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"We will cling to the pillars o the temple of our liberties,
IN.LA OR E , "E itr.and it it must fall we will rish amidst the ruins." U1MD9E L
VOLUMIE 3. amrm- .a . aasssa.N .7
Tike Edgefield Advertiser.
EVERY THURSDAY MORNING.
TERMS.-Thsree lioliars per nanmun ir paid
in aldvatce,-Three Dollars and Filly Cents if
paid before the expiration of Six Months from
the dato of Subsription.-uand Fonr Dollars if
not paid within Six Mouths. Ssihcribers out of
the State are required to pay in driner.
No sulscription received ior less than one gear,
and no paper discontinued until all nrretrages
ire paid, except at tte! option of' the Editor.
All subscriptions will be continued nlessother
wise ordered, at the end of the year. &1&
Any person procuring five Sibs.fers nnd
becoming reiponsible for the same, shall receive
the sixth copy igratis.
Ataysu-rserNors e tonspieotusly intied at
(13. cents pter sqptare, flor the first gisertitm. ail
4#-j cents for each continuatice. Adveriiseients
not having the nuier of insertions marked on
theti. will I:: continued until ordered out, and
All Advertisement intended for puilication in
this paper, must be deposited iin the Oliee by
All contiiiieations addressed to the Editor,
(ros-r'-rao) Will be promptly and strictly at
BLOCK TI% AND -JAP.A
11P alR E.
T IE Suseriber has on hand a very larye
-stupply oif ready made TIN WAII-.
of all descriptions, which he oflers at whole
sale or retail, at ns low prices as can lie af
firded in this part o the country. ie has
.aso a larine supply of the necst fashion of
J A PAN WAR l.stogcther with English and
Block Tin Ware of excellent quality. Also
Copper and Sheet Iron Ware-Sheeting
and hirazin Copper,-Block tin, Stove
Speter, mal Tin Plate-all of which ie of
fers fhr sale low for cash, at No IiS troad
streer. Aiaustia. 11. . ChFW.
The sticriber being truly thanlfunl for
the ve ilirraI aitrot s g:
lic generally, respectfully solicits a conti
nanec of their favors-and oflers his servi
ces inl either of fle following branches of
his bnsiness-Copper Tin, Sheet Iron. and
Itoofing. B. F. C.
Angtat, Ga., March 5 tf'5
H . .FF ErE liS & Co. aeknowl
.ie eges renewed oligations to their
friends and entlomers for the very liberal
patroinige hretffore liestowed oi theln,
a t beg leave to aInoinlie, that they have
now on hand, and will continte tel receive,
a vell selected assortment of GOODS,
Blrowni and Loaf Sugar,
Greeni and vhite Colli-e.
N. 0. &. Star Ilouse Molasses,
N'.ine and S pirils of tie lest selection,
Canal Flo-,r-whole and half Rbis.
Male R1ope and Ba.ging,
Ironi and Steel,
'Toogeviher wvith all ot her articles in the Gero
r ry Line :which they will sell, or mid to
Order, WUarranhd Good, at ilie lowest imar
They also entinue to transnet Comais
sion Ilusiness, ineltulin receiving- and for
warding of Goods; and tender to their
friends assurance of their best atientioni to
Order, in.that line of* liusiness.
11ailurg. March IS38. tf 5
The Pedtlcton Messenger will insert the
above four times anu senl their bill for
paymien. t to 1. LI . J.
I.I. pIersonis imib-hte'd to the* estuate of Sauie"
Cahhv('ub~ell Fsg1. late t'f.bbeville h)istrict dee'd
are rerpse-,ted to mtan paymient innniediately, andl
thotse having -demiils to piresenit thema duilya at
tedttd within the time pjrescribed by law, to eier
of the .ubstcribers.
.IIN COTIlII AN,
J. L,. Pl.A lSON. :id''rs.
.Vo le e.
