i I I
l -II II
- , . , ,. .. ,, . ..... ,;. '.- '
TEIOS OF THE AMERICA!
ITBB MERICAN at published every "atmrtny it TWO
pOLLAR per umnr to be paid Mr yearly in advaace.
d paper duaiutinaed unlii all arrearage ere paid.
AH eonrainrkatirmf or letten on business relating to the
dice, la imere altentiMi, mutt be POST PAID,
Y . TO CM7B&
MM eoenea to one addreai, 0jOO
Seven . . Bo . , . bo 1000
Fifteen Do Do . 8000
I rm uoiinri in etirenee win pay lur tnree year'! ubecrio
tioe to the Amerioen. .. . . . ' . r
pne Squnre of 16 lines, 3 time.
ivery enbeeqnent insertion, ' ' "
Oae sqnare, S montlM,
Six moiithe, - ;j ...
One yciir. - ' .'
Business Cnnh of Five line", per nnnum,
Merchant! and othem, advertiiint hy the
year, with the privilege of inacrticg dil-
I'erent atlvertiaementi weekly.
iy Larger AdvcrtiaemcntB, oi per sgrcemcnt.
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
Builnnti eltetuled to in the Countiei of Nor
karpterland, Union, Lycoming tnd Columbia.
' 1 Refer (oi
V. & A. PoTpcriT,
l.own A, Bakrok,
' ( Somtai & 8OBoAm, W'Aioi.
Rbtkolds, McKahhu Si Co.
SriBina, Good & Co.,
' ' Tnfi CIIEAP BOOR STORE!
DA1TISLS & SMITH'S
Chkap Nkw k Second hand Book Stork,
Vorf A Wett corner of Fourth and Arch Street?
Law Books, Theological and Classical Books,
BIOGRAPHICAL it HISTORIC Ah BOOKS,
Scientific and Mathematical Books.
f -;., Juvenile Books, in great variety.
Hymn Books and Prayer Books, Bibles, all sizes
blank Books, Writing Paper, and Stationary,
Wholrtnte and Retail.
fy Ora prices are much lower than the 1ttwTT.AH prices.
ry Ijilnnriee and small parcels of books purclmsed.
f7 Hooka imported to order from Londun.
Philadelphia, April 1, 1M8 y
?OPfcTEP. & E1TGLISH,
GROCERS COMMISSION MERCHANTS
and Dealers In Seeds,
y. 3, Arch St, PHILADELPHIA.
Constantly on hand a general assortment of
GROCERIES, TEAS, WINES, SEEDS,
To which they respectfully invite the attention
of the public.
All kinds of country produce taken in exchange
Tor Groceries or sold on Cotmnissinn.
Pbilad. April 1, 18-18
Ao. 15 South Sernndttrcet Eatt tide, down ttairt,
RESPECTFULLY informs bis friends and
the public, that be constantly keeps on
hand a large assortment of chi drens wil'ow
Coaches, Chairs, Cradles, market and tiavel
ling baskets, and every variety of basket work
Country Merchants and others who wish to
purchase such articles, good and cheap, would
do well location him, as they are all manufac
tured by him inthe best manner.
PbiMe'phia, June 3, 1848. ly
CARD K SEAL F.tfGRATIXG.
WM. G. MASON.
48 Chctnut it. 3 oWt aftote 2nd it., Philndf lphia
Engraver at BUSINESS VISITING CARDS,
Watch papers, Labels, Door plates, Seals and
Ptarnps for Odd Fellows, Sons of Temperance,
fcc, fcc - Always oo hand a general assortment
of Fine Fancy Goods, Gold pens ofevery quality.
Dog Collars in great variety. Engravers tools
Agency for the Manufacturer of Glaiiers Dia
monds. Orders pet mail (post paid) will be punctually
Philadelphia, April 1, 1848 y
FXAT FR--XraM PIAXO rOTES.
fTHE SUBSCRIBER has been appointed agent
1 for the sale of CONRAD MEYER'S CELE
BRATED PREMIUM ROSE WOOD PIANOS,
at this place. These Pianos have a plain, mis
sive anj beautiful exterior finish, ami, for depth
of tone, and elegance of workmanship, are not
aurpassed by any in the United States
These instruments are highly approved of by
the most eminent Professors and Composers of
Music in this and other cities.
For qualities of tone, touch and keeping in
tone upon Concert pitch, tbey cannot be sucpas
aed by either American or European Pianos.
Suffice it to say that Madame Castellan, W. V
Wallace, Vieui Temps, and bis sister, the cele
brated Pianist, and many others of the most dis
tinquithed performers, have given these instru
ments preference over all others.
