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A6 7 .on procu K bie fo si sae
gaa becoming r**po*~l o~i0sw
nahlf rebeive the sibtb cop ed at
- - beetisests consS i r esd
62A nts Pe' sA 12 . ro lesc
for theirst iestteiN~(or . ih
cansianance. T -c -
or quarteri 'ill be charge S1 per
for Ge IfherUOn. q Advertisemenits
3~I1the, oi f lw 0eas
out.d charged4eOL d to
11111(immuniIa 0 Vlureed'
. amate promptly and
Editor post Upr
- iA POCKET.
Greiwer by er ahd uear,
c ihiefest. d nobk't part,
y real dignity thou art,
My Pocket r
'What =Mw it ho0w teare or
Seek wean distinctiona5 al demp
ii thee aldetrS meit ltr.e
When I was poor and Tompkins fine,
Why was I never asked to 'line?
Alas! alas! the fa-lt was thine.
Or. if I made a morning call.
Whyv did I shaver in the tall?
This was my Crime-do worst of all
ODt when my rich relation B
Left ne las onl' legatee.
H-ow glad was rompkins then to ,ee
Then inivitations by the score
LIposened the knocker on my door
Sitrange it was always .till befo're.
Then hoste of alin',4. lilly-white.
Come rOlline inl w1h notes poliit.
And-Would I but oo stanza write
Jane. who to all my vows w%5 mnlte,
Or called ae fitol and ngIv brute.
Now wheedling sigl'd-Wokt. no one suit
Then first my little neplhrew knew
Their uncle's hoiuse was Number Two
Was it respect for mue or yout.
My Pocke t
M suresi stay. my best ally.
When duns were lotid and 'friend.' were shy,
On thee may future hope ry.~ck
Befriend me still, thy suitor prays.
Great chairman of the means and ways.
In losses, panies. quarter-days.
Thus helped, will not cars a pin.
What bubbles burst. w hatraes win.
Or whboare out or who are In.
AGICULUAL bocnIKTY OF FInK U. %TATF.s
A meltsng of the friene'ls or triculture
f-omt the daiT.-rent section:, of the Lited
Sttes was held pursuant in' publb:euoce,.
n the hall ofthe Housecof l1t prteseut.l'ves,'
o the 15:h Decembter, I-I - *I"'I-.
On mnon of the Hion D:ona I Li'"'
of latsmaa. the lion-. J 'ses 31 G.rarnt'
of Vriia, n as appointed! P'.esiient o the
ueteig; and the lon-. 1) II. Lcn'* ol
- Alama, Hon. :'dnmundl D--berry of N.
Carolina, Dr. Jatmes W.. Thompnjsn "f D
lware, JosePh Unales. l'.q. of the J).s.mict
of Colmbiu, Beknjasiin V. French, E-'q
of Ma.., and Jamne T. Giffai'w. Esq. of
j.Illinois, were appoin'edC Vi--Presidlents ;
'w4',sad J. F. Callauc of the District of Colum
an.d Robert E. Hornmar of New-Jer
ar ppontaed Soeretaries.
Jrient having very ably and
-the conventIon. np
gro Commiattee to pre
JmNames 1. Pearce
Casey of lt.,
' ue-motion. 8S. Skianer,' ., -dh
-,t~w Ln J rh
~.Qbr commit tnt uppa
deeo o hi ae-f M d
: That the Board of Control of
4oiety beaimtracted io presed*a pe
SIon toj~pment Cog #ess uf. ,uteed
s e a p a rt ie S mu ' t b e - '
o Boe , . - e
. Levi ry of N. H.,
isn. Lewis F. Lina o1 Mi., Hon. W. C.
Riv-s of Va.. HoqW. C. Johasog ofMd.,
Hon.D H. Lewisof Ala., Ho. John [Las
iog of ftio, Hon. Henry L. Ellsworth,
JI*S.S. Skinner. Esq. and J. F. Callan,
oftht.-Distric of Columbia, were appoint
el to select the ofacers-af the Society pro.
i for by tbe Contitution, to serve until
.the regular-leetion in May next,
.u O mntion, it wa., ?
- Ordered.- Tha, 'ibscription papers be
Ut w kh the S4rufary of the 8ante; the
o44be, Woieof Representadies the
rariea of Congres, andt with the-Se
dptsries of- ii nieetingwbore persono
sfrous or beeoming members-may intl
J- F. Car.LAV,
S R. E. Hoo
The committee, appointed by the Agri
cultural Society ofihe United States to so
lect the officers of the Society, to serve an
til the first general meetion and exhibiein
tn the 4th day of May next .iWye met and
de herebyreco, mendpnd teport tbly
lowing gettlemen to fil the oees anw' I
to theirrepective Pames. The Recording
Seeretary a requested to publsh the list,
and give special information to each indi
vidual of his seleceicin.
