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"We will cling to .e PIla" of te Temple of our Liberties, and if it must ftlN, we win Perish amidst the Ruins."
VOLUME V. oo Hue S. C.,- March i0, 184A. N.t
W. F. DURISOE, PROPRIETOR.
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eWJeSgO.V HO fSE,
EDGEFIELD C. HOUSE, S. C.
T HE Undersigned takes pleasure in an
nouncing to his friends and the travelling
community. that lie has taken the Hotel in
Edgefield Village, formerly occupied hy Mr..
William Brunson, and is prepnred ti, accosms
thodate travellers asd boarders. either families
or single persons. With Isis experience & pe.r
sonal attention, he flatters himself that those
who favor himt with their patronage. % ill be
satisfied asnd feel at honie; to produce these
effects, no pains will lIe spared. His H ouse is
situated in the nost pleasant part of the Vil
lage, nod is well calculated. in every respect.
for the accommodation of Families.or Priate
Boarders. All lie asks. is for persons to cull
and judge for themselves. WM.V. DUNN.
N. B. fine Saddle Hores may be had at all
times at the Mansion House. W. V. D.
January 14, I40 if 50
State of South ( l ulimInt.
William C. Black and Jane
his wife, vs. Bill to set aside
Bennett Reynolds, purchases. fur
Larkin Reynolus and account -c.
Washington Reynolds. I
IT appearing to my satisfaction, that Wash
ington Reynolds. one of the deflendants in
this case, residies beyond the linmits of this State.
on motion. ordered that the said Washingt--n
Reynolds do alipear and plead. answer, or de
maur to the complainsants' bill within three
months from the publicatin of this order, or
the said bill will be taken. as to him pro confesso.
BENJ. Y. MA RTIN, c. E.A. L.
7th bf arch. 1810. 1wa $881 ac 6
State (if Soul ih ('arolilla.
3Matthew Mays, vs.
John M ays. Benj. Bil for Partition.
Broadaway and Nan. )
cv his wife. J
wT appearing to my satisfaction that Besja
3min Broadaway assd Nancy Isis wife. dei
fendants in this casne. reside withsout thse limits
of this State. can nmotion. ordere'd that the said
defendanats don appear. plead, answer, or deinsnr
to the compl'.inan's bill w"ishin three mnonths
from the date of this puhlication, or thea said
bilwl etaken pro cfnfehbo agnitt themn.
bilwl~ BEN J. Y. 5MARTIN, c. Z. A.D.
7th Miarch, 1840. 5&aT $8 81 ac 6
State of South ('arealina.
Johns Wilson, adna'r.. vs Janet 1Bill for Relief
Wilson, Wan. Wilson. Hngh 'and Injunc
Wilson, James Ewminj, and
Jane his wife. ad others. , n
IT apapearing to mny satisfuaction.. that James
REwinug and Janae his wife, reside witlhout
the limits ot this State, on nmotion, ordered, thant
the said defesndants do appear, plead, answer,
or demur to the comaplainanat's bill wvithin tharee
months froin the date of this publication, or the
said bill will be taken pro confesso agaisnst them.
BENJ Y. MARTIN. c.. A.D.
6th Miarch, 1840. 5s ar $8 81 ac 6
State of South Caorolinla.
Sauel Williams, et. al, ~ CUNE
John C,.Davette and Ann5 Bilifor Partition.
Davette, his wife. J
IT A ppearing to my satisfhection thsat the de
Ufend ants John C. Davette and Ann lain
wife, resides beyonad the limits of this State.
On motion of Griffin and Bnrt. Comnplanants
Solicitors, Ordered that the said dlef'endants do
plead, answer or demairto this bill. within three
months from the puablicationa of this order, or
te samne will be taken pro confesso against
JAMES TERRY, C. E. E. P.
Cnomissioner's Office, ' 4 ac
Februsary 25. 1840. $8 81 ea &a
-UN Powder, Impieriaul and Black Teas,
JutReoeived and for Sale by
0. A. DOWD.
Febna,1aan :I 4
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tion in the world.