They have also received the first notice of the
three last Exhibitions, and tht last Silver Medal
by the Franklin Institute in 1843, was awarded
to them, which, with other premiums from the
same source, may be seen at the ware-roor, j0
59 south Fourth at.
fX-Another Silver Medal was .warded to C.
Mayor, by tba Frahk.;B I;titute, Oct. 1843 for
the best Piano in t Ambition.
Again VM exhibition of tho Franklin Insti-
tutjt. 1848, the first premium and medal waa
.warded to C, Meyer for bis Pianoa, although it
had been awarded at the exhibition of the year
before, oo the ground that he had made still great
er improvements in hi Instruments within the
Jast 19 months.
Again at the last exhibition of the Franklin
Institute, 1847, another Premium was awarded
toC- Meyer, for the best Piano in the exhibition.
At Boston, at their Isst exhibition, Sept. 1847,
i. Meyer received the first silver Medal and Di
nloma for the best square Piano in tht exhibition
These Piano will be aold at the manufactu
rer's lowest Philadelphia prices, if not something
lower Persons are requested to call and exam
ine for th.mselve. st th residence , of the sub-
H. B. MASSER.
Sonbury, April 6, 1848
Itruoh, Comb and Variety
- BOCKIUS AND BROTHER,
AND DEALERS IN COM BR it VARIETIES
a-, ox v.f.,V. ULb Rate St. and North
Eut Conner of Third and Market ttreel,
TruTi)ii,.. ffv.r tar aala a cenerki assort
W ment of U kinds of Btushe. Comb nd
...;.tL m hieh ther are determined to sell
TS tl W ' ' -
i k , Vtm nnrrhaaad a WOrt. ,
LOWl IUH -- , . f
r..t,. M.rehanta and other Purchasing In
s bov line will find, it to their dvntag to
e.ll befor pircbaaing lMbr as . Iba 9ual.ty
Bnd price will b fully guarwiUod iMt
Pbltodelpbit, Jtt S, ty:
, THE SONO OF LIGHTNING. . .
ar s. w. ccrrra.
Could I embody and unbosom now .
That which is most within me could I wreak .
try thoughts upon expression and, and thus throw
fkml, heart, mhid, pnseiims, feelings, strong and weak,
AM that I won.d have sought, and all I seek.
Bear, know, feel, and yet brentho into one word,
And that one word were liobtnino, I would spenk. '
Awuy, away, through the sightlass air
Stretch forth your iron thread ;
For I would not dim my scandals fair
With the dust yo tamely tread ;
Aye, rear it up on iu million piers
Let it reach the 'world around, .
And the journey ye make in a hundred year
I'll clear at a single bound I
Tho' I cannot toil like the groaning slave
Ye have fetter' d with iron skill,
To ferry you over the boundless wave,
Or grind in a noisy mill ;
Let hint sing his giant strength and speed : .
Why, a single shaft of mino ,
Would give that monster a flight, indeed,
To the depths of the ocean brine.
No, no! I'm the spirit of light and love,
To my unseen hand 'tis given
To pencil the ambient clouds aliovo,
And polish the stars of heaven,
I scatter the golden Toys of fire
On the horizon far below
And deck the skies where storms expire,
Witli my red and dancing glow.
The deepest recesses of earth are mine
I traverse its silent core ;
Around me starry diamonds shine,
And the sparkling fields of ore;
.. And oft I leap from my throne on high -
To the depths of the ocean's caves,
Where the fadeless forests of coral lie,
Far under the world of waves.
My being is like a lovely thought,
That dwells in a sinless breast :
A tone of music that ne'er was caught
A word that was ne'er expressed.
I burn in the bright and burnished halls,
Where the fountains of sunlight piny
Where the rurlnin of gold and opal' falls,
O'er the scenes of dying day.
With a glanco I cleavo the sky in twain,
I light it with a glare,
When full the boding drops of rain,
Through the darkly curtained air ;
The rock-built towers, the turrets gray,
The piles of a thousand years,
Hove not the strength of potter's clay,
Before my glittering spears.
From the Alps' or the highest Andes' crag,
From the peaks of eternal snow,
The dazzling folds of my fiery flag
Gleamed o'er the world below;
The earthquake heralds my coming power,
The avalanche bounds away,
The howling storms, at midnight hour,
Proclaim my kingly sway.
Ye tremble when my legions come
When my quivering sword leap out
O'er the hills that echo my thunder-Jrum,
And rend with my joyous shout:
Ye quail on the land or upon the seas,
Ye stand in your fear aghast,
To see me bum the stalwart tree,
Or shiver the stately mast.