Lart WOOPRaT, C4'n.for the Cisa.
Corre'po Se'y -JohnS. Skinner.
Recording Se'.r-John- F. Callan.
Board o. . . Levi Woodbury, Eli
a i6 .1i 'I-xnader Hunter. John
i' Eas, Maino;
*i. N.~ NamTia.Te; B. ?'French.
Eli Ives' Cdhnecticut: Gov. Fen
'r, L-blanit WwJar
Enmory, Mfarvland; Edound Rutfin. Vir
inia; Edmund Decrrv. N. Carolina;
ade Hampton. S. Carolina ; W. Lump
kin. Georgin: Dixon El. Lewis, Alabaman;
Alex. Mioton. Lon: Archibald Yell. Ar
kansas; F. It. Gordun, Tennessee; M.
W. Philips, Mliss.: Chilton Allen. Ken
tee' k ; Lewis F. Linn, Mi.shouri; A. W.
SnN.!er. Ilknois:. S.,lon Rein-on. Indiana;
s:cE. Crnryx, M1ichinan: - John Huti-ings.
Ohio; 11. L. Elkwm th. D C.: R W.
Williams. Florida : Timoth11y Davis, Iowa;
lmer v Do'lge, W isk ounini.
The. VicV-I'relents of Virginia, Mary
,ind. Diriw if Columbin. Pestylvania.
and Delaware. are ex-oflicto mtembwers of
1Pe Jo.ird ofConrnl.
J. F.. CA.u.., Rec. bec.
oPERArTio: or sPATt.G.
Our corresp,.mdent, - Floridian.'nt Tni.
lahasse. has sevS 1%some 'fneries, !he first
of %Nlwihi ik as f1llo:-- We wih . OU.
Me rs. Editor-, tor .omae of your attetitive
coirre;sponlent.e te itnforim a yomv- reader
of the irvost .c'wii.- mode of performinz
the operaten of -,-yin,'li ri-on' foer
the operatioti, and the pruetr ae tur dhoing
Trhe reaonn. for %pny'ing O~ aresimly toe
prevenit the anim~tal's bre'eding, desetaiy all
inclnation for inattecour-e withI the tmale,
and, by~ reomieretl her quiet. inecreae the
aptiltic to fatt--oc. Casetratton in the tmale
prodeuct s simitlar reuluts.
The object in '-paying ise to reme' the
oraries. which eate the itmpule to vetne
real intercoure. and are small round emass
e'; vryfitng w ith the ner ofl thc animal;
freon thie size of a la'w pent to that of a
nemtueg. a little Ilattenedl, aynd anted to
the uteris, or "elg bagr." ns r he receeptuecli
of thuer' emy e lonng a< comniely eniihed
In ynn '4 i.: b- ovariee are whituish,
but whent o~eelr. icr during th-- e--tr'a, they
are r uddish tt appjearance, nod aure mouire
fully develoepe'd. Young sowa are fre
quetlyh spnv.ed at six weeks 'ld -, in n'de'r
ones, the beat timse is wchen they ehibt~
desires for the mlale, as the ovaries arehene
ment used. are a sharp' poceket ktnife.atnd au
lotn. straight necedle; with strun: w ce
Stong cords are fa;:ect-l to thle hind
leg, it reo :iintal. 6.5 a' hieb she i, to lee'
s~p, tide i from 'a spike er za pitn ma. up-.
Iright pose. The mnwt h maye tee t ied to
preveti ..qumenain, and the t--re leg lhelId
byv an atant. Tlhe iopetatuor thecu -n -ike"
nit inc-toio. up antd udown, tie htween the
four hack tests. commning3~l woeh the tu~co
ack ones. cutting throuegth ehe skitn. the
flsh and mtubcle-, bieea:th, to the miem
brano which env.eleops th'. howel.. I his
must be divided enzrcefully, that the tin
steilues rmay uint he "'"t""ied' ""il '"
dcing it. the ktnife shouhi he pieee
at the lowest pe'int of the opennmi madr*.
with the back of the blade i:nard-. a !
pased Upn'dch until a edit two inches it
length, or sufficient to admit tcnoe Gnners
into thte wound, has been made. r'he
figers are irtured, & the uterns crnsp
ed, which to th-- touch nc ll appear like at
wet empty bkeder, partially flattened.