Each nunmberofilhe paper centairs as
large an amonnt of reading matter as is
fOu.nd iii voiies of ordinn-ry duodecima,
which cost two dollars, and Moore than is
contained in a volum" of Irving's Colum
his, or Baicror's History of America,
which cost three dollars a volume-all tor
six. cents 3a number, or ihree dollars a year.
BROTHER JONATIIAN being a
genluitie Yankee. and ihinking that some
litius can he done as well as others, is
determined to present to his. readers. a
MEDLEY hitherto unrivalled by any
other paper, of I
Anecdotes, Amusements. Allegories, Accidents.
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As a family newapaper, Brother Jona
luhan will be found- to present attractions
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"He comestl the hernid ora noisy world,
News frot al :ntions lumbering as his back,"
The earliest intelligence, foreign and
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ty, viine, temliperance, industry, good
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lished every day at the same ollice and is
put ift press a 12 o'clock meridian, in sea
son for the great norihsrn, eastern and
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All counitry newspapers who give this
prospectus 3 insertions, will be emitl-d to
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papiers to this office. containing the adver
tiseimlent. ' GKISWOLD & Co.
(tGUSubs tions reeived at tlhi<Office.
Matrcht l40. 152 Nassat st. N. York.
AUGUSTA SEED STORE.
No. 219 Broad-street.
F AS Constaitly on hand a supply of fresh
1 SHAKlEit GAtDEN SELDS.
The usual allowance made to contutry dea
Bird Seed, Clover, Lucerne, Potato Onions,
Onion Sets, &c. A few Brushes, Swifts, Sir
ters, &c., made by the Shakers.
J If. SERVICE.
Feb 15, 1840 tf .
R ANA WAY from the subscriber. livina at
the Quiaker Springs. Coltnbia C nmily,
Ga on the evening of the 2nd instant, two Ne
groes, otie a bsy, about 25 or 26 years of age,
nard JULY, and a womn ahont 40 years of
age, named AMY. As I have reason to be
lieve that the above ntegroes have been decoyed
into Edgefield District, S. C., I camtion all per
sons from harboring, emnployig, or purelms
ing said negroes, as they are the property of
Charles H. HJill, Trnstee for Sarah Tompkins.
The above reward will be paid for 'heir delive
ry t) me in A ngusta, Ga.. or lodgitig them in
any safe jail, so that I can get them.
March 4. 1840 c 5
*The Edgefie'd Advertiser will insert the a
bove three timnes and send account to this office
S HESubscriber will
m1 ake and repair Car.
- ,ringes & Waggons of eva.
ser ..2 ry description in the best
possible miainer and at the shortest notice. All
orders thankfully received, and psromphtly at
tended to. EDWARD BARKER.
H amburg Dec 1. 18't9 if 44
Ocra, or T win Cotton Seed.
7 3NH E Subscribers have juast received on con
Isigmnent from Charleston, a few of ihe
above named seed, raised in Autaga County,
Ala. Which can be hnd at their store in Ham
br. H. R. COOK, & Co.
Jan 13,1840 tf 50
Multi Bole Cotton Seed.
T H E above Seed can he had at the Store
of G. L & E. PENN & Co. on good
terms. Warranted genuine. t
March 4, 1840 t
TE HIE House and Lot in this Village, now
.1occnpied by the Subscriber.
F. H. WA RDLAW.
Edgefield C. H,Feb. 13,1840. 2tf
J UST Received a fresh Supply of .
New Orleans and Cuba Molasses,
Rio and Cnba Coffee,
St. Croiz Sugars, Raisins. &c. &c.
For sale byC. A. DOWD.
Feb 24, 1840 4 tf
'01 D ROSIN THE LOW.