LL.1 Persona inidebtede to the late Mrs. lIe
I a hetui .\1limia, dheernsed, nre retnestedl to
quake imminite pay tmentt, anid till perisonsa haiv
ing demiandes nynaitsi the estate of' stid dleca-ed
tare respuested to paresent thiem' duily a ttested.
lII:NJ. MIMS, Excutor.
Dec . ,187 . - f 45
ALL Pers'ms indlebted to thuelate Chrir
tiani Breithauapt, deceased, aire regtEsst
ed to muake imnmeduiate paymeant. And all
persons huavinag demnds agaiinst the estrtu
of said deceased tare reg1iested to presenal
theta dutly attested.
JOlIN BAiUSKETT, Kr'ar.
I'fli. 25. .'--tf
Eistorienut ('ollections of li. ('uroinnm.
1E YIt. RI. C ;I R R I.,.
,i lllS ,\ ork is noaw ready fordelivery to Sm:ha
,scribiers tat the store of' C it. D~wd, in thi,
phei. .\ Afew extra ctipies for sile.
-M E DIOINE.
D S. LABI )l lDIC & M IMS will at
- tend to any parotsionalt calls whieh
liev miay receis e in Toiwn or country.
,( U f3
From the Lcrington 4tcl' neeracr.
Ile lov'd her though lie told it not;
But oft was lieard it) praise
The girl whom lie had neier forgot,
Simie first he met her goze.
And as they met where pleasure bcamid,
And shone from beamy's eve,
lie jo yons as a bird would see'm,
A he suppressed each sigh.
Ile knew another lov'd her well.
And thought that love was tlest
And e liwas too proul to) tell
That which his heart confessed.
For they were friends, the hapless two,
V ho si- hed for this one's love
'au thlie other's secret knew
x .ibl n1ot treacherous prove.
T- cne is .oine, the other now
theo s, 'er his would mate ;
k ,e clouds or sorrow shade his brow,
I Ne iourns his hopeless rate.
Ili every thought of love is hcrs
T14) her his leart is diven
inl his every dre.ams a ppears
Like wie pure soul fi-om Heaven.
To her lie warts his midnight sighs
Racked wi'h love's maddeninig, flame,
Aaid though no voice to his replies,
lie calls on her loiv'd1 name.
lETRIFtFD IUFFALO.--This extraord ina
ry curiosity vas discovered abont two years
siiec, by some trappers belonging to Capt.
ilent's company, lying on the side of tie
heaver datits of theilto Grande of the North.
(a stream emplying itself into the Gulf of
California,) whose aters, iti sg ij.jjV:
. J *;C ~. ..
gree, its shores abounding in specimens of
various 1tni1al nnd vecetale productions
inI a petrified state. The petrilied Buffalo
is described by those n. ho have seen it, to le
as perfect i) its peirefiction as when living,
with the exception of a hole in one of the
sides, about 4 inches in diatner, around
n hich the hair has been worn oil, poroba
lily by the friction of the wiater, in which it
iumit have lain for ages past to have pro
duced sueh a phenomtienon. The hair onl
the h ump,shoulders, neeck, forehuend ntjd tail,
dhough concreted into almost a simIoth sur
tec may be easily discerned. The horns,
eyes, nostris,ionh and legs, nre as perfect
in their stone, as in .hJeir pristine stalt&
The cou'try in which this rare specimen
was found is iihabited by the . Eneaux, a
roving tribe of savnges, who subsist a great
portions of Ilieir lives oi insects, suakes,
tonds, roots, &c. The tribe being particti
harly hostile to the whites, retnders the tie
Iiatition of this enriosity not a little hazard
oniue; notwithstanding thiis, and iany other
dlilliculties to be surmounited, sueh ~as dis
tane, expetnses, &c. Upt. Bent conlam
plates, procuring and bringing it into the
U. Stntes during the ensuing autnun. The
enrious may therelbre antiipate ain extraor
dinary treat in the course of the winter.
l'roi the Florida lhIchman.