The operator mtitb retain himld, am wh-,t
ever point this is seized, gradually draw
i"5 it towards him, and worztng hi:, fingers
(orwar6 astil one or the i s-set,
which beill recoguisrby Its.M bard1
like reeliag,and it! color, whoebj
it betweenihis finger and lhumsnb
it of as.near the uterus as possible.;.
uterus must still be hld, the otheisva
sought for, and exterminated in the same
way. Care most be taken to excise t4
os aries completely, or close So theaJus
the operation-may prove inefecturkW Tiis
wound i now to besowed up; and the ob
ject-is to make the wound uite onits inner
pia6rst, and as equalty as possible. _ For
the first stitcr the needle is placed on the
belly, on the right hand side of Tha lower
part of the slit, and passed Through If
skin, &c., into the bowels, taking eI
that the point does not souc the intestines.
The most of the thread is now drawn
thronh, the needletnade to enter benatl
the outer skin. and passed into the bowels
is before: Four such cross stitches. only
drawing together the 'inner part of the
wound; will be sufficient to place the inner
o( the wound in contact; and sie
tside s'now closed by a similar series of
stitches in the outer skin, when the "rade of
the thread are tied, and soine tar-salve
rubbed over and around tile wound. The.
animal should be kept fusting or some
twelve or sighteen hours before the opera
ion, that the intestines may not be dis
It is somewhat difficult to describe auch,
In operation, so apto-be understood.fully;
Cuat if a peron chooses, he muay,^whet ptgS.
ire butchered and h-ng ip, make such ex
perimenats. whent opening them. as will
how the position of the parts, and enable
Aim to operate without dilfieulty.-Culti
From tA Farmers Register.
Nory~ssica, 20th, 1841.
In you Weekly Regi-ter, dated the
12th nth. I fid that otte of your
m - -na correptindents has re
lu me to lium hiln. "wciheher Ihave
made any 0 ' ts" in addition
to thoe nu d in your second
Volume.l0 a e -the trface applicition
,of maturas; datjdat my present opin
fon is on that subjecW" It gratifies tue so
reply that I hape me similar etp-I
rients since Izave witnes
d s a I iolhich,
early all these tnals -i e
penned land. and in the fiollowing mantner.
The pens were nade asenrlyin the spring
oa it is customary to pen cattle: sluring- lhe
whole season th-y were kepyt of the same
oize. and tlhp ame number of cattle peuned
ins them, They were removed at regular
interval, of time, when alev were ater
nsa-ly plouched up ne.d 1,-fs nplonhed,
In the foollow ing sprin they were pltwe.
i corn-to ie foillowed by eint in the
all: and in all 1he-e cases both the corn
.-anid the wh1eratn thie npliughed pens
were w) much better thnn what gtrew where
tle pe-ns ha-I heen ilhiahed up. Iliat the
lines ofr each, peni might tie traced as Ihin -
1% a' if th fences had -sill been standinag,
Thcse- are indiea-pjlutable fae-i.t anl are now
soi genrallyN Itnin n1 in m1 part if the conn-.
trv, ihsat ii it now a very rare thing tia see
row-lpens plotgh-il yas son a.. the tonce
Still I am nware ih:it "thr drrisire stare
ofncreduoiity'' whi-h seimn to have so
ach atnnv.yI v.--sr . souiI Caroliat cor
re-, ndent,'n ill b--egnally excited -:2ain-.t
my-ef, in sor parl% f oor iountry bar
nioirth of* him. lit if t will sake .ty ad
tice, b- will cr'en 1-t thmri dei id,: or stare
ais may be,,sts quieir fatcy: for ,:ch per
sois t.:erli btelo. tis n1 el- of men ftr
to hosopy sn thle-ir ownsi rrcncei5-i to. receive
h--smalltess hemti-ti firm ;an t ina; thiiat
eillier hie air I could sayv ora :his, or any.
snhiect. Four ha< own sati~Staction, howev
-r. I wilt respsectroilly soig..et. ihat if h~e
ii I examinie thei snt~iter furthe~ir, lie wsill
ids, that the "moua s operani" ofC mn
sies aipplieda to s le surfare iof land can he
x phnd tiilOtt ph il.osphictal pinctiple. in a
mansanerquite' aissatisfactory as anyr other
fact in rr-latin 5o mnanore-s, nsoa withstnand
ing~ the prevaslent opisiiiin r-nongst his, ac
gniaitntaes man) tbe adire-'ly opioiecd to
bi- nwn. I remtai'a de.ar sir. y-ours. very
sicerly, Jais- M. GAnNr:-r-.