I've travelled this country all over,
And now to another I'll go,
I'm sure there good quarters are waiting
To welcome Old Rosin the Dow,
To welcome old Rosin the Bow, (repeat)
I'm sure there good quarters are waiting
Towelcome old Rosin the Bow.
In the gay rouinds of pleasure I've flourished,
Atnd ne'er lefl behind me a woe;
For wlhen my companions are jovial,
They'll ne'er f'orget Rosin the Bow. (chorus.)
My fife's now drawing to a close,
And at least will be so.so
We'll take a full bumper at parting,
To the name or old Rosin the Bow. (chorus.)
When I aut dead, and about to be buried.
The people all anxions to know,
Just lift up the lid of my coffin
And show them old Rosin the Bow. (chorus.)
When I'm through the streets carried,
The Ladies nil filled with great woe,
Will run to their doors and tteir windows
To sigh for old Rosin the Bow. (chorus.)
Then give me a couple fair Doricks,
Place One at my head and my toe,
And do not forget to scratch on them,
The natme orold Rosia the Bow. (chorus.)
Just give me a dozen fine fellows,
And let them all stagger and go,
A nd dig a deep hole it the meadows,
And in it toss Rosin the Bow. (chorus.)
Just give me the same clever fellows,
Sorrounading my grave in at :ow,
And drink Fron ny hig brandy bottle.
Farewell-to old liosin the Bow. (chorus.)
Then take down my old rusty fiddle,
Aad inaae her tp solemn and slow,
Then make her speak plain of her hero,
To the tune of old Rosin the Bow. (chorus.)
When Gabriel's last trumpet is sounding.
The sheep and the go~ats im a row,
Just look on the right hand anong them,
And there you'l see Rosin the Bow. (chorus.)
Lyo;1sLATUaR.-Ils Uses and Abuses.
--lf there lie one who has no higher amibi.
tion thatn to ie a maere inman of business, a
mere slave or men's bodily necessities. a
mnere idolator of hsisown purse; to have his
lifei but a ihing of cotton bags and tobacco
Mogsheads, druggiss and dowlasses, mand
dr and fustie, town lots, bank stocks, and
exelhangaes; his mind like the advertising
side of a dily gazette, or the weekly price
cmrrent, the sum of his life, the balance
sheet of his ledger, and who estimates his
.worth by the dollars and cents which re
main to his credit, who would choose ihr
hsis immortality one eternal Wall street,
and give tap a crown of glory to be called
the best mamn upon "change,"-if there
be such an one lie may despise those mo
ments of leisure which husiness spares,
waste them in a sinful sleep, lounge them
away in rapid amusements, dawdle over
ephemeral magazines, or newspaper re
ports of police cases and shoeking accidents
squabble in the low arena of party politics,
exhasi his breath in blowing up every
bubble of popular excitement, lisp idle gal
lantries in ladies' ears, who in their souils
dlesaLpise suchl empatiness, anid but tolerate
die haol as thtey do a pet dog or a parrot,
foir want of bietter comipanay; or, herhaps,
dlo woarse, itt vualgar debanchteries. He
may despise leisuare and so wvaste it, hut
lie tmut't take the consequaetnce in this
world and the next. A mere merchtatt! a
miere mnan of bausiness !-WVho wvould be
content with such a designation? What
resptect can anay otte feel for such a char
accter ? All hie gets-fromn the worldl is the
credit of bteing worth so mnehl dross, or a
little fawnting or a little servility fromt tlhose
who wish to btorrowv of himx or owe himt
Thte N. Y. Exress, states that Robert
Lennmox. Esq. whot recenatly (lied in that city
hans left nut estate estimnated to he wvorth
hree milIlioans ofdaallars. He was sulpposeat
to have been the richest man in the city of
Newv York, with the exceptiona of John Ja
cob Astor. Mr. L. was a Dative of Scot
A fellow asked the meaning of "Re
'ard," the other day:-" why," said tan
other, "it mecans sometimet five dollars
and somnetime ten, and I have known it to
rtn ui as bigh as 6fify."
