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"We will cling to the pillars of the temple of our liberties,
PIERRE F. LABORDE, Editor. W. adIimsalwwl isaithru."
and if it must fall we wvill perish amidst the ruins."v
-VOL " Xv U01WROVI~, S.U. 19,7CIII, Ia1
OF THE FOURTH VOLUME o THE
PIRRE F. LABOREJ, E4ir.
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EXTRACTS FROM THE
Remarks of Mr. Buchanan, of Pennsyl
vania, on the motion of Mr. Benton for
leave to introduce a hill to repeal the
duty on salt and the fishing bounties.
IN SENATE, Jan. 29, 1839.
In the session of 1841-2, at the latest
it will become the duty of Congress, seri
ously to consider the subject of duties on
imports generally, and adjust it in that
spirit of compromise which gave birth to
the Constitution itself. I hope and be
lieve that Southern gentlemen will at that
period, whilst they have a right to insist
that the revenue shall be reduced to the
standard of an economical administration
of the Government, act in a liberal spirit
towards the manufactures of the country.
A duty granted merely and solely for pro
tection, we cannot ask under the compro
mise: but we shall expect that whilst im
posing duties for revenue, such incidental
discrimination may be made in favour of
our most importaut and necessary ,nauu
fictures, as will assist American industry
in struggling against foreign competition.
Thtis principle of incidental protection
within these limits, is as old as the Gov
ernment; and I have never understood
that it was objected to by gentlemen of
the South. If I should live until that day
and be then a member of the Senate, I
shall then enter upon the task of adjusting
the tariff with every disposition, not exclu
sively to regard the interest of any partic
ular portion of ttie Union, but to act with
liberality, and do justice to all the great
interests involvel. I know that at that
time, many conziderations may be urged
in favour of a repeal of all the duties on
foreign salt. Such a measure would ope
rate beneficially upon the great agricultu.
ral interest which I have ever regarded
with peculiar favour. But, at the pres
ent moment, this duty rests upon the
compromise, act, and representing as I do,
a considerable salt manufacturing interest,
i am not disposed now to disturb it. At
the time of the general revision of the
tarilf, the duty on this article can be con
sidered in connexion with all the rett;
and then a wiser and better disposition
may be made of it, than if we were now
ence to its bearings upon the whole subject.
Mr. B. said that the question of courte
sy being as it was out of view, he did
not under_tand how Senators, who had of
Ifered able arguments against this bill, could
notwithstanding, conclude by declaring
that they would vote for its introduction.
Mr. Benton having made some remarks
which will lie given hereafter
Mr. B. said, in reply to Mr. Beaton) as
to the compronise act I shall say but lit
tie. It- reputed authors are here present
and are very able to lefend themselves.
As to myself, I was in a far distant land
at the time of its passaze, and shall never
forget my own feelings when I first re
ceived information of this event.
The enemies of liberty in every coun
try of the old world were rejoicing in the
prospect that this glorious Union-the
last hope of Republican institutions-was
about to expire. The advocates of des
potism were every where gloating over the
prospect. It was impossible for any per
son placed in mty situation not to see, and
to feel. and to know, that this was the
cherished hope of the enemies -of libet al
institutions throughout Europe. It was a
subject of conversation in every society
which I frequented in the great Northern
Capital, where I thea resided. Although
I did not myself personally indulge in
gloomy forebodings, yet I hailed the news
of the passage of the compromise act as
the harbinger of peace and trantquility at
home, with more jos than I have even
felt upon the anntouncemetnt of any po
litical event. It was then sufficient for
me to know that the question whiph hail
threatened the peace of my native land
was settled; and that, too, by the passage
of a bill which had received the approba
tion of General Jackson. H'is sancetion ol
it, was, to me at. least, tho strongesa evi.
dence that it was not --a mere humbug.'
I felt the fullest confidence that his signa
ture could never baye been affixed to any
bill which would sacrilce, or seriously in
juro, any of the urest interests of the coun
Whether, under all the circutmstances,
I should have voted for this bill or not
bad I then been a Senator, or whether it
settled our dillicultiies wisely or unwisely
is not now the question. Ba this as it
may, it has stood the test of time durins
a period of six years, and it has not yea
been changed by Congress in a single par
ticular. The people of the St ate which 1
in part representc, have, at least acquiesc
ed in its provisions; and they are looking~
forward to the year 1b41 or '42 for a gen
eral settlement of the whole question.
