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"We will cling to the pillars of the temple of our liberties, W . .
and if it must fall we will perish amidst the ruins."
VOLUME IV- F&glX& toEt 1ThUS'. I. U. F brU%-r-j NO. 3.
OF THE FOURTH VOLUME OF THE
IIERE F. LABORUE, Editor.
In entering ulom the dhuties of a public
Journalist, the Editor deems it neces
sary to make known his political pritci
pies. This he will do in as brief a tman
neras possible. He is of the straitest sect
of the State Rights School of politics.
On' a strict construction of the Fcderal
Couipact,.depend, he believes, the value
and the very existence of !he Union. To
-romnote this great ubject,he will labor faith
fully, and with zeal untiring. lie is op
posed to a United States Bank, believing
it to be unconstitutional. inexpedient, dan
gerous, and peculiarly oppressio to the
le is in favor of the Independent Con
stitutional, Treasury scheme. He believes
it to lie the safest, the cheapest. and the
most simple plan for collecting and dis
bursing the public revenue, which has yet
His paper shall not be a mere political
party sheet. Agriculture and general
literature shall meet at his hands, a due
share of attention. lie will endeavor to
make judicious selections4 for the farmer,
and will cater for the delicate appetite of
the lover of polite literature. In shtort. he
will use every exertion to make his paper
as riscellaneous, and as useful as possible.
He will publish articles on all subjects of
"From grave to gay from lively to severe."
During the season of business, he will
publish every week, the prices current of
anburg, and Augusta, and occasionally
of Charleston and Columbia.
The EDGEFIELD ADvERTISER il plh
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Three Dollars and Filiy Cems if not pai(
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All communications addressed to the
Editor, post puid, will be promptly and
strictly attended to.
W. F. DURISOE, Publisher.
Feb 7, 11)9
J4MIUURG, S C.
T HE Subscriber takes great pleasure in in
iormting his friends & the public general.
ly that he has opeied his large and connodioins
House, and will be verv thankful to them for a
liberalshare of their patronazre. He flatters him
self, that from the experience of the Lady who
has charee of the domestic affatirs of the 1 louse,
also his .Servanuts and H-ostlers, together with his
owvn will and disposition to please. that general
satisfaction may be given. The situation of the
Hlouse~ affords i coa'neee,particularly desina
ble to persons who mwt have business to attend
to. or who may wish to take the Itail Rtoad Car
for Charleston: and his Stable lots are larir- and
well prepared for the accomimadation of Gienxtle
men who may have Stock for tede.
'G. WV. MAYSON.
-Oct. 24, 1838 tf 3
H AMBU RG, SOUT H C AIROLINA.
T H> ndersigned begs leave to inform his
frie:ads and the public in gene'rad, that
this Hotel has tud'rgone thorong~h repair, atnd
that he isa now p -epared for the recC.ptitn anid at -
commo~s:ations of Permaanent 8uarderse. as wvell as
Travellers and Transient
He wvould observec..that those who may fa vor
hitm with a call. shall findthemnselves agreeably
and cotmfortably p)1 ovuded fur. His tabl; is stup
plied with all the substantial requisites of good
tiing.together with every delicamcy and variety.
that the markets of Autgusta and Ilamaburg camn
aflord, with the attenttion of actirc sceants and a
'aithifd hostler. Hlis Bar is stored with liuors
of the choicest kind.
With the cofide't assurance of' iing fil1
satisfiction, he solicit4 his old friends, and the
public in general, to l::vesr hiom with a call.
Drovers can be accommuodated with stables
and tols for stock.'
Dec 15. lIt if .i'
M Yt10USE and LOT. in the Viltare of
',dge field, npon terms to sntit a purchaser.
In mhy ab~senc. tppjly to Col. Blan.kett.
A....l Jo if 10t
OF THE COMITTEE ON AGRICULTURE.
On so much of the Governor's Message as
relates to a Getdogicat Sarcej of the Stat.
