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",We will cling to the pillars of the temple of our liberties,
PIERRE F. LABORDE, Editor. and if it must fall we will perish amidst the ruins.'' W. F. Publsher.
VOLUME V- l V0rtt UQU8e, 8. U- FebSru 2S, 188.
OF THE FOURTH VOLUME OF THU
PI-IMaC W, LAUOeDU, adiser.
In ntering upon the duties of a public
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On a strict construction of the Federal
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and the very existence of the Union. To
promote thisgreatobjecthe will labor faith
fully, and with zeal untiring. He is op
posed to a United States Bank, believing
it to be unconstitutional. inexpedient, dan
rous, and peculiarly oppressive to the
He is in favor of the Independent Con
stitational, Treasury scheme. He believes
it to be the safest, the cheapest. and the
most simple plan for collecting and dis
bursing the public revenue,.rhich has yet
His paper shall not be a mere political
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literature shall meet at his hands, a due
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From the New York Herald.
Ma. BENVLTT's LETTEws--Letter No. I.
WASHINoTON. Jan. 15.
I went to-day. at an early hour, to pro
cure a seat in the gallery of the Senate, for
the purpose of hearing Mr. Calhoun deliv
er his opinions on the Land Question.
The first row was soon filled with ladies
and on no former occasion, have I seen
so many pretty articles in the markets of
love and matrimony. Sidce I was in the
habit or visiting Washington, these fair
visitors have increased amnaimgly and im
proved as much. They come now as thick
as they go to Saratoaa in Summer. It
is rather a pleasant place to lounge a few
Mr. Calhoun made a short speech, but
very much to the purpose. He gave a
picture of the progress of this country for
the next twenty years, which formed the
basis of his views on the land question. In
less than that period, the new States would
control the legislation in Congress. Was
it not better, then, to meet the question at
once, sell out all the public lands to the
West, and close a question that would for
ever agitate Congress? He would vote a
gainst the graduation bill of Mr. Benton,
because he would go further, and "dis
pose" of the whole public domain, at fair
prices, to the various States in which they
Mr. Calhoun's views were concise,clear,
and calculated to win the new States to
I like Mr. Calhoun's mode of speaking.
It is founded on the same principles which
regulate the manufacture of good editorial
articles-a perfect unison between analy
sis and condensation.
I must say I have not thought much
of Mr. Clay's views or reasonings against
the reduction of the price of public lands.
One of the prime causes in the late revul
sion was the operation of the present land
system. As now organized, we will have
these disturbances renewed during every
period of high speculation. Yet Mr. Clay
is in favor of retaining this system. Mr.
Benton's system is only a modification of
the same plan-and would produce the
same results. Then again, Mr. Clay's ar
gument that a reduction of the price of
public land, would be unjust to the Atlan
tic States, is a poposition still more ridicu
lous. The cheaper the public lands are,
the sooner the West will be settled. The
Atlantic States can, through their commer
cial relations, make more by facilitating the
rapid growth of the west, than if they were
to keep the lands at high prices for a cen
tury. The land system is only a modifi.
cation of the best modern system of coloni.
nization-but Mr. Clay's views are nar
row, short sighted, and entirely destitute
of a grasp of the subject. Mr. Calhoun's
are decidedly the most philosophical and
statesman like of any of their plans.
LETTER NO. XII.
WAsHINoToN, Jan. 16.
I have just heard the tilt between Clay
and Calhoun on the question of the pub
lic lands-the one the greatest intellectual
loafer, and the othtr the most theoretical
geaneraliser of tbis age or country. What
a little portion of wisdom is necessary for
government! In the morning, it was an
nounced that Mr. Clay was to speak in re
ply to Mr. Calhoun. Knowing that all
the fair and beautiful visitors in Washing
ton would be in the gallery of the Senate,
thitherward did I wend my way, very
calmly and very coolly like a young poli
tician trundling cabbages to market. The
first tier of the gallery was full of ladies;
and I must say that I never saw, in any
collection, so large a proportion of real
beauty, bright eyes, grace and every ele
ment that produced the fall of man, and
the loss of paradise. I took my position
directly opposite the chair, and had a fine
view of the States on each side of the
The Loafers' gallery is in the neighbor
hood of Col. Johnson. It was soon full al
Precisely at twelve o'clock, the clergy
man offered up his benediction, praying
piously for wisdom from on high to enlight
etn the setnatorial body. Unfortunate
ly. however, the results heretofore have
shewed that his prayers are seldom or
never attended to-and still less are those
or the chaplain of the House. I could
not help admiring the behavior of the la
dies and loafers, each in theirown gallery.