EOveATION OF Cnitwtt.N.-We Iublish
ol the first page of to-day's paper a very
interesting artic'le oin Ilie curly treatment of
children. As lite subject is one of great in
terest nnd imiportnce to parcnts, we hope
ihevy will give it ani attenrive perusal.-Wea
hatve lonig been coinvincedl of flhe grealt imn
impijropjriety of subjecting chiben of a teng
dier nge, to that sever~e appijlientioni 1o sttudy
w hich moriie app~hropriattely belongs to) miore
a-'lvancer~years,andxc whonse phlysicail potwers
are mioire adieguntte 1to suistain the indto in
its a:rdoltus toils. A child wvhn possesses ai
mot01her of'ordinnary inidtitry anid intelligence
Ineedo niot enter thle door of a schooinl hotuse,
until lie lhas attained the age oit eight or ten
years; andh even ihien, his literary tasks
erwise, thongh lie miay' nequtire the up
pel ation of ''bonk-worn,," "literary, pirodhi
gy " &c. yet he will be at last, comapara
lively, hut a wvormu, either in mental oir
phlysicail strength. We tire for children
beaning all that they cenn, wvithonit disgtust
ing themuu with books. anl enifeebling at ilie
very outset, the energies-of mtind and body.
Let ai chuld1 enter the school-room as lie
Iwouild a flower garden, with gladniess andl
delight-let him rove nineh at his will,
gathierinig in his progress such flowers as
miay pilease lhis young fancy-let he henti
ties oif scienee he gradtunlly uinfo'dedl to1 hi
v iei w-let strenglhninug reamson utrge its strong
ar'gumnents in favou r of kniowege-ntrottse
his anmbition ;gra dually lifi fiom life's sittage
lie curtain, and let htimi see t hat uiponu his
well d1irectedl andl conttinuedh ellorts, de
pends his successful and uiseflh eterer iln this
-vorl, andl hiaippiness in the other,-ttnd
if a child piossesses the proper elements. he
wvill isie to usefuliie's andi~ honor, anid his
pahiwaty to fmnal success ill be one0 of'
p le asuire,
Chilblren are too generalhly viewed as mere
m-,chuiniies, t ,anuhh l tis h mpon .a .,....
force. entirely, and not drawn by motives
From our own observation, we are led t
believe that every child of ordinary capaci
ty who has arrived at the age of six years
can comprehend all the reasons, in ravor o:
earnest effort in the pursuits of knowledge
Young as lie is, his mind may, if polwVl
and patiently directed, he made to discover
the excellence of wisdom; the beauties that
are to be seen and gathered in her paths:
the glory that begirts the names of her vo
tnries-the unwasting fullness of her gar
ners. When a bright and useful career is
held up to his young mind, and he is made
nequainted with the means upon which his
final success hangs, lie must indeed be an
worthy of liberal culture, who will not seize
upon them with eagerness. We have at
present neither time nor space to cularge
upon this subject
EXThAORDINARY CASE OF ELECTRICAL
EXcIT.:1ENT.---Dr. H1osford, of Orford,
New lampshire, rilate-1, in the last num
her (if Silliman's Journal, the case of a lady
in lhat town, who became unconsciously
charged with electricity, at the time of the
occurrence of an unusual aurora borealis,
on the 25th of Jan. 1837. This extraordi
nary state continued until the middle of the
following May, during most of which time
she was capable of giving electrical sparks
to every conducting body within the sphere
of her electrical influence. When her figer
was brought within one sixteenth ofan inch
of a metallic body, a spark that was heard
;2cn, and felt, passed every second.