The Committee tonAgraeuuro, Lo whoi
was reflerred so much of the Governor's
Message as relates to a - Geological burvey
of the State, have had the samne under
consideration, and beg leave to offer the
WVitei e;ard to a Gological survey of
the State, a feiw years ag. Professotr Van
ouxeni was employed a very limited time
ou a Mineralogical survey. The titne al
lowed was too short for any useful resuit,
nor ougtt the State to t satiblied with any
mere Mineralogical research. Mineralogy
is one thing, and Geol.gy another: and
embraces a much greater extent ol knowl
eige than usually falls to the share of a
mere Mineralogist. It is in a very high
degree probable, that a large portion of the
strface ofour State has been heretofore
the bottom of the oceau, or formed by par
tial volcnuic ejections, and that the soil en
closes organic remamus of fish. of aniials,
and of plants, either not now known. or
not existing in the same eletments. Fla
the purpose of accuracy, it rojuires a per
solt nell -,killed, not merely in the Mitterai
sibst.ices that characteize ihe Strata. but
in conptritive Anatomy, & Botany Ge
ologists have divided the surface of our
Glolte into classes of Strata. These Stra
ta are characterized by the Mineralogical
constitution of the mass, that composes
ea--i stratum, by the itnbihed tminerals pe
cul iar to ech, by their relative sub-post
tion and super-position, by the organic re
m1i.14 %Ofshells, fishes, aninals, and plants
inc-etle, at Vaious depitis witin them.
II a Gea !gi--al sutrvey oh this State.
it oulht to be reqiirtl of the Su: veyor tt
designate a it houindarize tii vari.>ts for
mtions, and the strata of which they are
cotmposed, tit tmark the order of theirgu
per-Iostitn, to tite their dilp and extent.
lie ouhit then, to take ti the isubject oI
tseu| Mitt. .r to sItiuvey pati'lnrly
and bonudarize the Shell Lime. the iron,
auI tle Gold Vis:ricis. This Survey
would of course include the whole Litie
stoie strata. and any other prodtctts that
could le applied to uneful purposes.
Your Cotnittee will briefly enumer
ate somre of the advantages, necessarily
resulting from a Survey thus made.
It nould le useftil to the State, in it
hen ring upots A gricubure. It is helieved
that considerable tracts of lani in South
Carolina,are ctpable of being rendered
permanently fertile by tlit discovery o
Marl and other appropriate Mineral a
mendneuts. This has been realized with
in at few years, by several of our sister
it the discoverv of useftl Metals -
That uany of tte Ores, as Copper, Lead.
&e. exist in tie primitive portinias of Soutih
Carolina, it workabla quautities, cau
scarcelv admit of a doubt, though , hey art
probably under a character too much dis.
guised for detection by ordinary observer,
-possibly Tin, Silver, Bysiturb, Anti
many and Platina, may also be fountd.
There is surely nothing in the formatioi
to forbid their occurrence; but, on the
contrary, niuch to favor it.
in the developement of humerous ma
terials for the Arts, as for Architecture
Slates, Roofing. andi Flatging Stone, Ce
ments, Clays, for Porcelain atid Potter.s
and noterials for Alum, Copperas, Sulph.
t; ie Acid. &c.
The detectiotgof Mineral Waters.
Such a Survev seem, %till farther a matter
of piblic interest from-the reasonable proa.
pPet which exists for the discovery oftiome
of the resources (in the line of the Grea
Western 1(ail Road.
ln the event of stuch discoveries, it is ea
sy to perceive the elfeect it wotuld have iti
protmoting that imaportatnt enterpirize..
Your Cotmmittee wvouha therefore re
spectfully recottomiend the adoption of the
followt ittg Resoluttions:
1. Re-solved T(hat a GeoloL'ical Sttrve)
of this State, npott a basis comamensuirate
with the maguitude of. the object to be at.
tained, is an enterpirize thtat tmay righttfull~
claim the cncouragemtent of every class o1
industry,'as involvitng moreot- less of prohi
able utility to each, and is intimately con
nected with the advancemrent of the Artt
and Sciences-of Agriculture, Manfac
tures andl Commerce.
2. Resolt'ed. That the Goveror catust
a Geological Snrvey of this Stazte to be
made, as sootn as circumast aniets will ad
tit; and be in hereby empowered to ap.
point and ctmntrauct with some suitable per
snu to pe-rfo'rm the samel.
:3. Resolved, Tihat it shtall he the d-ut1
of the Governor to catuse to be laid before
the Legislature, at its annmual sessions, a
detailed ntecount of the progress oft lie sur
vey ,iogethter with the expenditures in pros.
entini): the satme.
