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"We will cling to the Pillirs of the Temple of our L-bersiesa t i Perfah ssidst ta ass.
VOLtIE V.. Ygteefl. Court Uoust, L: C, Ar2, 184. .o48 9.
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SPEECH CF 3R. PICKENS.
Of South Carolina, in the House of Rep
resettatires. Dec. 10, k639-On thes96.
ject of the Neto Jersey dispaed.'election.
Mr. Pickens presented the followin!
resolution. whitch was read, and which he
sael, he offered as an ani-nlment to the
resolution of his colleague, [3r. Waddy
"Reaulved, That the committee to be
raised on the New Jersey election. be con
fined to the question whto is entitled to Wie
mreturns" of election foer the Tin enty-sixth
Air. Pickeassaid he desired to state very
simply the lesition he occupaiel. If the
House, in its wisdomt. choose tto ratise a se
lect committee on this New-Jersey elec
tion, lie desired that it should be cmiined
t some definite mode f neton, andl to a
distinct. quetion stubmitted by ihi4 House.
tle desired it should hie continedtia the ques
tion, wihoa are eatitled tio the returns tat e
lectiotnas membniers frean the State of New
Jersey to the Twenty -sixth Cougrress?
He concurred in the remarks which had
been nde by his colleaguae [Mr. Thomp
son] in regard Ito the dhihcult poimtint
which the liouse was now placed. le
(Mr. Pickens) had understood that the
House would be thus involved, nd there
fiore he hal vated. agaiit the resolution uf
the-gentlenan from* Virginia, [MN1r. Wise.]
Ile had voted a.ainst the resolution of Isis
colleague L.\lr. Rheit.] ivhich wats adiop
ted aethie order of this House. ie (Mr.
r.) foresaw, or thotuht lie foresaw. the
very diticulty with which they were now
about to cintaend; antd lie weutidl here take
Occnsion o-ay. that he had voted agamut
the resolution of the entleman from Vir
ginia, because he [Mr. P.] desired a tliff'er
ent;mode of action. lfhe had beent called
upon to vote on that resoluviotn on the first,
second, or thirl day of the ses-ieon, he
would have voted in the affirmative. He
did not think, when lie came here, that ite
certificate-of the Governor ought to entitle
dsle imembuhersa holding.it to, he called, so as
a. be en rolled for orwnizaation.. lie ta.,'I
so before this discussion had progreosed.
He desired that course of proceedimig, sim
pily that eiiciency miihi be given to the
organizationi of this H-ouse. '1he House
huowevcr,ehtose teo pursuea dilreret couerse
This was his ope-n sentinment,.and lie lad
never disguised it. He thought it wasdue
to the country-that it was due to order,
that the Hause- should hiave pursumed that
course. He thruugha it- was, elie tea thae
counatry that that triumpJhfnt party, de
nouiinated thie Republaicani pairty, flushed
as it was with victory. shotld'have takena
that course, lie repenited this was hai
sentiment,. anad he bail never chiangedl it.
Bum the House thought proper toa take a
<4ifleaent course; and it hadau bieen involved
slay after day, in srenes which, to stay the
ieast, were of very little cretit to the A
merican Congress. it was to- aavoid these
scenecs that he desireed the courise he had
spiaken of shoiu~l e tken-. But the H ouse
th.imght paroper to alloew testimony to het
brought forward. True, it uns testimo
ny, not exactly fortnah., but stuch as enti
tle-him,.being ajuidge under mthe Conistitn
tion, to decide the simple question whit
were entitled to the returns. This was a
guestiona made under thme Cons~titution
trself, and he contended that this House
had a right to decide that qtueation, and
coauld- haive decided it the very inst day, ii
they hatd thought prpe tie eli 50.
Mr. V. here read the following -cease
froum the Guan-titutirnr of the U. States:
"Etich - House sluhllae thi jutdie of the
elections, returns, and goaalificaiutns of itt
It will thtus lie seen (contitnued Mr. P,)
that'the Cionstitution-t itself nmakes three
distit subjectst upon which this House
esaajudgte-und decide, unmtaely. thte-electioma
returns, aund qalificationus efits .miembears,
I-cotencd thur these are, in their nature,
ditnetqueston: You may decide'thata
member, returneed by the umajority eof votet
isentitled ito -theretturis. and yet yoni mas
decids, that he is totally ugnalified tuide'r
theCostitutonr. Suppose, foir instanace,
.that a majority of votes should return here
'a-mett under mwenty-five yeuw of -age, ot
the member: anl I ctiritend that if he held
a majority of ,voic at the Polls. he wold
be entitled :o be retirted, tout that he
would not he qualifiel to take his set.
