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- - the ~Pilir of the Temsplc of our Liberi e fi etfnd B efhexusi the RI"**.
VOLUME V. Vge.CorHosS .,.rII2 1840 AM:.
W. F. DURISOE, PROPRIETOR.
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SPEECH CF -11R. PICKENS,
Of South Carolina, in the House of Rep
resentatires. Dec. 10, 1639- On the sub
ject of the Netw Jersey disputed. etection.
Mr. Pickens' presented the following
resolution. whch was read, and which he
sail, he offered as an amnnmlinent to the
resolution of his kolleague. [Mr. Waddy
"Resolved, That the conmnittee to be
rai-ied on the New Jersey election, be con
fined to the question who is entilet- to ihe
"returns" of election for the T euty-sixi h
Mr. Pickeassaid he desired to state very
simply the ipnsition he occupiel. iM thr
House, in its wisdon. choose to raise a se
lect comimittee on this New-Jersey elec
tion, he desired that it should be coinfited
to some definite mode of action, and to a
distinct.que.ion subtitted by this House.
tie desired is should toe continedto the ques
tion, whit are entitled to the returns of e
lection'as members frotm the State of New
Jersey to the Twenty -sixth Comress
He concurred in the remarks which had
been made by his collenage [Mr. Thoumip
son] in regard to the dilficult posijiauto In
which the House was now placed. Lie
(Mr. Pickens) had understood that the
House would be thus involved, a'nd there
fore he had voted. agaitol the resolution or
thegantenan from Virginia, [MNr. Wise.)
lie had voted anainmst the resolution of his
colleague [3Mr. Ithest,] vhich was adop
oid as the order of this House. He (Mr.
P.) foresaw, or thought he firesaw, the
very didiculty with which they. were, now
about to contend; adl he wouai here take
occasion it say, that he had voted againtt
the resolution of the centleman frott Vir
ginia, because he [Mr. P.) desired a liffer
erntmode of action. Ifhe had heen called
upon to vote on that resolutiona on the first,.
stecond, or. third, day oft the session, he
would have voted in the affirimaive. ie
did* not think, when ie camie here, that the
certiicate-of the Governor ought ti entitle
Mhe mnembers, holding.it to. tie called, so as
w.- be enarolled for orJiiztaion.. lie tht
so before this dis4cussion hail progreise.
He desired that course of proceedmttg, sins
ply that efficiency might be given to the
organizations of thsis H-onse. Tlhe House
lhowever,choose so p~ursu.aL difreret cou rse
This was his open sentimntt,.ami lie hantd
never disguisedl it. Re thought it was due
to the cemtry-that it was dtue to order,
that the Houser should have pitusuedl that
course. lie throught it- was, dlue to- then
count ry that that triutmphsaut party, de
noiated thie Repulicanm party, flushed
as it was with victory, shoutld -have takent
that course. lie repeated this was his
sentinment, and he had ntevercebangeid it.
Bot- the House ihoughs proper toi taske a
<diffeent course; andi it hadti beeni involveid
day after day, in sceines which, toi say the
1east, were ofE very little credir to the A
mericanl Congress. It wams to' avoid these
scenes that he desidredl the course lie hail
spokent ofshimuld betamken. But the House
thoaught proper to alloaw testimony to bte
brought forward. True, it was testimo
ny, not exactly formal., but such as enti
ale him, beinug a judge undermhie Contstitn
tion, to decide the atmphle question who
were' entitled to the returns. This was a
question made under the Constitution
itkelf, and he contended that this House
had a right so decide that question, and
could-hamve decidedl it the very lirst day, if
they had thought propemir to ido so.
Mr. P. here read the foltowing' clase
fromt the Gon-tittmion of the U. States:
"Each House shaull Iee the judg~e of the
elections, retutrns, and qualificaions of its
it will thus be seen (contintued Mr. P,)
thiethe Cwmatimution- itself makes three
distinct subjects upion which this House
eajudge-and decide, nam iely. thme electionts
returns, andI qutalificationts of iisomeiamers.
