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" We will cling so she Pillars of the Tenple of o. Liberde., and if is nts MP.n Perish am'ids she Rins.
VOLUME VI. QhVL7ut 1ouse, 8. C., Ab)gus , 18. NO. 0.
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Lines urite by Dr. MiloN A l.ony, deceased,
formerly of Agusta. Ga.
THE AUTUMN LEAF.
My life is not like summer's rose,
Distilling perfume to the air
Of summer's morn-Exhaling sweets
To etery breeze fr om yonder hill.
o no! For were it such, full well
I know that, as they rose, my heart
- Vumd bask in joys of thrilling tone
See! Tow'ring high. yon stately trunk
Above the crowded forest's t*1
And that'reft branch, its only leaf
Supports, amidst the chilling dews
And burning suns of autumn days.
Ab yes! There hang4 on that lone bough
A lonelier. with'ring autumn leaf.
As like loves like. my soul claims 'kin
With that sear lear. My sympathies
Reach oat, and hail its protsty pe.
Each hailstorm, and each rude wind's blast
That tore its fellow frmin its side.
Long since,-it felt the genial warmth
Of springs,-ti' alternate gentle breeze
And cheering shower of A prils day.
It board the main caroil sweet
And vesper laymn or winged tribes,
Enriching all the peaceful sce
With presint joy, and future hope.
And-----onsward stillit grew amidst
Its young companions;t waiving sw cet
in rustling harmony and love,
'ill summer':? brightest days beheld
Its glistening beauty in the breeze.
But now, bow changed! rude blast.' assail!
It bends,-it shivers.-Still tho storm
Blows on amain.-Blast after blast
In quick succession preses on.
No gentde summer's stilly scene
Now cheers its lonely hours.-And hope
Before so bright. so joy ful once.
Now turns to retrospect. No more
Te matinarol is heard. No-more
The vesper hymn pervades the scne
With undulating harmony ,
But in hybernal winds it hangs,
And still awaits the last rude blast -
To tear it frem its sotitude.
And want it to oblivion's dell.
Sear leaf-I link thee to my heart,
Bereft of all the tender care
That chaeers the bloom ofyot:-of all
When toils and cares demand the help
T e bliss of true ofcio'sbreast.
Wheeon to lean-whereon to cool
75Is tevered brow-the weary head
To rest, sod feel its heavy cares
Nelsting in another's heart.
To leaf-thou art the eanblem true
Of my sad, solitary heart;
Not Headden's pencil-tho' so true
To line and color, shade and air,
That, all, butt breadth and speech it gives.
Could make, as thou hiast done, the strong
The speaking portrait of my heart.
...-.Would lold westthee rmthy place
Ofolitude. ard rude assault.
And take thee to my warm embrace.
4nd live and die with thee alone:
---Here is the heart, exuberant still
The fruitful soil of atnxious cares.
'Twould yield a lovely, blooming 'vine
Of sympaihy, and verdantly
Entwine and fasten that cmbraer.
tessional life, or the slightest inquiry into tle
probabilities of success f Yes, gentlemen, as a
portion of tie Agrincultural comumnity, I fear
that we are obnoxie-.., to the charge, of havimtg
heretofore submitted to a clisification, in the
ranks of life, which assigns us an inferior sta
tion, as the second or third, in the scale of dig
nity and respectability. Notwithaunding our
numbers, our strength, wealth and consequent
power, wo have shanmefully tiffiered otherclass
es to usurp our rights, and almostexclusively
to occupy the high ilaces of honor and proft in
the land. We have habitual.ly deferred to tie
imaginary superior wisdom and intelligenice of
thee metnbers of the learned professions, as if
the narme ol' their professions inveted their fol
lowers with clainms to deference and authority.