And this illustratec the whole matter, that
the questions are itt their w ldle nature
distinct mnd separate. - So it was, he saild,
a mau may have a majority: at the polls,
and yet nay not he ekcted; and so the
House mights.decide that a rpin was a
member. -and ve't ildi he was -not entitled
to the returns. They .are all separate
Here,.in the development and progress
of - this race, we have- seen one notorious
fact admitted hig the papers, almtitted lay
the -g-nienan frm - New-.Jersey, .when
quaestionedl upon this pmti that is to say.
that the majority tof the voters of N. Jer
sey gave their votes to tither members than
those to Aton the certificate of the Gov
ernior has been given. The getletn
[Mr. Ranlolph) hat, admnitted tihm there
were a mnajoritv of votes on the other side,
but says they were not legal! Now who
has derided that theV were ntt1t legal ?
Wnuas it the hewal aihorities f New Jer
sey? The Governor, the Clerk. or the
jugl.es of electios? I lay down this broad
propo.isition, and I challenge gentlemen ta
the artitentmn that there ta no.atthority
ino ay-Sate offcier to judge antd decide
111upon the legality of vates after they have
been depaoa.siied in the hallo box, or receiv
ed at the pulls. You may challetge t
voter at the polls, and if* challt ittend for
gOW cause, histe 'ecannoat the receive I.
BIt if yolu go beyond this power, itikould
inevitatbly lead to ceiolsiou and -rntd.umnd
iransfer the judicial taower of this House
to lite icai officers of States. .
M.r. 1. P.proceteded. The- proposition I
maintaiiied is. that -tinder the clause of the
Contitutioin of the United Stttes, which
.I have read, we are created sole and ex
elusive jndoes of the reitris. I nee the
mimgnage of the Constittion. atnd I say
that no State atithority can interpose to
purge the polls atier -the liallot has beetn
deposited, or erer the votes have bPen re
ceived. (viva voce, ir yott choo'ue.) ,,,less it
he to earry out the local pt.licy ofthae Staites
as to qtalifications. There is another
clause of the Constitniion. which shows
totat the voters 1or this Herioe are intended
tea tie eat the sane clas- of voters as those
n ho are entitled to. vote for metilbers of
the Legisiture. Rut uponi the power tn
judge of returns al elections, there can
be to cotiirretu jurisdwtiin contneced
with these questions, ott the part of any
State authouity. withott a palpiable vio
lation if the ronstitsntiott. Almit thtt.
nod what is the renlt ? And It re I will
ohotaerve that, in reflecting uptan this issue.
I iave been forcibly struek with tite wis.
deo and' philo.%ophy of this tolle istrnt
ttent. (holding- up the Constitiutin of the
tiiedl States.) But suppose the contra
ry dfoctritie te ie true; this lot-ce would
he'It the maercv of conflictitg judgments
itn the States, as one larty or another might
from time to time. hie in the atsendatncv.
It is inaeccordaic with the very genit's
of the Guovertnmett that this brantch af it
,bauld he indeeaent; antil, in order to
mairntain its itilernetilence. it nutist lie the
exclusive judge ofthe rerrn. You can
not- get over that. plaie atdl palpable pro.
viion t the Con-titutini. It is not pre
renled lere that anv local atahority is
given to* the tnfi'ers of New Jersey ta puorge
the polls sifier the vuoie have been deposit
el. I didl not understand that question to
l'ive been raied; bur, I repeat, it is td
Mited- that a rnsnjority of vote were -on
the olhr sitde. That being so, I contend
that it is fur tis to say %n ho are enatitled to
the returts, and thaIt that single question
doels not-involve- other questions in regard
toa the electiont.