Nowv, sir, what is moy positiotn? I ami
called upon to except from this comapro
aise a tingle aurticle' of donmestic mauntufac
ture, in which several counties of Pen
sylvania are deeply interested, Would I
not be faithless to my trust, if I should
agree that this article, protected as it now
is by the existing tariff, should he made
the solitary exception ; and that, too at a
moment when the manufacturers of it are
reposing with perfect security on the faith
of a law adhered to, as it has been by
Congress, ever since, its passage? It is
not sulliient for me to kno w that wve pos
sess the unqutestionable power to violate it.
The true question is, would it be wise: on
politic, or just, at the present advanced
stage of its progra... to disromard its pro
And, after all, what mighty matter is to
be effected by this bill? Under this very
compromise, the duty on salt has already
been reduced to about six cents per bushel
After the last day of the present year, it
will sink still lower; and after. the last day
of June, 1842, it will b reduced to about
two cents per bushel. Within two or at
least three years arter the close of the pres- I
ent session, there must bp a general revis
sion of the tariff, and I would ask, what in
terest, in the mean time, can suffir, by
paying the stmall duty of six, and after
wards of four or two cents per hushel ont
the importation of foreign salt? Is this
a cause sufficient tojustify the mighty ef- I
forts whica have been made to repeal the .1
duty ? When I observe these efforts of ,
the Senator's great mind to accomplish I
an object so trifling ad inconsiderable, i
they forcibly remind me of the simile of the
English poet. They resembile
"Oceatn into tempest tost,
To waft a feather, or to drown at fly."
Let us wait for two or three years. and
then settle this little matter in conjune
tion with the great question which mnust
then arise. It is not an object which
could excuse. much less justify a depar
ture from the compromise.
IN SENAT E, Jan. 30. 1839.
Remarksof Mr. Calhoun or South Caro
lina, on Mr. Benton's motion for leave I
to introduce a bill for the repeal of the I
salt duty and the fishing bouniies.
Mr. Calhoun said he felt perfectly in
diff'erent as to the fate of this motion. It 4
was impossi'le for the proposed measure t
to pass at this time; and the only question i
was, whether it should be voted down at
this incipient stage or at some suljsequent
one, after it had assumed the form ofa bill. I
The only difference was this; if it was re
jected now, tik further consumption of t
the tine of tne Senate would be saved; but C
on the contrary, if leave was granted, I
two or three days more would be spent in
discussion, when it would be rejected by a I
large majority. There were at all limes
many who, front courtesy or other tmotives
would vote for leave to introduce, bit
who were at the same time opposed to I
the measure. He had at one time intend
ed to vote for leave himself, but as the Sen
ator from Maine. [Mr. Williams,] who I
-"I 216Pfa~ 4aa j*-dansemaltho naa
had indhated his ittention to vote "gainst
the motion, he would follow him as his t
leader on this occasion.
He had asserted that the measure could
not succeed. on the ground that the objec
tions to acting on the subject. at this time 4
were overwhelming. If there was no I
other, it was all sufficient that the duty on
salt, under the compromise act, was going 1
off a-, fast as the wants of the Treasury
and the interests eaf cotnnerce would per- i
mit. It is already reduced to about six ot
seven cents the bushel. and would ie re
duced the next three years to about two a
cents. In the mean time the Treasury i
will need all its means to tmset its engage
ments, atd the interests of commrnoce
would be injuriously affected to make the 1
reduction tnore rapid than it will be. All '
changes in the rates of duties ought to re a
male gradually, even when it teuted to i
lighten the burden.
Mr. C. said that he was far from think- I
ing that the time already spent in the dis- i
cussion of this muotion was los:. It had i
made developments important to be known I
by those whom he represented, some of 4
which were highly.favourable to their fu- I
ture prosperity and quiet. and others of i
an opposite character. Of the former, he i
heard with pleasure the very sensible and I
manly remarksof the Senator frotm Maine i
nearest to him, [Mr. Williams] He iook
the true ground. He asked no protection
for the great interest of navigation, in
which his constituents are so vitally inter
ested;and,he woutld add the whole Union.
