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iV tha a V4Wd- The
- fw being
hp are an
2 d from 'ihe public
cr' , ofrn'ie promi
usA o is ehoewn to act wbib
-bbmai ar ibe _big William
Na.41t au lriace, alias Poun
l Apifhreporti that
i a 'niaj the ports of St.
6 WNz.SIiragoeao ad Ann
dhq~d~ClftI~ -wV fbrcia
April 12t, makes
A&d- de:West India Is
bair6 wipbem tbeytradejiu order to
ei ils'- whiek- the restrietive
1'o2-gorament had caused.
REPORWOPTUE COM3IITTEE OF 91.
- . utelp coeventia of South
-~l.7U . bsam, - he R6 d May.
Csriises. to de
' bisips ,'eau hava ha t so
as tunest, ewoe especiay in the
pesi giigtoed6' of tbo country. Thea
resgigersma..m==deterwhaineso to rm
eM CAL.DWEL.L CAI,
of- d themocrutie
- -Iinty Wamats pounan
- . ig so*rt Cox
adig ai A IaIN Oatin
toe - iagSeawwias :
thealte .m~ aA e.)tWNa
d of aif a striers. one
* 'clhdltarcjurae acre at
- jsI sea n y- A ca
0. d!Nte the
wwv; ftf*WS it
faithi.~and inporat pub
to askaqhtedabilie. ea
Whi. ~e-1e lb ma -hieprotbnd
iyte f Go
bist dminstraive talenta ;
- VnO his t to frue and pioular
en y. Calon te
but aft bigbe
theeLs-pweebi ee asI Ub a
waraus a&H tiu esimould
th~s aned as decime. asc
i 'acregady oran, ot
skaw ist admibftin
-t Nd aslt
-hrog ts pei - an
- thrsaenti h
W~d. Eine tiis a orte-preentipe
- the .asman asohedisigih
eg: s the r.alho s.
hol e noites
in hise mss :it as her degree m
than ethercueaR.th qWeitima
g t tjiajs t elect --no
UeCet h nIormerU-ania Emsterns thu
'a n Nrtuser,alHmavehmadhe
- the'$tihora W oth e
jkuat ejpuli..fem ex.z
fwaose bridetitlsiI res eflhe
more than ise4birds of the reveneof
Union saa bien drawn, and which 1lave
Furoihei thior rull share of talents. patriotiss.
eloguence, and wisdom tre the coucits of'tbc
naiaon.-have never yet had one.
In tis cannexion. there is another view not
lessentided to consideraiion. The Presidents
have herelofote bee. taken ezclusively 1om
ts larger States. There is not an instance of
one, in the long. course of half a century. se
lected fiom the medium size, or smnaller States.
Is it to be inferred from these remarkable flhets.
that the smalger and weaker States, and the
least populous potions of the Unmna, wte td be
persanedy eidd from its highest honorr?
-Gr Father has it been anuaccidental course of
events, without aim or desing I The latter we
ee has been the cae, but sptre'v on sme first
Stitignoccasion. gefersity, the gen orjnstice
and sond policy. requireof the larger 0t8tes.
and mora populous portions of the Union, that
they siould give a practical and snstaantia!
pro1 it has been in reality accidental, and ot
designed And what occasion can be mole fit
ting than the present?
Ifthe kigh qualifications of Mr. Calban,
strengtened by such loung pld important ser
vices, unaninmously suppaoted. as there i- eve
ry reason to believe he will be. not only by his
State. but the portion ofthe Union to which he
Belongs. camintetiesre his election. is it to be
exp-ted that any citizen lers.ner belonging
to t. howevet emninen his talents or great his
%services, or rrotn he stalle(SUttes..will ever
be eleded f Andf *onld dfagv nut' be strong
grwtnds fr believisig. that tleir ciizns are
fomee'ts be disfranchieed. as inar as the office
of President is concerned, anal that the nffice is
to be a- permanent nintsopmly of die larger
States and more poegmlon sertins? To these,
other reasons night tie added or not less
weipht. We shall hnoger alinmiln to but ile
or two. aited among them. is di..inte eptad anl
ngnaniaons course in hiA party rtelaLrbns, of
which a single inaanc. will SmtMe.
It is well known, tiat- heelid noot he.it-ste.
regardlema of concrmmemaes. ill of'Js-dmice to
what he be-lieved in to he t tree porimecilha and
.ulicy of the Reparliiran rarty, to i-paste a
relii the great body of thte pfrty in time plei.
tude orts poev:r. and wlei the hipelacot rewards
and hotnora of the conamtry wer' in hi- grasp.
It is equally well knowm. that it siubj-eted illam,
for the-tine, to time set ereut deuncaiti.'us mf
those he aeparated rnm, ain iapparen:ly~ fA'
ever blasted his g-olitic.Al proepects. ser raf'uo
office. power. smut ifl.sesece werei a ire-d.
He willingly saeriiced all to tnaintaiea his prin.
ciples. Nor mo. it amiknwon. wilnts the tile of
eveath turned agai his foroner fteiend. from
whont he haa'patid. and whesn the pmarty
was at itm great.-st diepvessien, apd- didir alit
oppone1t ready ko raih i& and overwhelum
them. as they believed forbver, it was dien that
:e, fra ting the put an" ividnmaLing all
perot. .coniderations, regarding' only his
dusty aA io principles. uniesktatinjgoy'trought
to tiem, at their utuniwt need, his powlrfiul aid.