I amt taot dispoased to troat witha elit
re..pect the ce'rtitirate ofi the G;ov'erttor
This Houpese has o right ter piass eenstnre
tufeon haim H-e actedl sas a State uaticuer,
anud. if lhe dlidlsa n t probatbly act wuit h wacs
'team, still I doc noet deanba that he actedl iun
dler a coniscienltionts lcief that he was a
tmere mainistrnria~l efficer sif the faiw 'That
mtay lie. He maty htave-suppoasedl that lie
wns elcing h'is deay. lie gatve the certifi
cate uponat the returns mtiade lay the clerks.
anad annzonntceed thfat lie coauld no t loaok lhe
hindi them. He loiokedl 'ipon hintieif as
thte muere mnitsterial register. ande stttpoedi
etat his certilien.te was tea tie viewedl itt
fhat lighit.ttnd itn thai light easly. linit lother
gentlement mtaty b~e eniadea tortrm. nuat
nihstandaeing his certificate. Ande my
preopasitiont is tis: that there is nao au
thority in the State of New Jersey tojjudie
oaf the legality of voates; and that, after the
votes have been deposited. thoste who re
ceived thec majority, are entitled to the re
terns.- And that we are made thesale-and
exclusive judghes of the legality. I con
tentd that there was vaset wisdamr itn this
proavisions tf the Contstitttions, atnd thmt the
framters intended us top he a co'ordinate
braunch eaf thit. Goverett entire'ly irnde
pendcent,. aned that titis Heause alene slhonie
decide upotn the eleetius. retearns antd eftal
ificasionas.of its ntembghers. Without thast
parovision, what coomes oaf all outr indep en
deuce? 1 cointende that the qitestioni is
nouw biefore ns itt a tangibtle shapae.
Somte gentlemten say that thte IHouse is
tnot constitutiontally oirganiized. I thintk
there iascitte coanfuisioan-ocf ideas, here. The
"Crntgress shualt assernlae at-least once
ina every year:tiand sttehl mneetina shall lbe
eas the first Meinday in Decetmber, unltess
they shaill, hay law, appoint- a. diff'erett
That (continued Mtr. N).is the (lay ap
poisted by the Constitution foir Congeess
t is composel of members elected by the
people aif the States, wh are chosen everj
other year under this tintiutional provi
sill, anal who are entitled o assemble here
as Ihe Consitution directs. The Consti
tution then uoes onl to define what shall
constitute the Hotse of Representatives.
"It leclarea the liHouse or Represeotaivoi
hall be composed of members chiser
every second )ear by the people of the sev
eral States." - It does not say of mtember
anid i Speaker. hi t of' memiera chosen b)
the people. This con-aiutes a Hoube ol
Representatives, in the definition of the
Constituion. The esine insarumient de
clares .-that the House or Representatives
shall eluas.,e their Speaker mid other otli
cers." This presupioses the existence ul
a House competent at least, to deciale i put
its own organizatioan. Can the constitu
tional exisienceof the lousme be more clear
ly definte-d and dentonvirated? It is chop
ping logie upon n ords-lo deny our legal ex
tstence. Noz, gentlensen suppose we muI
take auouth beftore we can act, judge, or
decide. Let its read proviuion. And ii is
to he oboservedt that it is a mere general
- The Senators andl Representatives he
fore mentioned, and the tmembers ofsever
al State Legislatures, aud all exe-tative
1andl jidtesil ofticer., he h of the United
Stat-s. and of theseveral Staie, shall he
bound by oath or atirmaait,. il suppiort
the Coit us tia." - Naw, (contitned Mr
P.) 1 will ask. does the Constituaun pre.
scritic the imie when this oath shall be ta
ken? Does it say that it shall be onl the
first second, air last day of the session?
The law of seventeena hundred anal eighty
nine prescribes and authorizes the obliest
member tin this floor if dminduister an
oath it the Speaker, anal then lirescribes
the inule in which the Speaker shall ail
.t.iniater it to the iembers. But \1r. P.
contented that the Constitution itself hav
ing fixed the day of meeting, the loulse of
Represeatives are a tbaly an the first
.monaday or December. competeni to decide
oi quetins fir returts; and, if we shitnk
proper, tat go into the whole qatestion
4f election. That however, would lie
vastly inexpedient. But on a question
f mere qualification<i and returns-if
an issue lie raised, atid it is ohjeeted
that one class of members lie fals-ly
returned, we arehen competent ita de
aide thar que-stion, anal we mntist. rom.
iecessity, do so. Itis ithreu iu the pow
er ar.d the right ita organize.