I~cOaktnd thur these are, ini their nature,
diitineqetionm: You may decide'that a
member, returnedl by the majority of~ votes
isseutitledi to 'the returte.; andi yet vounmav.
diecide, that he is totally ung~q'alified uder
ihe-Consatitu tuomr. Suppose, for inasiance,
that a majority of votes should return here
"a man unders twenty-five years- of 'age, or
-,n -,ic. 'This es toh,.n u..ictn.-.. ur
the member anit t coritend that if he held
n majority of votes ai the polls. lie wulad
be entitled :to be relturned, hut that he
would not lie qualifieil to take his seat.
And this illustrate the whole matter. that
the questions are in their n hstle niature
distiict bud separate., So it was,-he said,
a mas may have a majority: at the polls.,
and yet -may -not he elected; and so the
House might. decide thait a mat was a
mesber. -and vet ihii lie' was -sot entitled
to he 'returas. They ar.e all separate
Here, in The development and progress
of -this case, we have seen one notorious
fet admitted hg the paper', admittel by
the g,-utemane fsrom New-Jersev, when
quesiiotied t hiot tis poit; that is t0 say,
that the majority of the voters or N. Jer
sey gave their votes to other members iharo
those to hon the certificato of the Gov
ertnor has beeni given. The getlem-ian
[Mr. Rasndaolph) laze.' admitted ihn there
yere a majority of voites on the other side,
but says they were not legal! Now who
has decided that thev were not legal ?
Was it the local authorities eof New Jer
sey? The Governor, the Clerk, or the
judges of election? I lay down this broad
proposition, andi I challkinge gentiletie to
the arauttienst; that there is no .authority
in any State ofieer to judge atndl decile
upon1 ithe legality of voites after they have
been dfepos.itesd in the hallos box, or receiv
ed at the polls. You laty challenge it
voter at the polls, and it ch alnletei foir
gold entnse, his voe cannot lie receive I.
11u1t if you go beyond this power, it-oulal
inevitally lead to ceinfusio and fran d.uand
iransfer the judicial inwer of this House
to tile lal-s officers of States. .
Mr. * . proceeded. The' propostion I
maintained is. that -tinder the clause of the
Cons-titution of the United Sttes, which
.1 have read. we are created sole amsi ex
elusive judges of the restirits. I nie the
ia nige of the Constiention. and I say
ha1it no State anthority enn interpose to
purge the polls atier -the halliet ha< bept
derposited, or efter the votes have been re
ceived. (viva ;oce, if you chooe.) toless it
lie to sarry out the loeal policy o tihe States
"as to qtalifications. There i<i arnother
clause of the Cortsitsution. which shows
that tie voters ror this Hsose are intended
tt lie of the sane clas- of voters as those
w ho are entitledi it vote for mietibers of
the Le-gislture. Rut uponi the lpower too
judge of reltirns all elections, there can
be no cotncurrent jurisdi-tion ceonnected
with these- questions, on the part ofa nty
State authorlity. withot a pailpabile vio.
Iation oif the constiri tion. Admitait that.
aud what is the reuit 1 And I re I will
osbiserve that, in reflecting upon this issite.
I have been forcilbly siruek with the wi
domi and philosophy of this niobile instris
itent, (holdinu up the Coinsiinution of the
Usnited States.) But suppose the contra
ry dortrine to lie true; bis lHoise wsould
itenat ise mtercv sif confuicting jusiments
ill the States, as one party or anoither triglt
fromi time to time, be in the-tsendanev,
It is int necordaice with the very genis's
of the Govertimetis that- is hracthi o it
-hould ie indeplelsetit; atiti, in order te
Ilaininin its inideienillence, it nsest he the
exclusive juge ofshe returns. You can
not- get lever that. plaine asil pilpable pro
visisorl (t the Constitution. It is not pre
tensded here that any local othsrity is
given e to the flieersr of New Jersey ti purge
tihe poli afier the vsites have beet deposit
eol. I did not untlerstand that question to
have been raiseid; but, I repeat, it is ad
Milted that a -majority of votes were -on
the ot her side. That breing so, I contend
that it is for us ti say n ho are entitled tn
the returss, wi tlat that single questio
doles not- involve other questions in regard
toi the elec-tisin.