4. Resolved, That the person who shall
le employed to make the Geological Sur
vey, shall be re.qtiredl to select 2 comnplete
sits of! specimens of all the rocks atnd mlin
ctra in South Carolina College, Colum~t
hint, and the other in the Mcdical College,
5. Resoheed. That the suam of ten thou
sand dollars be aptpropmriated fro~m the ptub
lie Tre-asury, sub Ceetou the discretion oi
th~. Go'vernor. attd to be expended by hitt
in catrryintg onr said Geological Survey.
All whtt ht is restreetfully submittedl.
JOHN DOUGLASS, Chairman.
Virtue and learning, like gold, hatve
t,.:. itri;,.ic valne,
Jan. 15, 1809.
Remarks of Mr. Calhoun, of South Caro.
linat. on the engrossment of the bill for
grraduating the price of public lands.
Mr C ,Ihoult stid: I have no desire. Mr.
Presileoit, to retard.in the imallest decree.
the final aetion of the Senate on this hill:
aInd in order to avoid tnneresslry con
somption ofiine, I intend to state, as con
eisely :i posible, my views of the proper
tnliev to he pursued in reference to the
publie lands lving within the limits of the
tiew States; and my reasons for voting
ngainst the engrossment of this bill.
I ihall begin with premisinz that I am
under strong conviction, both from obser
vation and reflection, that we have arrivel
at the periol when an entire revolution of
our land system, as far as it is applicable
to those States. is unavoidable. rhey
have, in fact, outgrown the system. Sicue
its first adoption, they have come into ex
istence. have passed through a s-nte of itn
lancy, and hnve now arrived at manhood.
Tie Iyicste,, which wnas wise and just at
first, is'neither wise nor just applied to
them in their changed condition.
We nave heard much, Mr. President. in
the *resvit discttssion about the growth of
the new States, but, if I may judge from
the various measPru propose'd oni the
prisent occasion. we have heither realized
it, rapidity. nor the unavoidable changes
in our land sstem 'whicl inst frollow in
its train. I'heir wonderful growth is, in
deed one of those realities almost beyond
the grasp of imagination. When I go
back twenty-seven years, to the ieridl
when I first bee-me a tmemher of the other
I louse. and compatre what the new States
then were, to what they tow are. I amn lost
in wonder and anazement. Theirklrowth
is without example. There is nothitn,
iike it in history. At that ttme there was
hut a single new State, (Ohio.) I exclude'
Ke.ntucky, Termessee and .laine. all of
wich have been admit ted since the adop
tion of the Constitution, and limit my re
marks to those which hare since sprunia
tilt tn the public domain.
Ohio then had hnt. one Representitive
itt the other House, Jeremiah Morrow. ;in
honiest aud sensible man. who was at that
time at the head of the- gommtnittee ott Pub
lie La.ds, and nwd the conidetnce of the
House so comnpletely, that his voice was
the law on all subjects connected with
them. There were then thirty two Sena
tors in all, of which, Ohio had, of course,
two; :mat is, the one sixteenit I of ihe w hole.
In ihe electoral college she ithad three votes,
which made her weight abou the 1 50t1
in tLhat tody-a weight scarcely felt or es
tiuated in the political movements of the
Such, at that time, was the infant and
feeble coudition of the new State.s. Since
then, in a pwriod but little exceeding ihm
allotted to a sitgle generaiion, to imss over
the stage of rllle,bo, wonderful the rh:m;:e'
lustead at one, as then, there are now 9
new States; and in the place of two Sena
tors in thirty-two, we now have eighteen
in lifty-two; making, instead of one-six
teenth,trore than a third f the whole; and
already three Territories, Florida, Win-r0
n ..-wa, are6 struggling for adnissioti,
When admitted, which must be shortly.
there will then he twelve new Stares, with
twenty-fonr Senators in firy-six, which
will increase their relative weight in t his
oody to three sevenths of the whole.
But as wonderful as has beetn the in
crease in this body. it will De still more so.