Now, let'us disenitangle oturcelves from
tihis confusion f idaas. The legal alipor
tiotment of It-presentatives given this
House two hundr-i andt foriv-two mean
hers, ant the Conttintiaon has, int express
eil lerm, litael thetm exclusive judges an
quoestions or "election<, returns, and luali
ficatians." Suppo.se, instead (if that cinn
stitutintal provision, that it hail been le
elared that A or 11 were to be exclusive
ji es tin thoae qiestions. would there he
any aliictiilty itt deriding upon the point ?
The whole confutition arises from the idea
Air having two hundred anl forty-swo
judges insimio o nly one. ir only one
jiatle had been created by the Conatitn
titn, there woild lie dilliculty in deciding
the whole questitin ail the first day. Yet,
as fr as riahl and legal principle are in
volva-l. it iA the same thing.
Viewing the sil.ject itt this, light, antd
foreseeing the ddfienliies that mst iievi
tably arise. I was di-posed to conftine the
whole question it a qiestion of retirn,
aid I contend thait we re the atcompetet
jilges fir that question wheiever we thinak
miperto take it. Ir is not only siund
sense. butl sotund 'policv, tat keep the ques
tin selarate. Ifyaou decjl'e that the tmere
returns af offiaers muni, iilall casel, cols
culde te judhgmtic if thais [Hotste ;as tat n ho
are etnil laed tat aheir saeats andta to the retutrits,
thent yalt hldla out thte the greatest tmp
tations. to hitter atid coiitemiling patra ies to
.perpietrate frauda asnd inijulsaice by failse re
ssina. T he caonseagneaaaes will lie. that
wheanm this Haisea maty lie consideareda as
eqaltly batlituced,. antd pow~er atnd ettpire
nae atstike, the aelec.tive- fr'anchise n ilhlibe
at the amercy afobscure antd irreiiaile
atiiaers, anda this H1onsie will lbe maude anty
thinig and eversy t hing that thetair proifligaacy
nalipartly hittertness mtasy chtaoose. It is
oft the very e-ssetnce aifaiir systeam that wve
shtauld lbe the excluasi' e guaradianrs &a judages
er right or wraing, aiur jtudgmentaa over re
iets, qua ilic;iaisns, antd e-leetons, inust
Its exclustive anda tarammaeled.l. Any atht
er doctrine mtusa itntxluce imabecihtay and
ittmeacy itto tihevery- centre of
sitality ina atur systeml.
In paresentinag these views to'the House,
I bave actedl ettirely on mty ownsjjudgmenat,
asnd I have inatroduceed a resolution 50 maeet
the pirecise issne, acaording tao aty cotnsei
en-ittuis consviaction afthte trnuth of the case.
I baeevethat we are the judges--l believe.
atcroanlinto iihle ale velaipteents wihel htave
tbeen tadae tin this floatr, the uetlemetn
whto hsave thIe certificate of' the Goi ernor
are tnat etmithead tao the retursns; aud, so lie
lieving,~ it m reptareda to meaet thte qutes
tioan. I tda-a preparred ti o i) several days
ago. I desire to daeale it now, f'rankly,
tarly. tandl holadly, betfaire the noarldl, with
am thte trammisels and the collateral issues
atat harve beeni thratwtn arounda it by .the
techniictalities afeattry court special plea.
dintg. I act here ona msy owna responsi
I tio not propose anty thing which is the
result of' concrert. af causes. or of undaer
stanadinag eteared into it ao' this dionse. I
act alonte upatat my c'onvictionl or what
believe to lie true, and rig/it and just.
Sir, we hav'e-seena tot) tmuch. piarty or.
ganuizatioan and party tdrill. If there is one
cmii of the nrcsent dav, ereater than
another, it is that miserable party sprii.
onl lsith sides, which seets disposed -to
draw.every member into humble sihservi
encyto the idictatesofa few leaders.