I trust a new era has commenced, of higher
hopes and brighter prospeects. for the Agricultu
ral communuity. The formation of this Society,
and the interest manifesed to tiny, are both pre
rages and pledges, that this state of things is
destined to pass away. and to give place to one,
more areiniating and cheering in tihe contemnpla
tion, and far inore salutary in its ultimnate con
serquences. The time leas come, when Agri
eniture, considered either as an art or science,
Aluims her equal rank and station among the
lionorable eniploymeents of men. Agricenture
not only exerts nn all powerful infiuence over
man in his aggregate character, as for ming ia
io'ns und civl countiiunities. but it exi reises a
to Ies beneficient ineflitence upeon himn. a i mo
'al agent. There is i, emplo nient upon earth,
m well calnclated to imini t strengith arnd soli
lity ts his physical petwers. or that offers more
uteresting subjects, forthe exercise and invig
nation of his intellecti attributes. It niTords
-iployinent to tl' hands und exereire to the
1nd, of tll others. the u.t farotaible, to
i-alth and happinieps ; % hile its irsuits, retir
:d aned unolitru-ive in their chnructer. arec mi
seitly calculated to promote the developcment
Imd imlroteiiciew of his moral nature. Such
a the iniuence which Agriculture exerts upon
lie conhtion and destinty oef man, either as a
eparate and distinct indi% idtial, or as a nnembir
if a social and organized comineunity. Such is
lie importance oftheat #ceniation to which we
ielong, and for tihe elevatiot and encourage
ieit o-fwhich we have thisi dav assembled to
evther.-lere the interesting Inquiry arises;
mew is this great purpose IIt be accompliehed I
Vhat are the imieanis within the reach of the
nembers of this Society. by which the attain
tet ef tiis great object can be secured, and
l:tccd bevoid the contingency of doubt or daa
er. This inquiry coinstiutf, the most'
'ortant branch of the subject. to which'
roposed to direct yu-r consideration o
When one of the most distingui
Ors of itome, discovered that
eclining in him kingdot, i
eg,ctof its folo
les of th oughintbs
ears pubei &,im
tue honored p
01h these exato
,sorterd to the magt
teo public mind, for the purpose,
ursitits of husbandry vith it
sori:eting its pleasures and emaW'
iie facinationes of song, be, ought
uHow-:is withg reater zeal and h
1 its Ihalf. The Empeeror and lus court, go
Iruigh the anntal ceremonial, for the purpose
Sconwvincing his people. that the employmeent
h hin..tiandr is not ontilv honorable to its vota
ir4. it of stificient <iignity and imptlortatice.
i merit the bestowtient ef imperini honors
rom tihe highest fouitaint of hoenors. In what
:icrtner shtiall I le able te awaken a more enno
hi: zeal in lavor of our vocation I Jiow -hall
h' aile tet stie--end in impres-ing its vtetarie
6 ith a hiaier e't-imaite olf its importance, and of
timittinig them to girater ctforts, and te the
i of new nlnd approved ienetheeds for it. im
>riovemeni. A senitelielet was utte 1ed lv A
iiwmeber of the Society at its first meeting, M.ith
i? heprictical hearing of whichi I was forcibly
epreseed at the time and to which I must ask
,ermission hewe tee inife. na its general adoep
ien ise emninttcly alenlaitede, int imy oepinioen, to
', leen asked, whether lie wars not tempitedi to
ell ont, and tee rve i toe gle ferntile laneds ine the
ew State-s, in searche of' a ric'her soil, utnd mocre
,hungdanit crops. hid replly teasniuieermly beenl,
hatt le has mno desire toi leave in quest eof ciay
thcer. a nd eve-n if lie hadh, ne onie citd hee jet'
neeed tee paym the price wheichl le shldi ask f'or
is ,eadssiens, foer tno i-onsierattiong could in'
Inee heimee to engterita the ide'e ef.-ellIineg. ichoit
mea iietTr toe sheingle over his hland with elelar.
rhei'e setm'imenit is coninerted ithf, ande sperinpg
reim at n aermi anttuachmen't her hone, and ts us
cici ite ls: ;with that fishing of de-votin
a the seed, which renndt rs the, .spit Ott which tie
ive', paramoueetnt int eur etreectioens eve'r all ether
dares. I e'hall regnrdlits adopjtion by the mlent
ewns gf thia aeeety. ns ai hartineempr get a gnewt
ra in cenr Agriceiurr'. condmition, ated ais the
iiit'-t guafraty of pre.-iiv~ae aind pe'rmianett
myjreoeet. Thle n~ieneit wte feel' that iden
itientioni with the soil,nnidc regard onirsenlve' as~
Cs pe'eraneent occupiers. anid not them ere tene
tits tfer a sennont; cande thart lng contsiderationg.
ess thman a covel of silveg coin ovenr neur land.