All be wanted was fair play. Take off
your protection on irotn. on hemp. on salti
beef and lxtark, and oather oppressive duties, l
which bear down oujr navigation and you i
may take off your bounaties, was his tman
ly language to-the mover of this resolution
and he clearly showed chat the great in
terest which he defettded would be the
gaia'r by the change. Mr. C. said I will
uphold him in a provision so perfectly
reasonable and just. and for one, will not
assent that the bounties shall he repealed,
whatever nmy optinion maay be in thealt.
stract as to their propriety, till the burthen;
is removed. The same princip~le by which
he was impjelled to resist oppression, im
pelled him, with equal force, to uphold
what is just and reasonable; and heae we
have a striking illustration of the great im
propriety of acting on the tariff'hy separate
and detached items, as is proposed on this
occasion. It is almost the inevitable con
sequence of such a course, that, while otnea
interest is benefitted, another is oppressed.
On this account, he was adverse to todch
ing the subject till the whole system of du
ties was barought regularly under review,
as it must be at the .next, or the succeedttng
session, undet- the compromise act. In the
mteana time, he considered the great navi
gating iaterest oaf the country, which was
soa essential to the prosperity and defence of
all others, among the most depressed at
presetnt. He was startled in looking over
an able document frona the chairtman of
the Cotmmiittee of Ways and Means, of
the other House, just laid on our table, at
the rapid encroachment of foreign naviga
tion on our own. In 1826 the dlometic
stood to the foreign tonnage -as 942,206 to
105,6.54: andl itn I837 (theo short space of
10 or 11 years) they stood as 1,299720 to
765,703. At this rate, tho foreisn will
soon exceed our own tonnage in outr own
ura This relaiv-falling af claimed I
mmediate and serious investigation and
be application of some ellicient remedy.
Without pretending to any particular
<nowledge of the subject, he did not doubt
hat one of the most powerful causes in
)ruducing this unfavorable result, was the
xpanded-no,that was not strong enough.
-the bloated state of our currency, which,
>y raising prices far beyond what they
ugbt to be, was weighing so heavily on
:he prostrate energy of the country, and
-specially on all those branches of indus
ry which, like navigation, had to compete
throad with nations that had a less expan
led and a sounder currency. This he be
ieved to be the main cause, and next to it,
te placed the oppressive protective duties,
ow fortunately going off under the com
>romise act, which so greatly enhanced
he price of shipbuilding, the rigging, and
upplying vessels, as well as the wages of
eamen. Against this oppressive load
ur foreign navigation had no compensa
ion. It had to mneet the comapetition of
other nations on the broad ocean, weighed
lown with the enormous duties on iron,
emp,cordage, and almost every otber
trticle that entered into the construction,
he rigging and supply of vessels, without
particle of prorection to lighten the
mrthen, just as oir great. staple interests,
ie conon, rice, and tobacco, had to meet
he competition of all the world in the
oreign markets with the burden, without
rotection, or the probability of protection.
Wnd for what was this oppressive load
aid on these, the great sources of national
pulence and prosperity? To prot'ect cer
min brances of industry, which were dig
ified ivith the name of home industry,
;ainst foreign competition-not on that
road ocean, int abroad in Ibreign mar
ets. but at home, and-at their own doors.
Ve who had to go abroad atnd contend with
11 the world, were weighed down with ac
ppressive hond;that other branche-, should
ave a monopoly at home! And yet there
re those, if we may judge from what we
ave heard in this liscossion, who not only
enounce the act by which this load is go
g I, but are ready to renew the protec
ive system with all it% injustice and op
But against the voice of.uch.he (Mr. C.)
vas happy to hear that of the Senator from
ennsylvania farthest from him, [Mr. Buch
he oogpromise. That Senator had done
0o m'ord than justice to that act. It ter
ninated honoraoly and fairly, without the
acrifice of any interert, one of the most
langerous controversies that ever disturb
d the Union, or endangered its existence
-not the danger of a dissolution of the
Jnion, as we learnarom the Senator, was
miticipated abroad. The danger lay in a
lilferent direction. Dis'olution is not the
mnly mode by which our Uinion may he de
troyed. It is a Federil Union. a Union
f sovereign States, and can he as electu
illy and much more easily destroyed by
oitsolidation, than by disolutiou. He
who knows the history of ouir race, and
he working of the human breast. bent un -
lerstands the great and almost insuperable
lifficulties in the way ofdissolution. Thero
a scarcely an instance oit record of any
wople, speaking the same language, and
taving the same Government and laws,
hat have ever dissolved their political con
ecion through internal causes or struggle.