I ami nost edispsesd to trent w'ith sdis
respectu the ce-rsiirate of the Gslvernsr.
uponis him lHe acitd as a State eojiirer,
ands. if lie slid not pirobaabilv net with wis
'iio, still I doi nit donhlit thamt lhe ac-tesd un
dier a csoscientaions belief that he wras a
maere mniista-rial silicesr sir the law Thalt
atay be. He tmray ha~ve5slupposed that he
wattsuising I'. isuty. lie gtae the certifi
cmte upon01 the retturns ttadse by the clerks.
andts annttOnneed5iI t thts erouldl naot sook be
hindi themt. He leoskedl aipon hitielf as
the metsre mnisterimal register, aind 'suppiosi'ad
liat his certifisente was ter lie v'iew~ed in,
I hat iight.annds ini that light osily. list sithter
gentletseti mayi lieenititlesi ii-rotuirtm-, nos)
n'iahsstanising is certifiente. Ands mty
prupoisitions is this: that there is sno au
thority in the State of New Jersey t jidaee
o~f the legality of votes; and that, after the
votes have heen sdepositedi. those who res
reived 1/as majority are entitled to the re
turn's.- And that we are mtade the-ssle and
excluhtsive judlges of she legality. I con
tendl that there was vast wisdom int this
p~rov'ii nf the Csonsstitution, asnd thes the
frameerQ intendeu'se tor be a co orudinate
branoch oft thta Goversnmentt. etntirely inide
pi~senet,. ansi thatuhis House ilsineshutld
diecide upion she elecsisons. reterns and1( quial
ifications.of its itiemtbers. Withsiut that
rtovisione, what conies sof all our indsepien
dentce? 1 cointenad that the qtesin is
tnow before us itn a tangible shapre.
Somie gentlemewn say that thte Hountse is
niot constitutioncally sirganizesd. I think
there ins .uumes conafusison-osf~idesa here. The
"Cssngresssian assembile at-least once
itn every year:teund sneh m teetgtn: shall lbe
otn the first Monday-in Decetmber, unaless
they shall, biy law, appoint- a. differett
That (continued Mr. P).is the day ap
poisnsed by thee Constuzion fsir Cong'ssa
What is C"onem? Annivrze the- idea.
It is composed of members elected by hte
people of tie States, whuoare cbosen every
other year unider this cntmittiionsil provi
sion, anid who are entitled toassemble here
as the Coiistituion directs. The Consti
tution than goes on to define what shall
coinsitute the House of Representatives.
"It declar tihe House of Bepresentatives
shall be composed of members choser
every second )ear by the people of the sev
eral States." - It does not say of members
and :t Speaker. lu t -of nembrea chosen by
Ihe people. This constitutes. a HiOUbe of
Reporesetnatives. in tlle definition of the
Constitution. The iane insirtnetnt de
clares "thai the House of Representatives
shall chlloo.e ih'eir Speaker mnd other oil
cers." This presupposes the existence of
a House competent at least. to teride pot
its own organization. Can the constitu
tional existence or the Ilonse be more elear
-ly detlnne'd att demnoustratedt? It is chop.
ping 1gie opon % ords-lo deny our legal ex
isietic. Nonm, ientleen teu ippose we must
take an oath before we can act, judge, or
decide. Let us read provision. And it is
to be observed that it is a mere general
-The Senators ant Representatives be
fore mentioned, ani the members ofsever
al State Legislatires, and alh exetnsive
,Sid jileaCid ullicer,. ho It of the Unied
Statrs. and of the seoveral Stais,. shall te
lImited hy oath or atlirmation. io sipport
the Constitution." - Now, (conititned Mr
P.) 1 will ask, does the Constituntmi pre
scribe the itle when this .mth shall the ta
ken? Dues it say that it sAall be on the
first second. or last day tif the session?
The law of seventeen hundred ani eighty
nine prescribes aid authorizes the oldest
member on this floor to administer an
outh it the Speaker, and then prescribes
the mode it which the Speaker shall ad
..im-ter it to the inembers. But Mr. P.
cuntented thia the Constintaion itself hav
ing fixed the day of meeting, the iense of
Representatives are a bitly tin ile first
Aionday of December. conmpeent to decide
on questitins of returns; and, if we thiik
proper, it go into the whole qmestiotn
if election. Tht however, would he
vastly inexpedient. Hut on a questiot
cof mere qualificationis ani returs-if
an issue lee raised, and it is ohjerted
that one class of members lie falsely
returned, we are then competent to de
eidle thdol question, and we mus118. frm,
necessity, doso. It is itiheren: in the pow
er nr.d the ri.-ht to organize.