:nild teimept us to peart wvithi it, thten sheath we, i
:rth.t ceemmtence the work ot reform. It wa.s
this stronig hocalt attachmnt. this fenelineg oh'idecn
tifientiiin anid self dI'eitioin to the antI, at the
basis ref which tics all neational devotion, that
itimnulated the itnhabitants of Sceetland, to enter
upeont the woerk of inmprovineg and reclaiming
teir lanids, nchcl otf whichh consisted of rocky
wustes acid barren henaths. instead oif fl ing t'o
rubier countries in search ef a homne. Their ef
Irerts have benen crownted with the most trium
pliant siuccess; a esuccess which in thin short
spatce of half a century, has converted the bar.
reim and bleak hills into frnitfuml fields, at thts
micenienit affording ample supeport to the most
loyal, ntationail, indutsrious anid enterprismag po
ptnlation uipon the face oef the earth. We, ge'n
iletmen, have comnparativ-ely a better lot, a much
easier destiny. We have not only every induce
mnent, but likewise every enicotmagement to en-!
ter upon the task of improvemenut. Our lands
in thts region, were originally of good quality,
with no inconsiderable piirtiont that was excee'd
ingly fertile, sufficiently level for all the putrpo
sea of cultivation and improvement, abouendtng
in forests ad streams of abundant ad never
failing water, and egnally as healthful as any
s..,;ar fertil. mae;li.s ....,h;. ,h,. n,,.. r the
Froa the Plough Boy.
DZL)VRLD BEU'ORE Tilt CANDRIDGE AORttCV.
TURALOOCIETV,0o FratnAY, 7TH oF MAY, 184,
BY WUITFIELD BrtOOKs. Esq.
Mr, President, and Genilemen ofthe Agricultural
A desire to improve the Agricultural interest
in this section of tie State. was the chief and
imp1,elling, motive. which led to the formation of
the Society, whose recent organization we have
this day convened to conmmmemomrate. For the
putipsie fimpIartmg teintie :nterest tl tIhe occa
sion. and of giving ani open pubbe pledge to the
country, that the :embers of the c4ciety are .n
eariest, that thetir hearts and winds are truly
engnged in tie matter, they deemed it advisea.
ble. at their first meeting, tn provide fur the de
lively (bn this day. ufn public Address. adnpted
to the occasion, and to ie %a., ausigned the per.
foriuaice oftimas duty.
I now appear befice yon and enter upon the
task assigimed me. wvitih io tither reinemace. than
wlt very piripe vly aries. froaum a distrust of
my ability inl th present impaired state of tmy
heathh. ti' io jumstice to the occasion, aid to fulhi
your reasomiable expectatiotns. So tnnenh has
been written and itublished upon time cotmpre.
lensive tsubject, both Ity practical planters and
scientific genmtlemen, that I camot flatter myself
n itit the expectation, (of being able to oifer to
vonr considea ioim at this timie',ani stgge .tms,
'whtich shall Ite eititled to time mcrit of tnovelty,
or whchl may justly claim the hutmber recom
umenldationt of being- prescltd inl a new aUIl cap
tivating form. We lnve not met, howvever, as
a Society of iearned Proessirs, to discourpe
upon the abitruse principles of vegetable physi
ology or to elicidate the hidden and pmrmfmoumnd
trutha ofrphysical i.cience.(important and mier.
rastn as ilmise sujtunuiest inuably are.) bit
we hiave cotme tisgether. as tie tmpretendiint
owners and cultivators of time %ail, ter time ing le
purpose of promtotimg the impro ement of thit
acrcupation to whicl we belotg. and to w hichI
timot of us ateexclusively itdebted forour sny
if I cnn sicceed in imparting an importance
:o Agriculture as atm occupatim, not btfo.re ac.
knowledged; if I can lie so flt tnatie as to awa.
ken a zeal hithsrti mfelt for its adiatnment,t
and esipecially. if I shall suggest such -onsider
tiois as silimil stinmulate the ttmmiibors eithis So
:iety to te active te ofthoise menans, which me
imipensable to stucce, I siall lit rewarded,
ith time grtificationt of my iighest hopies, and
mply compenisted for mymv littme and labour.
gricuture challeng- our higi consideratio r
is being the eldelst birter of time arts. and a-, tie
onored employment of snian. in hi state of
rimeval inntoence. The earth was giveni to
im at atn iniLeritance, by the author of his ex
gene., In I-s garden of Eden the
~ nted. its nin wus to d
Sfhis emiptoymneaL It may be justi de- d
ominated tIme paramount interest of civilzed L
nan, in all time m'dified formi of is social nnd
ivil relationst. It is emphaticaily time basis, nol ti
mly of huimnn subsistence, hmt tIme only true b
ondation ofhuman comfoit amid improvemient.