Ie excluded of course, colonies throwing
i the control of the parent country, or a
oartition of kingloms by monarchs. The
onstant strggle is to enlarge and not to
livide; and there neither is. nor ever has
een the leastdanger that our Union would
:erminate in digsolution. Bit the danger
n the opposite side is imminent, as was
oreseen from the first by our wisest states
nen and most ar.ent patriots: and never
vas thtdanger more menacing than when
he gallant and patriotic State he repre
seaed gave the blowv that led tom the comn
>romise. That~ blow was not to dlestroy
tut to save the Union. not for disuniion
tut against contsolideaon: and most ell'ect
i! did it prove. It tirought thte protective
ystem to the groundi, never to rise again;
at system which has brought such innu-.
nerable disasters ont the country, and which
iad vellnigh terminated our Union in
onsoidatio, and, with it, the establish
neitt of despotie power. At its very basis
ly the asum ption of a power, which, if
r had been established would have made
this a Governtent of unlimited power, and
f corse. a consolidated Government It
issumed that duties and taxes might he
aid not ontly for revenue. for which pur
one only the power was granted, but that
hey miit,bt be perverted to the purpose of
moraging one pursuit and discouraging
oother; that is, that the revenue power
night he converted into a penal and rewar
ig power-the power of rewarding one
'lass of industry and-putnishing another.
Who does not see that the assumption of
ich a power, on the part of this Govern
net, would Live it unlimited control over
ill the pttrsuits and business of life, and
he entire industry and prosperity of the
Acting on this false and dangerous as
mmrption, the protective system had been
troduced, and ptushed to the most ex
ravagant extent under the act of 1828
Jnder its baleful influence, the great sta
ple interests of the South, and that of the
invigation of the East were paralyzed,
while certain others were made to flourish.
ro effect this, nniilions ona millions were
aken from the people and poured into the
,ublic Treasury; where it constitutedl a
rast ud for extravagance anti unconstito
:ional expenditures, corrupting the com
nunity, andI extending the power and pa
rnnm= of te finverwont bewond the
limits consistent with our free institutions.
The vast patronage, concentrated in the
hands of the Executive, had rendered that
department all powerful, and was thereby
leading the way to the consolidation, not
only ofthe whole power of the legislature in
this Government, but the whole power of
the Government in the department- It
was against sneb a system, producing such
consequences, that the blow was struck.
bravely and magaaninou'ly struck, that
led to the compromise act that this -mo
tion is intended todisturb. It was success
ful. It was directed at the root of the evil.
It ha, stopped the excessive flow into the
Treasury, and followed up by the deposite
act of 1836, it has etmptied it of its cor
rupting mass. He saw clearly that re
form, with an overflowing Treasury, was
impossible, especially when that overflow
consisted of bank notes. It was impossi
ble to arrest waste, or limit patronage. till
the means which sustai-ed theta, were ex
hausted. That great object is now effected ;
and retrenchment, economy and reform
must follow, or woe to those in power; and
when they gain the ascendancy. then will
the blow which was dealt against consoli
dation, and for the Union and our fr-e in
stitutions, have effected the great and pa
triotic purpose intended by those who di
rected it, and of whom I shall ever be
proud of having been one. The protective
system, which has'been the cause of all the
mischief, has fallen prostrate before it in
the dust. He who undertakes to revive its
putrirl eatcs, will perish in the attempt.
