Newspaper Page Text
e will cling to the pillars of the temple of our liberties, W. F. DURISOE Publisher.
F. LABORDE, Editor. and if it must fall we will perish amidst the ruins."
VOLUME IV. UlgefielX& Coxvt 11ouse. FS C. JIYAX 4, 19.39.9
Abbeyille, 45th Feb. 1539.
T H Iollowing Regiments and Corps of
Tne Militia of this State. will parade for
Review and Drill. and the Officers and Ser
geans will assemble in Encampment at the
times and places following, viz:
The 15th Itegiment of Inflntry will parade
for review and drill. at Williamson's, on Tues.
day the -2d of April next.
The 14th Regiment of Infantry, at Orangce
hurg, on Thursday the 4th of April.
The Oticers and Sergeants of the 4th Bri
gide will assemble in encmptmnt, at Accahee,
(Morrison's farm) near the Quarter House, on
Monday the 8th of April next, to remain en.
cam:ea six days. according s o law. -
The 16th and 17th Regiments of Infantry,
the Charleston Ancient Battalion of Artillery,
and the Charleston Light Dragoons, will parade
for review and drill. at the Charleston race field,
an Thurrday the 1 %' of April next.
The Officers and Ssr-eants of the 8th Brig.
ade will assemble in .campment. at such place
as the tdrigadier General of that Brigade may
appoint, and ieaort to the Commander-in-"hiel,
on -londay the 22d of April.
The 33d Regiment of lunantry will parade
for review and drill, at Conwayborough, on
Monday the 29th of April.
The 32d Regiment of Infantry, at Marion C.
II. on Thursday the 2d of May next.
The 31st Regiment of Infantry, at Black
Mingo, on Saturday the 4th of May.
The 13th Regiment of lufantry, at Walter.
- boro, on Saturday the 11th of May.
The 12th Itegiment of Infantry, at Coosaw.
hatchie, on Tuesday the 14th of May.
The 43d Reiriment of Infantrv. at Buford's
Bridge. sin Fridaythe 17th of fay.
The Officers and Sergeatits of the 3d Brig.
ade will assemble in encanpment. at Barnwell
C. H. on Monday the 20th of May.
The 3d Re-giment of Cavalry will parade fin
review and diill, at Barnswell C. H. on Satur
day the 2th of May.
- rhe IIth Regiment of Infantry, at Ashley's
on Monday the 27th of .lav.
The 7th Regiment of 6itantry, at the Ok
Wells 'in Wednesday the 2'Jth of May.
The 10th Regiment of lulantry, at Richard
son's, on Saturday the 1st of June next.
The 9th Regisent of Infantry, at Lowe's, or
Tuesday the 4th of June.
Tbr- 2d Regiment of Cavalry, at Abbevillf
C. H. on Thursday the 6th of June.
The Sth Regiment of Infantry. at Morrow'z
Old Field, on saturday the8th of June.
The 6th Regiment of Infantry, at Lonax's
on Tuesday 11th of June.
The 40tl Regiment of Infantry, at Boyd's
on Thsrsday the 13th of June.
The 41st Regiment of Insiiery, at Parks
Old Field, on Saturday the 15th of June.
The-l0th Regiment of Cavatr.- . at such plaet
as the Brigadier General of the 5th Brigade ol
Cavalry may appoint, and report to the Adju.
tant and Inspector General, on Tuesday the
18th of June.
The 3 th Regiment of Infantty, at K-.:ler'
Old Field, on Thursday the 20th of June.
Th 39th Regiment of Infantry, sit Long's
or such other convenient place in that neigh
borhood. as may be selected by the Command,
ant of that regiment. and reported to the Adjnss.
taint General. on Saturd:ay the :!nd of June,
The 24th Regiment of Infantry, at Wins.
boro'. on Tuesday the 25th ol Jtti
The 25th Regiment of Intansstry, at Wins
boro', on Thursday the 27th (of June.
The 6th Regiment of Cavalry, at Yongue's,
on Sanardav the 29th of June.
The 27t Re:iment of Infantry, at. Oliver',
Old Field. on Tues'day the -Ind olf July next.
The '2th Regiment of Infatry, at Chester.
ville, on Thursday, the 4th of July.