after the next census in the other. It will
lie taken nwe y'ear, anid a new ap~portion
tment of thie miembesrs will be made under
the Constitution; when, instead of' : single
menmer~being less thatn otne itt at hundred,
as was the case twenty seven years 'ao,
the represetttation ohf the niew States will
then staud to the old1, at least as forty to
sixty, or twoi ifths of the whole, as calcu
lated by at friend fanmiliar with the subiject,
and im whose taccuracy I have enitire coti
detice. rlTe new States having, as thmey
will then, three sevetiths ini this, and two
fifths itn the other House, *vill, of' course,
have a relative weight in the electoiral
college, or the saute thing in the choice of
President, compounded of the two, that is
five twelfths of the whole. So much for
Now .if' we turn to the future, we shall
find the cause of this amtazinit growth so
far from being exhtausted or weakened. is
actitng with intcreased force, ardl uirging for
ward the growth of' these States with ae
celerated, instead ol'a decreatsind, velocity;
so mutch so, thazt thme pass chantges in the
last mwen:y-seven years will aippear as
nothing. comipured with what will take
plaice in the next twenty seven, unless
sotme untureseen oceurr, ace should inter
vetne to retard their progress. If moy me
aory setrves me right, oiur p)opUlation, 27
years ago, was about seven mnilliom~s; and
our annual titrease thetn, that is, the ex
cess of births over d.'aths, ineltmding emi
gration,. about two hundied thousand, es
timttintg otur growth at three per cent com
pioiund. Sitnce then, our popttlation has
incereased not less than nine mtiliotns, ma
ing the piresent probablly about sixteetn;
whtich on the same data, will make our an
nual increase at this titme btit little short of
half a naillion, the great part of which
will find their homes in the ntew States.
I will not enter. into a milntte calcula
tion ias to the elfi-ets of'this great increase
oti the relati' e weight of the new amnd old
States, at the next succeeding eenstus, in
1850O. It is sufficient to say, that it will
give a decided majority to the former.
both in the House of Representatives and
in the electoral college, and, of course, in
the (overument; and thus, in the short
space of one A eneration and ai half.the con
Ire of political power, as between the old
and uew States. will have passed from the
forner to the latter.
Now, with these unuestiouable results
before us, i ask, not whether it would be
wise to contnue the old system; no, sir, a
far holder question-will it he practicable?
And it not practicable, would it be wise to
struggle to coniinue it, till overibrown by
the lhrte of unavoidable and irresistable
canses! I ask, what would be the effiects
of sui a struggle? Would it not oc to ex
cite, in the first instance, animosity and
discord between use old and new States.
iind, in the end, io overlirow the entire
land system, with the certain loss ulti
muately, oft lie public doitain! I shall not,
onl i tis occasion, attempt a formal di-cus
sion of these pnints. I prupose, in order ito
illustrate, simply to show how vain and
dangeruton %% ould be the attempt to hold on
to the present system, under these great
and growinsg cnangces, bsy tracing its opera
tions under a single aspect. its bearing on
the Prebidestial (Istion.
Tio have a clear conception of this, we
must bear in mind, that aller the next cen
aus,the Aisw States will have five-twelflhs
of the electoral college; and, of course,
s-naured to either of the other sectioiis,
it coitrollinlg voice in Ihe election of a Pres
ident. He who keeps this ii m1ind, and
understainds the workings of the hutan
heart and of our system, must see, that in
the Presidential coitest, (for such it must
eve'r be.) the great point, hereafter, will lie
to secure their favor; and that itis can -best
be done by f.avoring tnteir pecultar views
and policy in reference to the public laids.
Now one of two things must follow: either
all the cantlidaltcs will euter into ihis coin -
petitiou, in which case thestrugale will he
who s;siall o -arthcat. and its consequence
will ie togive thle vote to him who bid higii
est. It is eusy to see how this would end.
The ml'whh domain, the nsoble inheritance
ofih' peopl.-o-this Union would besquan
dered, or rather gambled away, in thecon
tesi; and would thus lie made, at the sitne
imoie.th- imeans u plundaer amid corruption.
41nd of elevating to power the most profli.
gose antd audacious.
Butif, instead ofall the catididatesseek
ing; the favor of tie new Slaie4, a part
should court-their initerests, and the others
thar otthe old States, iho train of events
wouli, msdeed. be varied, but the ultitutie
result would lie the same. Ott this suppo
sition, each of the candidates would reiort
to meanis best calculated to secure the sec
tion, on n hose support he might rely.
Thse lookina ti the new States wo;ull
push :o the extreme, the flavorite policy of
those States in reterence to the nuhlic
lands; while the others would take the op
posite extreme in flavor of the old States.
Now, when we reflect that the new
and lie old States must tecesarily. froimi
their diffiereut position and relaition to
the public lands. emertain very dilerent
views of the policy that otght to be ptir
sued in relation to them. in almost every
point-so Imucll so, that the one shal
-consider that but as the demands ofjusiier
which the other linil regard as nothinu
short. 04penl pluntler, as we have wittess
ed in tlis di-cussion-we may form some
conception of the violence of the conflict
which must eusue in the case supposed.