If events have since tarued-if thi party is
agai" in the ascendant, and more powerful
tan'eve- affer its great fal,'it dA _'be surely
said wifh truth. that tihappv elMige is.~is a
rdat lmeasie, .i be tattise V6 hmmn. It is
true that -n all thiNI songft neitlar rmthiude
ne reward; that, bowever, only cnhiti*s hil
tie to both.
To this we add, that he was tie first to disco
ver, log in advance, time present dangers and
dignatera; to point out their causes. and warn
aist their apoproacb; to use his utmost er.
Qts, and peril leis ail tie avert them; and, when
actually arrived, totake the lead'in time endea
vein to pass thretagh thenm in safety. In proof
ofall thes, we refer to addresse., speecelse, and
reports for time Ls fiafteen years. Now that
which was than (oare is pat. they lank more
like history- ean 00 auletaon of what was
to eonl;anisd'a'rd eidetdfi, o sagacity and
foesight rarely egtalled and never surpassed.
Although lie coual not atert the diangere and
disastersfie aoniciiated. it cannon be desubted
he did nmmch to leleeen them. andto prepare tie
war finally tooverco'me them; -ai rian4*mer
tiequeton is, limE shft ieyb-tvrcanuri
wim so well aalicil tu give a ,edtisfalctory an
swfr-tO mud'elertake ti'c tiamk, and restore fealth
amlre-pur't- to-thme body-isoiutic, as he whio
haa. givemn such conclusaive evidende of h6.i tho
rongma kmawiwedge of the caugeaumd n'gwe of
Ie dlese to be remaedied?
Amnd, flimly. may we not ask, without beintg
tlo::lat to dlepar.ege the just moerits of otber
cadidlate-s for th,- Presidency, whIch onme of
them do his past hiatory anad opid mmoree
thoreenghmly ideuntify with all time great articles of
the Denmoeratiecreod thaia .ilr. Calhemian? As fCer
back as lK54.be discoiuntenasnced mhe coneaion
a ihe Governueent willP~arks: and when,, in
l837, tat-ettatnexiohs wats broken asunder. he
was amongst the ait teadvencate the necessimy
of thme separatioan-to plat' isfat witimmnt
fear of coe.seences, boldly itusn: -and,
uner demsunenstiomis andh .mlhmqumy aaheaanapied
fir their bitterness ini political warfre, te, take
up this great measure of relorma, and by the
eamce of his deciin anid genius, principally
contributed to mastaip and pass it through'
Pew meon have beemaun edilcienmt in eaving the
liberties ol ehv-eettrrmn that ao duangel
ous or ff ile iuntumenta 'of Fmfealian: a
United tattes Banmk. Nest to .Ur. Jeffrsotioo
.one who hams lived undler our Constitetion has
deist iieie if a muchl,.to pesere its nipub
hican featsup. by e~c 'u dangen encn
ldabti nad rensg e w hete. Aand
wen,V in ie lust for albsolufe'.pOtte, It. Vats
adtly prnopasedito mutilate the CiiastihaIt,I
by abschihlzg the get balance whes andckon
,vbhrVision of the Veto, haiwa tihe
waeist ~fdi ~b "ofli in that gallant rsie-'
ane by whc ti sattetpf'wUs frtistrated."
The best enerigies of l's life have heetW spant
its egiart, to r-form a dsaerat' -.Goverar
mnt,and restore it, by econosnyanditrch
snot, to its original apliiy andpurty.. II
is the ur.ersnatave of t&e.grseasi.
-ens, exeptonof induw frn unne
bn eactos. nas.
taI of thme farmer, thplanter, thme
mechamnic7 the siipuaster, and
R'ther; purtsml iians,~ tof gav proteedao
al.auseks the laber ad eapitalortie ins%
e sfastaer ot Ce.le believes that smeliin
lih iwiwea~e .dsGoterntneat' thicit
astestfnItdit tit e B eeee aid sangry
struggls, byt ~ fi oftetste flee them
-selves from wlsm and ofthe other
missin r icreaeiteni ont of these
' occring * ad mixing
thetaselesu is n artnntal gq~tions,
'the best inteassed of t umangfacturers theem
selves are fir mule - dieply t$Ormd/fiente.
...s.l.dcondtionm of thiesseuetenhe. and thme
adend guineas changes to wh~ihArmS
estheir askis, than ting cotuld passilr be
.that fair protection which an egual, mode
m jm is a of revennse dunies would
shgd~mt ;if just, equal, and. fair,
WbdI ~ t. A pnwerhasb1een
4thfIed as In~be Govirumnen to e,
il asari and catal of one '
014 ) ltI a* nce over thoese of ano
ther~W ' m4st e it ackniltg
use to ebangei isi ar nyb
r htful power in im legisltar., di.
....dy or indirectly. prtmotmy or socidetatlly.
0 draw thessactiatIbof .