The liieroglyghics on the Persian wall,
The letters of high command,
Where the prophet reads the tyrants fall,
Were traced with my bunting hand ;
And oft in fire have I wrote since then,
What angry Heaven decreed
But the scaled eyes of sinful men
Were all too blind to read.
At last the hour of light is here,
And kings no more shall blind,
Nor the bigots crush with craven fear,
The forward march of mind ;
The words of truth and freedom's rays
Are from my pinions hurled,
And soon the sun of better days
Shall rise upon this world.
But away, away, through the sightless air-
Stretch forth your iron thread;
For I would not oil my sandals fair
With the dust ye tamely tread ;
Aye, rear it upon It million pier
, Let it reach the world around,
And the journey ye raako in a thousand years
I'll clear at single bound I
From an English Paper.
COPY OF A LETTER TO MR. METHUES.
FROM HIS GARDENER.
Honored Sir My Wif and 1 have taken
the iau from Winsor. Jenny Cedar has lost
her head, the rest of the Scrubs are all well.
The Oxen are com down to praise the Gods.
From your humble servant, &c
What he meant to say was:
Ilonand Sir Mv wife and I have taken
the influenza. The Virginia Codar has lost
its head ; the rest of the shrubs are all well.
The Auctioneer came down to appraise the
goods. . .' '. . .
K Washington letter in the N, Y.. Journal
of Commerce says
"I learn that Mr. Clay's health is improved
and that he will be a candidate for the seat
in the U. 8. Senate, made vacant by Mr.
Crittenden's resignation. He so aaid himself
to a Senator now here. The legislature will
take place immediately. Governor Metcalfe
holds the seat in the meantime, under the
Gen. Cass is also to be elected to ths Sen
A -FOREST' TALE, .
THE CHIEFTAIN'S OATH. ,
A bright and joyous creature , was Ella
Corwin at the age of fifteen, a laughing
hoydenish and thoughtless . maiden,, but a
beautiful one withal, who delighted when
summer came on, to romp over the green
hills and rocky sea shore of her native vil
lage, which although it bore its present ti
tle, at the time of which we are speaking,
in the year 1671, was called by the people
Generally by its Indian name of Naueinkeag.
'he place has changed since that dale,
from a .quiet village to a populous city, and
the improving hand of time passing heavily
over it, had caused many of lii green hills
to be covered with busy workshops, whose
occupants have been found adepts' in turn
ing nature into art, by levelling hills into
valleys and destroj'ing vestiges of the for
mer, as fast and sometimes faster than was
absolutely necessary. '-;
But there is one spot which neither time
nor improvement has altered, a little grass
covered hill, situated not a great way from
Hawthorn's Point, near what is now called
the Salent Neck.
It was on top of the little hill mentioned
above that Ella Corwin had chosen rest, in
company with a female companion, whom
we shall call Annette Arnold, after revel
ling and rompinr; about the green fields for
the greater part of the afternoon of a warm
day in August.
"This is a beautiful spot to rest upon, do
you not think it is, Annette?" said Ella,
after the two had remained seated for a few
minutes in silence.
"I certainly do think so, dear Ella," re-
f)licd Annette, "for here we have an excel
ent view of the broad bay, and the fair
islands which rest upon it3 now tranquil
bosom, and " :
"A picturesque view of several Indian
wigwams," is laughingly interrupted Ella,
"whose very interesting occupants, the
squaws and papooses you can observe, are
now busily engaged in sunning themselves
in the glade below."
"Oh, Llla," answered Annette sadlv.
"how can you so delieht to turn every
thing into ridicule ?" '
"That's just what father tells me" re
plied Ella, in the same light tone as before,
"so I suppose it is so but there, I declare
cannot help it, although, perhaps, as I
grow older I shall grow wiser,- and leave
my wild talk, at the same time, that I drop
my wild actions.'!
"I hope, sincerely, the time .will soon
come," replied Annette, who was more
staid, more sincere, and somewhat older
than her companion.
"Perhaps it may come sooner than vou
expect it, dear Annette," responded Ella,
as a slight shade of sadness momentarily
covered her fair brow, "as next year I sail
for England, there to be "
"What?" interrupted Annette.
"Married," answered Ella.
"Ha you are going to bo married," re
peated Annette, with astonishment "you
must do joking now."
"On the contrary," said Ella, I was nev
er more serious in my life."