When seated motionless, with her feet on
lie iron stove hearth, three or four sparks
per miuttle would pass to the stove, not
iviibstandiug tihe insulation ofshoes nud silk
hosiery. When most favorably circum
stantced, four sparks per minute of one inch
mid a half would pass from the end of her
inger to a brass hall on the stove; these
ivere quite brilliant, distinctly seen und
aeard 11 any part of a large room, and
aharply felt whien they passed to another
Person. These experiments were so often
repented that there was no doubt left of
teir actual occurrence. The lady lint! no
uternal evidence of this faculty, which was
mly manifested to her when the sparks left
ler. I1er health had never been good, tho'
-he had seldom been confined to hier bed.
ht- had sull'ered much from unseated neu
-algia in various parts of her systerliir
onie months previous to her electrical
levelopement. ier health is now better
hial%\ Welinwas not '/us'ed'hy't* te
turora altided to, but that it was an appen
lage of the nninaLsyste-n.-Boston Med.
mnd Sur. Journal.
Another lorer of the Queen.-A man of
he name of Ash, an inmate in St. Giles's
xork-hAiuse, was brought before Mr. Dyer,
it Marlborough-strect office yesterday, to
ie examined touching his santity. It ap
renred that lie was perfectly rational upon
-very subjiect but that of ;t supposed attach
ieut to her Majesty. WXhten questioned,
lie said that it was true be was deeply enn
mored of her Majesty, and lie was certain
that she entertained the same fee!ing toward
im. Mr. Dyer: "Where have you had
itn opportunity of seeing her Majesty "
Prisoner: I have frequently seen ier at
Ketisington Gardens." Mr. Dyer: "Aid
what reason have you to believe that the
alfection you speak of really exists?" Pris
mier: "We have exchanged looks together,
aind I feel convinced that she really enter
ittis ain affection for me." Mr. Dyer
"fiave you taken any measures to make
her Majesty aware of the fieling you have
towards her ?" Prisoner : --No; but 4 in
tend to make a communication to the gov
erntent ont the subject " lie was directed
to lie taken to a lunatic asylum.-London
A FEMAL.E IloasE 'THiEv.-The Uniti
nore Suit of Monday gives an necount of
the arrest of a horse thief on Sunday at the
Horse Market, who was, after committal
to jail, discoivered to lie a woman. She
had stolen the hor-e at Belle-Air, Ihartford
('onty, and ridden haimt to Baltimore.
On the discovery of her sex, she stated that
she was a niative of Yorkshire. lCngland
and1( had wvorn male attire for three years.
dutrinig part of which time shte had wjged
as a laborer upon thme canal.
The II. of Representa~tives of Kentutcky
have rejected the bill for granting bianking
privileges to die Rail Road, by a nmjority
of 13l. Thie Charter, however, is comiplete
withaout the coitcurrence of that State. and
thme Banik is expected toi be put itn opieratiom:
in October next, ini South Carolinat, North:
Carolinta, and Tennessee.
Valuabsle Disco'reg-The New Orleanm
Pienyuine of the 13th itnstnt says-"A silvei
mute of the richest dlescriptin wvhs yesterd1a3
discovered on the ground formerly coverer
by Diamonds flotel, opposite St. Mary;u
nmarket. The men emnployed in wvorkint
this ine stucceded ini digginig imp somthting
like 820,000J, all of the best Mexietin silver.'
.-f long tail.-T1he t ail of Queen Victoria'
urcss muensures 16 yards, aind weighs 24
pioundts. The Duichess of Keitt has the higi
antd mtightty hontor of carrying the latter out
of it, assisitd by three Right Ilontorabli
ladies of ntobility. Otte account say~s tha
Victoria has a very coarse, awkward figutr
a large flat fotot, a beefy anele, and that he
face is ugly as sin.-ludson River ChIro:1
T wo farms in Dnehess county, New-Yora
have recenttly beeni sold at hauctiotn. Th
prices at wshich they were struck off wver<
one at $75 per acre, the other at $6G 25~ cts
PEECII OF MR. CALHOUN OF S. C.
ON TUE Sun-TREASURY BILL.
-in th Senate of the U. States Fb 15, 1838.
uch are the difficulties that stand in the
w y of the substitute at the very threshhold.