He (Mr. C.) was happy to hear the
Senator frotn Pennsyivani [Mr. Duchan
an] avow his intention to carry out the
compromise act to its full extent, and that
he was prepared. on a re-adjustment of
ittc duties under its provisions. to restrict
them to revenue simply. as is provided by
the act limiting the protection to manufac
turers, to such incidental protection, as was
consistent with revenue, but in no case ex
ceeding twenty percent, to which the high
est duties would be reduced in 1842. This
was going back to the original principle
which governed in the first imposition of
duties on imports and he was happy to
hear the avowal coming from the quarter
it did. and in which hejrtsted the Senator
titered t ie voice of the powerful State he
represented. There were but two prinei
ntalmon which their re-adjustment could
take piace, unless the Gov-mname an
le..-- .... ... ,, Itac to the
protective poileyidrrA fn nOt appr -
hend. The one was that sutggested by the
Senator; and the other, that of bringing
the 'whole average to one uniform low av
erage, ad valorem, without any discrimina
tion for, or aspinst any duty. It would be
too soon to discuss the relative merits of
the two at this time, and in faet,he had not
made up his mird. A review must soon
take place ; it cannot he postponed beyond
one or two years, when it will be the pro
-er time to examine their respective merits.
in the meno time, he was prepared tosay
that he would be ready to go into it, with
n liberal spirit and a disposition to do equial
and exact justice to all, and to adont that
which. after a full examination, snail ap
pear to be the best calculated to promote
the interest and harmony of the whole.
WAsHINGToN, Jan 27.
Ma. BENNET's LETTERs-Leuter No. 20.
To-day I went regularly to church. In
fact, since I have been in Washington, I
have been more a church-going personage
than it i< possible to be in ever-bustling
New .York. St. George's Church. the
fashionable place of worship here, is situa
ted in President's square, opposite the
White House. Here the venerable chief
himself, his secretaries and all the court
end generally meet to worship. The
President frequently walks to church
ut to-day having his daughter-in-law with
him, he rode. This is an E piscopal church,
and they observe the ritual of that sect.
Eleven i'clock is the hour for beginning
the service-bitt it is not custotnnrv to en
ter till half past the honr. and ev -n a little
beyond that. Tho clergymnen, in most of
the churches, commence business at this
hour; but, generally, they have few hear
ers till half throtugh.
During the service,! observed his excel
lency well. When the clergyman prayed
that Heaven umight enlighten the Congress
of these United.States,the President cotigh
ed considerg~y-probably differing in o
pinion with the preacher, and more likely
wishing that as little light as possible mnight
hbe directed towards that troublesome body.
Mr. Van Bur-en does riot kneel during the
prayer, as the pious young Queen of E ng
land does-neither does he stand up as the
lovely young Methodists (of New York do,
wenever- the Throne of Grace is address
ed. He sits down-crosses his legs over
each .t her, and looks up to the gallery as
unfeelingly as a clam on the shores of
Coney Island. In St. George's Chapel.- in
Windsor Castle,I saw Victoria kneel down
averently as a Bishop whenever the
prayer was recited in grammar and in
godlines.', Mr. Van Buren might take pat
tern of Victoria. and improve himself in
Notwithstanding all the parties and con
stant gaiety, T atn gettina rather fatigued
with Washington-I want to he moving
again-and I should niot be surprised if I
were to return in a week. After all,there
is no place worth living in, throughout the
whole extent of this country, but New
York. There we have constant variety
every day has its events and every wveek
its fresh catastrophe.
8inutI l shndelw ua itw7me m
Col; Webb of the Courier, has again- bro-,
ken out in a new place. and is ready tts
kick up a row in the W hig party at the ap-.
proaching election of Mayor. It is really
astonishing that I cannot be absent from
New York ajhori month, but the Colonelr
tries to get his legs out of the traces. Dar'
ring his visit to England, he kept out of all.
scrapes as long as he was guided by tly
movements, and quietl5 followed in mf
footsteps. The moment that I went to'
France, and left him to find his way hom0
alone, at that fatal moment, he was within!
au ace of getting board and lodgiugs in the
inside of an Eiglish jail at Bristol. Now 4
as soon as I am in Washiugtoa, believing
that every thing is going on well at New,
York, I am pained to find that he is agai;
at his old tricks, and is ready to Sght all
the world, and Duff Green to boot, on the.
subject of Mayor Clark., This, among.
other matters, may force mne home soone,
than I expee. No one can man ag
Webb but myself. I know his pace, bi
temper, his trot, his points-and his whol.
nature. I know the exact hour to let fijn;
have the whip or spur-to stroke him gent..
ly about the whiskers-or to overhaul him
soundly over the broad snouldere, The
truth is, that Heaven has appointed me
to be Van Amburgh to the wild animals.
who conduct the Whig press of New York
-and Master Webb, one of the most mris.
chievous and untractable of these creature,
-requires the presen'-e of the Great Ani.
mal Maynetiser bfo the next electij
approaches too .oo, I believe 1 most
From the Correspodence of the N. Y.