The 34th Regiment of Infantry, at Yorkville
on Monday. the 8th of July
The 46ti Regiment of lssthutry, at Ebenezet
on Wednesday the 10th of Jily.
The 35th Regiment of Infantry, at Union
Court House on Saturday the 13th otJtly,.
The 45th Regiteent of Infantry, near the
Burnt Factory, on Tuesday the jf1th of July.
The 37th Regiment of Inflantry, at Wilkin's
Old Field, on Saturday the 20th of July
The Officers and Sergeants of the 9th Brig
ade of Inifantry, and 9th Regiment of Cavalry
ivill assemble in encampment at Gafney's Old
Field on Monday the 22d of July.
The 9th Regnmnent of Cavalry will parade
for review and drill, at Gafnsey's Old Field otn
Saturday the 27th of July..
The 36th Regiment of Infantrv, at Timmtons
Old Field, on Monday thse 29th'of July.
The 1st Regiment of Infantry, at Bruton's on
~'ursday ste 1st of Augusst next.
The 3rd Regiment of Infantry;. at Toney's
Old .'toro, on Saturday the 3d of Angust
The toffice'rs and Sergeants of the 1st Brig.
aide of ifantry, an:l1 st regiment of Cavalry.
will assemble in esncampenent at Pickensvihle,
on Monday the 5th of August.
The 1st Regiment of Cavalry will parade for
review and drill, on Saturday the 10th of Au
gust, at Pickensville.
The .;th Regiment or Infantry, at Hunters,
on Monday the 12th of August.
The. 2d Regiment of Infantry, at Hall's on
Thursday the 15th of August.
The 4%d Regiment of Infantry, at Minton,
on Saturday the 17th of Augusit.
Th'e 4th Regiment of Infantry, at Verrennes,
on Tures'ay the 20th of August.
Thse Officers and Sergeants of the 2d Brigade
of Infantry, and 2d Regianent of Cavalry, will
assemble ns encampment, at Isagtmires, (Shi
bleys) on Monday the 26th of August.
The tOdicers and Sergeants of thse 10th Brig.
stde of Infantry, and 10th Regiment of Cavalry,
will assemble in encampment, at Belfast, on
3Ionday thne 9th of September text.
The'Officers atnd Sergeants of the 6th Bri
gade of Infantry, and 6th Regiment of Cavalry.
widl assemble in encampmenst, at Yongute'xa, Ott
3londlay thse 1tith of September.
rTe Officers and Sergeatnts of the 5th Bi
gade of Infantry, and 5th Regiment of Cavalry.
will assemble ta .ncampment, near Camden,
ona Monday the 23d of Septmber.
The i.th' Regimecnt of Cavalry will parade for
review antd dri, at Camden, on. zSaturday the
28th of Septetmber.
The 21st Regiment of lItfantry, at Lancaster
Court House, on Mosnday the 3Iuth of Sept.
The 28th Regiment oh Insfantry, at Chester
field Coutrt House, on Thursday the 3d of
The 30th Riegiment of Infantry, at Bonnet
ville. on Saturday the 5th of October.
The 29th Rtegimnent of infantry, nt Darling.
ton Court flouse, on Tuesday the 6th of Oc.
Th- 22d Regiment 6f Inmasiry, at Camden,
on Saturdayv the~ 1Nth of October.
The 20th Relgiment or Infantry, at the Swim
min" Pens, on Tuesday the Ibth of October.
ite 44th Regiment of tuantry, at Sumter
ville, on 'hursday the 17th of October.
The Officers and Non-Comiumissioned Officers
of the 34th Regiment of Infantry, will assemble
for drill, on Saturday the 6th of ily.
The Offic -rs and Sergeants or the I Ith, 30th,
5th, and 21st Regiments of' Infantry, being en
camped the week previous to their reviews, are
excused, with their Corporals. fromi assembling
at their Regittietal parade grounds for drill,
previous to their respective reviews. All other
Otli-ers and N in-Commissioned Officers, (in
cludiig the Corporals of Cavalry Regiments
where the Officers and Sergeants of such kegi
ments are encamped) will assemble for drill and
instruction on the day previous to their tespee
The Cavalry Corps not otherwise ordered
above, will parade with the Infantry Regiments
most convenient, either by Company, or Squa
The Conimandants of, Regiments will be pre
pared to answer promptly. upton the field, on
the day of their respective reviews. any ques
tions relative to the efifective and field strength,
the arims and equipments, of their respective
The antinual Brigade returtnswill be made up
and transtmitted by the Brigadier Generals. to
the Adjutant and ispectur General, at Edge
field Court House. by the 1st (if November next
according to the blaik forms heretofore furnish
ed to them.