3v its eretive powers. all time intiiied imeans
dindividual or iational wimmth are protdLrcd,
md by its successftu inhor, are mitily firnih
d tile divrisified tnaterial. whicih cons.lttit'e
he Cotmimere and Mantttiirtmi of the worl I
it has iteim sltly called the w hiil maid of ci% iliz
sliom. and time ntmrsing intier of nation*. Ats ti
it was coeval vith the existence of man, Po it
will be his abidingi and parnmomt employmenl- I
li time p-eriod of iis final e.xtinction. Tie culti
ators of ilei soil. itn time ditferettt de'partment t,
if iti-bandrv. Atgriculture anid Iliertinitre. f
nonatittel% bv estionation. "eq n-eig hths mf tIe
pmopuliatio if the %%lwm,.l ..tili. It 14 Iiier e
1mimntdi. mihat ns a di-tinct mC e I., they pay mtI)
time ..rnts ofe erv ::i ermim it, tin. pI meipal
remestite for thme s'iilIt 4f each : andA that it
iour own State 11n yal ltilar, %%e conte ihemts ille-C
Inth-i (if thIe g-nenm:l tax. As AgritIlturists.
inhrelifre. wve do slot narogale to our-uhes aim
rver ning Importance. in the awsimption.
ihat time Agricultiernil c!n-s (of every civilized
roimntmmiity, "onsitituite the. ointiy stire und peirima
inent founmdationm of* al go emrnmmet, anid mniwan i
wmichm civil soceity antd goverint'mnt tonist, an
truth, depend for tiimi comntiiued snport amid
Inm thme niibl,* Spim n tl'iSof nutetett archiitiec
ire. nmowi to bem traiced ammmid the" mplendmid ruins
if thenmm, anmd lioiime, time ttin"1y pillars and .
imagmitretmt cohimmuti. dont.attuteal time ciel' 1
st renth~ andilorni~m-"nmt of thn splendiid ,muper
.tructurs, whmchm iwemre e'recitedl ii poin thmetm: andi
imihev ;u inte'been tihe ini't tin viehld tio time cirrniding
tnch of timme, r(emafinimig 'nt tii day. limt only
is nmntsit of I i'roer grentmti' anid privr
mml mm. nithjectsi wvmthyl of thme mdmiratin of imo.
lern tiies. Thie 'Tlenidii -miler -str' ner
which thmey suippomrted. ha~ve' ln:: -ince crnm
bmedi into rumins, wilei timese enidmriuntt fimanda-.
ions lanintaint thmeir stati~mns, wth bimt a i'islint
dimunutitimon ofi their stenmgmih anid 1:nmideumr. Wa'e
occpy to society. ni rebimiinm ,-omewthat unnlai
gus, to thmat sumstain~ed~ by those endurmiing pil
las and tiune wonm columms, to thmi'immore pmeri-Im
able. but spliemndid edifices.i whichm timey' mmmupport
ed. We are withou~it a figutrethme pillar.. tind coi
Itoums of time great social editice, time chief smp
port ofcivilizedl governmenit. anid ini i'lort thme
maimm sprin:: that tiparta l1ife and momemntumm tim
the commpiicatedi macinmery of time whole social
Time cultivators of time soil. clothe an-l feed
the whioie hiuman race. W hipt wuld beconme
of p~hilo.mnihy, ofi -ciemnce. of' mm ne rzs, andm ini fact,
if all time tramfes andmi oc'ctionmis of hife, if Agri
culture shouiild i'tifp her sumpphies, mmndi -reuise
fod to their idlimweirs. Stop mime piom::h or'the
husbandimati. amid eaim yon concmive of- a wider
mr mor e mem'ain hiv srene of' snifrering thmman
would im thamt evenot hie poise'nted to time eye ?
A nd yet are nut time Agrie'nitumral class, here.nnd
every where, ini am Creat de'gre'e insensibile to the
importancee of their positmen ini time soqcial state I
Have they hnt fmmled to appieciate their mimpor
ance,. and, ini faet, tameily acquiesced imn that
haitual disparageoment ;' ftheir calling. by' whiich
they ha.'ve been defraumded of a larce portion of'
tme influence in society. to which they are fairly
entitled!i Have we niot been too amuch ini the
habit of mmnderrating our occupatimn, and of giv-~
itg undue weighmt and respectability to oithers ?
or regarding the varionm learned professions as
more honorable, and therefore more desirable?