Pills.-A pall vendor in New York has
firmly beaten all competitors otut of the
feld by stylinag his medicine "Resurrection
pills." Dying can't frighten any body
Whiskey drinaking anever conducted wealth
imto a miant'a pocket. happitness to his famn
ily, or respectability to his character
therefore whiskey is a nuon conductor, and
consequaentaly it is best to lea it alone-nev
ertheless, we'tcan't resist a good whiskey
punch of a cold mnightif pressed to drink.
Wit OuLtWitted.-A well-dressed fellow
came to the shop of a pork-butcher, and
asked for a yard of pork, when the pork
buchett, without hesitatioa, dut himn off'
thre feet (pigs' feet,)
SPEECH OF MR. CALHOUN.
Of South Carolina, On the Report of Mft.
Grundy, of Tenne ssee, in relation to the
Assunption of the Debts of the States by
the Federal Government.-U. States
February 5, 1840.
MR.. CALHOUN said :-When I have
heard it asserted again and again, in ibis
discussion, that this report wits uncalled
for; that there was no one in favor of the
assumption ofState debts, and that the
resolutions were mere idle, abstract nega
tives, of no sort uf importaned, I could not
hut ask nyself, if all this he so,- why this
deep excitement ? why this ent zeal to
make collateral issues 7 -and, above all,
why the great anxiety to avuid a direct
vote on the reelutions ? To these inqui
ries I could find but one solution; and that
is, disguise it as you may, there is, in re
ality, at-the bottom, a deep and agitating
question. Yes, there is such. a question.
The scheme of assuming the debts of the
States is no idle fiction. The evidence of
its reality, and that it is now in agitation
burst from every quarter, within and with
out these walls, on this side and the other
side of the Atlantic; not, indeed, a direct
assumption, for that would be too absurd;
and harmless, because too absurd; but in
a form far more plausihle and danigerous
-an assumption, in efect, by dividing the
proceeds of the sales of the public lands
among the States.
I shall not stop to show that such dis
tribution, under existing circunsiances,
with the deeps indebtedness and embar
rassment of many of the States; would be,
in reality, an assumption. We all know.
that without such indebtedness andl em
barrassment, the scheme of distribution
would not have the least chance for adop-.
tion, and that it would he perfectly harm
less, and cause no excitement; but plunged,
as the States are in debt; it becomeg a
question truly formidable, and on which
the future politics of the country are des
tined for years to turn. '-If. then, the
schme should lie adopted,.it must lie by
the votes of the itrdebted S:aWes, in order to
aid their credit, and lighten 'their burden:
and who is so blind as not to see that it
would be in truth, what I have asserted it
to be in effect, to that extent, an assump
tion of their debts?
Here, then, we have the real queslion at
issue, which has caused all this exciteient
and zeal-a question pregnant with the
most important consequences. immediate
and remote. What I now prophse is; to
trace rapidly and briefly some of the more
prominent whieh would result from this
srheme, should it ever become a law.
The first, ant most .immediate, would
be to substract from the Treaury- a sum
equal to the annual proceeds of the sales
of the public lands. I do not intend to ex
amine the constitutional question whether
Congress has or las not the right to make
the substraction, and to divide the proceeds
among the States. It is not necessary.
The committee has conclusively shon
that it has no such power; that it holds the
public donaini in trust for the States in
their Federal capacity as members of the
Union, in aid of their contribution to the
Treasury; and that to denationalize the
fund, (if! may use the expression,) by
distributing it among the States for their
separateand individual uses, would be a
manifest violation of the trust, and wholly
unwarranted by the Constitution. Pas
sing. then, by the constitutional question,
I intend to restrict my inquiry to what
would he its fiscal and money effects.