4 "peopie bydatiesdu ilapor Of -that
ienne. dillirbseing. for prdin,
.fie to see af differenicn in consititutisal prT
le, and be bidds the one as mocb as the
er, -repgnant to natnral jestice and the
plainest priocipks of politicaleconomy, and':n
their tendency subvertsve ofthe vay ends of
ci il society. lie is na in favor or a ishing
duties on imports for a system of disect or in
ternal taxes, but for a system of duties-on im
ports laid purely for revenue. and allow discri
minations only where true revenue principles
call ror it. lie is in favor of burdening con
ierce aid the 1:tbor which supports it with no
more deaties than are indispensable to the eco
uonmical and necessary waists of he Govern
nbent. fie isnueelyopPtsedtoallextravagance,
corruption. and abuses its the expeuditure of
public money. the rcfrm of which cannot be
efected o Iong as the revenue is levied sin the
pinciples of protection. which acts as a bonn
iv on large and influential classes, enlistin
thesa in the support of extravagiant ekpep -
jures as an excuse for high taxateon. He be
[lares that die Government has no power nor
right to collert taxes, nor ti cullect revenue.
nor to in i the public lands, for the purpose of
distributing the proceeds, or any portion there
of. amonyttLe taes, nor that it has any right
nr power. dir'cly or indirectly, to assume then
debts of tihe Sta;es: nor to carry on a system
ofInternal iaprovtlefent. Mtany of these, are
eardinal oenanderatiotd ill. comparai n with
which the Presidency sina; it11neignilfcanC,
oul non compromiees of than can he bartered,
even for that high dignity.
flaviig now given our reasons f~sr prefer.
riig Mr. Calhoun, we shall next preeed to
state those tatgoveined us in making ti. re
:nmumeatiationis we have in reference to te!
R,-ei and discussion have already done
weh to settle most of the points connrcetd
with the Canvention. ani about which there
was -it firot a difrenc o'(spission. We i
kar-l the girestinn at -leiiitely setle-d. th.:
Unitiurlare ts ro"I4 the lie wh'ere it i6 to bsi
lsell. and shall diereire pase it over without
rarther cienatest. The t:,r.--on afotpimon.
,e i-ri- tsalewro lm 4o. , ,. in so stiongly in
laver of .t1..y. 14 1 t it warcly to be styjepts
di, tehat 'ic we nte pifer'Nnv'eAler will'stand
,isa aiuls: it. But fini Ststes. Tenuaie'.
Mi Vi.- Vinia.' and New York ltfvd ei
arwed-piTi1 ss Efavor of the lattir. while
Siaryland. KDnieky. lUnisian. kaiachu
.t. 14411nsniaia, Michiran. Alabama, Mts
miippi. Rhode L.<anil. and Nev lininpoloire.
bav', eitie ex ,es.esd spininins in favor of. or
given tro:i'"'h ication that they prefer the for
eer. t.'..eecfh araiement. tee atfotel thepo
ple ample tise to wnake up asd exprem ir
rpiniton, ned if uark the course of events and
the conidutt of public oen during the 4rst ses
tion of al. nxt Cosaprem, especially in refer
ene to the Tariff and the expenditures of the
Guternaueit is si stko'ng. that we do not see
bnw it cni-'.well he resigid. Bun putting aside
thai and otfreaesons which eight be urged an
vor of tie latter period. it seems to us, as a
ater oun of ceurteiy. if tine be reqnested
by any csis'l-rabre portida of the party, it
i sould I granateu. niie tic period proposed
be obelotaty-aliaushithably late, which cannot
he alleged -isaat that which we. witll solarge
a liatum oe y have concurred ostrecum
sentding. (Oi ground. if no other, we
esset bieve thar tho@6 highly' respectabl
dtates, whiida have fixed on an earlier day.
will be so wanting in courtesy, as to' refuse to
yiel so rmeasinable a reguest. and ierast in
dheriug o Nienaiber. Under dis impriesaion
we shallnt lwol lidnet on the reasons in fa
We ale. regahil it aihatantially settiba, that
the ule'ates; with die exe tion of.the two
to be appoiIFd F ibi hubfican
eaShers of Ase Leia ,oi a State'Con
rention, are to ISe asploilod'b Diklet, We
are iii'a.m're that asif Stati t plthu'oI the
party has expewed a preference a'ai fher
node, except Pewtsylvania, whil% m6AMo the
Stes aid public meeaings. -wham the sObjet
rif the Conveantion has beetragithtedi incleadng
Virginia. have eirAssed opinius an its favor.
P~sewrtainl- retin to observe, that the
is to unite and- ba:noizu the parti, instead of
iriidiig anud distracting it; s was feared by
ninsy wesiti be tile chec: adif nay be faicly
anticp~ted, thsat the enuatinueance of the discus.
dlen, in thet samie liberal mad' fre~e m'anner.
wvhich lens already conatributed so mucla to set
tie the jimportanct poits it has conneetetd with
the Conavention.'will hive the winme salutanry
ef'eect in setwilieg tile only twd, that we regarad
as reaininig i realit)'aibsettled-the numuber
of Dergates to be appoinlad fromn each Ditriet.
and the mode of votng-whether per eaijita.
that is. each mneuher yot i 'udividually and
his ve counting one. or bjdhe maority, that
is, the vote of ahe whole delegatlota ertiie State
so e disposed ofhby a ajesrity tiP-the delega
tii. The. recent Conveactin held at Rich
mand, recusmeneeded foeur Delegates from each
Codgressiontal District, and that a majority of
the delegates shpjil dispose of tise vute of she
Sire it the Convensn; in which, lice Legis
ltive'gents hel at Albany hats concurred,
while allite othcer States, as far as we are in
flmed, whtieb have expresse ansepiinin, are
ift tor' euf one deilegiste froma each District,
and-ile ps/eupi' imade of voting.