"Did you not tell me no longer than yes
terday," said Annette, earnestly, "that you
nad blighted your troth to Kamara, the
young chief ol the JNaraganaetts, who has
lately come here to learn something of the
manners ot the Junglish."
"Certainly, Annette," replied Ella, "I
did tell you that I engaged myself to Ka
mara, aud that is the truth, but it was all in
fun you know."
"What was all in fun, maiden ?" exclaim
ed a strange voice, which proceeded from
the lips of a tall, but handsome Indian
youth, who had approached the girls un-
perceived, from the opposite side of the
"For goodness sake, Kamara, where have
you come iroin?" asked Llla, somewhat
startled at the chieftain's sudden approach
before her. '
"From below," answered Kamara, with
a bitter sneer, "where tho squaws and pa
pooses are busily engaged in the interesting
occupation of sunning themselves,"
"lla: said ii.Ua. "so you have been list
ening to our conversation, That was manly
business certaiuly." ,
"Manly or not, 1 did listen to your con
versation and now, if you will deign to
listen I will tell you how I came to listen."'
"Oh, I'll listen fast enough, if that's al
you want," as her voice Tang out in a clear
loud laugh, at the young chieftain's solemn
Folding his arms and regarding her with
a look in which revenge, contetnpt, and
love seemed to . be strangely blended, Ka
mara addressed Ella thus :
"But a little time ago Karr.araleft his na
tive tribe, and came here to Naunikeag, to
learn the language of the. pale faces, their
manners and customs. Here he had not
been long before he saw the pale face mai
den Who now sit. before him, and loved
her. Aye, Ka.-mara loved the pale face
maiden because her feet were as those of
the mountain deer, her voice was as soft
as the summer nightingale's, and because
ner Katures were as beautiful as those ol an
angel, whom he had dreamt of as dwelling
in the spirit land, . . .
Kamara told the maiden of the great love
he bore her, told her that he for her sake
would forsake his Indian habits, and try to
become in language and manners, even as
the white man, and she, what . answer did
she return to all this?"
"Ha, ha, ha," laughed Ella, "J suppose
that means me. Well, good Kamara, goon
and tell the answer I did return to your
long love story." ' ., ,
"Did you not tell tne,n bitterly replied
Kamara, 'if I waited patiently the lapse of
tnree years mat you would then become
my wife f " -' i
"Yes," answered Ella, "and I have per
haps told a dozen others the same story,
but what of that 1 It was all in fun."
"Why, it means," said Ella, carelessly,
"that I did not mean what I said, that's
all,".-' tj i:r. ;. . -..-!,; --.:
"That's all, is it ? said Kamara bitterly.
"It is as I have suspected. You have
said enough, Ella Corwin j now, listen to
the Chieftain's oath :. By yonder sun that
is about to set over the graves of rnV fathers
by the wild forests which the white man
has ruthlessly torn from the red Indian
by .the grass which nature has spread pro
fusely under my feet bv the red blood
which courses freely through the veins of
my inoe, l swear on this spot, and in your
presence, that the life of either your future
husband or your first-born, shall be the for
feit of your broken faith ! Jiow will Ka
mara go to his tribe, cursing scorning, ha
ting tho white man and his faithless brood."
Kamara was gone. !
"O, I'll risk it," said Ella peevishly. "I'll
warrant he will forget all about it in less
than a week."
"An Indian never forgets," replied An
"VVell,! shall forget if he don't." answer
, , '. '.
Five years passed away like a dream.
and in the interim, Ella Corwin had become
a wife and mother.
She had left her home for England a
short time subsequent to the occurrence,
above narrated, where she was married to
a young physician, to whom, through the
agency of her parents, she had been previ
Five years passed away, and then Ella
Corwin, rather Ella Mason accompanied
by her husband and infant boy, returned to
Naunikeag and became located in a small
cottage near the Point, before mentioned,
which had been built for them on their ar
rival. It was a bright moonlight night in the
month of August, 1676, when as the old
house-clock told the hour of eleven, Dr.
Mason was called from the side of his much
joved wife and child, to attend upon a dy
Tio sooner had he got clear of the house,
than the tall form of nn Indian warrior em
erged from the concealment which had
been afforded by the dark shadow of the
building upon tho grass, into the moonlight,
and stealthily approached the cottage. He
tried the latch and found that the door was
left unfastened. Smiling triumphantly, the
Indian with light and wary footsteps enter
ed the house. The next moment lie stood
by the bedside of her Whom ne had once
known as Ella Corwiii.
' Her first born rested by her side. - They
both slept soundly,' quietly, and sweetly
Kamara stooped oVer them. Gently, very
gently did he lift the infant in his arms, the
next moment he:was gone. Still the moth
er slept on, as did the infant in Kamara s
Two hours, passed on and then the hus
band and father returned to his home.