KINGsTON, JAMAICA, Jan. 21, 1i8.
The l6and of Jamaica, I am sorry-te
say. is in a very poor state, but a few pro-.
perties at work, and as the crop time is
uow at hand. the proprietors are at aios..
to know how to take it ot. The price d&
manded by the negroes is more than what,
the sugar and ruin will sell for, so it is im.
possible to get them to come to any final
arrangement. The Governor issued a
proclamation a few days ago, but that cat
do no aood; he,, himself, ean do no good
stith them. A planter told me this mora
ing that, last year at this time, he mgd
Stibhds. of sugar. and new his mi is not.
at work on account of the negroes not be.
ing willing to work tnder $1 per day.
eannot imagine; for full particulars pay
a great attention to the papers you will re
crive. I amtold that it is not Jamaica
alone that suffers, but the other Wind..
ward Islands. The House of Assembly
will meet on the 5th proximo. and I must
say that, unless the Governor gives way
to the members, nothing will be done.
You will find in the papers particulars of a
meeting of the Commissioners of Corresa
pondeuce, and also public meetings being -
called for the purprese of making a report
of the distressed state of this once flour.'
ishing Island. Alas! Jamaica is not .wia;
she once was, nor ever will be. The timo.
is past and it is too late to do any ao&
As long as the stipendiarv m* -
give bad advice to the negi'oesi theywill
not cme to terms. What with fTim anl
the Governor, enough mischief iq efi.cted.
I am sorry I am obliged to give yo a suelt
an account of my native place,
From the Janaica S&anderiL.
STATE OF THE COUNTRTY. . .0
port this week breathes a more deZ.i
and determined air. Need we sa
much more gloomy and unfavourable
on that account? Auother week hase
lapsed. and still no greater dispsi.o
return to work; and still less likelyhook tco
the estat's being at. all able to take
their crops. eicept at such.a rafas wold
be entirely ruinous to the plantera-i sh
to say, at a much greater eipenseithyyth
sugar itself will bring.
We know.for we have the positive facl .
that on some estates in this parish (St.
Jamnes')five shillings a day have been .of
fered to the boiler mon, and half a-do g~
to the laborers, during crop, and that es
offers ruinously extravagant _. ht
were, have been refusedl. 'now that*
on others, whetn aiy- Yis beeni
made to come to tej i for taking off the
crop, the reply of th1 eld laborers has
been:. "Yea, we'are willi to work,-boa
you must give us five shilli . day'
And wye know that, rather ~.that,
many crops must -be allowed the
ground N'av, we know .that o ave:
at this moment, cane'.in their m a
rotting, for want of the necessar
to carry on the mannfacture. .
Because the laborers-only detma'n as e
rate of 5ri an hour, for sixteen housp
t wenty four;t thus .making each laborer's'
wages exactly a dollar a-day, or LI113a.
and 4d. per week, allowing they 'conde.
scend to work even the five days. ~
FaANeE---$rtignadlon of the Frend
Miniutry.-The whole of the French Mirt
isters on the 22d1 Jamtary, placed their re.
gignation in the hands of the King, in co
sequence of finding -their majority i6 this
Chamber of Deputies inisufflcientei On
the following day his Majesty: confided'to
Marshal Soult the construction of a inew
The Paris onefrpiublishe-n1s
ordinance, dated 221 instaunt,-ppnotag
Retar Admiral Charles lRaidin..toithe rank
of Vice Admiral, as:ayeompense Torihs
gallant-and skilful conduct at'the capture
of the fortress of San Joan D'Ullon.:
Avoid-armment wvith the ladies; in spin.
ning a yarn am ong silks and attinsi a t0