There is another senisntem n hicn I en
tertain, ani which I will here avow. It
is ti; that during the last Ad ministration
thei bas been two strnig executive ac
tionin this Government; and-it is #ine
thai the 5Represeuuatives of the people
should -*ssert their ind'eiendence, and
trample on the ties of party-looking only
to the-good of the country, to the sauctity
of the CoUnstitution, and to the preservation
of their own honor and indepeudence. If
there he one object more dear to me than
anaiker, it is, 1hat I may see this House
redeenied and regenerated-that I may see
it break loose fron its suberviency to that
monster god of party. a hich is reared up
o Ievery side, and which claims from its
victims a base deioted, and blind idolatry.
Sir. I have proposed a resolutios whioil
I fbelieve will meet the truth of the case.
I helieve tht we are the exclusivejadges
of the whole sibject-natter, tmade so by
the Constitution itself, in laigage too
plain tobe misundertomid. The time and
manner ofdeciding is a mere mnatter of ex
pediency. I mainwin. also, that there can
lie no* coticurrent jurisdiction upon: this
juestion by any State authority ; and in
ma1i1initainiig this, I mtaintainii the iridepen-.
dence of this House, which I believe to lie
essetial to the preservatiou of American
The propositions, then, which ' d-sire
to be decided, are first; thai this House is
is the suprene and sile jidge of the elec
tions, returns, and qualifications of its
menwrs. And secondly, that' no 'Siate
otlicer has a right to judge of the legality
of votes, after -they have been received;
and that those who have received a na
jority of the votes polledt are, by righ en
titled if the returus. Upton that -i
ple, I voted yesterday in the case v he
genieman rronm Pennsylvania, (1r. Nay
ter.] It is precisely the cas.e at iseue.
There you have ditirent rettrns, one
mtember is admitted in have a majority,
but another gentlemtan assunies that ihev
are illegal votes, and the jilges assume to
themselves the richi to throw out the
whidaNorthern Lilberie-4. I tinitain
that had, no sch right under tie
Constitution. Their acts were void. and.
-the mntnr Must 1tefL ts , lifNItrinAiil on
ly. It is this ahii shall goverunmy vote.
When I bone as a judge to decide (in the
nerit< of the election. thenr it inity lie dif
ferent as to final judgmeti. It will do
pend ipon the fact, whether enough fron
those %ho received the majority of votes.
shall be proved to be- illegal, to violate the
elecrion. All votes leposi ted anI received
by the priper llicers iilo the ballot box,
naust lie presumed to lie legal. until other
wise shown. This is souind sense as well
as law. Upon these nuestinus, I assert
the power of the House to judge fully.
but- I deny the authority of the officers of
the State of Pennsylvania. uide-r the laws,
to reject. votes, after those votes have been
deposited in the ballot hox.
Standing. upon this- principle. I am rea
ly to give tmy dote in the New Jersy case.
andl I in di-sposed at once to meet the
question, (Whic-h may be n well decided
now, as a montth hense,) who are entitled
to the returns. As far as ulterior objets
are concerned, I kiow the supposed deli
eacy of iy. posititn at present ; but I ,corn
to uppres my Retitnits.
I would not wear the proudest diaden
ihnt ever glilered upin a mtionmir-h's lirow,
it' I could not wear it unshnckled and free.
I would not turn to the right or left, for po
liticid favor. I hold ro sentimentts in my
clo-ei which I will not avow to the world
I tiy ipintion. it is due to the dlignty of
the hlouse to mneet- this qtuestiotn calmly
atnd decidedly. I am ready to vo-e. If.
youi let the nhole stmlhj-ct mnuer go to a
commtittee, yon w ill ittvolve tns int qutes
tions 'wthich w ill t.i lie decided this ses
5ion:. If you choose to cotifite thtem to the
questiotn oh retutrns, you c-atn do so. anid we
cani have protmpt actiotn; lint atny othecr
other course- will lead to confusion and
From the Baltinmore Post.
-Fewpersmshve ay cncepionof the
black' population or the city at the prsent
time. We wvish some ofV the fanatie lend
ers of the northern abolitionists could wit
nesas iee f. the seenesof misery thut daily
coime under the notice of the distributing
commtittees-lor the poor. If ii did not'
forever sadltheir lips otn the subject of
slavery, it- would at least soften the asperi
ties of their warfare against it. A gent le
man enginged as one of the distributing
commuit tee-in seeking out objects requiring
reliefI, ntentioned to us the lollowing, air a
fuir repiresenmation of alibnost-irtumeranle
cases in the lanes and alleys of the city.
