Newspaper Page Text
ti_ "ti . FO R T G N N E W S.
Thirens Days Later from Europe.
ARRIVAL OF THE GREAT WES
The steamrer Great Western, Captain
R. R: Matthewsi arrived at New-York on
Sunday, at. noon, waking tbo passage
from Liverpool in litle less than 15 days.
It will be seen that the're has been a
fill of Id oh Cotton.
--Buzsiness was good inihe Manufacturing
districts, and' Great Britain generally
prosperous. Iron had fallenoff from the
high prices o' April, and the market was
dull and dubious.
.-.War is all the talk, and from the tone
of their press it appears the English -peo
pie are about as fearful that we are to
declare war, as the Americans That John
Bull is to do us that favor. The English
press appears a little disconcerted that
Brother Jonathan is not wore alarmed at
Sir Robert Peel's great speech. -
The Texan Ex-Secretary of .State,
Ashbel Smith, has arrived out, as resident
Minister in-France and England.
- One hundred lives were lost by the fall
ing of the chain bridge at 'Yarmouth,
England on the 4th ult.
Nothing of any interest has been
brpached in the British Parliament since
There was nothing new in Ireland.
The money market in London was very
If the public securities are to be taken
as a test, the -probability of the Oregon
question being. settled otherwise than
friendly seems very remote. Notwith
standing this confidence, the subject is al
luded to, in privatecirces, as one that is
very ticklish, and that a trifling matter
may fan into a flame.
WAR WITH AMERICA.
The probability of a war with the Uni
ted States occupies the public mind on this
side of the Atlantic, to the exclusion of
every other topic. The arrivals from the
western world are looked to with absorb
ing - interest, and the instant a packet
arrives, the news is conveyed with all the
potency and speed which steam can com
tnand to the metropolitan journals. In
this way we forwarded by special express,
and at a great outlay, the news which
came to hand on the-night of Tuesday by
the 'Caledonia.' The .previous arrival,
the 'Great~Western,'caused some stir, as
it. was known that she would bring tidings
of the eff'ects which had been produced in
America by the speeches of Sir Robert
Peel and the Earl of Aberdeen, in Par
ia ment, or, the Oregon question. But as
only a day or two had intervened between
the receipt of those speeches and the
return of the steamer, which had not per.
mitted. the public opinion to develope
itself, the succeeding arrival produced, if
possible, still greater interest. The pros
andcons of the question, it is needless to
say are daily discussed; abd this is cer
tainly not the first instance- of late, that
the spirit of American institutions has
been analysed by British pens. The
theory of the Federal Constitution has
formed of recent years, a standing dish
with. the politicians of England. The
nationasl character and its- peculiarities
the public men and -their-way wardness
the democracy and. its elements-are all
weighed with critical skill, sometimes
with a friendly, often- with an adverse
hand. But whatever diversity of opinion
may exist among Englishmen as to clie
abstract merits of Republicanism, a wor
with America-the hare contemplatton of
such a possibility-is abhorrent to the
national mind. A war party, properly so
ctalled, as regards the United States, does
There is nothing to mark its influence.
Thie mooted point;, the Oregon; is not
generally believed, to be worth fighting
for. It is not a point which appeals to
national pride, or prejudice, or power.
Every one feels that this little island has
territory enough, and colonies, and sub.
jects, which- own its-sway in every part of
the habitable globe, that plume themselves,
on thieir idenficatton with -the British
name, without measuring, lances with a
kindred people about a few thousand miles
of a barren and, pr6tless. waste. No.
The sentiment which has- taken deep root
in the public mind of this- country; which
pervades all classes, and sects, atnd shades
of opinion, and unites them as one man,.
* relbrs not -to the value of the territory in
question, but to-wttiat they conceive to be
, the arrogant, overbearing, blying style
-with.which the opposite claim is advanced.
It is withtiLaspirited peoplo as with a.spir
ited animal-if you drive, they resist, if
you lead, they may concede. -Mr. Polk
-must be a crude judge of human nature,
or he would not have put forth, in his
inaugural address about- the Oregon, senti
ments which were not merely indscreet
not merely uncalled for and outt ol place,
but which sneered at, and may be said to
liave- hurled defiance at the British claim.
We say nothing now as to the jstice of
the claim ; all that we aim at is, to account
for the exiraordinary unanimity which exc
ists -on this question-an unancimity so
surprising, that if we do go to war about
ii every hand will be held up, every purse
will'be opened,.e'very krm-will be stretch
ed, to sustain it, and -bring it to a speedy
and triumphant issue. there are men
.who would tamely submit to: wrong-that
wvould inrantly resent an insult.
The country feels itself insulted by the
new Pi-esident. Is he not a bungling fac
tician that thus gives his opponent such an
advantage;- that .placess himself in the
wrong by his manner,.while he is-probably
right in hris theory,?. Human ingenuity
*could hardly.bhave, devised any means so
effectual for~amalgamating5, as in a cruci
ble, :he discordant elements of, which
public opinion io. every free country. is
composedJ 1i4e the wand of anenchan
her, Mr. PBolk. has~done this~ and if 'there- is
any truth in thesmying -of Napoleon, that
moral force, -even..war, far ontsrips physi
cal'force, it'will ke-found that his first will
Dot b'e his last blunder.
