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?A lecture delivered before the .Edgefield
Philosopical and Agricultu-al Society
of Edgefield, on the subject of "Vegeta
ble Physiolngy," by.J.as. TranyX, Esq.
on the Ist. Juue,1O, and published by
request of the Society.
The. present is an age of practical philoso
phy; at-age in.wbich our race are more engag
red in deducing from actual experiments, useful
improvements in the arts, than in estab!ishing
splendid theories on merely plausible hypothe
.ses. In this respect, our own country has ad'
vanced more rapidly perhaps than any other,
not on account of super-ior powers ofphilosophi
cal research, but because our, institutions of
government afford to its citizens the most un.
limited scope foi practical industry. and.proim
ise the most generous rewards to success in
.,every department of mechanical, commercial,
and agiricultural enterprize.
It is a-common error 1 fear, that the-sentence
of the Almighty upon our race, "In the sweat
6fthy face thou shalt eat bread" is ca!culated to
impress upon the pursuit of agricunture the
stamp of inferiority, when compared with oth
er employments. But in alludingto this error,
we are reminded that the tilling of the earth is
..a pursuit of divine appointment; is the most an
rcient ofall pursuits; and as I firmly believe, a
pursuit most happily illustrating the wiseomu and
.-goodness of that Being from hoin cometh
'The cultivation of the soil is the primary
source from which all classesof civilizedtnu
'derive their subsistence; and the products of
the earth, whether they be sponttaneous, or the
reward of man's industry and-slill, either di.
rectly or indirecily, furnish suabsistance 4o the
whole animal kingdom: for whethei the aninml
be omnivorous, carnivorous, or granini vorous,
the earth, the great mother of all vegemahle
matter, has yielded the first fruits, and in the
language of an inspi e.! tmtan, all flesh is grass.
It may therefore be emphatically said of tle
vegetable kingdom that, as it is the inexhantsti
ble store house from which all animated nature
draw their supplies, so is it the wost ilmportant
field for. philosophical enquiry in reference to
the means -of supplyhizg.the wants, and con
tributing to the wealth and lumiry. of man.
As.a metnber of a connuniiy.whoire be
-ginning to appreciate the value of agricultural
knowledge, I feel proud that the people of our
State are becoming daily more interested inl the
-establishmert of Societies, and the diffusing of
correct information throutgh the medinin of
papers and periodicals. The day is not far dis
tant, when S. Carolina must,:in a great mInCs
ure, ab.andon .-the ptodigal etiture of her great
staple,.cotton, and turn her atttention to the
more frugal but less lucrative business of farm.
.ing. As a preliminary step to this change of
pursuit, and diversion of capital into comnpar
atively now -channels, it is of the last impor.
tance that those who live by the cultivation of
-the soil, should feel proutd of-the employment
'for its own sake, and that they should attach to
the science of agriculture equal consequence,
and regard it as a busitiess of eqnal dignity and
honor with what are usually styled tle learned
professions of law and medicine. This object,
the consummation of which isso devoutly to be
wished; canl only be accomplished by introdu
cing thescience of Agriculture into our schools
and colleges by elementary books, illustrated
and enforced by lectures frotn scientific ten;
and thus elevating itto its proper rank, by plac
ing it in company with the sciences of chemis
.ty and geology, its twin sisters.
- The puryose of the fhiloropical Scciety of
Edgefield -in its original formation, was trot, I
npprehend confined to the investigation of titose
branches-of science embraced in thte defiiion
cCfmental philosophy or metaphysics; but it was
-intended to comprehend the ctthivation of an ac
quaintance,with those arts antd sciencesitt wht ich
as individuals antd commutnities, we atre every
day contcerned. Wlithi thte view therefore of
recognlizing the principle of equtality-, atnd of
acknowledgitr thte hight claims wvhich the
study of the laws, anud the investigation of the
phenomena of the vegetable kingd om, htave up
on those engaged in thte actjpusitioni of useful
knowledge;our society htas resolved so to change
k~s name, as expressly to emubracejin its obects,
+hbe scienee of Agriculture, and has assigned for
this evening's lectture, the subject of "vegetable
In discu uittg a subaject so vast and cotmpre
liensive in .its relatio.us, and so importatit aznd
nmul-ifariouts in its resu!-ts, nothting more eatt be
attemp~ted in a single lecture, than a brief tno
tice of some of the tmost promitnetnt facts. and a
concise illustration of some of the most obviotns
principlesof the scietnce.