Thus regarded, the first effect of the
subtraction would be to cause an equal de
ficit in ths revenue. I need not inform
the Senate, that there is not i surplus cent
in the Treasury; that the most rigid econ
omy will be necessary to meet the de
mandson it during the current year; that
the revenue, so far frotm hbeing 0n the in
crease, must be rapidly reduced, under
extsaing laws, in the next t wo years; andI
that every dollar withdrawt, by subistrac
aing the proceeds of the public lands, must
make a corresponditng dfeir. We are
thus brought to the qtuestion, what would
be the probable annual amount of the die
ficit. andI how is it to be supplied?/
The receipts from the sales of the pub
l'e lands, I would suppose, mzay he safely
estimated at five milliotns of dlollars at
least, on an average, for the next ten or
fifteena years. They were about six tail
litons the last year. The first three quar
ters gave within a fraction of five and a
half millions. The estimate for this year,
is three anti a half millions ; making the
average of the two years hut little short of
If, wit h these data, wve cast our eyes back
ont the last ten or fifteen years, ~we shall
come to the cotnclusion, ta king into consi
erat ion our great increase of poptulation
and wealth, and the vast quantity of pub
lic land held by the government, that the
average [ have estim-ated is not too high.
Assuminig, then, that the deficit wvould be
five millions, the n.,xt inaquiry is, how shall
it be supplied? There is but one way; a
corresponding increase of the duties on
imports. We have no other source of re
ventue buat the Post Office. No otne would
think of layinag it on that, or to. raise the
amount by internal taxes. The resualt,
thetn, thus far, would he to withdraw from
the Treasury five millions of the proceeds
ofthe sale. of the public lands, to he die
tributed among the States, and to impose
an equal amoutut of duty on imports, to
make good the deficit. Now 1 would ask
what is the difference, regarded as a fiscal
transaction, between withdrawing that a
mount for distribution, and imposing a simt.
ilar amount of duties on the insports, to sup.4
ply its nlace and ,that of laving the pro.
ceeds of the sales of the land in the Treas
ury, and imposing an equal amount of du
ties for distribution? It is clearly the same
thing, in eflet, to retain the proceeds of
the publie lands in the Treasury and tn im
pose the duties for distribution, or to distri
bute the proceeds and thereby force the
imposillon or the duties to supply the place.
It is, then, in reality, a scheme to im
pose five millions of additional duties on
the importations of the country, to lie dis
tributed among the States: and I now ask
where is the Senator who will openly a
vow himself an advocate of such a scheme?
I put the question home, soletnuly, to those
on the opposite side, do you not believe
that such a scheme would be unconstttu
tional, unequal, unjust, and dangerous?
And can you, as hottest men, do that in
effect, by indirect means, which, if done
directly, would be clearly liable to every
one of those objectious?
I have said such would be the case, Te
gtrded as a fiscal transaction. In a polit
ical point of view, the distribution of the
sales of the land would be the worst of the
two. Tt would create opposing and hos
tile relaiions between the old and new
States, in reference to the public domain.
Heretofore, the conduct of the Govern
ment has been distingtished by the great
est libierality, tint to say grenerally. towards
the new States, in the administration of
the public lands. Adopt this scheme, and
its coduct will he the reverse. Whutev
er might he granted to them. would sub
tract atn eqllal amount from the sum to be
distributed. An austere and rigid adtnin
istration would be the result, followed by
hostile feelings ou both sides, that would
accelerate the conflict between them in
reference to the public domain-a conflict,
advancing but too fast by the natural course
of eventis, and which, any one in the least
gifted with foresight, must see, come when
it will,.would shake the Union to the cen
tre, unless prevented by wise and timely
Having shown that the scheme is, in
effect, to imipose dtties for distribution, the
next question is, on whom will they fall?