Oni the fir.t floor of ai small tenemnet
about ten lect sqtuare he fannda a family of
etghtr lacks,:omprsg-ma man, two wo
tmen and flve childrena. The adults- w-ere
partially covered with- a few miserable'
rags, but the children were- entirely-naaked.
They were nithout fire,- without f- od,
wnthout a bed,. or' any thiud to keep
thetm from-a frezht linbt a qnantity of st-rawi
and a few rags itn-one corner 'of the room.
OIn the second-floor of the same hovel
was' another family- of three' persons;i a
tian.. his-wif'e and. child. The wife was
laying sick uponi a few. shavtingea ott thd
flor, cov-ered only-with-a--piece of an old
carpet. I-n-other rewpectes*the cmidition: of
the inmates -was the same as those- 'i the
room belo',. with the excentiori that they
hasl the luxurv of a few-dyioin embers, the
retma;iitm, of a hadfal or tinat begged frim a,
tan yard . Btiiese wert -iut snliffvein
to protect hei'r feet froi bein.frnst hitten.
InI the cellar was another family of sev
en persitn, in a cdndtisionegaijstllydei islue
aud with theawditional inconvenienee thar
more than half the cellar bittom wtas cov
ered with water. - It a partially dry corner
these seven persons live and sleep etmier
ging from their hole to beg or steal such
scauy provisions as will sustain life. -
Such t one picture among hundreds
that might be drawn, of the starvation,
wretche:fneoss, and misery amoingst the
the free blacks, whilst there is not a slave
in the city that is not well fed, we'l clothed,
well lolged. and every way comfortably.
provided for. The ' aboliiionists- are no
riend to the -lnves when they urge their
The people in Niw Orleans' propnes a
repel of tie aniti gambling law. While
they allow tlia hankcr and lotteries to
swindle them in open day light, it is con
temtpiible and rilicilous to keep any anti
gambling haw on the statite book. We
thinak that where lottery vender.s, loitery
wheels, banks and every species of ma
chintery to delude and rob hath the young
and the old, and plunge thousisais..daily
itnto irretrievable ruin, are not only tolera
ted but eacotraged by legislators. the-farro
dealers (tught also to lie allkwed to lay
lown- their implements of hell, right at the
corner of evety street. But. let them be
fined and put in the penitentiary if they
gamble in secret. Exposing the ftrro
achinery to the odiutt of the piblic woiad
prolduec a salutary effect sin society anala
goti4 towhat would result frunt the exjo.
stare daily of all paper noney bank trau
Hard Times.-We hnve heard of a cir
cumtistaice, which at once.evinces the
trotbles s f the times. anI the preidetce of
the people of North Carolisn. The mer
chants of the tist flouri~hinig town in the
Western part of North Carolina, have en
tered intio boil wiit each tither, not to go
or send it .the North this Sptting ror the
purelhasc of goods. This is a priadeut
slep, whether as regnrls the people or
tmercha nts.unid % e hope I lie good sense ..f
the pe-mjeituhlatle"iAn"Ln *1
in -it. ' hie present 4eason may bie %%ell.
dlevoted to dislinsing or stocks on lanstl.
settlinsg acconts, &c., and the fashiiona.
ble-i nay vell dleny themselves in these
A rumor has reached New Orleans from
Mexico. that as negsciiusn is pending be
tween Enland anl Nexico for a- cession
so Etgland of the Californias. The ces
sion of the two provinees would give to
Great Britain tn extensivt and vahmuble
territory, itn a pat f the worlm where she
has lon been anxious so gaits n Itathols.
besides securing asn object still tiore desi
rable-n spacious range of sea coasi 'on
he Pacific.strstchsine more than a thous
ani'miles fraon the 42d degree of hitistile,
-4sth-swee ping the cirensit of the penin
sula of Cuilsruil and enbracing the har
horsofthat Gulfthe fiiest in N. Amuerica.
Important Discovery -Cpt. Chatncey
Trreni, of East Hanrtorsl, has discovered a
co-nplete remedy against the ravages lif
she Caiker Worsn, simply by encircling
the appletree at the surlace of the grounid
with Scotch Snstl. The wsiter of ite
article has examined the trees on Capt.