- Phtysidlogists have assigned to the vege.tahle
kingdom the second rank in the scale of ob-.
jects composing the tmateriatl tuniverse. Trhe
line of separation between an animal of the
lowest, and a plant of the highest order, is so
stmall,. as scarcely to ba appreciable. Botht the
atminial and yegetab~le have a puncttiple of vitali
ty .sustained apid supported by organie ma
chinery, so complex, and by chemical changes,
anidcomnbinations.so intricate and itncomnprehen
sible, as to eide the itntensest researches of the
profoundest philosophy; and the most that can
be aeconmphsbedbiy the tsatowist amnd physiolo
gist is, to separate and analyze the several
parts compJositngthte animal and vegetablestrue
ture,and'thts to develope the secret springs and
whteels of this wonderful machinery, wvithout
-being able to comprehend or explain the prin.
cliewhticht gives it motion.
-Int discussing thme subject before qas this es-e.
ning, thme origini of the planit. or to speak more
technic-lly, the process of gernunation, is the
firstthing to wvhich I beg leave to direct yonr
attenition. Whatever difference of opinion may
have existed-in the infancy of the science of
vegetable physiology, it is now utniversally ad
mitted that all plants spring from seeds, though
they tmay be ptrop)agated by other means mult as
grafting anid budditng. For the purps of ex
atmiing the organic structure of seeds, and il
lustrating the process by wich they are chaung
-ed from the embryo into the livitng platat, we
-willitake the connnotn tarden bea. Upon itt.
spctng the bean. it will lhe fond to cotnsist of
tyvo lobes, which are called cotyledons: near the
eye of the bean, is a stnall rotud body, which
is the gertm of the littmre root of the plant, and
is cHlle thtm ruile, a.nmd ne thi., betwestith.
lobes or cotyledons, is anothler siall body which
is the germ of the future stem or trunk of the
phaut, and is called the plumnula. All seeds
havethe radicile and plumula, whether thqy
be mono cotyledonous, asindian corn,wheatand
other smnall grains and the whole family ofgrassi
es; or whether they be di-cotyledonous, as fhe
bean and the whole family of legunenous veg
etab!es; and the process of gernination is coin
mon to the whole vegetable kingdom. A seed
is said to germinate, when it . undergoes . that
change by which the radiele is converted into
a root and grows downward into the earth, and
the plumnala is-converted into the stem, and
shoots upward, carrying along with it, in the
case of the bean, the two cotyledonas, 'which
-are employed in giving nom-ihenet to the in'
fitit plant, until, fron the extension of its roots,
and the-expansion.of its leaves, it is capable of
receivi-nglood from the soil and the atmosphere.
Itia fet well established, that tle changes we
have been describing never take place unless
mouisture be present; that they never take place
unless the teuperature be above zero, and that
some seeds will gcrminate in lower tempera
tnres than others; and thattlhcy never take place
unless atnospheric air or oxygen gas tie present.
Boyle, Boerhaave and Musclenbrock proved by
repeated experimens, that seeds will not vege
tate in the vactatum of an air pump; and Scheel
and Achard ascertained by siuilar experiments
that germination will not take place in nitrogen
gas, hyda ogen gas, or carbouic acid g as,.unless.
they aro ina state of combination with oxygen.
Light is also said to ha ve a sensible infltence
on the germinaton of seeds, tho' to what precise
extent, seems not to be well ascertained: it is
certain, however, that it retards the process, ei
ther by some inhereaat property which it po
sesses, or by indirect agency, in producitng a.
certain nodification of lat and .moisture uln
favorable to vearet.taion.
Thus it allours . that heat, moistu;-e and oxy.
gen -gas, are iadispeable to the process (if.
gerination; asit -will hereaftir he sen that
tlev are important agents in the further pro
gress of vegetation:
After the process of germination is comple ted.
the plant, under favorable circumtstances, con
tinues to grow; its roots are increased in nim
ber and size; its branache. multiply and expand,
.and it is obvious to the senses, thilt-the whole
plant.fiom i-s rapid increase ina bulk, is con
stantly acqtiring new accessions of matter: and
as this new matter cannot be produced bvy the
plant itself, it fIllows that plaats like aninials,
require food tint only for their iimediate nour
ishmaent, bitt also for the purpose of replacing
those particles of matter which, having become
nnfittcd for nutriment, rre throwna out .by the
It was for a long time a qunestionamong phys-'
iologists, whether waler did not constitute the
only food necessary to tlesistenance & growth
of plants. Ttis itica, whidl subhsecinent erperi-,
nacts have proved to b erroneons, wasdoubi
less staggested by the fact, that the elements or
component parts of water, iamuely, oxygen and
hydrogen, are unifornly found inl the substance
of plants; but the experiments of Bergman and
3largraff, have forever exploded a theory, which
it wotld seem, nexer could have been seriously
advocated, excopt dn the infancy of the sci
ence. These philosophors -proved-that water
is a necessary ageirt in elaborating the food
of plants, and is the-vehicle in which it is con
ducted to the roots to 'be absorbed; and those
cxperiments which misled Van Henont, Bon.
net, Boyle, Duhlamel, Tillet and others. into
the supposition that water is the sole and prop.