Has it not been the vain amnbitionm of:oo many
of' our own class, to make lawyers and pliysi
eians of opr sons, in name at least. withmout the
....aunufste .r-,ie~ t'chemir nonbifreamions for nro.
State. How imperative etcouraging are
the inducements, add us this day, iii
dividually and collectivel titer upon, the
great work of improve itb the solemn
determination to remit and to spare
no pains, that are esen -uccess, nor to
panse or faulter in our , until we shall
have rendered old Cain dismignuished
for the stqte of her Agt- prsperity and
independence, as shoe is- annual of her
country, for the heroic e and daring
achievements of her so great and me
morable contest for
In accomplishing the Ilated improve
ment, which has this d4s together,
I begin with the plonh confident per
suasion, that it is to t t and cfficient
agent in all our Agriculta rati"- I hold
the propositic . r .. to the;
grower of corr nosone
cessfIl planti a';fieient
ploughing. A ee com
position of tie .3 which
It sustaills at :.Abment
and suppor to demon
strate the utili .-r agent
of eriual powe - .h bears
to the vegerab on.and
performs thes - -h does
to the animal r - rnisies
foid. hNt each -for the
nourishment I -. hject;
the stomach b by de
composition. -h is to
the land what . 1
the latter tlge:- - pared
for the organs former
the enrth is hr- inode
to admit of a -
tahe elements - Pu-.
trefaction and V as.
sume the forn they
become food V! :1, prinf I
ciplem upon a'.. .,,,rw, I
consist of but smab.
stances and t' -ouh I
the ena, in g r--a
:ording to the . I
and animal rr: -
furnish the pr---:-, riorI
of mineral Va. -. "ich
by che 1; ;1 4
mil. h t
t the pln. t a
the#- fin: imp .%0U. tW. work ofI
relaiiiiiag. (I orcoveriag
ner cur gall ,Witli a cclt
giill it-,, thlaa :a of tair pian
atie.as %%lair lore no ar
the bewv. A g
them. Shaall -he inpeanreit
mode orfbrra mire h:et f6:r
iirty yearsl. land,; ifi tis
neglohun ete xas
:zil. Thoaloiircla.- ud I
jeato i aiidrrlt~ the clantul pt
d ton oi indl -mg~a~mte oftbir soi a
hietpiough. an -nta --aemnigg it asth
he~ana m s ip .h onnoneit the or ofe it,
-~ elangonsatneldhr iisi ofmctverm I
nal uar~ itall .in flt rende oa coa ie
Na) vegetable air .- niioS.o mte gapmg la
atos nuthittta o a nee andrai of
hernaa benot. -dk ndo boehattun o.
evcn.otn : ni g's.whc he imear-et,
node of beaI alonu orisoure eanar
hirtyuatarsla icl -- ea anlandasua inths
fu eigrhow, aa-e'raolo to hexhaunt,
idnge hm t in. til lf is sidja.a tod w ah I
Increction w.. eitalthe judicionha ese of I
tian~e.inwld reaiacoumie th carefl pre
rti, if ald eae ate o eert der
iion and Instad conemnit it rtoeav the
ivr proucts of the eonod,hr in her on n.ed
Inf nemt nstindhant)eanaprburnitbh o
'rtcio antio italksprod ysteme plnuianartio
wponane old :he'r onpr aits a i twne re.-ra
inam Thre'ilee snec and efatcien e feoario
an nthb ofiche vilu the a anptening ete
fthlemtarfthis Tlnm entrisconherted int tlid
edfor the rtilt ond thppr lads ha for the
whchdate ofnall thf produetions ond te arthe
tnecesuld cnte nndmfpired thofg omn
ame, cifl manwdetetr to thexy-trto mar,
pnue wary last hal cnent torecieh
rich lade. Schtncondomy, i herlown ga..e
Teouainexms o ipenca ble prftbee
ftsling frmteus and application of mnr.N ytmo
pmrcany ofteiea succstandtrfinke ford
any nth.a tof e witoutd th at of the
Sftate B:th comost maure, hich nt ti
edfthe fertilit ohild, and or madeb
everunaner i anyth imagnaetintity eath,
anecatytO our oldt and comfotse lf an,
are chiotoy impbt tincheasyem fiy butnrig,
Enand Shemoeando and Nehriande, yad
mittingemureingadilm the es pano aicatindo
ypsom r, an oferv them nra sbitnles nend
wlo racetiously enquired of a gentlemangwne
ther lie was engaged in the manufactute, and
whether the frames and skeletons beibre thW
were intended for the purpose. Better tr01t
ment. and the introduction among us, of 16W
mott approved breeds now in the country, con
stitutetheonly remedy for the existiagevil, and
he ivill deserve to be honored as a public beas
fictor, who shall first enter with spirit and reWo
lution upon the work of improvement.