Niw, let-us dis.entinngte otirselvcs from
this coifision tof ideas. The legal appor
tioniment of ie.-esentatives given this
House two huntir ' and iriv-t o inem
hers, atnd the Constitution has, in express
ed teriis, m4adt theim exclusive julges on
questions --election<;, returns, and tiali
ficati.ag.' Suppose, instead of that con
stitiitial iovision, that it hail been de
elared that A tor 11 were to he exclusive
jiutdges um tho-e questions. would there he
any dittciiy in deciding upon the point ?
The whole couftision arises from lte idea
f having two hundred atid forty-two
judges itnsteat of only otte. If only one
judge hail been created by the Con-titti
tioi, ti-re would lie diliculty in deciding
ihe whole question on the first (lay. Yet,
as fair a% right ant le.tal principle are in.
.volv-d. it i- the sine thing.
Viewing the subject in this. light, aid
rtoreseeiiig the difficulties that nust inevi
tably arise. I was diAposed to coifirie the
whole quesiion io a question of retirnis,
and I contend that we are the competet
j'idgtes (if that question whetiever we think
treper to take it. It is not only soiund
sense. bit sound 'poilicv, to keep lte ques
tion separaie. Ifye-n deede that the mere
returns af officer muist, iTall caset, c1i
e.td ihe judgmnt of this H nse as to hi
areientiilet ii iheir seats atnd to t he returns,
thien you hotld ont ihe the greaie->t temip
tattions to hitter ande coiteningit pariiies to
perpetrate fratid anti inijtusice by false re
mimrna. The conseiecijltes will lbe, that
when-m this House may lee conisideredt as
equattly hadanced-uand power andt etmpire
are at stake, the telective franchise n ill lie
at the miercy ofob-cure and iiresumsible
eeiicrs, and i s Htouse wilt he tiadec any
thmti andte evermy thing that tieijr pro'fligacyv
antI partly hitterttess nuay choiose-. 1i is
of the ve-ry es.senice ofuner sy sleu ehat we
shuld be the exclusir e giunnlianis & judlges
fuar ownvm creat ion and mit oriisoniit. h hitihi
er riht tir wrong, our judagm:eint over re
tunrus, quaclilitmiens, antd eleetionis, mnusi
te exclusive andi unirammiteled.t. Any toth
er doectrine timisi introxduce imbecily and
ipxtency into this, the very centre of
siitality in our systemi.
Itn presentig these views to-the House;
I have actedt emtirely on miy ownijudgmaenat,
antd I have imntroduced a resolutiona to meem
the perecise issue, acc-ording inutmy consii
entius cunvictlion ofthte trnulh of' the case.
I beheveihatwe are thme judges-l helieve.
accorintw i the tie velopemeurts whichi have
iliet ntitie on tis floor, time aicntlemen
who have time eertitieate ot' the Gu erntor
are nit emaill to the returns; and, so tee
iievintg, I aim prepared to mieet the ques
tion. I wa' lpre-paired todou so several dayvh
ago. I desire to decute it now, franikly,
tiitrly, anmd holly, before tte n~orld, with
ntu ite tranmmtels and the collateral issues
thait haive beent throiwn around it by .ihe
tchnticailitiie oimmtry court special pica.
dinag. 1 amct here n mny owna responsi
I don not propose anty thing which is the
result of' conceert. of' causes, or of undter
standiing emiered ito tont of tis diouse. I
ac-i ntone upomi tmy conviction or whatj
believo to he true, and rig/it oni just.
Sir, we hav'e-seen tot) tateh. pearty or.
gantizatiiotn ad party dritl. If ther, isonc
.i ..f the nrmecnt dav, e-rcater that
another,'it is that miserable party sprit.
Ot lWiI sides, which seems disposed 'to
draw.every member into hiutimble suibservi
enj-to the diciaies of a ferw leaders.