Dr food of plants, were maaade without a due re
gid ti the foct dintadnless it has heen purified
by distillationa, it ahvays holds ina solutaion sonie
uf.the elements whaich entet intoa the suabstanace
af vegetables. Withen'at water. the seed
:ata ather g.eriinte nor the plantt vegetate,
)itt it no aanore f'ollows that it conastituttes ev'en
thc parincipal fond ol vtgetable Is. than thatt
axygena gaas wich I is essenitial to aninial life, is
lie ptriancipual Ifoo: of mairam!s.
W~.e ha'; o~rcadlyecen that aiar is necessary
L0 the process of vegemtaion; aand it hais been
isertaianed lay the experimzents of Chemaiical
Piilosophiers, that a large portatn of the car
oniacous maatter fotitd to exist ~in lan~ts, is
mbibed fromn the attmosaphera. Three .of the
:oostittuenat elemeno~ts of atmnosphecric atir, name
y, carbonaic acid gas. oxygean, and maoiatture, are
aid to furinishi food to the planit.
Another sotarce fiotim which vegetaleks de
rive their' nouiishmencat, is th a soil in whichl they
row, consistitig of salts, earths, amnd animaal ad
~egetabhle substances in a state of decomnposi
on. It has been well ascertained by che maical
amalysis. that the same eleaments that 'enter itato
he substance of the plait:, are also fotand to be
lie priaaei pal compionetats of antitaal suabstaitces:
base are taxygen, htydrogena, carbotnic acid and
atrongen, te latter eleitenit beinag (discovered
mily in a few vegetabhes,whailst it is always found
o exist ini tlae animaial ecoano:aay
hlaving seen thaat plants ,roquairc food, and
hatt they dlerive it from the atmaosphere. and
roma the sail int whlich they grow; it rematins to
atquire how the food is r'eceived; in what forrm
is received; and what chiemicah chanages it
undergoes, before it is ini a proper statte to hae
assimtilatedt to the substance of the planit. -
Int thte f'urthaer examinmtion of our suabject. it
will, I thinak, be impossible to wvithhuald our as
tent to the truith of the propositioo, that thecre is
i maost strikinig analogy between tamany of the or
ranic functions ofhanimals anad those of vegeta
ble.%. Thusa the roots of the plant perf'orma the
runtionts of die mnoth, and the leaaves perform
te fun ctions of the lunga s, in thte anaimial econio
ay; whilst the trtuk or stema, and the liber or ini
ur bark, cotmposed ofeceltalar tissutes or fibrduis
tubes,constitute the vaiscua r alaparatuis by which
thecirculation of the filuids is carried ota, and
throuagh whichi..the sap of thme phatnt ascends
and decetnds, imipartiang new life and v'igotr.
Perhapt tno subhject connected with the science
of vegetable physiology has baen mtore thorough
ly inavcstigtated, thana te process by which the
plant receives and assitilates its f'oad ; anid al
tough many cu:-iouts and itnterestinag fiuets have
beeta ascertained by expe'rinments, yet much is -
eft ini doubt antd obscurity. It is true beyonid
questi, however, that die food whbich thae
.lattt ittbibies froajs the soil, is conducted hby
water, anad is received at the extremaeties of' thue
roots by a cellular tissuae i esemblitng the sponge,
called die spongiole of the rot. :The substance
intended for the future nourishmeta of the
plant is held in solution by water, and in that
state, enters Ie spongiole by a sort of affinity
-which, in che mical philosophy, is called capilla
ry attraction; but from the well known fact
that the actionof this principle is confined with
i very narrow limits, the ascent of die sap from
tihe extrenetics of the routs, through the trunk,
to the extrencties of the branches, and into the
leaves,.cannot be accounted for, but ipon some
other principle less hbvions, and more diflicult to
becomprelicuded. Aware ofthisdifficulty,physi
ologists attempted to account for the-phenone.
non. by ascribing it to the pressine of the at.
mespihere upon the spongioles; thus furcing tihe
sap through the vesrels of the plant, tpon the
same principle that a comumn of water-is made
to ascend in a tube by the pressure of the at
imosphere upon the external surface of tile
water. Thiis notion prevailed nntil it was ex
pladed by Dr. Hales;who ascerthined by an in.