I know thut there is a great diversity of
pinion, as to who, in fact, pays the duties
on imports. I do tnt intend to discuss
that point. We of the staple and expor
ting States have long settled -the question.
for ourselves, almost unanimons, from sad
experience. We know how ruinously
high duties fell on us-how they desolated
our.cities, and exhausted our section. We
also know how rapidly we have been re
covering as they have been roing ol, in
spite of all the difficulties of the times,
and the distracted and disordered state of
the currency. It is now a fixed maxim
gadh its, that there is not a whit of difier
ence, as far as we are concerned, be
tween an export and import duty-between
iween paying toll going otw, or returning
in-or going down to market, or returning
back. If this be true, of which we have
no doubt, it is a point of no little impor
tance to us of the staple States to know
what portion of the duties will fall to our
lot to pay. We furnish about three-fourl hs
of the exports, with about two-fifths of the
whole population. Four-fifths of five nil
lions is four millions, which would be the
measure of ur contribu!ion, and two-fiflis
of five millions is two millions,which would
be our share of the distribtiion; that is to
say, for every two dollars we would re
ceive, under this notable scheme, we would
pay four dollars to thie fund from which it
would be derived.
I now ask, what does it amount to, but
makitng the income of the States to the a
mount of five millions annually, common
property, to be distributed among them
according to numbers, or some such ratio,
wit hout the least reference to their respec
tive contribution? And what is that btt
rank agrarianism-agrarianisma among the
States? To divide the annual income is
as ntuch agrarianism as to divide proper
ty iuself; and wvould lie as much so divided
among twenty-six States, as among twen
ty-six individuals. Let me -admonish the
tmembers oppiosite, if they really appre
fend the spirit of agranatnism as munch
as maight be inferred from their frequent
declarations, tnot to set the fatail example
here, in their legislative, capacity. Re
member there is but one step between di
viding the income of the States, and that
of individuals, and between a partial and
Proceeding a step further in tracing
consequences. anot he.- question presents
itself-on what articles shall the duties he
laid ? On the free or the dutied articles?
Shall they be laid for revenue or for pro -
tection? Is it not obvious that so large an
amount as five millions, equal to one-third
of the present income from that source,
and probably not much less than one-half
what it will be at the end of two years,
cannot be raised without rotusing from its
slumber the tanfiquestion, with all its dis
traction and danger? Should that, how
ever,not be the ease; there is another con
sequence connected with this, that cannot
fail to rouse it, as 1 shall now proceed to
The act of distributing the sales of the
public lands, imng the- States, of itself,
as well as the amnount to he distributed,
will do much to resuscittate their credit. It
s the dosired result, and the leading mo
ive for the act. Five millions annually,
the amount assumed,) ou a pledge of thme
public domain, would, of itself, be a suffi
:ient basis for a loan of ninety or an hun
lred aiillions of dollars, ifjudiciously man
majed. But suppose that only one halt
uhould be applied, as the means of negotia
ing loans abroad, in order to complete the
ild,or to commence new, worksofimprove
tint. or other objects,.1 ask, what would'
be the effect on our imports, of negonting
a loan in 'England, or elsewhere in Eu
iope, of forty or fifty millions, in the course
or the-next year or two ? Can any doubt,
from pit experience? We all know the
process. Very little gold or silver is ever
seen in these negotiations. A credit is-ob
tained, and that placed in bank there, or
with wealthy bankers. Bills are drawn
otn this country, and then sold to merchants.
These are transmitted to Europe. and the
proceeds returned in goods. swelling the
tide of imports in proportion to the amount.
The crash of our -manufacturers folfow,
and that in turn, by denunciations against
over-importing'and over-trading. in which
those who have been most active'iu caus
ing it are sure to join, but will tace special
care to make not the least allusion to the
real source whence it flows. Is not that
the case at this moment? And can it he
doubted, that with the increase of the
cause, the clamor for protection will in,
crease, until, with united voices, the friend.
of the systeii would demand its renewal.
If to this we add, that, tinder the compro.
mise act, the tariff must be revived and
remoddled, who can look at such a con
currence of powerful causes without see.
ing thnt it would he almost impossible to
prevent the revival of the protective sys
tem, should the qcheme of distribution be
adopted ? I hazard nothing in asserting
that the renewal wouh[ certainly follow,
and, as this would be' one of the most prom
inent and durable conserlnences of that
scheme, I propose to consider it fully, in
its most important hearings.