There is another semanstent % hicn I en
tertain,- and which I will -here avow. It
is tisi; that during the last Al nioistration
the uhas been two strung executive ac
tionwin this Governmient; and it is me
thai the Represemiatives of the people
should -arsseri their ind'ependence, and
trample on the ties of party-looking only
to the goxx of-the country, to the sanctity
of the Constitution, anti to the preservation
of their own honor and indepeuence. If'
tihere he one olject more dear to me 'than
another, it is, 1that I may see this House
redeened aind regenerated-that I imay see
it break loose from its ituberviency to that
ntonster god of party. % hieh is reared up
on every side, and which claims fron its
viethns a base devoted, and blind idolatry.
Sir, I have propOsed a resolulion whilh
I helieve will meet the truth of the case.
I believe that we are the exclusive judges
of the whole subject-natter, made so by
the Cutsiltution itself, in latigage too
plain tobe misundersmmtool. The time and
manner ofdeciding is a mere matter of ex
pediency. I miintain. also, that there enn
fie no' concurrent jutrisdiction upon this
question by any State authority; and in
tmainininge this, I maintain the indepen
lence of this House, which I believe to tie
essential to the preservation of American
Tile propositions, then, which 'I desire
to be decided, are first; that this House is
is the supreme andl sole judge of the elec;
lions, returns, and qualifications of its
members. And secondly, that no '8ste
officer has a right to judge of the legality
of votes, after 'they have been received;
and that those iwho have received a Ima
jority of the votes polled are, liv righmen'
titled to the roturnis. Upon that in -i
ple, I voted yesterday in the case the
gentlemamn front Ptnnsylvania, (hr. Nay
lor.] It is precisely the cas.e at isme.
There you have ditferent returns, (tie
mnember is admitted it have a majority,
btt another gentleman asaitmes that thev
are illegal vames. anal the juidges assuneto
theimselves tihe riih to throw out the
whoA..Northern Libernes. I miniinii
that had. no such right under the
Cousitution. Their acts were void. and.
-the miWoamst tielt t 'his truimil on
lV. It is this I hiCi hall goverimy vote.
When i cbome as a judge to decide on the
amerit of the electiomi. then it niy he dif
ferent as to final jmimlgment. It will de
petd upn the fact, whether enough frimi
those u ho received the majority of votes,
shall be proved to be illegal, ti violate the
elecrion. All votes lepoaited and received
by the pr'per oificers into the ballot IIx,
must le presumed tli lie leptra, until Other
wise shown. This is soutnd sense as well
as law. Upon these quetirts, I assert
the power Of the House to judge fully.
hin- deny the authority of the ofliters of
tihe State Of Pennsylvania, uider the laws,
to reject votes, after those votes have been
depositl-d in time ballot box.
Sinnling.tupon this principle, I am rea
dy it give imy ote in the New Jersy case.
anl I am disposed at once io meet the
queston, (which imay be n well decided
nOw, as a motth hiete,) who are entitled
tam the reitrns. As far as ulterior objects
are cocerneied, I ktow the supposed deli
eacy of my. posiion at present ; but I ,corn
to btk pirema ty Aetti umeitts.
I woild not wear the proudest dindenm
I hat ever gliiered upon a itimonar-h's brow,
it' I could IMt wear it unisihnckled and free.
I wmll rinot turn tam the right or left, for pam
litiei favor. I hold rio sentiments in my
clo-el which I will not avow tam the iorld
I tmy apintion, it is dute tam the adignity of'
the llamnmme tam mnmet- thmi-s qtuesin calmly
anal adecided~ly. I am raday to vore. If'
youia let the ihaile subtjaect natter go to a
commtiattee, ymo nill involve us in queas
tionhs whtich uwill taO lie decidead this ses
siaon. if youn choose to caitfitne t hetmt ta the
quemsiitn am' rettarns, yuit canmt dai so, anid we
cani hiave promp ac ntiotn; lbut aiy om her
other caourse- will lead to confusion aind
From the Baldginrore Post.
Sur areAna -ruE FaEE BLACKs.
-Fewr persontshaave any caincaeption aif the
wrretcednessanda sulle'irin2 ;aeimo thme- free
lack piopulation of the city at thme pr-saent
titte. We wish .omi elf the fanmatia, leuad
ers of the northern abalitionists caould wit.
ness momeetfheseenieaf mnisery that daily
comme under the notice aif the distributitng
commtiitees-Iair the poor. If it dial nota
furever seanl their lips on the subject of'
slavery, it-wouald-at least soften the asperi
lies of their warfare against it. A-gentle
man enigedo as one of- the distributing
committee-in seeking amut objects requiring
relief, mientiomned mu nus time finllowing,aa
fair repmresemnt~ato of almtost inct'utmerable
cases in the lanes andI ulleys of the city.