genins experiment. thattle sap of the plant as
cends with a velocity suffivienmt toovercome the
pressure of a ciolumn of water 43eet'in per
pendicular heilit; which is nearly-one'third
greater than the force exerted' bytthe atmlios
phere. that being sniuicient to overcome the
pressure of a column of water of only 32 feelt
in perpendienlar height. The opiion now
generillv received is, that tihe cricnhntion of the
sap is efleeted- by tIhe alternate contraction and
dilatation of the sap vessels; hut how this con
traction and dilatation take place. so long as
veoables are 'denied tihe ftnetions of sensibility
and irritability -must' rn'prehe'd, ever remain
a pr6fomid mystery. *That the saniloes ascend,
however, and with the force ascribed to'it y
Dr:lades. hr, been proverli by ocutlardemonstra
tion 'funiled on experiment; and it is pretty
well ascertaine'd that it asceilds, in the infmcy
of the plant, thromugh the pith, an'd in its more
advanced-state, throngh the allmrnum or while
wood00. or in cnmion limrasealogy, the sap of
the tree, in contradistinction to the heart. The
sap, inl its ascent, underaoes little or no change,
instil it reacies the leaves of the plant. Here,
by means of the porosity of tihe leaves, it is ex
posed to the action of the atmosphere, and is
said to have a new property imparted to it by
tl.e oxygen of tihe atmnosphere; and thms, after
nnderaroing certain cheniici haMinges an'd comi
binationsin the Caves, piccisely a-thevenoms
blood of aniumals, by being brought in contact
with the air imi tihe hlngs becomes oxygenated
and purified, the sap is fitted fbr giving nour
i.<hmenmt to, and being assimilated with, the
proper-substance ofthe plaht. But the analogy
between these animal find vegaairble functions
does not stop here; for as the venous blood of
the ammnial, thus purified hy .being -brought ill
contact with air in -the lungp, is, by -ieans of
a di'erent set of vessels, conducted'back to the
hcart,-theine to be diimsed through the sys.
tem; so the :returning sap-or peculiar juice of
the plant, as it is now cal, dcscends not in
the satne vessels through which it ascended, but
returns throngh the liber or imner bark, deposit.
ing in its descent, a portion of its nttritive pro
perties wherever it is most needed fot the pre
ent growth of the plant, andtalso ILyiung mrp in
btore certain portions, to be used during the
winter and following spring, -before vegetation
commences. But the leaves have yet olier in
portait flunctions to perform. They not only
L.laborate tihe crude sap absorbed by the roots,
and prepare it for bd% assiuilated'and incor
porated into the substance of the plamt, uttthiy
lecotmpose a portion of the caiboiic acid gas
sf ithe atmosphere, and retain the carbon a,
limd, whi:st the oxygen is disengaged and
thro-vn o1Y, to be emloyed in puraifying the ait
rnosphmere wtichm lhas been deriorated by the
respiration of amimtals, and the coimbustionm anid
.locomosition of vegetable cnd animald sub
'tances. Tlhse process of absorbing carbon antd
nmittingi oxygetn is known to take place onily in
he day, or whlen light is pm esent-a fatct lium
shtichi phlysiologistse(n(ojectured that this lunn
ion .ef .the .leaves is suspended during thte
ight ; bin imposn investigating thme stubject by
-epeated experiuments, Ingehontsz and others
uscertained that thie pirocess which goes on dinr
mng thme day, is reversed at -night, oxygen beiing
ubsus hed, -nd -caubonic acid gas being evolved
ny the -plant.
It is obvious fri-i thie analogy which it bears
o a similar funmction in annuals, that this piro
:ess maty be called thec respirationi of vegetables.
Jarboniaceouss matter, whether it he derived
~rom the soil through the mediunm of the sap
eslor front the atmiosphiere, is Ime appro
iriate food of vegtabhes; anid physiologists at
enmpt to account for the phenomena ofvege-ta
ule respiration, by supposing that carbon is
enierailly tnnfit for the l,nlrposes of flntrilion,
mitil it has been cotmbined with oxygen ini such
r'oportin as to forum cairbonsic acid gas in thie.
latt an:: thtat tis imntricato process of elabora
ion amid purification is comlete~d by the car
ionic acid gas beinig decomposed by the leaves,
nrsing the day, throwing o0' thte oxygen. and
~etniting thme carbon precisely -in that state of
lisinitegration wvhich fits it for beitng readily as-.
itmilated and incorpiorated into the vegeta~ble.
The last futnction of vegetables wvhich time
vill alh'e mue LBta otce abpireseint, is that of
throwing off their excrementitions or stuperfin
itus matter, by excretory vessels, and the pro
::ess is called excretioni. We see in this as in
all the wvonderfu phenuomena of vegetation, that
the vartons and intricate processes in the vege
able economy, are but so many links constitmut
ing the great chiaintof causes and consequiences,
indispensable to time accomplishmenmt of the u!.
lunate design of thme Creator of time Universe.
It is time opinmion of sonme physiologists that the
higher orders of plants possess manmy or all (if
of the funmctionis of animuals, except those of per
reptioni and voluintatry locomotion. However
piaisibile mig ht bet thme theory whmicht from anal
agy, shonkd eveni invest tihe plant wvith time pow
er of perceptionm, ,ve have nmo means of detect
imng Buch a functioni: and so far as experimemts
have beeni imaide, they lend to the opposite con-.
chmisioni. It ha~s beeni ascertaine d by M. Macaire.,
that vegeitaides hatve nto power of discriminating
btetwveen foodi thaut is numtritionisatnd whlolcsome,
amid that which is poisonous or deleterions.