cains rntox SEil) Two TuSIAND YFrs';
At the annusal dinnetr of the Souathwest
M'lid tIs-sex Agricu!iirat Assoicitiii, held
lin i-rila v tla-, a!t the A lan:a aiti Eve
in, lay.. ane-ar E Sbridlge, !M r. 11. Pow
nliS. a'S Myie;; th-ere,. Ilionslow, w'hhe eu
logizing~ thet farrsr- of~li~h!!-sex on their
thih deg-ree of initelhgenre ad piractijei
rittmi sit. piroelneed a heade of corna.ns hich
ie said had libeten nrn ti in a he nieighboer
tood of his re-sidlence, tanI. as a pioiif of
the-ir naes.i sitg athe ensley h hai a pssedt aup
ot thaein, siied taia he~ hiat that day shonwri
he hi-at ofi corsi so Mr. Shierbiorn, of Bed
tti whio, eis ex.a in sing it. iasmtedeiately
-said it war. IEgypgsiri c-orn, wihich M1r. Pa
n-ll saidt wais'he faics. tas it hadl growin frtnm
grin fo-and 'wsithain the c-overing~ of ain
yptianimy, withain which it hadt beer
encinedt for up wardsii of tO years,. a sl ate
mieust wshiebi tnodnieeid a greas suoensatioa1
t hroughout the assetmbtlate. -London pa
Great dlillic-uliy is frequentliay experiec-l
ed, wn ealtass is accidenotatly briiken, ii
remo' ing she old pussty to replace thie pane
; listeni the psutty wi ith nitric or murriuti
acid. anad istmauy be removed1 at eonce,
Where thcse' cannot he hail, rirong soul
l..;, nun sb= puoty wi!! lai a fow hour
rrow' the wood so that the new
set without difficulty.-lb.
the following extract from a
en by L DUANID, of Derby.
(OC fist part of the communiens
relates to a controversy carried
ew England agricultural jour
evenings since we were in con
th an old veteran farmer and
this place, to whom in a rorm
a have alluded, I.eman Stone.
Es says there is notbini sit injuri
otie tw libre's hul's, as the urine and
dung f he animal in stand in. And he
told " way he had practised for Pev
eral y It was to rub *he hoofs of hi%
horses f h liver oil, such as tqnners use
in pro ~g leather, once or twice :e week;
and tha 0 es to keep them fexible nrd
moist. ince he adopted this course he
has une known his hores it sioiffer (fomt
the disune calle-d - Hoof Bound." n dii
esse k~n by the swelling of the top of
the. I causing matter to L:athe:r unider
t 14100, and producing lameness. Mr.
Stfwe W_ rs plank to earth flors. for int
hori-. e d thinks they will stand nith as
much.e"6 on a chennut plank floor. as .,n
one o b . Mr. Stone's %table are as
neaui . ect as any we ever saw, panic
ilarly iiaving mii.mure, and tre on tbe
same p we noticed mII the Cuhtika iur.
The i sulsadelight with a desrent of 2
or3ij with a titough at the lotm -I
the fi and everything the aninial drols
is avee. The straw for littering i eui to
about an och in length. and every morn
ing the 4g is hoed down into the trough
and.o'ehr vith the horse manure is tit;
ed::ip Wil the urine, and thus nothing is
l S Stone keeps but one hirte- nod
two c~d-'aud the eeiws are itabled every
nigh, s. mer and winter, and I venrt'cre
toiayt he make-, more manure titan
s e farmers dP, with threo iime-,
that n r of animni. We are aware
ia as one will havea w ay of his on n;
but all. agree in one thing. n c that i%
to. irstables made s( as to save all I
I , and be comlorable for their
neighbor of mine has been
b ith a basement -ai-ry the
stbeead of layine a flior for
this pari, hie has envered
t ti,.of tanhark, as an ex per
PIS a Gsf b ~sed for his.ct
w1 make C mnre.
. DONE TIC FOWL4 IN wTNTER.
One of the greatest errors that prevail,
in the Management of the dl-sestic fl. ,
and one &hich must he de-tructive of all
profit, isthe common praetiie or h-a Vin,
then to "shirk for theni-;lv(,." dlurin the I
winter months. Thee is III asiiaredi on1
the farm that better repl ese:" keoepei""
than the he-n. and wvith it, there *14 nonlle 'Ili:
affords so mneh priofi o the i ii citl
plcyed. rhte lier sit..uld hiave a ico-e
warm roost, for there are t-w reatur
that suf'er more from the col. ihan ihn It
they should have a bo( of gravel. -.;tl
asbes, &c. ror them to nell md (lus thent
%elves in. to prevent the aitt:ck< cfc the
ins-ets to nhicl fensare .tiject; they
should li hve aeres Ift polvei i.-ed liane-t-e,
or limesitone gravel. as thi, a il I;;ive 1ne4
rial for shell and couiriu:e to te licalth
of hens; they should ha ve :ctiaunan1lce ofife
water, clean and pure. for fei aniatal,
w ill drink nore frequae-nty or e--ernly tIan
hens, if waioter iiis inli their reaih; :etd
no one need expeci be:lthy funi, or a
pletiful supply of egg-s, wll dot--. not
pany strict at:ntiat to their 111 ppl f uppIV
Indiani corn, pen--, huci.whe:ateis or Lar
ey, tna lie li-d tco fonl .e. Potatne'., atea-e~
ed or boiled. are -ecllent fooed focr themi,
biut emutst he fed white- warm, as fowis will
noet cat cold1 poarre, ienless driven to it by
hunger. F,'iwls -,bou~ld hase accai to a
watrmt ynrd ine the -.uneey dayi oif wineter,
as warmith is p--ricularly invigora1ting to
hem.e If ceinfned (or any time in close
ill venitilaced room, 'hey will becomec dis
oaeil and feeble, and n ill recquire extra
attentiton to repair the ev-il generated.