With regard to hogs, the very reverse of the
foregoing rule is to ho recommended. No
planter should be content tn make less pwk
than will be necessary to su pply his own ma
ly. Pride, interest, and a feeling of indepen
deuce should combine, to stimulateevety plan
ter. to the attainment of this end Our depen
dence upon a foreign market, is a stigma upon
our industry and entetprize, which we shoulb
hastan to remove. It.should be an inflexible
rule of every planter, to cultivate all -articles of
food necessary to the wants of hiA family, to
which his soil and Rittation are adapted. To
purchase no article that ;an be cultivated a:
home, is a maxim founded in wisdom, and is ea
forced at this timic.*by considerations of interest
and pntriotism. For the modus operaudi, the
ways and means of effecting this reformation in
our Agricultural Labits. I beg leave to referjod
to the able address, delivered by Gen. McDuf
fie beflre the State Agricultural Society in Co
Inttbin. at the anniversary meeting in Decent
her last. It will be found, nolatily replete with
sotitid, practical views and patriutic sentimentil.
but almso to abound with the profound reflectiong
ora skilrul and eiperienced planter.
There remains, gentlemen, but one other
subject. to which I would invite your attentive
contsideration. ar iitimately connected with the
purpowes f ouir aslociation. and upon which our
suiccess or failure is destined greatly to depend;
I allude to the almost universal practice among
planters, of condnctitig their pecuniary transac
tions npon the credit principle. This has been
forced t pon the m, by the introduction of a fal'
and ruinous habit of anticipating the annual
income romi erops, before the ptoceeds are re
lized. and very often before the seed have
geriniated in the ground. An inevitable con
sequence of this suicidal practice. has been and
must continue to be. to detraud the-planter out
of his just position and influence in society, to
reverse his natural relatidn to all other classes.
whieh is one of comparative independence. and
to substitute in its place one of degrading de
pindence, if not of mortifying servility. At
present it is little better than a state of volu-ta
v subordinationr to our eqals, a deliverarce
from which can only be efected, by casting off
the fetters ora slavish custom,ta which we have
too long submitted. Instead of anticipating our
income, and graduating our expenditures by its
supposed amounts, we insist adopt the wie
and more prudential course of keeping a pot
tion of the proceeds of our crops unapproprist
ed. and if not inAurpookesatleast within o*
certain control, wheniibrustmOr oriiU
dep-udence. It will secure our emancipation
from the humiliatin necessity of asking credit
of the inerchant.of the lawyer, of the physician,.
of the blacksmith, and of the tailor. Instead of
receiving credit, as a favor granted to us, we
shall have it in our power to arcept it as a lavor
conferred upon others. It will then become
the interest of all other classes to seek the cs
ton and parronage of the planter, and his the
proud privilege orconferring them, upon whom
sotever he pleases. He will then become, an he
shonld be, the only truly independent member
of the social state, to whom in the natural order
4f things, all other classes should look for aid
and encoura emeniit.
I av-ing submitted those views. upon the va.
rious ropics embraced in this address,it remains
with you, geutiemien. to determine, whether
they exhibit a faithful picture of existing evils,
in the present state of our Agricultural econo
y, and whether the remedies suggested, are
appropriate and adequate, to' accomplish the
cnange, and to secure the reform, which wesa'
inuch desire? Are the interests involved, of
suticient magnitude to command oar united
energieu' in an unwavering effort, to promote
their advancement, and to plant them upon ii
froundation of pernanea security. Success in
everv aspect of the subject, will be found to de
pend upon our own voluntary efforts. Our re
hanice mtust be upoti our own unfaltering wills
amd ready hands, and when were these known
to fail, under the gutidanice of prudence and
wi-doim? 3ech may be achieved in the cause
o implrolvementt, by the memibers of this Socie
t. ini their associated capacity, by the mutes?
iinsction which will flow frotn a free inter
chage of opinion ; but more may be aecoma
pliherd by our labors as individuals, devoted td'
careful obs'ervationi and skillful experiment.