Plants, like time lords of thme creiation, also fre
pinently receive immore food thman is eithem neces
sary to their imediate wants, or is healthful to
the ,o::titstimn'. Thiliumetion of excretion
is intended to eiedy these evils; and whether
the food be in itself unwhblesome, or taken in
snch quantitiesas to gorge tile plant, it is car
ried back to the rootiand by them disgorged in
to the adjacent soil.
, In the very cursory and necessarily imperfi-ct
view I have taken of some of the processes
which nature employsin the vegetation of plants;
the receition and elaboration of proper food for
theit nourishment; the assimilation of so much
of -thautnourishment as may be needful to their
growth and fulldevelopeient; and theexcretion
of so much of it as may be either noxious or sit
perfnous;~f have pnrposely omitted the classifi
cation of plants as a branch of science belonging
more. particularly to the'depaetment of botany.
I have also omitted to notice the va'rious liquid
and solid substances composing the plant,whose
cheiical combinations and properties can only
be discovered in the laberatory, as more appro
priately belongi-g to the departments ofChen
istry and pharmacology. I ain constrained for
want oF time, to pass by withont particularly
noticing those nutritive substances found in the
prodncts ofvegetables which afloid to mankind
so large and so, palatable a poriion-sf theirdAaily
In conclusion dt'the subijet, I am conscious
that I maay fairly be charged with having tres
passed upon the time and patience ofthis very
respectable~and intelligenltaudience4nnless some
of the principles attempted to bo illistrated may
be nsefully applied in the prosecution of some
of the various purmuits connected with the cul
tivationofthec earth. Afew factswill be briefly
If.as we have seei, a sed will never-vege.
tate without air or oxygen gas, and that it vog
elates but imperfectly when exposed tothe light,
th~e planter's first lesson is one, the solution of
which depends u pon a knowledge of these facts.
ThIe seed must be buried to avoid t'e light.and
yet must tint be buried so deep as tobe.inrmcces
sible to -the att.ophere.
gail, iftte sap intended for the future nour
isionent of 11% plant, is absorbed. only 4t the ex
tremities ofthe roots, and the entting Q' of the
extremities of the reots or spongioles destroys
their function of absorptioa, how emteftl should
the planter be that his ploughs andl harrows do
1ot wound or destroy these essential organs of
vegelable vitality; and thus hyn unskilfuland
harlurons linsbcndrv, mtar the most cheering
pi ospect of aplentifil harvesr.
A knowledge ofthe substatces wiich'inrnislh
nourishnent to the plant, and an acquaintance
withthe-counponent parts of the-soil to be cul
tivated. are highly importantto the plaitor,and
the gardner, as they form the basis upon which
the w hole -system of manuring is fonided -
Your soil has too much clay; apply sand and veg
eteble-natter: it has too much vegctablc mat
ter; apply :clay and animal snbstances. The
purely vegetable soil is one-less understod-per
haps than anyother; and itspernanent utility
depends entirely tipon the application of soate
of these cort ectives. The disease .called the
rust,.so fatal to otargreat staple, the cotton plant;
is always seen to prevail in vegetable soils; a
want of carbonaceotts and calcareous matter,
is thecause of the disease; the remody is fountd
in the-application of clay-and animal subsitances.
We have seen ltat vegetabesiha-ve the-fittc
tion of throw% ing off. by an excetory -procesN'
whatever they may. hne imbibed either nox~
inuts in quality, or supe fluons in g nantity.
The i.oxious sttstances disgorged by die plant.
at no subsequent period GtTora noutrishamnt to
the stue plat:t, nor to any -Plant of the samte
faimily; bit will be found to alTord the richest
tiutrinment to some veg etables of a differentpe.
enies. Th< se~ facts arc fiailiar to every planter
who makes acurn crop sutcceed toa cotton crop;
and the cotton crop to that of small grain,. &c.;
and furnuisht the broad fortidation oef that excel
lent theoty, the rotation of crates: a thteory, thte
aplication of wichel, coitditcted by -'Itt hs
banidry, htas-etnabled Great Britaitn, -an imanty
of te stiperanuatedl counitries-of Europe, lpre
serve thee freshness atnd vigor of ii of a
landttl' eur's conttinuted entlivatip, antd tot
feed their iaiionas of populationt fr mhe pro..
dutce oif a number of acres whose g egraphical
extent in our ownt prodigal counatry., o ld'he
deemed scarcely adequate to the support-of as
S-r. AUGoUS-rm:, Jitne 5.
A cordon of posts are to be established
across the peninsula front Fort King wvest
tn the Witlalacoechee,andu enst to Smya~rna.