Those beyond are vastly greater, as I shall
nOW proceed to show. Its object, a ] have
a ted, is to revive the league of State banks
an ithe first question presented for consid
eration is, how is this to be done? how is the
lcgue to be formed? how stimulated into
life when formed; and what after it has
beqn revived, would be the true character
of the league or combination? To answer
those questions we must turn to its provis
It provides that the Secretary of the
Trnsury shall select *wenty five s ecie
paing hanks, as the fiscal agents (ot the
GoVernment, all to be respectable and sub
stantial, and that the selection shall be con
firnied by the joint voteor the two Houses
It also provides,that they shall be made the
lepositories of the public money, and that
their notes shall he receivable in the duesof
the Government; and that in turn for these
advamtagcs, they shall stipulate to perlorm i
certain duties, and comply with various
conditions the object of which is, to give
to the Secretary of theTreasury full knowl
edge of their condition and husiness, with
the view to supervise and control their acts,
as far as the interest of the Government is
concerned. In addition to these. it contains
other and important provisions, which I
shrnll not enumerate, because they do not
fail within the scope of the objections, that
I propose to urge against the neazure.
Now I ask what (toes all this amount to ?
What but a proposal on the part of theGov
ernment to enter into a contract, or bar- I
gain, with certain selected State Ianks, oni
the terms and conditions contained. Have
we a right to make such a bargain is the
first question ; and to that I give a decided I
negative, which I hope to place Onl Consti- I
tutional grounds, that cannot he shaken.- i
I intend to discuss it, with other questions
growing out of the connection of the Gov- I
ernment with the banks, as a new question I
for the first time presented for conhideration
and decision. Strange as it may seem, $he I
questions growingout of it, as long as it has I
existed, have never vet been4jrstdum,i
alitf. ~IHow this has happened, I shall now ;
proceed to explain. preparatory to the ex
aimiat ion of the que-i ion,which I proposed.
The union of the Government and the i
hanks was never legally solemnized. It I
originated shortly after the Governmenti
went intooperanion, not in -any ,legal enact- i
ient, but in a short order of the Treasury
Department of not much more than halfito
dozen lines, as if it were a mere iatter of
cout:rse. We thus glided imperceptibly into I
a connection. which was never recognized
by law tiil i86, (if myn memory serves)hut
which has produced more important after
consequences, and has hind a greater con
trol over the destiny of this country, than
any one of ihe mighty questions, which have
so often and deeply agitated the country.
Tip it may be traced, as their seminal princi
ple. the vast and extraordinary expansion
of our banking systen. our excessive import
duties. uncon-trt utional and profuse dii
bursements, the prolective Tariff, and its
nssociated system for spending wha: it I
threw into the Treasury, followed in time
by a vast surplus which the utmost extrav
agance of the Government could not dissi
pate, and finally by a sort of retributive
justice, the explosion of the entire banking
system, and the present pro-arrated conditionI
of the currency, now the subject of our de
Ilow a icasure fraught with such inpor
tant consequences should at first, and for so
long a tinie have escaped the altention and
the investigation of the public. deserves a
passing notice. It is to be explained by the
false conception of the entire .sutbjecet of
banking,wicih at that early period univer
sally prevailed in the community. So er
roneotus waOs it, that a haul.,tnote was thieni
identified ini thes inda of the publlic withI gold
and silver, andi a deposite in batik was re
gardled, as under the most safe and sacred
custody, that comuuld be devised. The origi
nal impression, derived ftoma the bank of
Atimsterdatn, where every note, or certificate
ini circulation, wvas hIonestly represented by
an equial and specific quantity of gold or
silver in bank, and where every deponsite
wvas kept, as a sacred trust, to he safely re..