Ella still slept, and as he gazed admiringly
upon her beautiful features, he whispered
her name.. .
She awoke, looked tenderly up, and
"Wheie is our child, Ella 1" asked the
father, as he missed it from its accustomed
"The child is here my love,'' answered
Ella,- .as she confidently reached out her
hand to clasp it to her bosom. - ,
"My God, Herbert !" she exclaimed after
a few moments of terrible silence, "our
child is gone !"
"I know not,' exclaimed the frantic
mother, as she jumped from the bed, and
eagerly tore off its covering. 'Tis not here,
'tis not here ; O God, my child, my boy !
where ishel come to me, my Herbert;
let your mother hear you, and ah! a light
flashes on my mind, a recollection a hor
rid remembrance the Indians, Herbert,
the Indians have got our child."
The bereaved parents ran to the point
which looked out upon the calm waters of
the harbor. About forty rods from the
laud a dark object met their view.
The dark object was an Indian canoe.
The form that rose proudly lrom us mist,
was that of Kamara, the chieftain of the
Narragansetts. Lifting the tiny form of
the infant boy high above his head, in a
loud, clear voice, Kamara shouted
"This is not fun."
A light splash disturbed the calm serenity
of the waters, as the light drapery of the
infant boy sank beneath their level :
Gsnebal TiVLoa s Kesickation.-W e lake
the following from the New Orleans Delta:
We learn that General Taylor 1ms sent in
his resignation aa Major General command
ing the Western Division of our army, and
that it will take effect after the 1st of ebru
ary next. It is a remarkable coincidence,
that the late order of the War Department to
Gen. Taylor, in relation to the transfer of
General Twiggs from his post on the Uio
Grande to the command lately filled by Oeu
Kearny, at St. Louis, Via dated 7lh Novem
ber, the day upon whicn ine people ordered
tha General to nreoard to assume, on the 4th
of March next the office of President.
" A Sentiment. ?he following was one ot
the regular toasts given at the anniversary of
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society :
Woman : ' ' .. .
A seedling sprang from Adam's side,
A BBuat eetaaTial about,
Bscam of Paraaiaataa pride,
Au4 bot world Of fmit. , , .. '
Sigismund. Emperor of Germany being
one day asked what was the ' surest method
9f remaining Imppy in this world, replied :
"Only do in, health, what you have promised
to do when you are sick "
' ' ' TIIEG6LD' MIXES OF CAtlFORSIA.
We make the. following copious extracts
from Col. Mason's despatch, dated Monte
rey,' August 17,' 1848, describing the Visit
he made to the gold mines of the Sacra
mento, in the beginning;' of July. Col.
Mason left the garrison at Monterey on the
17th of June. He says:
We reached San Francisco on the 20th,
and found that all. or nearly all. its male
inhabitants had gone to the mines. Tho
town, which a few months before was so
busy and thriving, was then almost deserted.
Un the evening of the 21th. the horses of
the escort were crossed to Sousoleto in a
launch, and on the following dav we re
sumed the journey by way of Bodega and
Sonoma to Sutter's fort, where we arrived
on the morning of the 2d of July. Along
the whole route, mills were lying idle,
fields of wheat were open to cattle and hor
ses, houses vacant, and farms going to waste.
At Sutter's there was more life and busi
ness. Launches were discharging their
cargoes at the river, and carts were hauling
goods to the fort, wheie already were es
tablished several stores, a hotel, &c. Cap
Nin Sutter had only two mechanics in his
employ, (a wagon-maker and a blacksmith)
whom he was then paving ten dollars a dav.
Merchants pay him a 'monthly rent of 100
per room; and whilst I was there, a two-
story house in the fort was rented as a hotel
lor 500 a mouth.
At the urgent solicitation of many gen
tlemen, I delayed there to participate in
the first public celebration of our national
anniversary at that fort, but on the 5th re
sumed the journey, and proceeded twenty-
nve miles up the American lork to a point
on it now known as the Lower Mines, or
Mormon Diggings. The hill sides were
thickly strewn with canvass tents and bush
arbors ;' a store was erected,' and several
boarding shanties in operation. The day
was intensely hot, yet about two hundred
men were at work in the full glare of the
sun washing lor gold some with tin pans,
some with close woven Indian baskets, but
the greater part had a rude machine, known
as the cradle. 1 his is on rockers, six or
eight feet long, open at the foot, and at its
Head has a coarse grate or sieve ; the bottom
is rounded, with small cleets nailed across.