These pJosIt re-to be garrisoned biy regu
An order has'hueen issued by His Excel
lettcy, Gov. fleid, tt raise 500t maounted
oen, tta 50 ootmtetn, for theo defence of
lhe frontier. Capt. Micktler lhts beent imus
tered in service, as wvell Catpuin P'elli
ser, of th-is city, with a mounted force.-Ib.
Capt. N~ikler, w irbe25 ment, is ordered
to thte head of North River, uind take such
piosition as wvill ausn~ er the purposes of de
Capt. Pelliser, with 20 men, has been
ordered to garrison Six Mile Pos.-Ibid.
Indians have heen around the ptsts on
the Picolata road during the last week
A scotan, tunder Capt. Bonneville,, 2d'
Dragoons, and Capt. Hlolmnes, 'th Ittlian
try, recentily lefl F'ort King, for an exam
ination tof the Big Sweanp, guided by an
ludint woman. The distance marched
wvas 21) miles. Capt. Hiolnmes camae upon
large fields utnder cublivaiion and over an
hundred Indlians p)reparing for their green
corta dance. They imm redhitely fled leav
ing an inafanat asleep. A large amotut of
their plunder was obsuained, consisting, a
mong oilher tings ofsoldiers' dresses, and
a rtitg recognaired as belonging to the late
Lieut. Satnderson. Capt. Bnneville un
fortunately did not comec up ina time. h~y
tmistaking the trail, and they eiTeted their
retreat. This placis only ',even miles, itn
direct lin-, frotm Fort King, and has been
for thte first time, visited by white tmen
aineg the wv ar.-Thid.
Thme iron Works.-Wo are gratified to
learn that, a mid the extensive dhevastniionis
of the hate flood, ottt Iron estab-lishmetnts,
ini Union, York, and Spa rtanhurg,- have
escaiped without injury-especial ly, t he
Neshil Manufacturing C'ompan!., htas not
stulferedl to tho amount of one dollar.
Torr.pundcence of the Chahesen iL'ourir.
W ASHINGTON, JUXNE2.
A n important movement has been made
in the Senate, (in the sutiiectofthte bank
rupt law. Indications are very strong
that the southern administration Senators
will generally oppose the 181h section of
Mr. Wall's bill, by which the baulis are in
cluded. Mr. Calhoun expressed a wish
to speak on the subject of this amendment,
which he said was vital to the bill, and the
hour being late, the Senate adjourned.
ie will speak to-day. It is certain that
several other southern administration Sen
ators have determined upon that course.
They are unwilling to give New York, the
great financial and commercial advain
agoes which will result to her from the
prostration of the southern banks. The
New Yorkers; without part y distinctions,
are in favor of including the banks, believ
ing that they catn stand the shock.
In the Homise. 31r. Waddy Thompson
Moved that the hill reported from the con
minee on military all'airs, for 'raising an
additional.force of si.tteen hundred men
for the pro tection-of Florida be .taken up,
and he subittited stunlry.cotniunications
from the Secretary of War, showing that
the Indians were in greater'orce, and more
mischievous than ever. Mr. Atherton
urged the necessity of disposing df the stilb
treasury bill, 4before any otrer business
wasinken up. Air. Coles inflirmed the
louse that there would be opposition to
to the hill referred to, by Mr..Thompson,
and that it would not pass wit hout much
debate. Tie mtolion was lost, as it requfr.
ed two thirds.
As the-rules were, it would retuire a
vote ,f'two-thtirds, onl 'Moudays, Fridays
and Sturdays, to tike isp the Stb-Treasu
ry. The comtimttee ofways and means
and the maijority of the loose, favorahle
to the passage of the Suh-Treasury bill.
were determined to push it through, if
posibeii,-hefore any tlier husiiiess was at
tended to. The Whigs, on the other'hand
were eqttallv resolute in prevnting it.
It the evening se.;siont, at 4 o'clock, the
states were calel fOr resIluitions, and Mr.
Smith of Me., who first got the floor, offler
-ed Mr. Athertoi's resolution to change'the
the role. It so happens that, this being
rcsolion day. the motion-cotdd 'be made
without the asseitoftwo-thirds. If it was
not adopted it would go over for aTurtnight.
Mr. Smith accomtpanieil his motion by a
demand br the prevists question. Tre
mendous excitemetii.follsowed. The Whigs
denounced ihe proccedure as unfair, un
pnrliametirry, ilestructive of the rights of
tile minority, &c. 3efore the siting was
over, so high was the excitement that all
orI er al decorum were lost, and the an
thority of the Speaker was ttlery disre
garded. The lie passed back and forth,
between members, on several octsions,
and every-thing like deceney of behafv'our
was outraged. The House wvas very neat
breaking up itt conion, and would have
been. if blows had been struck, which, at
one time, seeued inevitable.