~ The Major Generals and Staff, and Briga
dier Generals and Staff will attend the en
campments and reviews of their respective Di
visions and Brigades.
The Brittadier Geterals are charged with the
extension. to their Commands. (if so much of
this order as relates to their respective Brigades.
By order of the Coumander-in-Chief.
[C] 5 h. Adj, k nsp. Gen.
New Spring and Sumnmer
T HE Subscriber itnforns his friends and
sie public generaliy. that he has joist re
ceived trutm New York, a complete tasort
ment of Staple Fancy, Spring and Smn
ner Goods-aniong which are.
3-4 4-4 5-4 ad '-I brvw-N & bieached Shirt
ing- and Sheetmags.
A handsome assortmentlightcol'd Prits.
50 pieces tight col'rd London do.
French prints and prit.ted Jacoimet,
Mourning and half mournilig prints and
Stuper printed Lawns,
44 and 6-4 Cambrics and cambric Muslins,
Swiss and book . uslins,
Jaconet. plaid and strige do.
Lvtnnaise and brocade do.
Ladies and gent's white and black, silk H. S.
and kid Gloves,
"6 Cotton and threid do.
" Misses black and white nett,
Lace and Gatze do
A handsome assortment of gauze and satin,
ani Mantia Ribboas.
Best [talir.' Pags, black blue, black, and
assortei lhv tle iantity,
Hem-stitche6. anstiper linen cambric Hkfs.
Men's tand boys Pongee do.
Ladies'gaize. Iernani, gro-de-nap and sew
ing silk H k f's.
4-4 Irish linens and linen lawn,
Plain, itiserted and frilled bosoms and linen
84 and 10-4 table diaper. 3-4 birds eye and
6-4 1-4 and 10 4 -dnaask table covers,
Frntcth n1a 1'k10- % tl" Or,
French-i browi and gras- Liunetl.
White nod brown linen Drillings
Super rib'd do.
A variety of Cutton do. col-d. and striped for
Cases of anlm leaf and willow Hoods,
English Devon straw Bonnets,
A large assortment of silk and cotton hose
and half Hose,
3-4 and 4-4 plaid and striped domestic,
Silk, satin, and Marseilles Vesting,
Parasols and Umbrellas.
Furniture.dimity atnd fringe,
Black bombazines and mierilos for Coats,
Paris needle w -rkd musit c- -. & et caps
French baskat. bleatched ltus-tz S'5eetines.
Any thing like a gener al enmerati-m of air
tieles'is itnprac-ticable; but these in addition to
his former stock, make it sunficiently extettsive,
and he trusts his pirices are sufficiently moder
ate to be worthy the attention of all who wtsh
to supply thetmselves with articles in his line.
His former customers and all who buy in thts
marke', will do hlimt, and perhlaps themselves
a favor, by examining his assortment before
purchsing. JOHN 0. B. FORD.
Hamburg. March 13, 1P39. 7 tf
PROOL AM ATION.
coOLMBAr MAncH 13,1t339.
Byg His Exellecy PATRICK NOBL E. Esq.
Governor and Commnander-in-chiqf, in and ove
the State of South Carolina.
S7H E REAS, informationi bas been receiv
ed in this Department; that a most at
tr-ociouis murder was cotttmitted in Lanren.
District, on the tith of this month. by Carter
Parker on tile body of Jefferson Rhowland, and
dletsaid Parker has fied from justice.