Four men are required to work this ma
chine ; one digs the ground in the bank
close by the stream ; another carries it to
the cradle and empties it on the grate ; a
third gives a violent rocking motion to the
machine ; whilst a fourth dashes on water
from the stream itself. -
The sieve keeps the coarse stones from
entering the cradle, the current of water
washes off the earthy matter, and the gravel
is gradually carried out at the foot of the
machine, leaving the gold mixed with a
heavy fine black sand above the first cleets.
The sand and gold mixed together are then
drawn off through auger holes into a pan
below, are dried in the sun, and afterwards
separated by blowing off the sand. A party
of tour men thus employed at the lower
mines averaged $100 a day. The Indians,
and those who have nothing but pans or
willow baskets, gradually wash out the
earth, and separate the gravel by hand,
leaving nothing but. the gold mixed with
sand, which is separated in the manner be
fore described. The gold in the lower
mines is in fine bright scales, of which I
send several specimens.'
As we ascended the south branch of the
American fork, the country became more
broken and mountainous, and at the saw
mill, 25 miles above the lower washings, or
50 miles from Sutter's, the hills rise to about,
a thousand feet above the level of the Sa
cramento plain. Here a species of pine
occurs, which led to the discovery of the
gold. Capt. Sutter feeling the great want
of lumber, contracted in September last,
with a Mr. Marshall to build, a saw-mill at
that place. ' It was erected in the course of
the past winter and spring a dam and race
constructed ; but when the water was let
on the Wheel, the tail-race was found to be
too narrow to permit the water to escape
with sufficient rapidity. Mr. Marshall, to
save labor, let the water directly into the
race with a strong current, so as to wash it
wider and deeper. He effected his pur
pose, and a large bed of mud and gravel
was carried to the foot ot the, race.
One day Mr. Marshall, as he was walking
down the race to this deposite of mud, ob
served some glittering particles at its upper
edge; he gathered a few, examined them,
and became satisfied of their value. He
then went to the fort, told Capt. Sutter of
his discovery, and they agreed to keep it
secret until a certain grist-mill of Sutter's
was finished. It, however, got out, and
spread like magic. ' Remarkable success at
tended the labors of the first explorers, and
in a few weeks hundreds ol men were
drawn thither. . The
gold is in scales a little coarser than those
of the lower .mines. From the mill Mr.
Marshall guided rue up the mountain on
the opposite or north bank of the south
fork, where, in thebed of small streams or
ravines, now dry,a.great deal of coarse gold
has been found. I there saw several par
ties at work, air of whom were doing very
well; a great many specimens were shown
me, some as heavy as four or five ounces in
weight. , . .. ?. You will perceive
that some of the specimens accompanying
this hold mechanically pieces of quarts ;
that the surface it rough, and evidently
moulded in the crevice of a rock. Thi
gold cannot have been carried far by water,
but roust have remained near where it was
first deposited from the rock that once
bound it. d Qn the.7tb of July I
left the hull, and crossed to a small stream
emptying into the American fork, three or
four miles below the1 saw-mi Ii. '-1 struck
this stream (now known as Weber's creek)
at ths washings of Sunol k Co. Tbey had
sbout thirty Indians rnp!oyd, whom they
pay in merchandise. , They were getting
gold of a character similar to' that found in
the main forki ; 1 r . ,
From this point we proceeded tip. the
tream about eight miles, where we found a
great many people and Indians some en
paged in the bed of the stream, and others
in the small valleys that put into iti, These
latter are exceedingly rich, and two ounces
were considered an ordinary yield for a
day s work. A small gutter, not more than
a hundred yards long by four feet wide, and
two or three feet deep, was pointed out to
me as the one where two men William
Dally and Perry McCoon, had, a short time
before, obtained 17,000 worth of gold.
r... nr.i r i . . b .
viipi, itim'r iniormea me mat he knew
that these two men had employed four
white men and about a hundred Indians,
and that, at the end of one week's work
they paid offtheir party, and had left f 10,
000 worth of this gold. Another small ra
vine wa3 shown me, from which had been
taken upwards of $12,000 worth of gold.
Hundreds of similar ravines, to all appear
ances, are as yet untouched.