The resolution .passd--yeas fl9,anays
Mr. -Cn'ihoun spoke about an hour, yes
ierday, on the subject of fle Bankrupt hill.
He did not profess-ro go flilly into the stib.
jeet, which, he said, embraced a great va
riety of topics, anid he intimated that he
migtt have anither oppormtiiity'to treat til:c
qiuestion moran *tlarge. But lie very di
tinctly defined his position in regard to the
matter. lIe opposed the hill. as reported
from the committee, as unconstitutional,
because it was nothing but anl insolvent
law. lie pointed out the -difference be
tween .ru inmolveit and a lankruit law
the former being intended to rilie-ve deb
tors, and the latter to regulate trailo. fle
wouuld nut vote for a mtere insolvetit lew,.
such as thte voluntar-y bill proposed.
- itt opposed as lie was to die bill, lie
was still nmore hostile to lie substitute of
Mr. W~all, that embraced whatt was called
the voltunta ry systemi and wvas liable, 00
that atccoitmr, to the samte objectioni which
he urged against the liill. It also, embra
celd what wvasleonminatedl the compulsory
systetm, which itt his opintiotn, wats the on
I)y conistitutional featutre in the sceme.
Butt this co-npttlsory pruocess, which for
med a bankrutpt law, 'in -the meaning of
the conastitutio, was too opp~ressire and
tyrannicial for adop'tion in m his country.
It had once beent tried 4y the law of 1800,
whlich was.limsited to live years, but aban
doned after an experimenit ofr two years.,
Under this provisiont, atny trader, owing a
debt of 50)0 dglhtrs wvould bie-litle to have
his business arrested. his property pit
in commission, atd sacrifteed, ife would.
bse crushed, at once, whereas, if allowed
time, hie would lbe able tos work tbrough,
successfully andi honorabty. The flututa
tions of the currency to nt hich we are ox
posed, from our banukitngsystem, rendered
such a latw pectuliatrly utsuitable to this
country. By a suddlen conitraction of the
currericy, a person wvith ample means is
unable to meet his debts. Hie might, af
ier a while, paty all, and have a large
surplus, but this law ruiins and destroys
him at once. There .wvouild be much m~ore
propiriety in gramnintg a stay lawv for his
relief, than in thus interposing to hasten
atnd comptilete Ihis ruin, He did not believe
that at single &ieterer wottid voste for Isis
compllulsor'y law, stamiling hy itself; but
matny, from anxiety to relieve debstors, osr
a dispsoshtiot to litinish the baniks, would
voste for it, in connection with the volunta
ry tad corporattionl provisions.
As to the lest feature of the stibstitute
apuplyinig the compuilsory processio banks
Mr Calhoitt argued that it would be more
ruious to the couintry than a devastating
tornado, or a decree of Providence sud--'
denly smititng the earth with sterility.
TIhe bltow wotuld noit fall on~ the corpiora
tions alonec, it wvould reach bevond thoem,
the whole tmass of the cominmunity. A
batnk not meetinig a debii to the amont of
$.500t, wot lie pitt in coammission, with
all its profits, credits, &c. The amiouti
of motney due to all the baniks was 450
millionis." The specie in theO contry a
miounted to 80 tutllionts. hlow wns the
immtenise debt to thu hatnks to lbe paid!
to'ini hsank piesper, for this law discredits
andt destrovs ths;,. andI not ini spsecie, for it
is trot in the country. E'very bsody would
bse runed by it, except the bankrtupt Coom
mnissioiners, w ho wonl fat ten on the sys
tems-all the indtustry of the counitry, espe
cially of the South atnd Wecst, wotuld be
wholly paralized by it.
Perhnns the banks, in New York and
other Eastern States, -ntfid'he *lile to
stand ethe shock. The place where the
rdvanue was co!lectcd would have great
advantages. In this view thellopieatiolis
of the law would lie unequal 'in different
parts of the country. it would not he a
itiifilrm law. lie did not sp'eak of mio
tives, but the elket of the law upon the
commerce and banking of the South,
would be most disasirious. As a means
nf concentratitig the mouied power of the
COUtry, it would- be more effective than
a National Bank. It would also unite the
bankinig system -with the Government,
and give the latter complete controle over
the former. -
In fine, Mr. Calonniaid. lie would vote
to strike out the clause embracing Iho
banks. and afterwards against the whole
The question was taken and the baiks
were stricken out by a decisive vote, yea*
28, nays. 16, Mr. Clay of Keneucky
moved to follow up this, by striking out
the 18th section, as including the conipil
Fory systen. That question will next be
discussed. Mr. Calhoun has blown up
two parts of the bill, the compulsory 'and
corporation provissions, But his argu
meat againt the voluntary system is bt
conclusive. However, Igloubt whether,
a mjority of the Senate will go for the
volntary 111 alone,
lu the House, Mr. Leet, of Pa. spoke
in support of the Sub-Treasury Bill, and
Mr. Brockwoy, of Connecticut against it.