rvnm the Edinburgh Quarternly Journal of Ag
rnculture. for Deemecr. Jre41.
ON SAw-DUST As MCANURE
By Heary H.- Drummonnd, Esq. of Blair
Drummond. M. P'.
IVTe obrervationst on saw-elust sas a n
ncre, in the M1arch entmber of the T aceS
actions oef theL lhandc Soctyt, induce
men to memlfitn, that I heave for c tn tiiber
o f yezars beet in the prattice of u-inn -, w
dust in agricuilture'. I have ntie, hee-r.
usiel it iji deu.. in the mnanner e-niun
c-c liv ?elr. Simi, but cae keptctt ii int ecom
pci-t's for about thiree yea;r,, which tinm- ees
appeared tto me nece-wiary hir its prtoper
decomipoati'On. This preocesis is y~renitly
facilitmiaed by mtixineg the ~an -dlii- ss it '
limo in rte prmportiitn tf nhciit eane--cteth
prt oflime, andl the compnho-.t is mch im
proved by the aidditicon of roiad-.seraiets.
or enrth of any sari thatt can he prired.n~l
TJhec saw-do ,t heap is a contveietc plae
eel eepoeite bor dead animcala,. which aire
thus dipused o ef to great ads:mitage. A~
comptil of thai- Liid, whlich hias- be-cc wsell
miexedl andl dlecmposned. tttd turnted ovser
by the spasd' at ptrepe, intne will prodeuce
ata excelletnt creip of itnritpc.
E:XTRACTt.N GILEASE riFOTS.
IOtne ccl the bhe-t methed of dinmg tis,
where drop)s have fetllen 0n elresses, books,
&c is t place magnesia on the -ipet, rob
init, cover it w'ith cle-an paeper, and placeo
orthis a warm iron. Thto arease will
conihine with the rmagnesia, and be thus
removed. Fiucly powdered chalk willdo o
but is not equal to tuguesia. Repeated
operations, or applicatiouns of nagoesia. I
may be necessary where considerable i
grease has falleu.-Cultivator.
Frm the Pilugh Boy.
Mr. Editor-Presumie.g that the intelligence dIl
of the agriculturalist is onward and that the is
day star of improvement has already risen
above the horczois. to diffuse light and renova- li
tel life ou the broad expanse of our butchered c,
country, it is with some ddli..ence that I ask
the use of your colums to .proead before the il
country thre bumble conotributiuns of imy leisuire
moments to the cummon cause of agricuhiril ,1
A4 an evidence of this state of the public o1
wind, we iave but to look arournid us, and we ti
ee the intelligent and idustrious Farners, c
aesemnbled it. almost every ecion of ousr c-*ii- a
try as organied bodies. for the purpos-e of en- cg
quiry rind research. This speaks a lanpragrs
not ti be iisniderstood. Already has the 1resj m
the gteat eugine of intelligence, taken up the i,
task. anid good uist be use result. i .. - two.
the tact. it must arid % ill awaken the etnergies, i
and arouse the dcormant gu.,ers of all. Patr- d
otism calls aloud, nleersiity'u ges. self intetest
orniands, asd all :ature wtoes us to action. .a
intil lately the planterotof the Simuta brae vio- i
Wied uvery law of nature so far as land wa-s 01
concerred. hour we hipe a better state ut tlig.e
%%ill Ure inng take place of the princales mnath-' he
ods lrereti'for. put -ued, aid Po!n:iix like, .ie f
fnir tace ol ots laud assume a youthiue arid ti
fgeiienerd a-pect. We ieope ere losg to see to
tre green carpe, of' urture tuddoed wito flow
ers of cury tbue aud every sceit, spread tar
a11t wi.le o'er the no0w d. rned, water-worn, ,.,
aiad cast awayv tields. Let the l'rmrer cea-se hii of
i. i,.-rarv.-bid him love the Imtite, the birth t
pla.ce aid tie grarie of his fathera-let his en- th
r;, les, his iiteilect aid hil care be- his i-isie, bl,
-let all ue inir. arid it.#- plastic hand sol' inure
will asa.,t. Mihen plerty nuisl take the place of of
qtuilid ptrve.rti . tire earth wvill yied ier fruits t
im aimrd.ir.ce, contentme'it wvI rignt whe-.