Onm the fir~tfloor of a small tenememnt
abaout ten feet maqumare he fonda a fanmily of
eght bilac'kstooomprising at man, two wo
mmeni and live chlalren. Thu adults were'
partially coveresd with a few miserable'
rags, bu t the children were entirely-taked.
The'y wrere without fire,' withouimt f- oaf,
wtthot a bead,. or' ainy thinumi to keep
them fram. freedu'rg hut a qumantity aof straw!
tamd a few rags inmamne corner of-the room.
On the second-'floor of the same hmovel
was- aniother family- of three' persons; a
tman.- his wif'e aid. child. The wvife was
layinmg sick upomn a few. shav'inps: on the
flour, covered only-with- a- piece aif an old
carpet. Ia othmer resapectti the ciandition- of
the inmates -was time same as those- 'in the
room belOw., with the centi'tn thati they
I hadl the luxury ofa few-dvinit embers,ilie
-reiain of a handful of tan begged from a
tan yarl. But-'liese wert siut sulliiewn
to protect their feet froan being.fiist hiten.
In the cellar 'was another familv of sev
en persions, in a condiiion egnallydesitte
and with theadditional inconvenience that
more than half the cellar biom wais cov
ered with water. In a partially dry corner
these seven persons live anti sleep enier
ging from their hole to bej or iteal such
scanty provisions a will sustnin life.
Such is one picture among hundreds
that might be drawn, of the starvation,
wretehednes, and maisery amongst the
ihefree blacks, whilat there is not a slave
in the city that is not well fed, weil clothed,
-well lodged. and every way coimfortably.
provided for. The aholitionits- are no
friend to the slaves when they urge their
The people in Nw Orleans' propones a
repe-al for the anti gamblina law. While,
they allow ilh bankcrs and lotteries to
swindle them in open day light. if is con
temltti)ible and ridietnlous to keep any anti
gambling law on ti- statiie looik. .We
think that where lottery venders,' loitery
wheels, barnks and every species of ma
chinery to deltde and rob hoth the v'oung
and the old, and phiige thtinsandsdaily
intoi irretrievable ruian. are not only tolera
ild lout encouraged by legislators, hie-farro
dealers ought also ta be alliwed to lay
lown their implements of hell, right at the
corter of eveiy street. But. let thei he
fined and put in the peniten'tiary if they
gamble' in secret. Exposing the farro
machinery to the otliuti of the publie woa;d
praluee a falulary efect on society anala
guns 10 what would result frim the expo.
stare daily of all paper money bank tran
Hard Times.-We have heard of a cir
eCt nustance, 'which. at once -evinces the
trotibles of he times, and the prudence of
the people of North Carolina. The iter
chautsor the most flourihiug town in the
Western part of North Carolina, have en
tered intot bonid with each other, not it) go
or send to the North this Siring for fh
purinee of goos.- 'I iis is a priule
step, whether as regnrls the people for
merchanis.'ntd %ne hopie the good sense a.f
in it. 'ie present eason may tie %%ell
devied to dios1iauuing of sitoks on hanit.
settling accounis, &c., and the fashiona.
bles tmay well dteny theuselves in these
A rumor has reached New Orleans from
Mexico. that a neamtimtin is penaling he
tween England and Mexico for a- eession
io England oif the Califorutins. The ces
siol of th- two provincs would give ti
Great Britain nn extensive and valuable
territory, in a part of the world where the
has long been anxious to gain a filathold.
besides securing no object still more desi
rable-a spacious range of sea coast 'oil
the Pacific..,trethin! more than a thous
anU miles froni the 42d degree of latittide,
aauth-sweeping the cirenit or the penin
suila of Califeirni and embracing the har
horsof that Gulfihe finest in N. America.
Important Discovery -Capt. Clinincey
Tret, of Eaist Hlartlora, has disroverel a
complete remedy against the ravages ilt
the Catiker Worin, simply bv enc-ircling
the appletree at the surlice of the gronwt
with Scatch SntTuf. The writer of thie
artiele has examined the trees on Capt.