These pretty w..men beaded reverently
their lovely necks, and stooped down witb
the grace of so many angels. The gal
lants, attachees, and jgentlemen behind
them, looked up as unteeling as so many
oysters at low water. Not so with the
loafers in their gallery. There they stood
heads uncovered, and reverently lookirig
to the ground-a perfect pattern of propri
ety and decency.
This by the way. After the usual busi
ness of the morning-, Mr. Clay got up and
made his reply. It was a very moderate
effort, anid by no means increased, in my
opinion, the intellectual reputation of Mr.
Clay. It was what I call the speech of
an intellectual loafer, without order, ar
rangement, analysis, or generalization.
He characterises .the plan to reduce the
price of public lands as "waste"-'des
truction," &c. This is an entire tmisap
plication of language. The ceeper the
lands are put up for sale, the more rapidly
will the population, wealth, and happiness
of the country increase.
Mr. Clay has great readiness. some wit,
and a tolerable imagination, hut in the ele
ments of real intellect, analysis, anidgener
nizaion~he is far infecrior to Mr. Cnananu.
There is a classic severity in the thought
and style of Calhoun,that is perfectly fresh
and original. When I formerly attended
Congress before 1832, neither Clay, nor
Ualhoun.were in the position they now oc
ccupy towards each other. During my
visit here, I shall make it my business to
attend their efforts on every occasion, & to
satisfy myself of their talents and capabili
ties without partiality, for I belong to no
party but that of intellect, independence,
philosophy,woman, and I may add, the al
mighty'-dollar. Neither of these eminent
men did I ever speak to-neither of these
will I ever be introduced to, till I have
made up my opinion of their relative ner
its and talents. The miserable trash,
praise and nonsense, which have been
published of them. I cast aside as fit only
for school boys. The little tilt to day will
proiably 9e represented in two opposite
lights by the respective partisans of each.
To nie it was evident that Calhoun had
the advantage of intellect, argument, and
statesmanship-Clay the superiority in
wit, voice, and isolated points. Mr. Cal
houn's mind indicated more of that talent
which makes the statesman-Mr. Clay's
that which constitutes the popular oratoi
or stump speaker. Mr. Clay is a Cicero
-Mr. Calhoun a Julius Cesar.
At the close. Mr. Calhoun took the op
portunity to declare, eolemnly,tbat he was
no "aspirant for the Presidency." The
delicate irony of this remark seemed to
produce little effect on his great rival.
But enough of Clay and Calhoun for the
present. As these two men promise to
be future rivals in this country, I shall take
especial pains to watch their movements,
and come to some independent and accu
rate conclusion of their respective merits,
before I return.
MARIA HELENA AMERICA VESPUCCI.
Praying a donation of public land, and
that she may be admitted to the rights of
Ordered, That so much thereof as re
lates to public land be referred to the
committee on Puble" Lands; that so much.
as relates to the rights of Citizenship be
referred to the Committee on the Judiciary;
and that it be printed in the original French
with an English translation.
To the Congress of the U. States:
Maria Helena America Vespucci, a des
cendant of the celebrated Americus Ves
pucius, of an illustrious family of Florence,
is now in America-In the United States.
She has been obliged to quit her country
on account of her political opinions. She
has separated herself from her family, in
order to avoid drawing upon them the dis
pleasure of their Government. She is now
alone, without country, without family,
and without protection!
America Vespu cci quitted Florence on
the 4th of October, 1834, and has been
travelling from country to country withotit
a resting place, (appui,) without security,
sustained only by the internal conviction,
of having performed a duty to her country.
After many difficulties she arrived in
France. There she, found an asylum.
The good Queen of the French restored
her to courage by granting her protecti.m,
[even) so far as to permit her to travel
under the auspices of the French flag.