We have had, even in this early stage. and
on this very question, some indicaiionq of
what we may expect. The most violent
animjos-ity and hatred would follow, and
every msan, be his motive ever so pure and
itriotic, would he regasrded th e friend or
the enemy or the new or old States., aq his
opinions I'avosred thle policy of tine or the
othier. rThe final termsiat ion of t he caon
flict wotid sot be dlousbtifu Wihatever
turnts of fortuno uiihlt occurini its po'fgress.
the new States must, isa the enid, prevail.
Their relative increasie is far imore rapid
thain the obal. so misuch so, thats afte'r 1850
--thsas is, after the third Presidlential eec
titn fr'omt the ntext-thiey wotld~ lie left,
as I have shown, in utdispusted possessions
jail the field. In thai mean tine, wvhiile the
IstrIde is going ons, the asnimiosily would
daily increase on boils 'sides. The longer
it contrinued, the snore bitter it would be.
acomse, iad the more certaitnly and coin
pletely would the present system be over
throwns, if indeed, the Untiost itself should
be strong enough to withstansd the shack.
Such must inevitably be the fate of the
ptresent system should we have the folly,
I suighit say the smadness, to attempt yn
contuinuie it as it is, so far as the snew States
are concernied, regardless of the great cbatn
ges which have already taken place, and
the still mnoi-e smighity its progress.
Having now pointed out the dangaer, I
turn next to the deeply imsportant quiestion
ofsremnedy,whichs demiandls the tmost prompt
and solemnit consideration, bothi of the Gov
ernent andl the commisunity. The ques
tin is, what mseans shall we adopt to
Avert the mischief' whtich -1 have showns to
.he so rnipidly approsaching, and which mnust
inevitably soons arrive, if ntot prevented by
some speedy andl efficient mneasures! Al
ready one hass heen proposed. originally
broutghtt forward to relieve a distendedl
Trresasuty of its burden, but which its au
thor (the Senator fr'aom Kentucky, Mr.
Clay) hats renewed. an the presenst oeca
sian, adoubtless -i ithi the view, in piarm, at
least, to meet the gsrowiag disorders of the
system. His proposition is to divide she
proceeds of the piublic lands aimng the
States, with the double vIew, I suplpose,
to a more equal participation in the advan
tiages osfthse public doimnis,by the membsters
of' the Uinion, annd to nreseren the present.
sysici by a more vigilant guardianship or
t he States. I doI not now itiend i db.i5cuss
the merits of this moasure. My object is
Iinlv to state, in general tertus, ily opm-t*
ion in relatiou to it, without entering itnto
the reasons on which i: is grounded.
There appears, then. to tmle, to he great
and decisive objections to the ineasure -
The right to adopt it, may in the first
place, he fairly questiowntd. We hold tihe
public domain as a common property or
fund. helotun-i'ng to the States of the Union,
in their confederated, and not in their in
dividial character. They were arquiredi
either by purchase, out of common funds
belonging to tie Union, or by cession from
ine States to the Union, to be held as a
fund in common; and I atm at a loss to
COUceive what right we have to make that
which belongs to the whole Union as a
commnt taun finund, the separate fIud of each
State. It seems to tine that it cannot be
done without a tmanilest breach of trust,
and a violation of ine Conistitution. This
is ino new opinion, formed for the occasioi.
1n was, on the contrary, formed when its
auhor first introduced tihe measure, and
when ie and myselfihought alike as to the
necessity of relieving the Treasury of its
surplus, in order to avoid the dificnlties
and inie dangers which have since followed.
Believing then. that it would be elTetual
flr thut purpose, and more easily adopted
ltan any other, I examined it with an in
clitation to embrace it as a temporary
ineasure of reiief agaitnst a pressi;; evil
hint it wais inmrpoiible for nine to bring my
iniad to assent to tine right of aioptintg it.
But snppotse ihis dillienby surnoiunted;
there are others, which I regard as inur
mountable. - Among then. the fiscal oh)
jecious are very formidable. The revenne
Cromn he lands cannot he spared at present,
and if distrihuted. as proposed by tine mea
sure, would necessarik throw tihe whole
expeinses of tinh. Government ont a sinuzle
mource-the tieuiis on imporra-and which
must Ie followed iv their increase. Tis
would neither be fair, nor equal; and to
which I, representinig in part, a portion of
thet Union, ton which ilhe increased hurden
woitd mainily rall. cannliot eive mily assent.