Mr. Neligh, an agent of Commodore
Stockton, had been at work about three
weeks in the neighborhood, and showed
me in bags and bottles over 2,000 worth
of gold; and Mr. Lyman, a gentleman of
education and worthy ofevery credit, said
he nad been engaged with four others, with
a machine, on the American fork, just be
low Sutter's mill ; that they worked eight
days, and that his share was. at the rate of
$50 a day. ,
The country on either side of Weber's
creek is much broken up by hills, and is
intersected in every direction by small
streams or ravines, which contain more or
less gold.; Those that have been worked
are barely scratched ; and although thou
sands of ounces have been carried awaj', I
do not consider that a serious impression
has been made upon the whole. Every
day was developing new and richer depos
its; and the only impression seemed to be,
that the metal would be found in such a
bundance as seriously to depreciate in
On the 8th of July 1 returned to the lower
mines, and on tho following day to Sutter's
whereon the 10th I was making preparations
for a Visit to the Feather, Yubah, and Bear
rivers, when I received a letter from Com
mander A. R. Long, United States navy, who
had ju3t arrived at San Francisco from Mazat
lan, with a crow for the sloop-of-war Warren
with orders to take that vessel to the squa
dron at La Paz. Capt. Long wrote to me
that tho Mexican Congress had adjourned
without ratifying the treaty of peace ; that
ho had letter? for me from Commodore Jones
and that his orders were to sail with the
Warren on or before the 20th of July. In
consequence of these, 1 determined to return
to Monterey, acconlin'ly arrived here on the
l?lh of July. Before leaving Sutter's, I satis
fied myself that gold existed in the bed of the
Feather river, in Ynbah and Bear, and in
many of the small streams that lie between
tho latter and the American fork ; also, that
it had been found in the Coumnies to ihe
south of the American fork. In each of these
streams the gold is found in small scales,
whereas in the intervening mountains it oc
curs in coarser lumps. . , ..
Mr. Sinclair, whose raucho is three miles
above Sutler's on the north side of the Ame
rican, employs about SO Indians on the north
fork, not far from its junction with tho main
stream. He had been engaged about five
weeks when I saw him, and up to that time
his Indians had used simply closely,, woven
willow baskets, llis nett proceeds (which I
saw) were about SI 6,000 worth of gold. He
showed me the proceeds of hi last week's
work fourteen pounds avoirdupois of clean
The principal store at Sutter' Fort, that of
Branan ii Co., had received in payment for
goods S3C,000 (worth of this gold) from tho
1st of May to loth of July. Other merchants
had also made extensive sales. Large quan
tities of goods were daily sent forward to tha
mines, as the Indians, heretofore go poor and
degraded, have suddenly become consumers
of the luxurias of life;
The most moderate estimate I could obtuiu
from ineu acquainted with tho subject, was
that upwards of 4000 men were working in
the gold district, of whom more than onotutlf
were Indians; and that from S:i0(00i1 to $50,.
000 worth of gold, if uot more, was daily ob
tained. Tho entire gold dihtriut, with very
few exceptions of grant made some years
ago by the Mexican authorities, is on land be
longing to ihe United Slates.
Tho discovery of these vast deposites of
gold has entirely changed tho character of
Upper California.. Its people, before engaged
in cultivating their small patches of ground,
and guarding thoir hoads of cattle and horses,
have all gone to tho mines, or are on their
way thither. Laborer of every trade have
left their work benches, and tradesmen their
shops. Sailors" desert .their ships as fast as
they arrive on the coast, and several vessels
have gone to sea with hardly enough hands
to spread a sail. ' Two or three are now at
anchor In San Francisco with uo crew on
boufd. . Mny desertions, too, have taken
place from their garrison within the influence
ef these mine.; tweuty-ix soldier have do
serted from the port of Sonoma twenty-four
from that of San Francisco, and twenty-four
I really think some 'extraordinary mark of
favor should be given those soldiers who re
main faithful to their flag throughout thi
tempting crisis. No officer can now live in
California on his pay, money has so little val
ue; the prices of necessary articles of cloth
ing snd subsistence are so exorbitant and la
bor so high, that to hire a cook er servant his
old sfihiEs -Vol. o, ko.1
become an impossibility, save to those who !
are, earning from thirty to fifty dollars a dayi !
This state of things cannot last forever. Yet
from the geographical position of California, '
and th6 new Character it has assumed as a
mining country,' prices of labor will always be
high, and will hold out temptations to desert.
1 therefore have to report. If tho government '
Wish td prevent desertion here on the part of
men, and to secure zeal on the part of officers,
their. pay mut be Increased very materially.