ubedienc to ire cionrututed li'.s U! tod are
u-erv.-d. mtoo a', pln ical. frganoc, and ,ocial. ar
inte'mpe'ra1.ice mriUV thea siig the syenir song re
trhe grog simps hrre lost their chrm, th-y are
p:issed by, ,nun. d ana iiegl-cred. to die Iront
ia2amtion1 The fariera are tire great urajority th
-,I or couitry. rid it follos ot' cource that in
thre tirsr cte in meditiers of pibic opi.
ota. Then u bro tther l'armters, aid artn to tire h
rebcne. Irruellgeice lor your cernipaos,irdus
try for your carnvass, aid strengtii of will iorr
your ruider. aud the port of happiness and
rrosperity at directly altad.
But to my purpose llavIng spenut the spars
momnrents oat the most ictive part of rmy litin di
rearecb and enq into the by wiich
WM! urren uch as Mne
niid. that it will trot be ais. to give, through
the coluoens of your paper, omare ilans wheretsy I
the ftrmer s at acertaiat tire nature aid col.m
plo~rtion of liot land ie cultivates. The r-cks
.A1id strata tro,a w hich ali boils are ned Ias
ween irude, aid :11:bat compose tie more slolid
paitsot tie Globe, wve tind arranged by nature
im certain arid unerrirg order, but at the mafe re
tinrre wt ir-d irat.wis %er differe:it in tlhir coin
p t p..rtl, are a.iriated together and otten
trav bte ti rid under tire s..i, material, that if
hi-intAt tI tile -mtrftce aid united or uroxed
Sh the .;i ont tie suria e, %% ritild ad.1 muiriclh
to it, n rti rly atn tiurns tor the imiprr r rimet
4,1 1t.4 Veylslfible proiductions,. Con-,egneltl.
te pr.,.itmn aid riattire or rocks, in ;enieral
wtil be' of coinr-setiience to the tarinier, a i.knon I.
cdge of' wirch will , itab'e him to gra:p at any
"dratai;:e tiat i.ey preiseni't t., ht iiiertignce ri
I Ihe tir-it pl.ice rock are d ideJ into priinmary I
ad ree ciiidary. Tie priiary rocks. oisich a
gr:eite are comp ed oitcirv-,tal4 Of (u;rrts.
Ferila-r:sr.aid Mica. arid c.,iriti no other ita -1
miei.ts. nioorantic remam..i. of arny kind, or any
iraitents of other material. 6h)' evIr herire
liriive aep'ears to be a ieri. nt ilrithle e
tis theinrc imitit Iave hie-ii a tmr- -t hen tie- cim -r
tl, that c lrmpei threm, eti-t.-. ?-eiiarat turd
d Iinet'. ht this ti is iyet itt the arran er
mirre. arrd could not benretit th,- Farre r i l te
-1 e recondary rock'. or strat.i rrnet partly
ot chr%,-tahne i.atter, corit:inintg r r:ii-rrtL. of
other rooe.orramc remain. irth'ofve'-taltes
tind mar~rirne aennural, antd e'ti t- irteiris ot
te towest rrdr'., ot le1. airan-r', &c. &c.
rThe petimartry reicks arte nrly alwata to Ite
founid in lairgo ttmss thre lavrra ofi which tire
genrier esia or bu ttc mineutid to tire'
Th'iere are cittht primitive rocks to be ob
ered, 1st. Granite, being~ routnd at the loweet
deths, which have been vceno'rated by mrien.
cmpose'd of' Quairts, I'eldepar. arnd .31ica, all
irreguilarly' cteented togeether in which aire rio
strata err litres, or Ilayers. Wein tiic same
tiaterials are arraniged tn hay era, it thren take
he nramei of gneis...
Ed I. Maiaceous, schistas, composed eel Ihi
ca. a shiny ctilv locekieng marterrial. (corntinifnly
called itumtglasn.") anrd Lmisa orr Silex, thre whle'
reh aci1 cedr tFrn reick tire (nrit err :-tire-'
'eiia roc ke. satnd is Sidex. genrlly ceiherede byv
Ir:1. 'iT.e' re,..-ka are arrar--edl tE layvers iis:
the giteeral ai little cutr.ili'neal. Someiii ot thie
highest m..euint-iti are irtiei rtns *.ch. tyt. I
believte rhe far niote'd Tlabbl: Itock, i priipatelly
ot' riise kiede.