Trent's premises, and huniid the circle oif
snuff cinpha-tely fringed with thousands
of deand worms. These trees were all tar
redl, andu where the snulT was u-ed no
woarmns apipearedh on the tar, and where
the suod was aimittead the in~eets nearly
covered the tar-lart forad Courant.
Gen. Washington and Lord Erskine.
A voalumet was presented to Getieral WVash
ingtamn, in 17~97, by Thomne, Lord Ers
kin~e, on a blank pnee air which he wrotie
the foillaonig nte, conitainiug perhnaps,
the happiest enlaiuma ofi the mnanybhestowr
'e u pon 'hat wonder ful muanu
"Sir, I have taken the liberty to itntro
dutce yaiur anugnl andl immrortal nmem in a
short sentence which is tao he fiundl in the
book I senad yan I have a large neqpain
t-ance amaing ihe mtost valumhle and exaltead
e-lasses of mntt, bumt you are the otnly
human being faor whom I 'ever felt an awfua
reverence. I sincerely pray odh to grant
a long' and serene evening io.a life so' glo
riously devoted' to the hiappiness of' the'
No timefdor Rending.-G3o into the hou
ses aif some of our farmners, and yout find
no ne spatper, no periodlical of tiny kind,
and hardly a bookt'. Ask utch men~t tao
subscribe for a paper, and they will tell
you that ihiey have tno time tao read otte.
But whto is so conitstanltly employed as to
.rnd nii leisure fir the' etmployment. of htis
t'iinda I Not the famer; faie the long win
ier eienitngs afford him a few hours every
day, which he might devote to renading.
Not the meichanic; fair- instances are fr
quet.t w herethe inadust rious artizants have
ati ainead un eminence in the-sciences, mere
ly by giving their leisure -to study.
One afghe most emhineatt orienutal scholars
of t he age, is professor Lee, of one of the
Entglish IUiversitie., aud vet all his edit
'eation was acquired. duriaig tho.-momenia
of leisure which he fhund while emnployed
as a- jpurneytman. carpenter.
No prudent man-will oppugn~the.merits
of a contemnporary-in-his. 'owvnsupis~sed
SYaes Water-rroof Glue.br L.eme.--e
Take oflie best Irish glue, fiatr o(inces,
:a1id of isinglins, twarsmilces; these m111st
be dlisulv4ed ii mild ale (n-ot stah-) over a
slow fire, in a common glue kentle, to the
coni2thticy 4fstronig glue; % hen neonce e
of well boiled liis-ed oil mtibhe gradual
ly added, and the w hole w'ell incorporated
together .by. sti'riii.- To' acrease .hInq
streigth of tlhe ghie, asdreiaingiass May be
This cementis applicableto thie joints
of wood, in every brduch of nanufacture:
as alsfi to jinitig earthaenware, china, atid
gliss-care heii itken to prets the parts
well iogelier,-amnd to allow them aufficient
The cemttent, when cold, aid made intI
cakes, assupses the appearane oaf Indian.
rubber; and, like it, is ebactie. It .uav. a
any tte, ni eI wanted for use, be dissol
ved, ly a gentle heat, inl any prper iron
or alazed vessel; first puiting into ir a litIli
naild'ale, let preve t i rron hurning at the
bot (gam of the vessel;-atddinmore ale. ini
lring it ti; a portier cousienI7 for us
Too ceent leathler tonether ar hartiess
hands ir m ichinerv, &c i.having prepareJ
.he joints- in the usual ay, as if for sew
ing apply the cement while .4t, laying a
weight Upin ech'joirit, i is mu lit let
them remain !-ix hours beforeeasing, and
thejaints will then hevOne nearly as firm
as if tide of otie entire piece of leiather.
Ali excellent cement for stopping leaks in
casks. ,c., may be made by putting g
little toiv to the other iliredients.