tutrnied to the depositories, when demanded,
was extetided to batnks ofrdiscount, down to
the time of the formation of onr Govern
metnt, wvith but slight miodificationis. With
this impression, it is not at all extraordin~a
ry, that the deposite of the revenue in banks
bor safe keeping, and the receipt of their
notes in the public dues, sh~ould he consid
ered a miatter of course, requirinag no hlgher
authority than a Treasury order, and hence
a cotnnection, with all the imp~ortant quies
lions behongim to it and now considered of
vast malhgnitu e, received so little notice,
till pubhlie attention was directed to it by its
recent rupture, This total separation f'rom
the system, in which wve now find ourselves
placed-~, for the first timec, auhorises uad dle
antds, that wye shall investigate freely andi
Ifully, tnot only the consequence of the con
tinectiot, but all the questiions growing out
r of it, more especiall those of a constitution
-al character; and Ishall in obedience to
this demand return to the questiotn from
,which this disgressioa has carried ine so far.
i Ihave we then the right to make the bar
', gain ~proposed !H ave weo the right then
-to bestoiy the high privileges, I rnight ay
prerogatives, on thenm of binm..od.. th -.
positories of the public revenue, and of
having their notes received and treated as
gold and silver in the duties of the Goveru
ment and in nil its fiscal traosactions ?
lHave we the right to do all this in order to
bestow confidence in the banks, with ifte
view to enable them to resune specie pay
ments? What is the state of the case?
The banks are deeply indebted to the coun
try, and are unable to pay; and we are
asked to give them these advantages, in or
ter f6 enable them to pay their debts. Can
we grant the boon 1 1n answering this in
portant question, I begin with the factthat
our Governmeut is one of limited powers.-w
It can exercise no right but what is specifi
cally granted; nor pass any law, but what
is necessary and proper to carry such pow
er into eflect. This small pamphlet (hold
ing it up) contains the Constitution. Its
grants of power are few and plain; and I
ask gentlemen to turn to it, and point out
the peower, that anuthorises us to do what is
proposed to he done, or to show that,to pass
this substitute, is necessary to carry any of
lie granted powers intocifect. Ifneitier
Cn be shown. what is pro posed, cannot hic
emistitutiounally done; anti till it is splecifi
ally Irinted out, I am warranted in believ
ing tl:t is cannot bg shown.
Our reason is ften conrounded boy n
mere name. An act, in the nminds of gpuny
nay become of doubtful constitutional 'na
Ahority, when applied to a bank, which
mone would, for a moment hesitate to pro
tounce grossly unconstitutional, when ap
Alied to si) individual. To free ourselves
ro-i these illusions, I ask, could the Gov
Irnment consitutionally bestow on individ
mis, or a private association, the advanta.
res proposed to be bestowed on the selected
>an -s, in order to enable then to pay their
lebts. Is there one Who hears ate, who
vould venture to say, yes, even in the case
if the most extensive merchant or mercaa
ile concern. such as some of those in New
Vork. or New Orleans. at the late suspen
;ion, whose embarrassments involve entire
iections in distress? But. if* not, on what
irinciple can a discrimination be made in
havour of the banks ? They are local
n;titutious. created by the State for local
wurposes, composed. like private associn
ions, of individual citizens, on whom the
iets of fie States canuot confer a particle
>r constitutiunal rights under this Consti
ution, that does not belong to the latin
ilest citizen. So far from it, if there be a
.aovernment thnn tle individual citizens.