3d Sieniite, comiposed of' flon r'rid and i
-4th srpenine, tad. rip ni re'-jendantl iij
leir.henrd arnd I'etdapaii. 'Thleenti aihs whreen
hnrm tin, reeck. are ftten so 'm i l toa..tr-.t ii
niftaormi apeatranie'. I abne ofhteni conteirs
tete-ie icr -oaty sticnt. It im.ire ;e a " o n I-'iih r
nd piirea a b tkaii vairie..itedi greir.
rrthr l'eirrhynta . Cini-i-t-i Or leldrir ni chirya
t'aslicebedede'd mi the samre ni.teritas. baut iof chl-'
er,'rt caleir a: thn eleer dep;endi::: irn gieneritl cnii
ron e som,:ri it' its coindittins
ash raiielair Sarble. tins is enitirely crys-r,
ta ''ofc aotceiof irtne. wh.iern white: whenr
c,..red ia cenrt.eirrepe er .,n,'iri heartr a tine cnt
a,. url wt h.-n ..f a rex-ct rn itxtorie is use'd try
.-rearies for tarcir tirnese t norkai
7ttn ('torie -''chi-t. ti i-, a gray ccr grien
sub-.et tinc' inaluhigeont tei M i.t a red l'eld-pi:ir.
tar' ,psrz. ene uniratee tee smalil quanttitwa' ect
chryt-dliie mratreriali hraninrg tee othe'r reeckse.
tSecondait~ry m eckia' e min' teth moere rnmurrouis
thnr thre pnrrvrait we'. chall rinl nime the
most comniit that occur itn ricr corentiry.
late Grznwracke,. cont'i,.tinit of fragmce'ents of
qrn.tz'e er clorito .er'hiiit, cemiernted princaipally
uartrs or sand, cemented together by aslice
3d. Limestone, composed of carbonate of
me, more compet in texture than granulaz
marble, and often ciotaining shells and otber
iarins orgamc remains
4th Aluosenous schtst. or as it isoften call'ed
lale, this is mate u p of the decomposed ma
rials of other rocks cemented together by ei
erseleceuus or iromy cements o1ten contaill
ig the impressions o plants.
Sib. Calcarous Sandstone. consisting of
we anld dilex or sand, cemented together by
6th. Iron stone, nearly the same as shale, brit
i% ing a greater proportion t oxide of iron.
7th. Gypsum, or plaiter of paris, consists of
dphate ol ine aui often coitains sand.
ethl Basalt. or Whinstone; this isecomposed
the materials derived from the decomposi
uim or other rocks. of the pniamary series. The
Irystalh ase sumall said give It a Somogeneones
ppeaiance. It ofien presents itself in regular
dluioums % ith 5 or 6 sides.
9ft. Biturninous or common coal. not com
o in vin region. Soume of it bas been found
i th river ast)e Austusta.
10th. Cha.k, soft car .onate (of lime, abound.
in organic renmains, andi horizontal layers of
nmt ir-- to wlich :ie gun fint is made.
Hlth. Puddinig Stone, so called from its re
mblance to mu eng!ish Plumu pudding. consst
g of pebbles ceuieutodgether by selecrous
There are a great many others, but these w'l
I sulliciosat, for the imousi part and site sirentific
aruier can refer to works on Geology for fur
er informnaition. as our object is puincipally
All the earthy parts of soils are made up or
a derrnes ant deoiposed materials of rock;
nsequently, there must be as gre'at a variety
sois as there arc rocks exposed filn the sur
ce of the earth to the actiims of the elemess.
at break thomt down, -sud fit them for vegeta
e' prodsctionss. The materials of strata are
ixed together by mansy causes, independent
litinman cu'tiuri. vast ... f.. - r.. timn.
..if: takn place fil ite sourface of our Giloe,
eat cata-tropies. ar.e- indeibly marked. tfin:S
hen innmumieriaibe orgamic beims, have been
r:sted by studdens destruction as there fossil
1ma.ms attest. Co-its, beat. rains, are all active9
'-n its perietial action lirever chanring
e surface of our earth. We fisd in ature
at tie finer and mon perfectly mixed are the
star nils that fr m soils, the better adnpied. to
.gstable prodnetions. This fact siggested to
P. tiller of earth the plan of' pulverising
A mixing the soils by [tie plomgh. Whenisv
a p1an1t is pt oduced. the plastic forces and
tit. Lener;;is are engaged to clus-s, inorgane
to organic besing, :h
In all a<
el mlost pi.