A ow, kniow ye, that to the end justice may be
done, and thlat thte said C'arter P'arker miay be
brought to legal trial taud condignl pumshmntt
for his olfence, as aforesaid. I do hereby of'er a
reward of'iTHREE HIUNDREI DOLLARS.
for his aipprehensions antd delivery into any jmi:
ill theO state. Carter Pttrker is described as
beu.ing about 3.i years of age,abufie nc
hligh, light colored kemir, heardtincli nitd
dlishaness, rather a thin visage. snudy compl~lexionl
tailks quick,nnid cuts is words short; race tolera
bly broad at the eyes. bttt narrow at thle chiln; a
smnall piece broken off of ot.e of' his front teeth;
broad shoulders, slender waist, hars a habit of
sutcking his teeth, large k nees and knock ktneed;
lhe is a blacksmith by trade, ad fe-nd of ardent
Given under my hand ad us'al of the State.
at Coluimbia, 13th1 day of Mairch, in tihe
year olf our Lord one thou'.and eight htun
ired antd thlirty-nlinmeand in thte sixty third
year of tile Indepenmdet.ce of tile Unitcd
States of America.
Dv the Goeve'rnor.
'M. LAnotnr., Secrctary of State.
Matrch m. J' f 7
Feom the National Intelligencer, 27th ult.
PART II.-THJ- DEFALCATIONS OF WIL
LIAM 31. PaI.
Conclusions of the Committee.
1st. That k illiam bi Price, as distric
attorney, is a defaulter to the governmen
in a large sum.
2d. That his defalcations are attributa
ble to the notorious irresponsibility ant
want of character of said Price, at the pe
riod of his nppoinient and re-appoint
me-t, and during his entire term of of
fice, and to the continued neglect of i
p roper and efficient dischargo of duties a
the office of Solicitor of the Treasury, bj
the late and present incumbents of the of
PART i.-The corectness of the return.
which. have been made by thr presen
Collector and Naval Officer of the For
of A'ew York, respectively.
Conclusions of the Committee.
Wat. That the returns of the collectoi
of customs at the port of New York hav4
not been correct, as they have not at al
times embraced, as paid into the publii
Treasury, the moneys received by him 11
uuascertlained duties, and at no time fo
duties paid under protest.
2d. That said collector, in his returns
has violated the instructions of the Treas
ury Department; has put at defiance thi
duties assign-d him by the 6ecretary o
the Treasury; has repudiated the oflicta
decision of the responsible law-officer o
the Executive Department; and is guilii
of an illegal retention and use of the pub
lie money, in the amount then held bi
him fhr protest and unascertained duties.
3d. That the Committee has been pre
vented from ascertaining what is the ex
tent of oe illegal retention and use of tb
public money by the present collect.. r o
the purt of New York, either in fund
collected under protest, or for unascertain
ed duties, or in other funds collected bi
him, because of his refusal to exhibit hi
own book of cash deppsites in-hank, or t<
permit the banks used b) him as deliosito
ries to exhibit their accounts of his depos
4th. That the public moneys receive(
by #aid collector are mingled with his owi
moneys on deposite, and are not kept h:
him, inor by his banks of deposite, distinc
and separate from the individual money
of the collector and of his "professiona
clients;" and his returns cannot. therefore
he founded upon them as a separate ani
independent fund, belonging to Govern
imienti, though in his keeping.
5th. That, as appears by the letter o
Gorham At .,;, ;he cashier of the cit,
Bank, the present collector has deposita
moneys in his hands with a bank whicl
could not, under the law prohibiting thi
selection of any bank as a depositor]
which haq issued notes under the denomi
nation of five'dollars, he selected bv thi
Secretary of the Treasury himself,' as I
lopository of moneys carried to the credi
of tle! Treasurer of the Uited Sties.
Gilt. 'That the mode adopted and prac
tised by the said collector, of keeping an<
making returns of the public money col
lected by him for unascertained duties an<
under protest, in the language of the pres
ont Attorney General of the United States
"could have never been the intention o
Congress;" and being "tolerated," it hat
made it, in the language of the same higl
officer. "the interest of the collector t<
postpone the ascertainment of duties, as it
the nean time he would have uncontrol
led use of the nioney." It has also in ful
filment of the reasoning of the Attorne
General, increased "the danger of faith
lessness in the collector by permittin
large amounts of money to remnain wit!
him, and under hjis inidividual control, in
stead of being in the Treasury of the U
7th. That, in the language of the A ttor
ney General "the tenor of the spirit ofal
our revenue laws seem to inculcate thit
idea that the inatention of Congress has a
all times been, that money collected foi
revenue should he promptly placed in t
Treasury, and not be permitted to remnair
in the hamnds of the collector."