Trent's premises, aid tund the circle aif
sif1csicnpiltely fringed with thousands
of dead woris. These irees were all Inr
red, anl where the snufl was u-ted no
wvorams appeared ont she tar, and where
the snuff waq omiittedl the inieets nearly
covered the tar-l asra ford Courant.
Gen. WahingtLon and Lord Erakine.
A vinnwsss was pr-estedl to Genteral Wash
insgton, ini I797. by Thlomne.4 Lsmrd ErM
kitne. on a blaink page oif which be wrote
the follin~isg noate, conitaintisu perhaips,
sthe hnptpist enslaiumsi af the many. he~sow
edi upon1 'has woniderful mtan:
--Sir, I have s akets the liberty to instro
dttce yosur nngas ansd imtimortal name its a
asiri sentence whic'h is io lbe fsannd in thea
book I sensd yost I ha~ve a large acquaini
tansce amonig she mtost vainble and exaltedh
classes of mesn, bui yaou are the onily
human hieing for whom I ever felt atn aw ful
reverensce. I sitncerely piray yoal to granit
a long and serenecevening to-a life so glo
riously deoted to the liapiness of' the
No ime jar Rerading.-GSo into the hnu
ses of susme of our fartmers, anad yous find
no newspaper, not periodical of ainy- kind,
and hardly a hook. Ask such mieni ii
subscribe 1ir a paper, and they will tell
you that they have tno time to readl one.
ut who i~s S) :onist antly emloyedV64 as to
!lsnd n's leisure fir the' emplsoytment of his
tiitnd ? Not the fdtmer: fair the long wits.
ter evenings afford him a few hsours every
dlay,. which he mnight devote to reuaing,
Not the mechanic; fir- instances are fre
qlUent w herethe itndust riaous an izans havye
attaineda an eminience in ihe-sciences, mere
ly b~y giving their leisre.to study.
Onae ofthe most emninemis oriental icholars
of the age, is professuor Lee, of one of the
Enuglish Vsnivertsities, and yet all his' edu-.
catlinure acqpired during. iho.-moments
ofliuewhich he liundI while employed
as a- p~urneyan. carpenter.
No pr-udent man- will oppugn'the-mnerits
of a conutemporary-in-his. oa-suppssed
Yale's Waer-Proof Glue or Cement._
Take'of the best' Trish glue. frar (sit# r.
i1id o isinglinss, two ltInces: these miust?
be lis-solved it) mild tile, (not state) over a
slow fire, in a commron glue keille, to thi
Con1i We if stroig glue; % ben one olnce
of well builel linseed nil must he gradual
-ly added, and the w hole Well incorporitted
togelher .by. stiring.. . Tincrese. . ttq
streigli, of the glde, 0r-e.iinj iss way be
This cement is applicaylfe to the joints
of wood,, in every branich of manufacture:
as alsO to joining earthenware, china, aid
da.s-care being i4ken to pres lhe parts
well 'geaier,- and to allow them aufficient
The cement, when cold; stid'made intd
cakes, assumes the a pipearance f i Indian.
rnhher; and, like it, is lartie. If tiav., iat
iny timtie, n1 I e wanted fitor use, be disstild
ved, by a gentle beat. its any proper iron
or plazed vessel; first puiting into it a littli
ntild'ale, ito prevent' it- from hurning at the
hoitm saf the vessel;-adding-iore ale. to
lring it to a portier consisteniry fr suse..
T, rVemnent leather together far hart -4,
hauls lir mi chitery, &c4 having prepared
the joints- in the usual n ay, as if for sew
ing, apply the cement while lit,'laying 9
weiht bpian eich joint. a, it ,is inide: let
ihetm reinain'ix hours beforenusiing, and
thejosints will thenbee.ome nea-ly as firm
as ir timdsle of ote enjtire piece of JIathr.
Ali excellent ceinetit for stoppling leaks in
casks..&c., may he inade by liutting i
little toiv to the other itugredients.
limnensity of Crration.- Some tsiron
uniers have computei that there are not
less-thain 75 millions of suns. in the uni
versse. Tlhe fixed stars are all suns. ht;av
ing. like or sunt nunierous planets revolv.