w 'Vel mixed
c I mmt 61ll1
ij lains. To et- ssil.I would be a usele
id vain labor and would lead1 tm no practical
1snsiti. btl we may attain to somethina like or
er, md we may clearly givem tie term sandy
P a .oul that contains I of its n% holo of sand,
mily sls hint e'ferve.se withm acids may be
iroperly terimed ralcareouas sandy soil, to dis
mIrumisi themn from thorw soils, that have nII&
Ime mII thmsfmm the termim cluyey soil Imay lie alp
lme.d., when it contilams 146 or iore of' impal
able cuerthy matter not ethffr'easing to any de
ree with aciss. Lmmn mlay be- applied to
sis, that cointain at Ieail I of impalpable ear
y matter. effers e ing freely on th applhca
II Of acids. Ainym soil to be decidedly peaty
ist comtainm at least ,one half' f vegetable
matt'r. When am .ol con-sists for t6e nost
art oif the demcomposed rimtter ofmone peculiar
mm ofrocii. for intmance if fr'mgmint, ofJquartzs
ndl miten. I-- J to prelmsmam in miy soil.
mav %ver- lrierly ie cal!ei a graite soil.
Ve- olien~ rimd in ite fertile allsysmoms sin tho
-mk. s iers. ,ande anmd meca to prestminate,
Ii, forim, What 1s c:llesd i!Om::las.'. ands1; it m
I ge::ral very l )peb)rmlac1t e. 1i pill ert, litely mik.
i1 coi'lst oin a it ik c.tiompo-sel of imalste0Ah ca
.ble of ir -; hir' n,, donmi 1;-. lib e current of
.iter. amid annmmat set eour-e be stinciv d1i ided
efi thle, fs.tc of' lisaimey. A lovioms are tho
mo-I hm'eterogernon,, and~ g eerally the s'st
Inm ..ts'rmll soils our ttentiin mehommld be direct
d ts thes en mijsu sot s'eralhtv. if' thme salts of' iron
Sanmy aci mtte~msr predon:minate we may fairly
ones'indIe thmis to be~ thms caler' of' sterilty, and
ben ws.e' can isapply' time uremndy. Quick limne is
s'rs s'lsa:mt Ith tis mmodi'mler. Vory ofhtensulphate
I irssn i<it a pr im ose of siterity' inm an appa
eut good ...l:1m mlnm ihecase a toj, dresisin! of
wmcsk jimie c snver't' thnr sulishate inmto mmanre~
mmd per.memsnt fertiliiv is 'onmmunm~icted. An
xs . of rakcar.maim miter mny be thme cause
t' s',, then'm sasmd andm el.sy ar' bosthi modif'ierai.
im someli cais an) e'xcs'ms sf vets'etable matter
mastv camme sterality. hesr, hnmrn ing. sir thei adds.
sit's of card~sy i'ominm, anid 4ermihtiy is thme re
Inm imst of ioir sldlI iand.'. a de fey smf ani
n..l andm rsegtablie mm.ter. m, the" piiricial c-auno
f stsrditi'. lhere i.s a pIn cam-s' in whichm the
.hsitisst of tmmaure m's thea sure rs'ems'dy.
Thme imp'-ov'e'menit at' ael Iimarmsh landums. ws'hat.
''er hei theiir qssuhty, iimmtt in all casm s he pre
edlssd by dlmaing iss 1 thme expemrienmec oh' aes
imdtepen'mdemnt of scienici iha- rove~sn stagnant
va~ts'r t. ine injmieos tss imi.rly all csla-'ieg omf
-egeta~lels producihosmms. Ine lands if thsis chmar
mrter theyi .sra 'slim unmproidiuctive'i frsm thme prn.
lotnmin iiier el 'e;:t-bb. mmatte't. reach1 arm' the
s-ft black prat., thsen a tmop dirs"'ia mof s-:imd or
-lmv .r boithm" nmnidi rectify~s th.s ses! atnd render
ie'xmre~me'y fertile. All we sim the ws 'ss y of'
-endelsrig ,oii1- that airs' imprsi:smrtivei ,rmmertie
Sapesrmanenmt a:''maatge anidtheptaex
..dd.,a judiciomus ssno. aims seenmreys to time
m'wn'mer atm additotom h Iis wealth aind musans of '
.m tetnce. If lhissms thmat cosmt '. dollars per
mcre. canmm b's mne:mm sit lahour b' smade worthm 10 ,
mi'e as nmich ii i's menr that .15 d.s!tare per
orsre is added's to te v alune. ansd time owner is that '
tmnnch perimanen',tlys the richmer. lAnd. in pars- ~
af Britain h:tvse bee.mn by :ndmciosss mamnagement
sroumght f'rom 5 sihil tems per acre to be wopbtir
frssm 1t00 to '210 gisinmea". Li thsis thtwwboe
iimtts. schat is and hAss breen domn bi etist ,ca~
hie domne by us.
Door lntches often work amp
.it'1 with difficumlty, fromt wanto' u
A fow drops mpo them wlin in ~ ,
onorate like maric.-.