Bnt as formindi able as is tii, there are
others lfar miore so. It wvouid not meet. or
avert the approaching danger. It would
still leave tihe puttblie lnds in the new
States, under the oporntiont of the present
systen. ani the -uiject oif violent conflict
between thean niltd the old States, with all
the calamitous consequences to which I
heave advertod. Ioead of prevetiing the
d.anger, in would, in ict, iasten and ao
gravate it. It may be laid down nas a
ima!Xim, that no neasure can avert it. which
is not adopted with the apnprobation and
consent of the ew States; fil tleu simple
reasnin, that ilney tnust soon become the
predominant power; when that which was
established against their consent,would be
certain!v overthrown. Such would bte
the case with the measure under consider
aion. If adopted, it musttt not only I C
winhout tine eonsent oif those States, but
with their str'enuous oipposition. of which
we have had the most coiclusive evidence
on the Iresent occion. When moved
by its anihor, as an ainendmettt to this
hill, if was violently oppowed at ine thres
hold from that quarter. and ived 'out a
inge vote from the new Sna:ts. It is not
;Nc aly )to inquire whether this opposi
tion on their part is reasonable, or not;
whether it is the result ofmere prejudice,
or of deliberate conviction that it is hostile
to their interests. The fact itself, th't
there is an alnot universal and deiermin
ed resistance to the measure Ott their pr,
right or wrong, is, of itself, sufficient proof
that it cannot he relied otn ti avert tine
threatening danger. On the contrary, its
necessary efieet must be ito accelerae and
aggravate i . Its adoiptiotn wonuld, an once,
bring i he old aind new States itnto viol-nt
cnfilict, in wh~ich tine fonrmer wvould be
arrayed, aintost to a man, in determmied
effbrt to overthtrow the arr'anngemrentt. or
somte mtor'e hostile mieasure. Add to thnis
that the Presidnticail contest wvouldt ntot
fail to run into tihe conntr'oversy, and titus
redloublle tine excitemtnent anid animosity,
with all tine fatal consequennces whnich I
hanve show n must follow i'roma blending the
Assuming, then, that the schenmeis both
objectionable and ineflicient, the~ question
again occurs, what ought to be donte? My
mtind~ is mnade ntp, after the nost 'seuioun
and deliher'ate reflection, that there is, and
can be, ut none reinnedy; to cede-no; titan
is nnot tine proper, the ronstinutiontal word
-o dispose of thne public lantdst no the
States within thte limits of which they re
spectively be, on snich termis andn unnder
such conditions as shall, at the samre time.
be just aind liberal to tine nnew States anti
safe to the old. We most, in a wotrd part
with the~ ownership and administration of
the lands lying within thne States, leaving
those i n he Territories. and beyotnd, inn
der the operation oft the pnreseint'systemt.
Tne evil lie~s in ownership and administra
tion, and wit/hout parting with ftem no per
manent or efectual remedy can bc atpplied.
But whnat shall be' she terms--what. por
tion of the pnroceeds oft the sale of ihnose
mails shall b~e left to the States, to- remlu
nierate tinem for tihe expense; trontble anti
responsibility of their admtninistrantion and
what portimon shall lbe paid over to the Gov
erinmnent annuoally. as a compensation f'or
the land? I am not prepared to answer
this quiesnion. its decision ntust depend ott
a careful and mitnute exanmination of all the
facts iurf circumsianes of'nlhe case. Bitt I
anm decidedly of tihe opinitn tat the por
tion to be left to tine new States, ought not
only no he amptle to cover the troulel, ex
penise. and respotnsihility of inanagement,
kn u vnry cnidrabnh eyaad.n 0 88 tOU
nite their interests with ours, in order tO.
give stability to the arrangement, andin
sure eare and fidelity in the managenieni.
Re0stiing my estiiate of the compellsition
on these pri eiiles,'l have supposed *that
the new Slates might pay over annually -
one half of the gross proceeds of sales to
the Government, and have an ample sum
Iefi Ior their compensation. But this is a
mere esimate, without suflicieut data. and
is, of course, liatile to be increased or di
minished after a careful calculation fuuud
ed on racts.
Vith these -uggestiqps as to the terms,
I next proceed to the conditions on which
the lands oueht to be disposed of. I pro
pose I snggret only ihe most prominent,
without piretending to a full enumeration.