Gri.st andi besieficial aesnilts may sprnng from
the proceeditnps of this day. if they shall happi
Ir in.pire us with the wvills and resolutions, suf
ticiently active and impelling to carry io er
eenion. she lalns and practices. upon whidh
sncess will depenid. OJr apathy and negleet'
maxi ,.neceedl to' the ardor, by which we areat
pre'enit aitmmated, and by paralizing otr efforts,
cauiie thme presetn ocaston to pass away ut
prvd and unprodnetive of any future benefit.
We should never be uihmindfuil of the fact, that.
to live by the swea' of the birow, if not the law
of tman's natuire. is the ine.rerable law of hiv
condition. from which there can he no escape.
ad that nothing good, or excellent, or valuable,
or es'en desirable, ever was acconmplished with.
out toil and lahor. Mlay I then, gentlemen, be
permtted to make an appeal to your feelings
sf prde of interest, of independence, of ga.
tiotism. and in short, to every motive wheelh
shoid initluence human action, this day to'
pledge yonr laith, and dedicate your best ser
vices with me. in the noble effort to elevate our
condition, and to imptove and digitf the oe.
en pation, wvhich we have selected, an with the
pms -nits and rewards of which we have every
iducement to be content. Success wil crown
Iour well directed efforts, with as much certaits.
Sas the-effect will follow the cause, and
jie time will not be rejmote when the members'
of this Society may proudly iong rut, shch
other, upon th ihanglorosrithir
-:4ll spring from their associated labors, ist teu
gratcausof Agricultural reform a'ndiimprove
Renosau.si, 28th April, 1831.
.1. Lossing of Albany has sold a Berk
shire boar and aow, the former for 6200,.
-and the latter for $300, to W. P. Card of
Kentucky. The boer with bisege weigh.
tion for the ramification of the roots, which the
curt. and cotton plant send out in search of
food. A system of manuring is not only re
commended to our adoption by the increased
fertility, which it will.imnpart to tor lands, but it
will exe-rt a no less important influence, upon
the fortues of the Agricultural community. in
other points of view. It will enable the planters
to lessen the qaiutity of land in cultivation, with
out diiniiishing. in the smallest degree, the ex
tent of theur income, and at the same timte to
save tie expenditure of much labor and valua
ble tinaber. now required in fencing and work
ing rxhansted fields, which yield but poor and
mneagre crops. By the fertilizing properties of
muanure-, the crop is invigorated and improved.
brought to maturity at an earlier pes iod, with
greatly nugmented prodnct,and a saving to the
plateiCr tinder ordianry circumstances of at
least one inrking. I am persuaded, that the
most imlortant reform in our present mode of
planting. is to bcarhieved by lessening instead
Dfincreasing the number of acres in corna and
iotton. now allotted to each worker. Six acres
in cotton and five in corn. tnder a fair system
7r manuring, will yield a greater product.
with les-i ast-or, than eight acres of cotton and
seven of c,.rn under our prescit sys:em. In
act, there is hardly any limit, to which the fer
tility and productr teness if lands mray not lie
:nrried. by a enrefuil and persevering svstem
fmainiring. Let no t:e he deterred. from the
Ittempt to make inantire. lby any nlpprehni;on
if t;.e snppnsed difficulties in the wtoy of su.
--s, It is recommeintndel to our adoption by
-very consideration of profit and expe-lienv.
I'be reTts will atlord an ubtindant supply 'if
,egiiibly ninier. aid our Ftock or horses, cat
1c. fog- nit she-p. will aid i insigi it togeti.
sr, and fertilizing it by their enri--iiig comiri
stiomr't. No labor can be expeided to tmore
idvant-age on n ptlaintation, than that appropri
ted to the makintig )f manure. It is to tIe plan
er, what moneyp- is to the banker and the usur
r. It is his capital. the very sheet anchor of
is brightest hopes or succcoo and pirosperity.
he. who neglects the dity or inakin2 and nring
t, may he jn-tly n'i-ned to thesniae categoly
vith tle unirroitrable serv-irt, who buried his
alent. arid foiled to, improve it.
As another es-entiail prt of the system or re
'arm, I would te-comtiiend the regular and ju.
icios rotation, ofcropie. The most approved
otation agreeably to miy experience is. coition.