8th. Thai the returns of the naval offi
cer in New York have not been correct, a!
it is fouand in the testimony of the preseni
deputy naval officer, "that the naval offi
cer, under its existing system, is not ena
bled, either to determine what amnonnt oi
bonds has been taken by the collector f'ot
duties in any quarter, or who are the par.
ties to said bonds, or when such bondn
are paid, or whether the collector does ni
does not arcount truly for suel; bonds."
PART IV.-Defalcations among Receiveri
of Public Moneys.
The Committee, in funlfilment of that
portion) of the duty assigtedl them, by
w hieh thmey were directed to inquire inte
-'atv th-falca tifns among receivers &c.,
whtich may now exist," report to the
hloie. that the limited period which they
bail for a thoromgh. investigation, of the
subjects with which they were charged,
and ile time necessarily consumed in the
exatmination of thie cases of the late col
lector and district attorney of New York,
have prevented a minute investigation ol
the extent, ntlure. anid causes of the de
falc-ationts of receivers of public monev4,
mrisinc from the sales of public lanids.
The Commuittce have, however, prepa
re'd, from repiorts innate by tie Secretars
tf the Tirenstary ait the last session of Con
gress, a~ rabular statement, exhibiting the
nimes of Kuch defaulters. the - amount due
from each, when due, and the penalties Of
their official bouds, respectively; also,
the correspondence had between the
Treasury Department and hilteen of the
individuals whose names appear on said
statement-the Committee having called
for, and been lurnished by the Depart
ment, with the answers of the receivers to
the letters of the Secretary of the Treasu
ry, as contained ins House document No.
297. These tifteen cases are reported
specially, as examples merely of the man
ner in which the President of the United
States and the Secretary of the Treasury
have executed the laws in respect to the
public money and other property of the
United States in the hands of tnis class of
publie ohlicerb, and in respect to their olfi
The law provides for the appointment
by the Executive, with the concurrence
of the Senate, of a receiver of public mo
neys at each of the places respectively
where the public and private sales of the
lunds are to he made, who shall give bond,
with approved security, fur the faithul
discharge ot his trust; who shalt transmit,
within thirty days, in case of public sale,
and quarterly in case of private sale, ali
account of.all the public moneys by him
received to the Secretary of the Treasury
and to the registers of the land ofices, as
the case may be. He is allowed a salary
of five hundred dollars per annum, and a
commission of one per centum on the mo
neys received: but his salary for any one
year shall not exceeed ,tk10. ihe Sec
retary of the Treasury may allow to the
several receivers of the public money at
i he several land oflices, a reasonable coin
pensation for transporting to, and deposit
ing such moneys in any bank or any other
place of deposite iliat may from time to
time be designated by the Secretary of the
Treasurv for that purpose. He is alone
authorized to prescribe such further regu
lations in the manner of keeping books
- and accounts by the several ollicers in the
land offices, as to him may appear necessa
ry and preper It is made his duty, at
least once in every year tocause the books
of the officers of the land offices to be ex
amtined, and the balance of public no
ney sin the hands of die several receivers
to lie ascertained.
The foregoing synopsis of the liw rela
tive to land receivers, and the correspon
dence w.th a portion of those who have
proved defaulters and faithless to their
trusts, are submiued without further roin
tiren' than that the facts anl circumstau
ces here exhibited show inch a dereliction
(of duty on the part of the Executive de
partment, as calls loudly f er searchine ex
amination in this branch of the public ser
vice, and for thorough reform.
The 4practice which the foregoing cor
r0po1dence exhibitq, of retaining men in
ollice after gross and repeated violauiots
of law, In keeping and using the public
moneys for private speculation, and the
character of the correspondence itself, but
tonclearly point to the isiference that such
officers were retained in place because
they possessed extensive political influ
ence, and were useful and active parti
sans. Whether such mal-administration
constitutes official corruption in those ;u
perior officers of the Executive depart
ments who knew and pcrmnited in their
subordinies the conduct which has been
referred to, is a question whichthe Com
mnittee submit to the House and the coun
try to decide
PART v.-Facts connected wiith the fore
going Defecations, and deemed materi
al to develope their true character.