We havecarefallyand im -p liahy examined
and comapared bode, an'4 a it fvery re-specct for
the anuree frum which it emanites; we are
compeled to say, that enur of tion is irrue'icti
bli ae gaist wicat, fesr arevity. we sheall
- ~ h~uln ofthebs tichincoud Cosevetione, and
ins beer of what. wiah the same object. we
dali-call ti~arl an pathat stase beinag
efirt, whihb ul adortdad recommend
Aol here it isi proper tee preie, that as the
ndiiatidn; if acqgmeseed ien, would in effect
beih' election, sofar as the Noice of the paray
seennered. we hold it, in the first place,, to
be istinelbe; that the GeneruAeventcon
shou ldt - u~pas nartly as anyb, to the
Eleaesi in he-aam r ungh
shold heapted. thtte vhb he Cn
enttio abal utter iba e4 of 1ice people, in
cotr-dstnciotagitiedl mnnagersi and
that the relatiVe weight of the States, as fied
by the Constitution, in the eleetion or Presi
dent and Vice President, 'boei be preserved.
'These we' regard as ibndasauzal principles,
by whilh every propostion, In relation to the
Geeral Couvennso ought to be tasted. None
bt those thast aan stand that-test, .hoanrd he'
datted. They are too obvioul~ustand ten
onable-to require illnstration. He would ill
desette the name 01 Repuiblican who objectsto
them. Itis to theirtest weintend to br dhe
pos of differenece betyen -the -two pa ,
which my be regarded as still unsetthd.
We utgject, then, to dhe amode of vIting and
onting! recommeiinded by thelhRichmoud Coii
vintion, becauseit adoptsa aprtneiple unknown
to'tha. Contittiont. nd whtoh, cdmhbanal with
tusnm bero dlees pr Atobiappot
tci~ve-ofth'Jot un ctatof all the comt
,roauaar . 'ouistitutio, ew as we might
'svith teanth say. thefundanmenadtt compromise
on whiche the whole reats. Aas trong as thee
mertios may appa. w& shla ,unless greatly
with on political historiy.'dhat till gueatiest d11
lieolty eperin'ed in flaming theConstitna
dnan, was to establish the relative weight ofthe
ta,.,.. n die gevernmfenet of the Union. The
snaller states. placu3 memselves on the in
intesuible principle Of'thioperfect equality or
lights between all sNVereign anW independent
comnnnies, withunt regard to size or popna.
tion, inisted on a like eqanlity of weight in the
government of the Unison. abtle the Itr-gor and
more populous, adiiing the ctorrects.e5 of
that prmcw-itale. insisttnt liit s a Feder-t Re
poeblic. consposed orstates. ofuneqnsal oize. and
united fir trio ittcows: deisce ot' die whole.
the States which broslh: it, the commusson steek
of power and memam Se erenter &.hare, should
in inirn0es and justice &ave a proportioaa tn
weight in tle governnent. Such was the oh.
stinaney, %ith which both sides mainlstained
their grisdesid. that &.t one time it ivis sesiousty
apprehendled the otiject of the Convention
would fdl, and its labors end iso doing. n.sthing
Thealarmio, which thienutised, led to a conipro
nise. The larger Slates agreed to an eqmuali
ty of represeitati-in its the Senate. and tie
smaller to representation in the Houne propor
tioned to populatiotn esatinsted in lederal num
hers From these two elements. all the mate
riais for consiructing our beautiful and solid po.
litical fabrie were drawn. The Elector alCol
lege for the choosiag of President auc Vice
President ronsis~t of de two b6lend-d, so as to
give to each State the number of neletor that
she umy have maeenbers in the two nouies of
The noles of vesting, as prescribed by tise
Counstitutiols. are in unison with these ele
ments. As there are bit tveo, so there are hut
two modes of vsting knuwn to the Constitution
-thepercapita, and that by a majorify, cor
responding with the two eleisents. V len tle
States are itended to be re-arded in their ori
ginal equality. nnd independent nod sbvereign
clsaractet. th;e tnse of eting prescrlhed is by
delegation. each delegatint votiu;: by it-,e'f
and the maj..rsty di-po.mn of tie vote of the
state; hot thes %:e of the State in sanch causC.
%*-euilt regard t tie tiiul-r sf dlg.aten
es;--tsbut one. Snch wa! the n,.:d- of voting
and counting in tih- ormaa.an and adoption of
tie Cot. 'itut-r. aad socis the mode prescribed
for prn.u'"n to ane-nd it. anid in the election
of ideurti-I. ,:0su tie chsoice devolves on the
oui.e. by the t.ilu. of the Electoril College
to eh-ct. 'But when i.o States are nsot inten
dl-d to be so regirdeo. the Wote ansd cost.: is
lwayseercopza. acsd sscia is Ise mode. ac
cordimi.y irescribed for u0 4wo Housnes of
Congress it all casc's. n xrept te .istance cited
and al-u f-sr the Electoral Collety, in votitg
for a President amid Vice President.