Orn, and then sinll grain; and resting the
6d the foulth year, ifpracttcable. This rota
mitended, by its agency to preserve
i as the obvious
.0t!, in the
9 e of the
-ur mce~ re
. The fibrous
r 1 ilbeome n
a diff.rent crop ofr
he same remark is
grain aud rot crops.
urieties.of the -e'getabtle
must r.otstop at this pout.
1 usamend our ways in r'her important
articulars, belh-ie our triumph will be com
lpte. As plantte-rs we have been too 1ong in
he habit of ueglecting the careful silectioni of
eed, of all de criptionls, at the priper litte. To
tie overseer, or t, soue ignorant se-rvat. this
1suty has li-et entrut ed, from year to yenr.
6it tee-rence to i other conside-ration'than
a the quatriiy to fbe pro% ided. No care is ta
en to procire- the- niost nppifro% ed vari-ty of the
blfferent crops. but " e ,ie cOnteited tee pass
ron year to) year. %% ith a bare n-uppily "f the
in. already oa the plantation, re:ardrs at
i1 ananual deterioratium, and of tire 6.s4 to which
ye are thueihy enhjced. We f.rget to profit
iv the in die :.tinn. n L ieb ature- holds up to us.
id which would ifuillibrly guide as nriglt. if,
r e wermid obhserve leer pl:eitiest law~ s. Like n:il
wret like, is a prroposeiuioen in nature p0 true.
lhat it has becenee a provu-rh. Ande yet how dor
vee faiil tri oblery u it- peract ica:l sear-ling itt er
kgrienitur.l operrati..ne. The moirt? of ius are
sire-fua, andeve-n prains reking, in, the sele-ctiont or
uced tfor uotr gardenge. iand ye leave tihe - min
tav,'' the c ropis of~ ital iportarncr-, to chance
mic arccidetnt. err to theu snpet visioni utfihose who
ire neot qnaslified for the dnuty. 'Ina tis respec.t.
'e imiitalte by oner practi~e-s. that clss e-f man
itid, whoe aire "- peny wise and peiud foeirk.,
Thlere is tno peart of our .'tgricueltral econeomy.
noure delfectue or that regees a morere radic-d
.hiitige, than theat wicih re-late-, to tihe etirei
ratnngemtenit of etuck.- The prevnilinig praec
ice has bre-en, to Lee-p as rmany uettle ern each
dsantation,. as tire gleneinugs of thre tiel.de, rind
lhe roirgh ollal freomi the creops, ar-.nally conrttte
og err lintle el-.- than straw, will be snifiienrt
ranrely tot seaitin iirough the fall aind winter
TIhey are doomerd to re'-main itn epenr encto
mure- tiaertighouest thre wvit!r.t rwthiout tire slight.
'set c-overirng. to protect ifheni agariin. the sevecri
ie-s o'thati seasone; with ner oilier place frir their
rosd, itan thie earthi un n~ bichr it is enreesly
catterced, and withe which it bte-oines icorper
sated iind soiled leftore it is half csnaenmted. A
refoim in this deprartmtent, s-an only be effected
by a funidiaetal chtange oifexisting practices
trse inust reserlutely eenter aupotn thre task, by a
redtrction of onr stuck of castle'. tsr at least one
half the prr'esnt inmbaer. hy thre erection of shled
sers to tehichh thema trom tire rigorirsof the win
ters corld and rain, annd by the tintely provision
of inore nuriirhing food. sucht as pumpn~kins,
reculenrt roots, peas. pen vines, hay. green rye
lots, coral andl wheat bran. with occasional stip
pilies of mixed oats and meal; all of which tmay
be p roduaced in adeqnate quantities, sipon an)
well mianraged plantatioan. Thre plantter earl in
cenr no trouble err expenice. for a heich he will be
more abeundantly rewirded, thain that, which
he bestoewa aipont his stock.
From Icing irnid hiabituial nesglect, onr presenrt
race of cattle ha ve beconmesmall ar.d degenierate,
scarcely affeordinig remuneration to the ownrers,
fotr evenr the little care iand scanty fooed. awuard
ed so them during thre seasoen of winter, If you
demand prooif of thris allegatioin, let me invite
you to cast your eyes at this moment over the
country, and with what a miserably poor, out
cast and poverty stricken race of animahs are you
presented. Ih their emacisted fieshless bodies,
... m.rs realiz the sae'rm ofthe Kentuckian.