But this generosity does not give her a
country; this protection does not bestow
upon her the title of a citizen.
The detailsof the life of a young female,
out of her country, would be too long to
relate. Every person of delicate feelings
may imagine her sad and painful situation.
Shte is now in this quarter of the globe,
wnich has been baptised by her ancestnr;
by him who has bequeathed to it his im
perishable name, and who may be said to
have at the same time, blessed it from hea
ven; for this nation, thoab young, is al
ready one of the first in the world. It is
prosperous and richt it is his name that it
bears. And if, moreover, Americus Ves
pucius be regarded only qa one of those
old father mariners (sieuz peres marina.)
whom civilized nations take so much pleas
ure in rewarding for their former services
in the persons of their descendants, to whom
should America Vespttcci apply if not to
A merica, which now possesses superiority,
and strength on the ocean ?
America Vespucci wilt make no demand
on the American Government. Those
who make demands,are pasumed to have
rights to be established or justice to claim.
She has neither. She knows that the A
mericans have been magnanimous towards
all, who have done a noble act for their
country; and that they have moreover.
granted protection and even assistance to
etmigrants from other nations. There is
none but a Vespucius who has given his
name to a quarter of the globe. Will the
Americans 'do nothing for the descendant
of A mericus? She desires a country, she
seeks a land that will receive her as a friend.
She has a name; that is all her inheritance,
all her fortune. Mlay this hospitable na
tion ghtnt her a corner of that land in
which it is so rich, and may the title of
citizen be bestowed apon the poor emi
If Amerieus Vespucius were now alive,
the Americans would rush in crowdsto of.
fer hitn honors and rewarnds. In the 19th
century, will this civilized nation forget
that in the veins of his descendants flows
the same blood! America Veupucci col
lected all her little fortune to reach this
country; now she desires only to make
known-her position to the Copgress of this
giest nation, feeling confident that the A
mericans will never abanden be.. Ah
will not ask, having no other claim than
that of bearing the name of A merica, but
she wiU receive a gift from the nation by
which she hopes not to be regarded as a
stranger. That will not humiliate her.
Such an act of generosity will console her
feelings, honor &ir name.flatter her family,
and even her c atry. The gifts of a na
tion always ho4.those who receive them.
When the world shall know that the
American nation has done an act of gen
erosity in favor of the descendant of Ves
pucis,will not the approbation of all man
kind lie a glorious recompense? And true
gratitude will remain in the heart of
WAsarnq-rofi. Jan. 29, 1839.
AN INTERESTING WIDOW.
The following account was furnished
the Philadelphia U. S. Gazette, by a Wash
I noticed among the crowd of fashion
that Bitted through the Avenue, a widow
lady, whose history is so very singular,
and whose personal charms are so attrac
tive, that I linger with wonder over the
first, and with honest devotion and admi
ration over the last.
This lady is not on the other side of five
and thirty years, and yet she has lost four
husbands! and what is most extraordinary,
they all died by violence. The first hus
band was killed in rowing a regatta be
tween London Bridge aud Shoreditch.
He was aboard of the winning barge, the
Lady Stanhope, when a man in the losing
barge, the Duke of Suffolk, struck him
with the blade of an oar, in a moment of
irritation, and the poor fellow died a few
days afterwards. The wire and widow,
of course, went into weeds, and retired to
the rural scenes of Warwickshire; where
she resolved tospend the remainder of her
days in seciusion. It did so happen, how
ever, that a gallaut and fashionable Major,
attached to the 84th regiment of h Majes
ty's infantry, found his way to the young
widow's retreat in Warwickshire; and, al
though her grief was excessive, sincere and
unqualified, she could not for the soul of
her, resist his eloquence, when he threw
himself at her feet and descanted with all
the eloquence of a Tully, and in the min
gled cadences and sentences of a philoso
pher and platonic lover, of the delights
of a 'fourth estate," in the worldof beauty.