Mr. Dye, a gentleman residing in Monte
rey, and worthy of every credit, has just re
turned from Feather river. Ho tell? me that
the company to which ho belonjerl, worked
seven weeks and two days, with nn average
of fifty Indians, (washers,) and that their gross
product was two hundred ane seventy three
pounds of gold, His share; (one seventh,) af
ter paying all expenses, is about thirty-seven
pounds; which ho brought with him and ex
hibited in Monterey. I see no laboring man
from the mines who does not show his two,
three, or four pounds of gold. A soldier of
the artillery company returned hero a few
(lays ago from the mines, having been absent
on furlough twenty days. Ilo made by tra
ding mil working during that time $1,500.
Dtning these twenty days he was travelling
ten or eleven days, leaving but a week in
which he made a sum of money greater than
liojeceived in pay, clothe, and rations dur
ing a whole enlistment of five years.
Wold is also believed to exist on the east
ern slope of the Sierra Nevada; and when at
the mines was informed by an intelligent
Mormon that it had been found near tho
Oreat Salt Lake by some of his fraternity
Nearly all the Mormons are leaving Califor
nia to go to the Salt Lake; and this they
surely would not do, unless they were sure of
finding gold there in the same abundance as
they now do on the Sacramento.
The gold "placer" near tho mission of.Sah
Fernando has long been known, but has been
little wrought for want of water. This is in
a spur that puts off from the Sierra Nevada,
(see Fremont's map,) the same in which tho
present mines occur. There is, therefore,
every reason to believe, that in the inlerven--iug
spaces of five hundred miles(entirely un"
explored) there must bo many hidden nnd
rich deposits. The "placer" cold is now
substituted as the currency of this country.
1 would recommend that a mint bo estab
lished at some eligible point of ihe bay o
pan Francisco ; and that machinery, and all
tho necessary apparatus and workment, bo
sent out by ""sea. These workmen must be
bound by high wage.', and even bonds to se
cure their faithful services, else the whole
plan maybe frustrated by their going to thf
mines as soon as they arrive in California.
Before lenving the subject of mines
will mention, that on my return from tht
Sacramento I touched at New . Almoder, the
quicksilver mine of Mr. Alexander Forbes,
consul of her Britannic Majesty at Tepic.
This mine is in a spur of mountains 1000 feet
above the level of the. Bay of San Francisco,
and is distant in a routhern direction from
tho Pueblo, do San Jose about 12 miles. The
ore (cinnabar) occurs in a lergo vein dipping
at a strong angle to the horizon. Mexican
miners are employed in working it, and dri
ving shafts- and galleries about 6 feet by 7,
following the vein.
The fragments of rock and ore are removed
on the back of Indians, in raw-hide sacks.,
The ore is then hauled in nn ox wagon, from;
tho mouth of the mine down to a valley well
suppliod. with wood and wator, in which the.
furnaces are situated. The furnaces are of
tho .simplest .construction exactly, like a.
common bakc-oven, in the crown of which is
inserted a whaler's try-ing-ketlle ,; another
i iverted kettle forms the lid. From a hole in
the lid a small biick channel loads to an a-,
parlment, or chamber, in the bottom of. which
is inserted n small iron kettle. This chamber
has a chimney. '
In the morning of each day day the kettles
are Tilled with the mineral (broken in snial
picoett) mixed wilh line ; tire is then applied
und kept up all day. The mercury iii vola-.
tilised, p isses into tho chamber, is condensed
oo the sides aud tottojn of the chamber, and
flows into thn pot prepared for it. No water
is used to condense Ihe mercury.
During a visit I made last spring, four such
ovens were in operation, and yielded in the
two days I was there, 656 .pounds of quick
silver, worth at Mazatlan 51 P0 per lb. Mr
Walkiushaw, the gentleman now iu charga
of Ihi mine, tells me that tho vein is improv
ing, nnd that ho can afford to keep his peo
pie employed even iu those extraordinary
time. This mino i very valuable of itself:
aud becomes the more so as mercu' y is ex
teusive'y used in obtaining gold. , It is not at
present used in California for that purpose),
but it will be at se.ne futuro time. When I
was at this mie j last spring, other parlies
were engage', in searching for veins; but
none have K.'i."t discovered that are worth
following up, although tf'e rarthmthst v.holo
range of hill are highly discolcred, indica
ting the presence, pf this tre I send several
beautiful specimens, properly labelled. The ;
amount of quicksilver in Mr. Forbo's vats on
the 15th of July was about 2,500 pounds
The Norfolk Courier doubts the report that
Commodore Buchanan and Commanders Bar,
ton aud Dnpont have accepted a call to go )
Europe and lake cliarge of a German
, r ; . i
By a letter from Fredericksburg, Va-, it,
appear that there is considerable gold to be'
obtained at the Whitehall mines. Truly
may we say that this is "the golden aire ", 1