The -Rivers.--When our paper went to
press on-Friday of last week, the Ware
ree was very high, and still rising, though
at that time. we had not heard of aray of t he
embanknents -having given way. Du
ring the afternoon and _ night of Friday.
however, the tvaters.eontinued to rise until
till the'low arounds were completely sub
inerged, and the emhiaukments of all the
plantations on the river, as far as we have
ward, either broken or overflowed. The
river was at its highest point on Saturday
morning and wanted but 10 inches of he
ing as high as the fresbet of Auigust 1831,
whiebh was Pie highest we have ever heard
ion the Wateree. ~The Camdein Bridge
whuich was carried away in 1831, and af
ier heing built was again swept of', but at
what ilme we do not remember, was re
:otnstructed about two years since under
the superintendance of Capt. Vanderford
Af Cheraw, brtutndte vwithstood the sweep
ing torrent. The damage which has
been sustained, not only hy the destruction
of the growing crop, but by washing up of
the pantations and the loss of stock is im
*I1hSuau.-It was feared by many that
the recent great Flood, which destroyed a
large amount of proper. in Hamburg,
would so completely prostrate her, that a
recovery was at least questionable, These
apprehensions are groundless. We have
wen chastened, but it was for our good.
uinle-s it be lie fint of Him who ruleth all
things, that we shall lie more severely
scourged, we shall rise tip shortly "like
arong men refreshed with new wine."
Some of our merchants will probably' re
tire froi business, for the present; but
heavier stocks of gnodswill be for sale, and.
a larger amount of business 'will be done
here the-coming season. than in %ny -previ
ius year. We have heard that ,prepara
lions are making for the openinguf sever
;l new houses next Fall. 'Our good
riends, the planters. may rest assured that
hey will still find a good market at Ham
burg. and they are invited to --,ione and
ee, and judge for themselve."-Hanburg
Extract of a leter received in Charleston
-hy the Post Master, -datted,
I.GRAIIllANILLE, June 8.
"The Siage tried this any to get to Sit
vannahi but maitde a failure. The driver
.ays the Schriven Causewvay i-: all afloat,
tnd the bridge gone, consequenttly was
:-ompe~lled to returit to Purysburg. The
Iriver carried the mail from Purysburg to
Savannah in a boat, so there w'ill he no
~aeuTtrion wvhen thteSt age sv ill get along."
The Georgetown American, of the 5th
nst. says:-WVe have had our full shbtre of
sain, hut we apprehend no -ir~j'Jry 'to the
trops ini this Dlistrict. Some damage to
he rice field hanks by the pressure of wa
er from above fins bass surstained, but of
to great cotnsequence any where."
Fait.-We take p'lendure in udknowl
edginug the receipt of a preset o'rlumanii
Peathl A pricots, from Mr. R. E. R~ussell.
Thicy were very heautiful, and well flavor
ed; and wye hope our friends will followhis
tood example, both in cultiyvafing Sine
rtnit, and furnish'ina us with subjects for
ed itorials.- Carolina Planter.
Several of ouir planters wvho have had
Loton destroyed by the freshet- are now
re pkantintr. In many places cotton which' -
tvaq covered for 36 or 48-hours is coming
out, and b'eginning to look *ell.-Ibid.
In our account of the fresjteiinsouirj.ast -
paper the rivei is mntioned as having
risen '*37 feet" at Coltumbia-27 phould
ieve been the inje reading.-fbid.
CuAmEtSTof, June .13.
Preshe.-Capt. Miller or dhe schr. Em
aia Julia, arriv-ed yestetrdaly from Santee,
Itaies that the freshet had extended to all
he Rice Plantations on Santee, as low
iouvn as Mirs. Rutlelge's. The embanke
ments were all covered ont the 5th ingt.,and
remained in that situation until the 11th,
wvhen it had falleti 4 inchtes, the negroes hadl
ill he'en remtoved to the tmain; lhe heard of
to lossof life.
Nt-:w CoT ToN...-We ceopy the followitng
rrom the Nattchez Free Trader of the 3d
tinst. which shows the earliness of the sea- -
lon, anml that wec are likely to have new
:ottont in abundance befote the old is ship
ped tdf-andtt it shtows that the enerpies of
he pilatnters have not been deferred by low
..Mr. ThomlasGilb~ert, a planter in Lou
siatna, some 20-miles helow tbis city, has
teti us~ several cottoni hulls, about two
htirds the orditnary size at maturity, as a
tample of his cropt this year, As his Ia
mrs appmear to be crowned wvith sucecess ini
he etilivat ion oif our staple, we wish hitm
ttter prices tha-! thcrc is niow itrspc
af obtaining for the article whent brought to