It order to give stability to the arrange
inet, it he will indispensable that the
whole trans -ction should assume the form
of coipact; and for this purpose,- that
Coigress should pass an act containing
the teris and conditions of the transfer;
and that each of the new States should
pass one, on their part, to le irrevo.
cable, assenting to the same, before it is
made. Te act .of Coniress should, of
course, determinie .vhat part of the pro
cueds is to he paid annually to the Goveru
ment, and the time and manner of pay
ment; and alsoto provide ot keeping regu
lar books of acciunis, to be open to the
inspection or the Government, so that the
exact state of the account between it, and
the Stutes. ;ay, atall times; be ascertain
ed by the former.
The act ofCongressshould also contain
all the prospective provisions which may
become necessary in the future administra
tion of the lands under the arrangements;
and should then provide .i hat the land laws,
is imodilied by ie act, and as far as they
are al)llicaIle to the new state of things,.
sliall remain unlchianged, without the con
setit of Conigress. A provision of this
kind would lhe not less essential to the
States, than to the Government. Without
it, there coul. be no stahility nor uniformi
ty. Without it, the States would, in a
shorttimle, enter into a competition to turn
the current of immigration, each towards
itself, which would comtence by a reduc
tion of price. and end by a loss of the
lands. But with the provision proposed,
the system would retain its uniformity and,
become more stable than at present.
To enforce the faithiul execution of the
compact, the net should also contain a pro
vision that. in the event of the violation
of the conditions of cession, all grants
therearter made by the State should he
nill auud void. This "bId place the
compat iunder the protetion of the court
of the Union, and make it the interests of
the State, anti its citizens to observe it.6 In
thi, connueciion, the liberal allovance pro.
posed to be made to the States, i er to
unite their iimteresi with ours,wo ie im
portait. The revenue % hich t v would
derive from the f1und would be ~plied to
roads. canals. or other imiprov aents, that
would create a pOwerflul interest in favor
of the arrunaeenut. which Vfth the condi
lionus proposed, and their sgise of justice,
woulti ensure.l trust, on i~eir part, a faith
ful execution of the compact.
Such, us it appears tf me. should be
the leading contations; 't, doubtless, there
are lmly others whic ould be sugges
ted by a l'ull and care Xamination of
This Mr. Presidento eral out
line of the measure which I pose as a
remedy; and which brin the impor
tant question, would it a plish the ob
ject intended; that is,- it arrest the
growing conflict be lhe now and the
old States? V oul 6%vent the public
domain from hein verted into a fund
to imake Presid . ad to be squandered
away i -tile str .& And finally, would
it substaintially :,amore effectually than
any other mueasur *.ecure to the Uniotn,
the itenetit of th 'ic lands lying within
the new States. s'the conviction that
it is better calcul ' cure these im
portant~ reau .ny other n'deasure
ihntt can be ~, which has intduaced
me to present ,i consideration: aind it is,
on thbat issu lusively, I intend to rest
its fate. 4 :ask is a calm and impartial
inavestigatio 'confidently btelieving rt will
bear the aand I will willungly abide the
result. hout atteimpting to enter ott
such a estigatin nowr-- for which I
have not ~ essary ini.rmaion and, if
1 haad, it nlot suit thle occasion-I
propose to me remark-s- in support
That a mue ,asch as Ilhave sugges
ted, if it shou opted with,,the hear
ty consenlt o wv'States,-would arrest
thte grolwitg . between them anrd
theold an talie lands out of
tihe vortex of the tisi contest, must
be obviouas ott a F e cion. It would -
remnove the cause ict,-the only ef
tectual mtodeC of pr threatened
danger. TransfeY'i - the ad
mtinistratln oft iem, Oil j iberal
terms, t o tthe Stateq, mid close ounti
ces within their. limits, anid yo~una
once, place the States beyond.
ofihe itemion of the Governmen.
thereby leave both the new & old, as far a
the lard question is concerned, free fron~
tall improper isias in the election of theCliief
Magistrate. The only point of confis7
that could possibly remaiti -between them
in reference to the lands, would be as to
the conditions (If the cession; but it may
Fbeeasily sho. n, that if the terna shouh&
be liberii and satisfactory, in the first in-.
stance, to ithe new States, as I have pro
ptosed, that they would -neither have. the.
disposition nor. the interest to disutihe
comtpac~t;'or if they souhi, thle og- I
losing the landa la consccouenceoh