He talked of love and honor, and chivalry;
and swore that he lived but to adore her,
he was ready to meet the nonlest and most
gallant Knigirt that the world could afford.
at the tournament, and win the favor of
his lady love by trial at battle. The lady
listened, lingered and wept and rejoiced
over the passions of the lover; at last, cast
off her weeds, and abjured the Sylvan
scene.s of Warwickshire, gave her hand to
the gallant major, and set up an establish
ment in Moor-fields, Fishing Square.
A few months after her union with the
major, she accompanied him on an excur
sion to Belgium. While at Brussels, they
spent an evening in the Library of the
Orange palace, and the lady received, as
it was subsequently supposed, an uninten
tional iusult, at the hands of an Austrian
colonel. The mjor was impetuous; in a
paroxysm of madness he spat in the face
of the offender. The usual cards were forth
with exchanged, and the sequel was a duel
on the banks of the Seine. At the first
fire, the major fell mortally wounded, and
scarcely had time to commend his wife
to the protection of an English Admiral,
then at Brussels, before he surrendered
"--his honors to the world again'
His blessed partto heaven,andsleptin peace."
Again were weeds and seclusion resor
ted to, by the unfortunate lady; and, she
had resolved at.due time, to enter a mon
astic instit tion, and devote herself to the
rosary and the cross; but, ere she could
carry her rash. design into execution, a
Scotch merchant, a native of(Glasgow, a
man distinguished for his wealth and com
mercial~enterprize, who accidentally hap
pened to be in Brussels, sought, wooed and
won her already twice widowed heart.
They were married at the Hotel de Ville,
and soon after migrated to London. The
husband, not more than a month after his
marriage, was called by imperious business
to Scotland, and leaving his wife at her es
tablishment in Moor fields, sailed in the
ill fated Rothsay Castle steamer for the
north. With that unfortunate vessel, he
went 'down to the bottom" of the
Deep, deep sea.
and from that disastrous day, no fond hope
of the ultimate restoration of his lifeless
form has greeted the anxious ear of love
and affection. Bat the widow was not des
tined to tremain in her "third estate" of
weeds and anguish. Sir Charles ""*
about the period of the widow's third wid
owhood, returned to London, flushed with
success, and possessed of wealth abundant,
from Coromandel. He sought and found
the widow of- oor-fields, as she was then
familiarly designated, and i t is scarcely ne
cessary to say; that that dashing and gal
lant soldier was soon the "commissioned
lord and master" of that young widow's
heart.: Soon after tho marriage, of Sir
Charles with' the widow-it might have
been eight or ten months afterwards-he
was ordered on'a diplomatic mission to the
German States, and whilst making ajour
ney from Lubec to Frankfort,on the Mayne,
in a stage coach, the vehicle was assailed
by robbers, and Sir Cha~es and all the in
mates, were brutally murdered. The
wife, now once moresa widow, had remain
ed in England, and was left to weep over
the death of a fourth husband, who, like
his predecesbors, had fallen by the hands
I met this lady in Florence and Rome
oomo few iesarn ma. 8ha was eben jnti
mate at the villa of the Marquis of Has
tings, and it was there I first learned her
extraordinary story. Yesterday I met her
in the Pennsylvania Avenue, and to my
surprise, she recognised me. She remains
in the city but a few days however, and is
now on her way from the city of Mexico
to London. She is beautiful, and though
her life has been chequered by melancholy
and disastrous incidents, she appears to
have lost none of her pristine buoyancy of
spirits: nor have the united attacks of time
and sorrow made any impression on the
elegance of her form or the brilliancy of her
In reply to a good natured remark that
I made in relation to the sweets of matri
mony, she said. "I know little of the rap
tures on which you dilate. There was a
time when I could appreciate them; but I
suppose that if I listen to your sex, I shall
be obliged to take another husband. But,
oh me! I dread the idea, for it appears that
a fatality atuends me, All die whom I
love and the man who takes me next must
possess more courage than the Austrian
troops did at Jena!" I do not doubt that
the widow, ere the lapse of a couple of
months, will have her fifth l4usband!