It is well knclown. that it was very d5eult to
agrie on the onode of electing those diuin
guip'rd nticero,. resulting fiom sone cosfnict
baeee the barge aid small States, that endan
gered, as has beca stated. the formatiun of the
Consiinuwn itlf. That, too, ended in a
cimpiiiise, which gave time iarger S:ates a
prepsondea nce in, tIh election of he Electoral
College. and the smaller a preptonderatsce in
case of a failufe of citoicf,-anA the election do
volving on the Huse.
It was thus, that dosrrei and dangerous
conflict amsolig the States wit sattiled by coum
promises. and thaf' whici angered thi for
mation of the Conseattion' was, by consum
mate i isdon and skill, nurda W rurnilsh the
elements out of wbidh'the''gov'erimment was
onstrucled ; and what'w'e are iirecon'aclibly
oppsed to in the plan of the Hichinbnd Con
vTiaoc. is. dat it coisfounds these elewents by
combining together incongruous moides of vo
ting and couning. raid thereby adopts a ptinc!,
pile unknown to the Constititdan, and in dead
ly con1ict with t.e compronises nison' which
it rests. -t the observance or which ifs balance
dependa. Onr objection applies itot to the
delegates of the General Convention voti by
States, or that the vote of the States sho be
given by !he majority, but what we do object to
as blending incosgruous methods is, that the
vote ofa State should be gi ven by a majority.
but cotntmnd per espita. it is that. which we
pronounce to be unknown to the Constitution,
and monstrous and destructive in its character.
Virginia or any State, may take eboice. to vote
by majority, orpcr epita ; but whichever she
may select, she cannot complain if she should
be subject At the mode of counting, which the
Constittion, in conformity to its comproumises,
invariably prescribes for that mode. If she
shid insist on a majority of her delegates dis
posingt of her vote, shte must also submit to
place herself on an egnality with the stuallest
State. and conust liut onse. as se would in the
cae of the Presideintial electioni going to the
House. It she desires to save hser whnlo adee
;ation counted, as in the House el' Represen
tatves on alt other gnesations, she mus: tote
per capita, and rusn, as there, the hazard of a
divisi'en among her delegates. She cannot,
without smnhvertinit the princip~les of the Con
tituion. enjoy she besnetit of both modes, and
eemnpt hers-elf from thieit disadvanaes. She
canot conscenitraiti her whole strensgth by di.
joahng of het vote by a ma'ority, without psla
cing hiersef in the sand sca ?e with Delawam
or couint her rei number wuthout the hsazard of
a di' isiun ins her deh-gsationa. Choose which sh;
may, we for eone shall not object. -we isever can
assenst thgt she. or'any oilier State. sball at the
sisOs tilie grasli the' benefit of boati. ansd ex
inmpt he'rselfI front their diaadvitages. Thec
advitsftes and dlisavantagae of whichever
may he seleced, naust be takesn together.
[I n we consider the plans of- the RItcitiond'
Convention as dangerous in its practical boar
ings,. as it is clearly unscostittsuoial in psiincs
pe. It would tend amoittl' irresisti'sly to coas
.-eatrate the powver of eeet:::: thie Presidesutmsn
te lands of the larger States ands more popu
lens portions of the Unioni, ad t-y necesasay
c-.icfeee give ilhem the almost exclusi'e
cesuntrol osver the Executire Departm~ent of the
Goverment. aid, utrough its p,.wer aud in
flence. over the whole U uoin. We must look
at thingis as they are. Thme constrol of the :n.ni
inativn. tfac'qmneel so, would be in fact., s
hak beistipremise.~'the cintreil of the elecitio,
as far as-thse 1aarty is concorned; and what
esld be- better d'evised to concenstrate their
combined peower in the Georgia Con'wntin:z.
tha the phpas of the majority givinag the vote
of each State, and yet at the same uisne count-'
ig pecspita. and thby controllinggls pro'
ceiugs, and throngb it thee nomination and
election?1 And whsat could tend moreaow
erfuly than that, to destroy the balance the
Constiution, and convert our Federal Rtepub
lie into a great consolidated and abslute Gay
ernent, to be succeeded by all the disasters
whi:h miust avitably follow ?