vhlo, by the Constitution, are expressly
luhjected to the dirret action of this Gov
nment in many instances; thile the State
Minks. as eonstituting a portion of the do
nestlc institutions of the States, and rest
n4g on their reserved rights. are entirely be
ond our control, so mctteh so, as not to be
he subjeet of a bankrupt law, although the
tuthority to pass one is expressly granted
by the Constitntion. -
Oin what possible ground, then, can the
-ight in question be placed, unless indeed,
m the broad principle that these local in
ititutions, intended for state purposes, have
eetn so extended and so connected them
telves with the general citculation and bu
iness of the country. as to af'ect the inter
.st of tho whole country, so as to make it
he right and dutty of Congress to regutlate
htem, or, in short, on the broad principle
)f the general welfare? There is none
ither, that I eon conceive ; but this would
'te to adopt the old and exploded principle,
it all tines dangerous, but pre-eminently
to tat this .tine, when such loose and dan
erous conceitions of the Constitution tre
bhroad in the lnd. If the argument is
;otil, in ote case, it is good in all similar
eases. If this Government may interfere
with any of the (tomestic institutions of the
States. on the ground of promoting the
general welfare, it may with others. If it
matny bestoiv privileges to control them, it
may al.o appropriate money for the same
purpose ; and hui s a door might he opened
to on interference with the State institutions,
of which we of a certaina section ought at
this time to be not a little jealotus.
Tlhe argument might be pushed tmutch
fuarthaer. We tnt only ollfer to confer groat
and imnportat privileges on the baniks to be
selected, butt, in tutrn ask them to stiptulate to
coimpjly with certain conditions, the object
of which is to bring them uinder the super.
vsion and control of this G3overnmnt.
It migh~lt be asked .where is the right to
p~urchiase or assumea snch supervsiont or
cotrol? It might he repeatedi, that they
are St ate inastitution4, incorporated solel'y
for state purposes; and to lie entirely untder
State control, andi that all suapervirsion on
ouir part is in violationi of the rights or the
States. It might be argued that stich super
vision or control is calcuilated to weakon
the control of the States over their own in
stituations, andi to render them less subser
vient to their peculiar and local interests, for
the promotion of which they wore estab
lished ; atnd too subservient to oither, and,
perhaps conflictinag intterests, which might
feel btit little sympathy with those of the
States. llut I forbare. Oilier, and not
less urgent objectionus claim my attention.
Totdilate too much on one, would necessari
ly sacrifice the claimn of the others.
I next object, that whatever may lie thic
right to enter into the proposed bargain, thac
modeo in which it is proposed to make It ih
clearly tinconstitutional, if 1 rightly coim
prehentd it. I am not certain that I do0
liut, if I understanud it righitly, the plati is
for the Secretary of the Treasury to selec
twenty-flveState banks, as described in tht
substitute, which are to lbe submitted to tie
t wo litases to be confiarmetd, or rejected, by
thieir join~t resolutions, without the approv
al of the President; in the same matde, a~
they 'would arpoint a chnolain., or establisl
aljult tilb for the governtnent of their pro
In acting on the joint resolution, if what
I supposed be intended, each Iouse would
hatre the right, of course, to'strike from it
the siame of any bank and insert another,
which would in fact veast in the two Hi-nses
the uncontrolable right of making the selee
tion. Now, if this be the mode proposed,
as I infer from the silence of the mover, it.
is a plain and pla)blo violation of tho
Constitution. The obvious intention is tit
invade the veto power of the Execuotive,
which cannot be, without an infraction fit
an express provision of the Constitmuin,
drawn up with the tinost enre, and inIC1ed
ed, to prevent the possibility of evasion.
It is contained in the first ariice, 7th sceti,,n
and the last clause, whiehi I ask the Secr<.
tary to read :
["Every order resolntion, or vote, to
which lithe coacurrence of the Sennte nid
House of Representatives may he neces
ary, (except on a question of adjournment)
shall be presented to the Presi'dent of tio
United States, and before the snme shall
take effect, shall be approved by him, or be
ing disapproved ly him, shall be repawd
by two thirds of the Senato and I hotuie oil*
Itepresentatives, accoiding to the rides
and limitations prescribed in the Case of a
Notlhingcn be more explicit, and fuill.