In conclusion, tho Committee cannot
forbear remarking, that, durine their whole
inVen'.;tn, they have tnot hfound the catse
to which the laws, as thiey already risi,
da not apply, or in whitch they are defec
tive. The permannet provisions of the
laws cotnstt itte every neceissary check up
on collectors, receivers, and dlisbursers of
public money; and the checks which, by
law, have been and may be created, in
the discretion of the Executive, have otn
ly to he attended to and applied by those
whose duty it is to superintend the execun
tion of ube laws, to ensure faithfulness, and
detect derelictions or defalcations in pub
Indeed, in all the new recommenda
tions which have been proposed by the
President or the Secretary of the Treasu
ry, the Committee has found either what
already exists, or what might have always
been pres--ribed and enforced in the form
of Treasury regulations, and which if en
forced, would have prevented the late de
falcations; and these new recommaenda
tions can, indeed, be regarded as so many
proofs of what regulations in respect to
the late defaulting collectors, receivers,
&c., have hitherto been wholly neglected
by the present Executive and heads of
P ART vle--Mr. Hopkins' stpecial ConCUr
ren-ce in the report of the Committee, ap
pended thereto by vote of the Committee.
I have not had the requisite time for
scrtinizing the report of the Committee
with that care and attention which its
length and importance deserve, and which
I would have desired; and I should have
preferred, for this reasotn, to have presen
ted the journal of the Committee, without
comment, to the House of Rtepresenta
lives. But as conflicting opinions pre
vail in the Commit tee, and are to be sub
mitted to the country in the shape of for
mal reports, I consider it my duty to say
that I concur with the Committee in all
the conclusions at whtich they have arri
ved, so far as thtose conclusions apply to
the oxtent and character oh the rinfalctt
lions of Samuel Swartwout and Willian
I should be faithless to my duty, and i
violence to the most consienutious convic
lions of my judgment, if I did not also de
Cal-e my entire conenrrence in those con
clusions of the Committee which relate t<
the conduct of the late naval otbcers a
the custt.m-house at New York; of th(
late and present Solicitor of the Treasury
to the Secretary and accounting officer
of the Treasury Departmeat, including
the late Comptroller of that Department
and in that part of the report which re
vie ws the conduct of J Hoyt, the presen
collector of the customs at the port of N
GEO W. HOPKINS,
Member of the Committee.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
REMARKS OF3Ma. PICKEINS.
FRIDAY. March I, 1839.
On the subject of the Northeastern Boun
Mr. Pickens said it was with extreit
reluctance he trespassed upon the atten
tion of the committee; nothing but the
great importance of the measure could in
duce him to do so at present. He had in
terrupted his colle:gue (Mr. Legare) as t<
the point of order, and had claimed the
floor merely because of the circumstance:
under which he was placed with reference
to the bill under consideration. It will be
remembered that ihis mornin;:, when the
hill was first under discussion,his colleagute
(Mr. Thompson) had sni-l he hoped thai
the bill would pass unanimously, withou
debate. as there could be no opposition
to it. He (Mr. P.) then said that wonk
not be the case, and he desired to inform
the chairman (Mr Howard) that, if hie
supposed so, he would he miataken, for he
Mr. P.) i nended to move to sirikeout ihie
second section, and then gave notice of
that,but before proceediug gave way to h.-al
the chairman first. in the development Id
the views olthe committee. Bio, i biead
of' t his coure, o hers had obtained the fluoi
then, and brought on a wiil range o
discussion, anil be had beeni prevenied frotn
explain n iis paints of object ion it lie hbill
He desired to do so now. But, cfore di
cu4sing the hill, I desire (said Mr. Pickens
to notice the last observationas of my col
league, Mr. Legare.) He had said thert
wa-s no danger of collision from the mareh
of hositde troops at present. and had given
his experience of what he had witnessed it
Europe. and said that he had often seet
hostile armies moving and retiring over the
sa:mo territory, and even coming into tem
parary confliet, aid y t, there was no war
and, in a few weeks, ev-ry thing wa:
again hushed into peace. This might t!