But it may be said, that the evil apprehended
ha already~ occurred in another forna; that
their strength is already concentrated on the
Electoral College by changisng the system of
choosin electors by Districts. into that of the
Getira Tickdt, and that it is but right that
they should havd the samne relative weight' in
the Convention, as the have its the Electornal
Colee. Itis~indee , true that the system of
chooflg electorsby genieral ticket in is Opset
ation. as far asthis conceniratiena of power is
cocrne,-ha5s he same' elfeet, as yuing by
majorty., and counting per-capit., and at is to
e fe'ared has already donei muceh, and will do
still mrv.to disturb the balance of the Govern
met. But-ther's is a great ditlerenc beteen
them, so mdels uo,'that the gCuieal ticket can
afford neither edeuse nor par-'efent. fur the
!tao the Richmond Cortwention. If the two
uve the like effict in securing to' thse States a
united vote, it is brouht about'in a very dif
feent nmanner' Tfse General Ticket may de
feat,.to a certain extet. the inteist gf the Con
silttion, but it' does tnt ivadj its tinciples
as to the nmnner of voting and connnntin The
electos'llte'undiually, and *their votes
ecptaned prepita. Datais it ia to'get round
ti prnetples ofhbe C.'onitittstia in practice.
i instilIWStn to setin open deflanceand con
,.....o .r d. te. ydf~eue t swl
known that at the oaam eme of pav
etmient, and for nihy Yeita afWtwra aUe
District systemlcho ssja0 , *aly
prevailed, and that 1tiwas n
eral ticket, and voluatarilj utsthenic1
ion, that the latter was nghthid 1e fbrrorer
wrong. but reluctantly. and under a general
conivictin. thit the change wait tor the wor.
It wa* caused in a great measure by compul
sion. through the almanet necessary operation
of party cuan:cts. The system once ctzamen
ced by any one party in a State, in order to
secrl" victory by concentrating its united
totrength. almost necemarily com .ledthe Op
posite side, an order to avoid de ls, toi initate
the bad exaimple. dea sitarted, the san11
cause, by irs action, and re-action; led to the
ainmost universal adoption. It was a weepon
forged for pjar.y warfare exclusively, and fit
only for the purpose fur which it was intended.
But to introduce a weapaon so intended, istoa
Convention of memen of the same party, as
sembled, not in hostility. but for the peaceable
and frienudly purpose of producing and pre
serving learmony, union and concert, woald
be clearly. nout orly not authorized by the ex
ample of the general ticket, but without justifi
eation or excuse.
Another view remains, deserving the most
merious consideration; going to show, that the
introduction of the general ticket, so fat from
affording reason or precedent in favor of the
plan rnpoed by the Richmend Convention,
frn'ishe otroug groutu4 against it. The very
fier that it has been adopted ian chooking elec.
tori; id Uat it ia6s increased the relative
weglat of the larger States and more populnus
portionsr of the Union. in the Eleetoral Col
lege and the sletion of President, instead ofa.
reason why their weight should be ineressed
in the General Counvertianand th e noinmnalioi
of the candidac. is oneef thestiongest against
it. 1f obivi-osy naes!r. it more irniortant tn
&!,r :,.?ra. that what hik beer Ins in de eleo
tion shall not be lost in ite nomination also. If
it be iost thete too, atll will be Itopeleply lost.
To smulermtaud the full force of tie remark, it
must be recollected, that the nominatinn is'te
cessary to make the vote of the Electoral Cot-.
lege certain. One indeed of the liding and
avowed objects is to atwoid division, in orer fe
prevent the ektaion frs gOng into the Haes
where the vote is by States. and where the
largest and the smallest, New Yrl and Dela,
ware, stand on the same level. The cert.in
conseqsuence of the nomination is to depri'e the
smaller States of the chance of tins contingent
advantage, given them by an express provis
ion of the Constitution. in order to compensate
for the advantae which the larger States have
in the Electo College. It forms one of the
cowpromises in adjusting the relative weigst
of the States in the Executive Department and
not an unim portant one. as it came fros- the.
hands of its framers, We wish to be under
stood. We are not the adyocates of carring
the election to the House. We know that e
are strong reasons against it and we are on
cerely desirous of avoiding it. if it can be done
on fait and equal terms; but we are not so
blind as not to see. that as things now stand, if
the smaller States and less populous sections,
should surrender this contingent advantage,
without securing in the nomination a compen
satiqn. which would preserve the relative
weight assigned them, by the Constiution,
they eAill virtually surrender all control over
the residential election and the Executive
De rtraeu'. jhe plan of the Richmond
Conventio i'docsa9t Agenre it; on the contra
ry. it is apparant from whath-as already been
mated, that in going into a Convention on that
plan. so.far frQ4 securing compensation for
surrendering their contingent advanape. tie
smaller States %yould have even less wegist in
thiConvention, anl nomination, tlia in the
Electoral Collygandel-ctiun. -%.
But the ca" ifs'sill.stronger. .As weak as
the mode of voti"g and~counting wioid make
in the'Conriation, under the plan9f the Rich
mond Convention, they would bd niidd still
more so, under that porthouof it, Ghich re
cominenda four Delegates toh Wappointa&':r
each Diotrict. as we shall next proceed to
show. Its obvious eekt will be to gtve a much
larger number of Delegates to the central and
contiguous Biates, than to the exterior and re
mote; for the plain reason, that they could
attend widla far less relative inconvemience. ex
penase and time. The modi remote of their
Delegates could go aiid return home in a few
days. at the evpe-nse of a few dollars. and with
baut little sac-rihce of time and convenience, ow
ing t, time rnearness and great facilities which
rail roads and steamboats afford for travelling.
in that portion of thme Union. Such would not
be tihe case with the Delega tes from the exterior
and more remote States. To them the expense
time and srihce would interpose- formidable
abtactes agtainst attending. The result would
le, that froan thae one there would be a full ot
tendanica, and from thme other athin one. One
wul.i send a bot of five hundred or six 5n
dred Delegates, anad the other a handful, proba
bly of scarcely an hundred. lIe has a very im
perfect knowledge ofour nature, who does not
aee in this a great relative incremse nifinluence
anid weight to the States whihshould send the
most, amid diminution to those which should
mend thre handful. The voice of thet many
wouild be aiuasim sore to drown dint of the few.
lBmt thi relative increase of weight in the
Conventsion of the central and contiguous
States wouatl he in reality. buat a relative itn
crease of thme weight of the large~r members of
thie Union. as those baring the greatest popu
larion are in fact, for the most part, the cen
tral and contiguous States, while the less pop
nionsr generally, are thme exterior and remo.te.