CURE FoR A LtVER COMPLANT.-A
gentleman of Baltimore, who had for a
long time imagined himself dying with the
liver complaint, was advised by his physi
cian. Dr. Crawford, to make an excursion
into. the state of Ohio. After an absence
of some months, he returned home in good
health; but, upon receiving information of
the death of his twin brother, who had ac
tually *died of a diseased liver. he immedi
ately staggered, and falling down, cried
out he was a dead man; and had, as he al
ways expected, died of the complaint of
his liver. Dr. Crawford being sent .for,
immediately attended; and on being inform
ed of the notion which had seized the hyp
ochondriac, he took hold of his arm, and
feeling his pulse, exclaimed, 0 yes, the
gentleman is certaintly dead, and it is no
more than probable that his liver was the
death of hint. However, to ascertain the
cause, I will cut him open before putrefec
tion takes place. He called for a carving
knife, and whetting it as a butcher would
do to open a ead calf, he went to him
and began to open his waistcoat. The
dead man became so horribly frightened,.
that he leaped up with the utmosi agility
and crying out murder! murder! murder!
ran oil with a speed that would have defied
a whole college of physicians to have
caught him; after running a considerable
distance, until he was almost exhausted, he
halted; and not fiuding the doctor at his
heels, son became composed, and frout
that period was never known to complain
of his liver, although he lived upwards of
twenty years after it.
So wE TsINK.-An exchange paper
commenting on the close of the year, and
of the mental and physical toil which the
editor has undergone in order to serve his
readers with an instructive and useful sheet,
and of the scauty recompense of that toil,
concludes in the following sensible and
manly terms: "That man who has a fam
ily and does not take a newspaper, neg
lects a most important and responsible du
ty. In our humble estimation. he does not
properly esteem the interests of his child
From the very first establishment of
newspapers in this country, this undenia
ble fact has been rung in the ears of parents;
yet how feebly it has been responded to!
Many, it is true, have availed themselvesof
the intellectual light shed around the fami
ly circle by well conducted newspapers;
bit the number, comparatively, is insig
nificant. Point us out the matn who does
not take a newspaper, or borrow his
neighbor's and we point to a man who is,
in regard to pleasing and scientific knowl
edge, a hundred years behind the age in
which he lives, and whose children will
grow up destitute of moral culture and in
tellectual grace,-N. O. Picayune.
WELLERSMs.-"You're a Bharp 'utt" as
the pig said to the butcher's knife, vben it
'-Always take time by the forelock," as
the pickpocket said, vhen he drew out the
gentlemaa's watch by the chain.,
'Frequent settlements make long friends,'
as the squatter said to the alligator, when he
found him snugly burrowed und* his log
"Necessity is the mother of invention,"
as the cook said, vhen she used her night
cap for a pudding bag.
"You are always welcome to my table,"
as the farmer said to the turkey, vhen he
'cut off his head.
-'Rents are entormous," as the loafer said,
vhen he looked-at his breeches.
"Here's into you,',. as Jonah said when
he was making a submarine excursion into
the whale's belly.
A Bust FELLow,-There is an editor
down east who is not only hisown compoui
tor, pressman and devil, but keeps a tav
ern, is village post master, captata in the
militia, mends his own boots and shoes,
makes patent Brandreth pills, peddles es
sences and tin ware two days in a week,
and al" ays toads sermons on the Sabibath,
when the minister happens to be missing
In addition to all this he has a wilh and
"Do you snore, Abel Adams!" "No
Seth Jeff'erson, 1 do never snore." "Hloiv
do you know A bel?" "Because the other
day 1 laid awake tile whole gigsht-o 0f
noe to 5ee," .
HEALTH AND LoNoEVITY.-The chara
acter of the early riser, says Macnish, is
the very reverse of that of the sloven. His
countenance is ruddy, his eye joyous and
sereue,and his frame full of Yigor and act(,
vity. His mind is also clear and uncload.
ed, and free from that oppressive languor.
which weighs like a night-mare upon-tha
spirit of the sluggard.
The same writer in another place.oA
serves-The most striking instances o
the good efTec:s of early rising are to he
found in our peasantry and farmers,whosa
bale complexions, good appetites, and vig.
orous persons, are evidences of the benekt
derived from this custom, conjoined with
labor; while the wan, ur healthy counte
nance ani enfeebled frames of those who
keep late hours, lie long in bed, and pass
the night in dissipation, study or pleasuro,
are equally conclusive proofs of the peron
cious consequences resulting from an oppo.