the case in regard to Euopean armies, IN
they were made tp of drilled and trained
soldiers, under the strict order of officers
who were again under the dictation of de
spotic Cabinets. They could be m~arche<
up to the cannon's mouth, or marched ol
the field because it mi'ght be the pleasure
of a tyrant Eing, tiair master, so tm wit! it
They were the mero natchitm- in the
h;uids of iiaie w ho madue war fron am
bit ion, and preserved peace-froi interest
Not so in our country. Let the Presideti
bring into action our fbrees, accustomed
as they were, even to licentious free.dom
and we wouid ind a very different state o
things- Our at mies would not be merce
nary bands. but citizen-freemen, with bu
little discipline, and feeling a passionate
enthusiasm for their couutry. When yot
once put a large force of that kind into ac
tion, and briu them near to their oppo
nents, tinder their natural excitement, i
would be as diicult to preserve peace a
it would bie to preserve from explosion itt
tagazine, itio which iguited suark< wver
The aunilogy dira wn from other Govern.
ments does tnot hold good when appliedt <
us. Peace may be preserved there, whil<
the same causes would produce war here
Trhere is always danger here in calling inic
existence stich mtilitary power as is contenr
plated by the bill, unless we have already
resolved 0n final actiotn. In other Gov
ernments, every thitig is moved unider the
direction of' despotic Cabinets, with abso.
hute powet; the reverse is the ca.,e here.
I desire to say a word in reference it
what fell to-night from the gent leman fronx
Kentucky, (Mir. Meneflee.) That gentle
tman had given its an enthusiastic disqjuisi
tion on naiionial honor, in which, if prop
erly defined, A entirely agree. But if thin!
gentleman meant that vague and unidefi
nable national honor, drawn from tihe Eu
ropelih cude, and practised upon for the
last three hu .dred years by EuiropeunGov
ernments, I raise my solemn protest a
gainst it. There, whole tiatiotns had beeni
drenched in blood, upon a mere point oh
etiquette. Such doctrines might suit th .se
countries whose people hand teeni taught
to humble thetmselves before the diadems
of royalty, and to gaze in submissioni up~on
the stars and garters of nobility: but they
were entirely unsuiied to the peopte of a
Sir, I contend that, in this country,with
a Government defined by the cotistisuwion,
we exercise nothing but irust power3 fur
the benefit of the People, and we have no
right to separate national honor from sound
[Here Mr. Menefee asked if Mr. P, ad
mirrted that iber'- was a difference between
national honor and national interest!]
Mr. Pickens. No, sir, if trop.-rly un
derstood and defitted; but a general decia
mnation upon abstract national hotnor, n,
dra wn from the European code; was cal.-ula
ted to itlameoutr people,now already ma el
citable. .1 will not repeat Falstaff s solilo
quy upon honor. but I will say that, al
thoulli a duelist may demand satisfac'tioo,
at the risk of h iie, because anlo lier may
have too ruLtely hrushed the skirt of his coat,
yet, %%hen the con,equences of a i.,n's
action ari no to he , onfined to 'hinself,
tin drag with it the misery of million, he
has no right to stand upon a mere imma
terial point ofhonor. " ha I mean to say
is, that, before a free People can be drag
ged into a war, !t must be in defence ofr
great national rights, as well as national
Before examining the second section of
the bill. I desire to nOtice some of tih ob
servations which fell front the genrileman
from Pennylvania (Mr, Biddle-) in ma
ny of his remnarks I entirely concur, but re
gret that he, as i ell as others, had thought
proper on this occasion to call up topics
not immediately connected with the sub
ject. The.discussion in which we %%ere
now involved,would interest foreitn low
ers, and attention would be partientarly
drawn to it in En-land. As it is a ron
test between it itnd a loreign Power, I re
gret that it should have been ihought ue;
cessary not only to go into the hi.,tor3 of
our faults upon this question, but also to
cen -uie our diplomaie controver-irs % ith
other Pou ers. The gentlea.an (alt. Bid
(ie) had alluded to our btaseii g and
talk exciting the ridicule of foreign Powers,
and had evean gone back to the last war
u ith Great firitain, and said we hma. cote
Out of it - i to t gainig a single poitin, or,
at least ha nn, adil all the points of eI
troversy "adjourned over." I cannot Tee
with what propriety these things are now
[Mr. Biddle was understood to explain
that he meant to illustrate the propriety of
only taking such groundsai first, as would
be maintained and enforced, ifa conflict
Mr. P. continued. and said he was wil
ling to forget the past, or, at least, whett
a critical controversy was pending between
us and a foreign Power, he rather desired
to cover over the faults of the country than
to expose them to the gaze of the world.