Tice two causes then, though apparentlyv oper
ating amnonag the ditTerent classes ol States
woutd', in faet. unite anmd combine to increase
slic relative infaienc, of the sanme States and
portins of the Union, and would by their joint
opeoration give them an overwhlminmg weight
Irn the Convention, anal throuagh it, aver the
nonmina-ioai: thar election and Executive De
We have now we trust conclusively shown.
tihat tie plan of the Richinuond Conrvention, isa
time mode sivoinfhnd coumnting at reenmmerno
mnstead of conformin to. departs whIohy from
the analogy of the EeoalCollege, and that
it adopts a prineriple a know'n to the Consti
totion, and whiich in it~s opeiation would de
stroy thte relative .vei'ght of the States. as fixed
by its comupobnisesln the ' e n~o of President
and Vice-P'reside9m; ari of'cdrse, nut stand
ing the test of the principles to whieb we pro
posed to bring it, shoud be rejected.. Soelear
amid just is tis conclusion to our minds, that
we hasard nothingin assertitg,. tipt no State
wouald venure to propose, as an amendment
to the Constitution, the mode of voting ari
counting recomnme'nded to the Richmond Con
vention, containing, at. thir same timne, s' pr-o
vision to divest the snmaller States-of their con
tingent advantage, on thh election devolving on
time Houise ; or that, if propiostd, it woumld not
receive the vote o(a single State in the Union.
so strnng would be the senre ofjmsmstice agianat
it. And yet, if that pltan should become the
precedet, and general Con veiitions for nisini
ating Presidents and Vice Presiaents tthe eis
tablished practie it would,lneffiect,stnperede
the existing rovistoprs itt eference to those
elections, an becdkadi virtually, a part of the
Constitution; se maclt so as if(formerly adop
ted as an amendmet't
But if the mode oftt anil counting re
commetaded by that pasfaonld be rejected, as
it seemas to des it eler oabght to be, and the
p ait adbpted, as Imus he in conform ts
th onstitution, alten the inthear ' n~t of tie
plan, whichauecommendsfouar useattes l
appointed from each election District .btsl
sleathe rejeted. The reasson is plain: ii
would be incompaible with the ptr capils
,mudeofroii. wb'ch. in brder to praserie the
ielative wig . of the States. as fSied by the
midake-t seiy. that each
Ob the amse Waasber-efdele s in
the Gieia Cpnvenui thai=t 10tin
the College. srel'liowever. pos.
dicb'to spet this 4.bject' indIle-aeber. of
deegva~t sfrunr rath istriet, reCOtIsINGded by
the Richmond Conveatio, it W e . an ander
the teot of the *her pria*-4plWe .mbicMk
sequire; tivst every praenevble-meacns aUld -
Us adopted, in order unm-t the General Conven
tiiin should utter truly thevnice of the ple,
Mn cotra distinutron to that nionere p *tiam
To t"-:: effret. it is indiopenab the delegates
shAuld. i all popsidal cases, he-diseotfap
pinted by the pepl-..' Tbb -agu.
oer ofintermediate bodie, .bde r813e ap
pointiment is remove s . --he
feebler will be tbeir voisuide 1ia nems.
tential that of political uaagrS ,.*as.
which constitutes the grt andfasatdecties.
to ap utingelegates by State Conveuriu..
tiee two ar dhrnee daseaeogiiiti
Ieople. However proper, they maii
make previlas M eg ..Pte*.p _40
their appointme~nt, it as b",ardous to haxtha
to thens. I it be lt61b ieurit wouldieain
to hope it would not he ii . Weime, hchen
nel by which - i i rnleeneu=and even
corraptian i teietrfamw*Ue
proceedings of the Cdiveo" , &igk
it. the nomination and etic
could be betteridvised; to 'lVd dmm .W
or expet to t ef isp.
tion. and. tiaslistetbe
words.to divest the peopleo
the election, and to transfer it;h
control over the Executive - I*
those whoI hold or seek 'to hold 'here
iis a proclivity in all popirar Govern 1146'-t
th'at result, which etar' be preveisd''oaly by
ins greatest Cnution and vigilance.