One principal advantage to health re&
suiting from early rising is, that it drives
us to bed early. He Who rises at four,
will not long sit up till eleven, or twelve,
or one Nature may be wronged for a./ -
time, but her demands are so imperious,
that few will persevere in resisting her..
even when fashion is with them. So long
as people are permitted-or rather permit
themselves-to lie in bed till six, seven, or
eight o'clock in the forenoon, so long will
they be unable to resist the tempta
tions to sit up to an hour which is unfavora.
ble to health. But when they have sue
ceeded in rising at four, uniformly, they
will be apt soon to learn to retire at nine
or ten. Hence arises the greatest shire
of gain which is derived from early rising.
EFFICACY OF PRATEa.-The prayer of
a righteous man availeth much. We havo
indeed, no reason for hoping that our tardy
devotions can open the gates ofheaves for
a sinner whose day of grace is faded into
darkness, and who has gone to his account
in unbelief and final impenitence; but of
those who yet live, it is hard to decide who
have absolutely "sinned unto death,"-an4
we are still less able to determine how of
ten the devotions of the faithful have oh.
tained for those, whose case was most to
be despaired of, a fresh and efficacious vi
sit from the Spirit of Grace and Comfort,
and a little farther respite to recover their
strength, before they departed hence and
were no more seen. It was a memorablo
saying of Ambrose'to the mother of An
gustin, when she lamented to him the in.
disposition which her son at that time dise
played to all religious feeling, I have nevet
known the son allowed to perish,for whose
soul so many prayers and holy tears inter.
ceded." Nor when we hear, in like manu
ner, complaints from parents and teachers,
of example and entreaty thrown awa yo47
the levity and stubborness of those wh90
hearts they have desired to softea and
ameliorate, can ive avoid sometimes sis.
rcling that their pains might haie had a
happier effect, if His help had been duly
sought for who only giveth tire increase
either to the earthly, or'spjiudl husband.
the24th uIt. A law passed authorizing the
loan of 81,000,000, in the United States,
besides the $5,000,000 loan authorized to
The seat of Government is 7 ged from
Houston to some point on the .orado Ri
ver, and will be located near L ''p.
The next Congress will meet a e new
seat of Government. Maj. - gbam
has been re-appointed Te rr, and J.
W Simmons, Esq. is ated Comp
troller. Both appoint conrmed.
A ry~ pretty dun.-.he editor of .na
Indiana paper makes w ew all a mo-.
ving appeal to the purses atrons,
and one that ought to be e spirit
of the question once a bnevolent
gentleman, who said e sincere
ly for the misfortunes a ibore
"Have you felt in yo ockets "was the
query. The edit*o ise case we
are alluding. sav' . is in very particular'
need of a fewJ hdred dollars, juqt toatap
the stomachk me creditors of his. This
is certainly ~jgument thatshould be at
Maiden Namu. tall, swarthy, mid
dIe aaed man,.wi ushy black beard,
full a week's gro is way up to
the bar, and tapping o -r---oa
the shoulder, said to hi - your
honour. I'd he getting a w 'ins; Lar
ry Donaghue for a trifle ho' bo -o."
"What might your niie b" rep i
willing counsellor. "Flannagan, 'yr
honor;" ,answered the eager clien
"What is your other name?" con~Ie
coansellor. "Och, my maid ~se 1
you want;-sure thin toe ma'd~ same is
Patrick at your honor's narvice.".
Negro Wit.-"Jake,'' said a gentleman
lo an old negro, who was rather lazily
engaged in clearing -the sinow fromn his
premises. Jake, my old boy, yeo don't get
aloog with this job very fast." *-Wy ma,
sn." replied Jake,.- scratching his wool,
'pretty considsrabifTor air old min,I guess.
and I conceit myself, dat I can clear msore.'
snow away in dese 'ere short days, den do -
spryest nigga. in de city could do in do lob'
gest summer day as eher was."
Nver give it uip, Girl.-Mr. John Ay.
rentein lately led to dhe altar in Philadel
phia, Miss Rhoda Graysont after a contin-.
ued courtship of thirty-four years- -This
shows what ndwefintihif wUnetwat