It is no more possible to evade the Exc z
tive veto. on any joint vote, than in the pa, -
sage (if a bill. The veto was vestel
in him not only to protect his own pow ver.,
but ,ns an addlitional guard to the Conisim:
tion. I am not the advocate of Execur i ,
power, which I have orien been com.
pelled to resist of late, whien extended be
yond its proper limits, as I shall ever I.e
prepared to doi when it is. Nor am I the
advocate of Legislitive orJiudicial. I stand
ready to protect all, within the sphere no
signed by the Constitution, and to resist
iliem bcyond. To this explicit and com
prehensive provision of the Constitution,
of lie veto, there is but a single exception,
resulting, by necessary implication, from n
nother portion of the instrument. not less
explicit, which nuthorises each House to
establish the rules of its proceedings.
Under this provision the two Houses have
full and uncontrollablp authority within the
limits of their respective wall and ove-r
those subject to their authority, in their of
ficial character. To that extent, they niny
pnp rov'al of the E xecutive; but beyond that,
without it, they are powerless.
There is, in this case a special reason
why his apiproval should not be evaded.
Tle President is at the head of ti Ad
ministration Department of dhe Govern
ment, and is esliecially responsible for its
good inanagement. in order to hold him
responsible, he ought to have due power in
the selection of its agents, and proper con
trol over their conduct. These banks would
beby far the most powerful and influential
ofr 4e agent.pf the Government, and
ought not to lie seleeteAwilkot4t the concur
rence of the Excentive. If thi sinis'titft -
should he adopted, and the provisina in
question be regarded stich as 1 consider it,
there can lie no doubt what must bethe fato
of the. measure. The Executive will be
hound to protect, by the intervention or
its constitutional right. the portion of pow
power clearly allotted to that department
by the instrument, which would make it
impossible for it to become a law, with the
existing division in the two House.
I have not yet exhausted my constitution
al objections. I rise to higher and to broad
er, applying directly to the very essence
of this substitute. I deny your right to
make a general deposite of the public re
venue in a bank. Afore than half of the
errors of life may be traced to fallacies or
iginating in an improper use of words; and
among not ti least mischievous is the ap
plication or this word to bank trannaetians,
in a sense wholy different from its original
meaning. Originally it meant a thing lae
ad inl trust, or pledged to be safely an so
credty kepit, till returned to the depositor,
without bieing usedh by the depository,
while ini his possession. Alil this is changed
when applied to a depo'iite .in bank. in.
stead of returnitng the identirel thing. the
bank is tinderstoodl to be hiPnntd to return
only nu eghnal value : and instead of not
havinig the use, it is understood to have tM
right to hoani it on interest, or to dispo-- ioi
it as it pileases, with the siinglo coniditio,
that an equsal amnount lie returned, " h:.
demandeid, which experience has taug10 :.
ntot always done. TIo pilace. theni, the jn!
lie money in dleposite, tm baiiks, withoiut -
str'ictioni, is to give the free use of it, and to
allow them to mtake as much as thev. e.;
01ut of it, between the time of depoidte. a.nlI
disbursmeiit. Ihnve we such naright? Theii
monoy, belonigs toi thle peoplo--.cole-d
frotm them ber specific pulrpo~ses,-inl wlh-h
they have a general initerest,-and fr that
onily; wht possible right cn we have
to givo such tuse of it to certain seered
corporations? I ask for tlie provisions of
the Constitutions thtt authorizes it. I nt-k
if we cotiuld grant the use, for similar par-.
poses, to private associations or indliviul<l.,
Or if not to them, to individual ollicers
the Governmet: for instance, to the fat r
principal receivers uinder this lill, should it
pass? Antd if this cannot be done, that the
distincetiodf be pointed out.
If thteso questions bo satisfnetorily an
swered, I shall propound others stillimoro
difictilt. I shall thon ask, if the substituto
should become a law, amid the twenty-.fivo
batnks be selected, whether they wvou'ld not
in fnct he the Treasury? And if so, howv
can it lie drawn from it to lie lent for the
purpose of tradle, speculation, or anly other
use whatever, against nu express provision
of the Constittuio Yea ne m-..... ..