-ving arind thiem. - The solar syteni, ot
rhan to which we helopig, has about thirty
pilauet$.'prima ry and secondary belonging
to-it. The circular field of space hieh
it oenrpiea is in diameter 3600' millions of
mailes, and that which it .eantrols miuch
greater, The suit which its ner rest neigh
hour ta ours is calledt Sirus, distailt frntn
mir sun about 852 millions (if miles. Now,
if all the fixed stars are as listant fromia
each ather a Sirius is front our sun, or if
sor solar y sten ay t lie.nverage mnuitud
(f aill the 7.5 iillions-a of suns. U hat imagin.
Sha can survey a j.lanttion cnta iing
75 millionsts uaf circular fields,eaclh 10 msil
liis of iailes in diameter ? Such hnt ev.
er. is ie of the plantation, (if Him wha
has measured the waters in-the ioillonW if
his liind- etteed out.hesaen nlith a pa
-cn pr-hei the dust in a itseanre-ad
ne ighed the moatainai ins scales.an isitl l-i
inl a balance. lie who. "siiting upon tile
osrit tf the carh, sist-tches ailu he eia.
ven aq a curtain, asnd spreadelli tuemls 4t1t
a. a -tent to iwell in. Nations to Him fure
it a drop of a liw ket and are coln:,-d a,4
the stinali diaet of the halasnce;" f'nd vei
over-wheliettitg thiought! He says. **T'hs'
I dwell in the high and holy -plasce, with
him alsowill I dwell who is of an humble
rtij votstrise spiris, and tremtbles at my
n i!"-CGhmt ian Alumnuack
PoLIrTICs AND . oaALs.-A great many
excell, lit, lut -its our opiniin', shsa1 t bightej
peiple, hold practical politics in a sor or
hsalv dreadl, faa or isear-of containation
avOid disctnsion and rarely ever vote.
'h'liese are mral and reliainous men. 'haere
is- another class who es uceive politics to
bie dtebaltins.--etievatihg to 'he mind
und too excsing lor calm reflection and
dleep stIdy. Theiie are the schslar-,,
Miks iartineau said hliat in the United
diates 'politnies is morals.' This is true,
ail if the ides could It fully appreciated
ta believed hy the elase we have nan
edt our country. wosuldl lhe better govterned,
andtistmore virtuous msen wsotuld liectomie out
overnors. O.s the bsroad fundttatioan of
psli: it-s our whole sociual sy.stems rests, and
ri-ligioan, imoraslisy, sceience andI literature
wotild be crushled said annihilatedl, irgoiods
mien, antd gosod schsolars shoulsl avoid the
piolitical arensn. .In a free gsav~ritmient like
tnrs, psolities is indseed morals, for where
the right sof.atuffrages is.so otmestraisied,
greaut raaliin by the haeiter intformsdt tmust
lie usedl to cheek thteexcessess of the unedus
ratedl ans I viciose. Every miant sehould be
a piobriciani, active aind puassive,. lir in thae
lsaaag'e othe sleditorts? she Boeseisan Qtair
terly Retviwt. we c'annist cstients~o the,
notions thtat poelitica is a lowt andI dehs,.ing~
subsje'e, tar that a schbar necessarily dersa
1;ates'froma hisi dignitv.. lay enigagingin the
poliucal movemteuts of his countrymaen'
Imd( tdoing what lhe casn to sustain whsat he
believes to lie true parinciples, and tsasecure
us his countatry Slae prac'tical blesingsof'them
by supporting measures which* will eta
body them in lawsanidinstisuions.
SNilk Culture.-The National Silk So.
rieiy have silFered numuerouis bounties, va
ry ing fromt $100- to $I050~ eac'h, for the
best stpecimentn of raw-silk, to he.produmced
lnrinigthe cotniintg staistmer. TFhe -whotle
amtount tof thoehlnties is $1.000; The
prospect isifhir that the: silk' euliur' will
haecomie.a prominenSft antd settled par- of
ouar domestic indlusry,.amI thntsilkreishei'
raw o-mantufacted, will constitttwith
in a few':year~s a valuae eteplt' btjms
If~men of wit and phs vWouhl! resolve
aievertoa comnplainati . 'eir wrorsis- Fai-tics
and detractors.--she-heate age wtould ntot
know tat they ever had any.
Law-pennetwith the~utnost cari- and
exanega.anIW our'own languge, are
osten preverted to wrong meanngs why
should we wonder that tho Bible is so