I have been taught from tmy mother's
chanher by exaRmaples drawn from Holy
% rit, to dread Heaven's aveng-itnt curse
pronounced irpon that son who uncotered
the nakedaess of his parent, But I pase
over these matters and propose to exam,
ine the hill. The first section gir es powet
to the President to call out the tilitia. the
Army and the Navy. in certain comtain ,en
ces that may Lappetn. lit the esve of ac
inal invasion," he now has this power by
the existing law. But a new contingency
is no%% to be created, and that i-, in case
Great Britain should attempt to *-enforce
exclusive jurisdiction" over the disptted
territory, by -force of armq." This is a
new and distinet power, as defined itn this
section, and makes .a point in legislation,
The second section proposes "that, in the
event of actual invasion of the U. States
by any foreiun power, or orimmaninetit dan
ger of stch in'. asion discovered, in his ithe
President'sj opinion, to exist,'' then,nud in
that case, the President is clothed with
powerto enlist a regular army,with tw*enty
new refatnents, or nie;arlh 20.000 men- I
contend that this is a dangerouq power to
be placed in the hands of any man. l"omf
what 1 know of the present Presidi-t. I
wouid as sooni trust hint Is t y , an I ever
saw. lie is cautious, and Is nature is
pacific; but it is a dangerous precedent to
allow any Chief MAtgiatratc to be ihe sole
judge of the contingency and necessity for
creating at one step. a standing army of
20J,(K) met. The Constitution has made
Congress the judge of the necessity for.
war, and we have no right to delegate, di
rectly or indirecily. any portion of that pow.
- or. -I have~ no ineal of ithorizint.he
Pretsi lent to take any sta'p thatmou oe
al'ter compel us to sanction that whbich ivill
force uts into a wvar. . Let its declard.itar
befo~re you raise such an army. .1 have
said that I do not fear to trust the present
Executive with military power, hut I am'i
a sworn enemy. of Executive -discretion
in any important mnatter that can be regn- -
lated by law. The precedeair of to-day,
becomnes the law of to-mnirow,-~ .Ad we
may have a prudnt exercise of aianger
otis power by a wise anti virituons PresL
den'; but let things change-let us.have
some futture hero with his laurels greeri.
from ahe plain of somto Talladega, Etmne
fan, or New Orleans-and then this. 'ry
precedenr, which you propose-to establish;.
will be quoted by himn as contnining~ the.
principle upon which he will ask .to hanve.
discretionary power over 'a condijional ar-.
my. which will he calle'd upon to -sustain-..
him in waving his sword triumphantly
above the prostrate liberties of his country.
A standing armny should neuer he-crea
ted except by Congress, and we shouhld be .
the sole judge. of the time and manner-or
its creation. If there should boea necessi
ny for it,'therecean be no diiety. . The
cotuntry can he defenaded until Congrese
Tcan be convened; and if. there should be
,tany such necessity for ?hi army,LCongrress
o ught to he conv ned. *Besides1 suppose
the Presidlent.wvere to call-for.evlistmnents
in the regtniar service; now, what wotild-be
the result? You wrould get none-but'the
very dIregs from the alleys of voniy:ites
forming a miserable band & ofirwe most iafe
rior soldiers. In a well fed soiiny-liks. -.
this, yota cannot get it .and.properdieruitsr:
in the regular sea vice ntil wve -shalrf lire.
actually declared war. and th-ousaods are
thtrown -out of their ordinar'y employinodnu
for support. Then you can cot a hate'ar-d
my of-oldiers, and not utntil then. I w auld'
ilfmtitely rather rely, in :he~ first onset, fdr~
deafencee, upon the regtular miliria-of the
c'ountry or upon Vohttmteers, thatn tuponanr
wetdtenly raised enlistments. It is;a mis..
take to suppose that, nder the w,.,.