Suca is the danger of appoiiting ihe-des
gates by'Statecocventiont; and our sents.
to tii plan of the Richmond ConventitwMdeb
purpoeffour delegate to eeb districti's.- that
at has die atme tendency, though ismewmo
fuly.i.wakien the -voice of-the peoe-4-a*d
str'engthn if cf political amage-.- Teia.
erease the nuimber of-delegaes to be'appoin
ted from eth dimtrict, l- but to increase the
nedessity of a cac;st 'Mke the nomiusinc
of die caundidates. The Pearer the membwe to
he appointed, the strongir di' tendey: to
dhtracioilan4d'Akfusse, abla~ih *seity-of
seh caneus to' nakld noiintst ad d
geeter that neessi, the less wilfbe bhe earn.
trol of the peole the district-over dieap.
pointment, anhde greateAUis er WIn
trigme. The mosffectual^ e tr their
control, and means orgiviag the appoinment
in reality to the people, is-o each-isti -.to,
appoint one delegte. Whereone only is o"
be appointed. ite districtis'divided a refe
enae to the Presidentialandidases,'the Asmad
course will be. that some one prnsinent iMi
vidual on the side ofesch oftietwoet pop..*
Iar candidates, shall e r for-the ,pfae-of
deleate. and will eneasethrdisrrcli behalt
of hs 'ar alar favorite ; than'whih me con
ceivabl mode is beter calc.led' to make
known the qualication of *-dAidas=ssad
thereby enable the people to omne ton- e- .
Having, now stazed fradyad fUidys et
not as rfa as we wrent.- Obje"" to0
plan of i tb couve 'O'treaia to
set farth the reasons for ou -of
Marylandplan. Itwll not se
very elaborate, as the rests aganstefor'
tuer are, in fact, the great and conAlusive-se.
sons in favor of the latter, so *uriking& dhe
contrast between thetwo. -
We, then; are In favor ofth.meN pu -n.
becan the time it fixes en aMold Oenisal
convention affords ample alt'for .thes
peopn ha p aaal . tew p..
In referenee.torth d .rldMs' aed
enabe tigeso markab coneteoftheprein -
inent frilnd. of*6 uese lencndidatme wth
new Congess j6ar be.s-em1d in Decmerss
next, on -uoestlorevita-hapsanane y
srog beanagon the-futue eoksselFthGee
beeansecit.is a eontenisni snd pen.smus
of the year, which will be fvorsb(Wamefall
attendance of delegates, especiay. di e
distant States. -. ---
Baa we are especially in its favor, because'
its recomameadations'conform, as sras may
be, to thes great funidamentul -principles by
which aflprnpositions connected. wash dhe
convention eughtto be treated. Takes s a.
whole, we are of opinion it has adulpted time
most etficient wean. .that can be -devised, in
order that the voice of time conveution thuS be
the voice of the people, in contra-distinction
to the voice bf pohatiesaas.and of preserving the
relative weight of the States in the Pa-sidsut'a'
election, as fixed by the constitution. Itasceares
a cotupensation, at least in a great depe, bay
the appointment of the delegates by districts,'
and voning per capira. for the surrender, which
the smaller ditates and less poptalous portionis
of the Union make, by goimg anto a conven
tio, of their cotingenlt advantage in case of
the election devolving on the Houss. Ih s
here'proper to rearkt. in order to avoid uie
cnrtason, that in is ' on preserving
the rilative steighat of the smlr' States we'
are not actauatad by the slightest feeling of op
position to the larger. We would tnct, if.we
could, subtract a grain from therelative weight
aigned them by the constitution. We held
that the interest, and the prosperity and hap.
pinaess of each and all are best promoted by, a
rigid con formity in all things toth
the balance of thW Goveranment deaaish and
it is principally because we behere it-dee.
that. that we gave our adhesion tomthe Nary
We have now deelarid our ie z epflildy'
and frankly. on the points an relation to ther
conventiona which, ats we believe; remain ena
settled by the public voice. Ourcbjieti e t
to throw diffielkies in the W's .ofa Generab
coerium, norto diset-?er~d -cuorn- -
anon patty. It ia the roeers, to-hastnonixe.
and unite; whire., aecoading to out opneepties
can only be doneobysacaians adnly ato
reason~justice, equity, patriotisse, andi
saitution. These are. we aintk, the sulycu.
dation on whieb the Republican party ea or
oughtaostand; and a strict coofcu e*USeat
in practice. the only means bywieb~usao
and harmsony can be prsre nour .ak. -
The objections we hae .statd agamat the
plan to which' we ate opposed, and sit.4W of
the "ate we support are of' a ga? cbarater'
going to the prncisples of the constatn, ta.d
uome of itamotsacredeomproeiAnnd whiel
toueh in their bearings, the very'yituI of cur
pohitical hystem. If they are ue, tbey-must,
in the opinion ofall who valve the Ucenun
and theeconstitution, settle the points ordife
enee in flavor' of that which we, in common
with so many other States. recomametnd. The
questics then is. are they tre ? what te.
are', isoot solemn conviction, and atask
is. that thme reasonas we have advanced in their
favor should bie careafully, impartislly,id die
passioutately weighed; if naot assed to. the
opposing reasons presented is tihe nae epirat
of troth and frankness, in which earsurisvs
been advanced, If we are Wang Wuahul he
happy tn. be pat right. Trtath len oorsiteb.
jeet. - Bjit as long as convinced thatwe ate
right jt canOt be a et4we shah sm
than the Pissi ' ;rast we1ree eadit
vi iniherslf, the planefivinsutnention
..... eenosi5a~ed ooppsa.Would be