Immensity of Creatin.- Some astron-.
oners hasve conputed that there are niot
less ihan 75 millions of suns. in the suni.
vers.. The fixed stars are all suns, lav
ing. like our suit nunaerous planets revolv
-ving around then. -The solarsyten, ot
thmi to which we belong, has about thirty
plauet, primary and secondary belonging:
tea it. The circular field oaf space which
it ccutpie- is in diameter 3600 millinis of
miles, and that which it .control motch
gr-eater, The sun which its ner rest neigh
haour taonrm is calle.1 Siras, disiati fro,,
mar stin about 852 millions uif miles. Now,
if all the fixed stars are as distan' froi
each either is Sirius is front our sun, or it
otr solar svsteni lay the overage agnitue
of all the 75 millions of suns. nhat itagin.
% baa can survey a plantation cinta ning
75 millions of cirentlar field-, each 10 mil
lias of ailes in diaamaeter ? Such honev
er. is oune of the plantatiois fif Him wh-it)
has measured the waters intle inatlloiV of
lis hand-meted oint.htnMen with a synn
-con prlehreml the dust in a marasure-aad
% eiglaed tie uunntains ii scales. and hill-i
in a balance. lie ho, "sitting upon heilo
oarbsit if the carth, strtcwhes ntit ie- hen.
ve-nz a4 a curtain, and sprendelth thenm Ot
as a -1it to dwell in. Nations to lim are
as a drop of a ba# ket and are ctonnial a-4
the small dust or the halanc-e;" a'nd yet
overwheleitg thiought! He says, "T'JTo1
I dwell inl the high and hioly place, with
hiti alsa1 will.1 dwell who is of an huible
aij contrite spii-i. and trethles at ny
n d!"-hnstian Abnunack
PoLITICs AND -3oaALS.-A great many
excell. lt, htm inI our opinaiotn', shet t biglrej
peIple, holdf paractical poalitics in a sort of
halv dresadt, atd( flr fetar -of contatiminationa
aveaid discu-sion and rarely ever voe.
These are ttral and relieicans mlei. h'liere
i-s another class who cc uceive politics to
be delating.-eneavatiaIg to the mind
and to exeitng for calis reflectian aid
deep -1aindy. Thesse are the schlart.y
3Ii -s fl'rtineau said at in the United
States 'imlitics is morals.' Trhis is true,
and if ihe idea cauld bea fully appreciiated
and beclieved hby the c-laases we. lave nama
ed oir country wouldl le hetter governed,
anid nmjre v-irtuious meat wouila berma our
"overnours. O.a the baroadl faouunaioan of
peoli ics our whoale social system rests, and~
ra-ligiotn, moturality, science anal literature
wouild be craushied tand anihilated, ifgoaod
maen, tand gooad scholars shaould avoid the.
pliaiical arentai. lIn a free gaavr rnmitent like
aiurs, poalities is indaeed nmorals, for where
the right ofsaf'rage is.so unirestrainaed,
great c-aatione by the hetter infornmad~ mnut
lie used tea cheeuk iheexcesses of ahe tmnedota
catedl atn I vicionli'.. Every mran should be
at pohaticiatn, active aind pass-ive,. for ini ther
laneguaage of the editor of 'he Boalont Quar
terly Review. we caeatnot conasentiaa, tho.
nfltiona thawt potlitica i-a a lowv anda dlebt-<ing
subaj-ci, or that a achaher necessarily dero
gates from his dignity, by enagaging in the,
piahtical moavewets of his counatrymien.
anad dloing what lie can to sustain what he
believes to lie true prinacipales, and tosecure.
toa his couttry the practical balesasings of them
bay supporting measures which will em
body them in laws uad inwti'urions.
Silk Cultur.-Trhe Nationmal Silk So,
ciety have olferedf namnIerous botanties, ya
rying froam 5100) to 8l00.0 eac'h.. for the
best specimens-of raw silk, to be produnced
dunringstheo comainag sater. The whaole
am unof- the boaunties is $16,000. The
proapect isifair that the- silk culrures will
becomae.s paroinentt and settled par of
our domestic industry, tane)that silkreithee
raw ornmanufactured, will choistitutewih
in a few years; a vulnel le stspiirt':-bom4
lIf men of wit and hus iionklt readlve
itever to complain a~t~eir work edirics
anal detractors,-tbheat--age would tnot
knaow that theyer had. aity.
La-isqnned with thestnost, eas-and
exagtnessaand in our own langie,. are
oiten preverted to wronag mninagur why
should we wonder that the Bible is sot