One of the most striking features of the
system is its tendency to increase. Let i
lie but once recognized, and let the most
moderate duties be laid for protection;
but pit the system in motion, and its course
would be onward, onward, by an irresisti
ble impulse, as I shall presently show,
from past experience; and hence - the
necessity of vigilance, and a determin
ed resistance to every courseof policy that
may by possibility lead to its renewal.
This tendency to increase, results from
causes inherent sni inseparable from the
system, and las evinced itselflby the fact,
that every tariff for protectbon has invaiia
bly disappointed its frinds in the protec
tion anticipated, and has been followed
periodically, after short intervals, bj a de
mand for another tariff with increased du
ties, to afford the protection vainly antici
pated from its predecessor. Such has
been the result throughnut, from 1816 to
1828, when the first and last protective
tariffs were laid, which I propose to shtov
by a very brief historical sketch of the rise
and progress of the system.
The late wag, with the embargo and
other restrictive measures that preceded
it, almost expelled our commerce from
the ocean, and diverted a vast amount of
capital, that had been employed in'it, to
manufactures. Such was the cause that
led io the system. After the termination of
the war, there waq on the part of Congress
and the country, the kindest feeling tow ardo
the manufiacturiig interest, accomain'ied
by a strong desire so to adjust the duties,
(indispensable to meet the expenses of
Government, and to pay the public debt,)
as to afford them ample protection. The
mnanufacurers were consulted, and the
act of 'J1 was moddled to their wishes.
rThey regarded it as affording snflicient
and permanent protection, and I, in my
then want of experience as to the nature
of the system, did not dream that we
woult hear any more of the tarifl, till it
would become necessary to readjust the
duties, after the discharge of the Iubic
debt. Vainexpectation. Twovearshad
not passed away, before the manufactur
ers were as clatmorous as ever for addi- -
tional protection; and to tncet their wish
es, tnew dluties were laid, from time to
time, wish the same result ; but the clam
or still returned, till 1624, when the tariff
of that year passed, which was believed
on all sides to be ample, atid was consid
eredl, like that of '16, to be a final adjust
ments of thme question. It was under this
impression that the South acquiesced (re
luctantly) in t?'e very high duties it im
posed. The late General Hayne, then a
distinguished member of this body, took a
very active part against it; and I well re-,
tmembier, after its passage, that lie con
soled himself wvith thet belief that, though
oppreisive, it woutld lie the last. H is ex
pectatton proved as vain as 'mine, in '16.,
Before two years had, passEd, we were.
again besieged with the cry of the inade
quacy of the protection; and, in the sum-.
mer of 1827, a large' convention of mann.
facturers from all parts was heldl at Hiar
risburg, in Pennsylvanuia, to devise a new
and more atple schetme oif protection to
be laid before Congress at the next ses-.
sion. That movement. ended in. the a
dopion of the tariff of 1828, which, in or
der to make sure work, went far beyond
all its predecessors in the increase of du
ty. The duties were raised on the lead
ing articles of consumption from forty .to
fifty per cent. above fhrmer duties, as bigh
as they were. .1 speak conjecturally, with.
out any certain 'data. In less than three
years, even that enormtous rise proved to
be insufflicient, as I shall presently show,
and would eertainly have been followed
by new demands for protection, bad 'nor
the small, but gallan, State I represent,
arrested its further progress-no, that is
not strong enough-brought the system-to
the ground,..againist the xesipne of the
Administration -and Opposition-never, I
trust, to rise again. - ' '
Th. fact diiclosed ptliis brithisrie'
a sLiech is, tbkt athe is a coinsant ten
etiey to incieaiief4ihe protectve system;
and thstovery ineresse of duty, however
igh rerfuire penrodically, after a short