Hasty men are generally.obstinate men;f
The President has coatmitted himself;
will the Republic sustain him ? H~e has
so precipita'ed matters that. the question
. must now be settled. He has thrown
down the gaunlet, and it has been taken
;he ha's eopardized the Amnerican
olaim, and flung to the winds the "wise
ana masterly inactivity" which Mr. Cal
Noun, with a far-seeing sagacitj, recom
mended as- the best policy for the United
States to pursue. Back out he cannot,
without personal compromise,. for he has
shown his cards to his opponent, who will
work the game actordingly.
It is well understood on this side of the
water-it is still better known at Wash
ington, that the British Cabinet have
comb to the conclusion that the present is
the time for bringing this matter- to-an
issue. To let it-slip would prove them as
arrant bunglars as their antagonist. Di
plomacy, like the chess-board, consists in
a series-of successful moves, and a-skilful
player can hardly he blamed for check
mating his- rival. The affair might have
remained in obeyance another quarter-of
a century, as it has done during the-last
half century, and every year would have
increased the means, on the part of Ame
rica, of a successful resistance ; decreased,
in the same ratisithe power of Britain to
sustain, or take forcible possession of Ore
gon. The tide of. emegration, which is
daily flowing to the West, would have
peopled it in a few years with the Anglo
American race,- who would have held
their own against-all intruders.
These advantages have been cast to the
winds; and nothing appears to remain but
mutual concession, or the settlement of the
question by the strongest arm. Here,
again, the evil genius.of the President
confronts him. The temple of Janus is
closed-we are at peace with the world.
Our Indian empire is consolidated, our
colonies in China are progressing. The
British Exchequer is full to repletion-its
navy is in admirable trim. Our steamers
sweep every sea ; our means for transport
ing troops, whether from Europe or from
Asia. -were never more complete; more
There never was a period in the history of
this country when it was better prepared
for war-never did a question exist, not on
its abstract merits; but because of its
concomitant swagger, on which less di
versity of opinions prevails, and with
heart and soul would the dernier resort
be entered upon and pursued.
. We do not write in a partizan spirit.
Nothing, Heaven ktbows. should we regard
as a greater national calamity than a rup
ture with the United States; and- we
should be sorry to say or- do anything
which could in the remotest degree preci
pitate it, It is painful; harrowing; even
to contemplate such a contingency. 'Thei
elements of society would be convulsed,
commerce would be swept from the
occeaa, and.the ties -of interest, and even
of consanguinity, would be rudely snapped
asnder, Upon England it would inflict
all but- irreparable injury, and America
would hardly suffer lest intensely. May
so fearful a consummation be averted. In
this crisis it is not unnatural that public
reeling in- America should be -watched
with some anxiety. The commercial
classes can have no desire to fight Britain
about the navigation of the Columbia.
The Northers States are identified- with
the continuance of peace and the progress
of manufactures. The Southern States
would not like to sacrifice their trade in
cottony tobacco, and other produce, for so
illusory .an object.- The brawlers to the
West may desire a row, from an inherent
love of sport and mischief, or a thirst for
gain,- But after all, the mnaner will pro
bably resolve itself intto a contest for polit
ical supremnacy. If the President is oh
sinale, and will. concede bothung, the
party which elected htim may feel bound
in consistency to sustain him, and the
voice of the mere soher and discreet por
tion of the Union will probably be drown
rad'in the avalanche. We sincerely hope
that discreet councils will prevail-, and
that both Governments, concedirng some
thitg for the sake of peace. may bring
the matter to a timely and satisfactory
adjust. But it is folly to blink- at the fact.
that the -black cloud in the West," to
which Sir Robert Peel so portentously al
luded, looks threatening, and may burst
with devastating fury.
WVith any country hut America, war,
with all its newly acquired horrors- and
improved instruments of destructiotn,
wottld be fearful, yet speedy. Butt with
such a line of coast otn the Atlantic, ani
the barren waste in dispttte on the Pacific
side, it must..iji the nature of things, be
protracted. Possession of the Oregon by
an armed force would, of course. be the
first,,.and the destruction of the Atlantic
ciies on the seaboard the second, object of
British annoyance. But- we pause, and
sicken at the bare idea of evils so appall
ing. sand yet so apparently immediate.
resuling from the language of a htasty
and'intemperate-man, raised, unexpected
ly,- to a positioni in which his capheity for
making mischief appears to -be the only
capacity of which he ~has yet, in the
opinion of the Britishers, given any proof.
Unfortunately for our sagacity, we fore
told, in this journal, ihe very day follow-:
ing the arrival-of the President's inaugural
address, the hubhub-to which his indiscreet|
remarks on the Oregon would give rise|
here, and our statenment has beena verified;
to the letter.!
The probability of a w-ar with the Uni-'
ted States occupies the public mind on the
other side of the Atlantic, to the exclusion
of every other topic. The arrivals from
the Western World are looked -to with
TPhe Washington Unione publishes the
following as "an authentic account of a
new revolution in Calitornia"-received
by the United States brig Somers, at Pen
PokT OF M oNTEafl (California,
.March 20, 1845.
In addition to what I wrote you in my
last, 1 am now enabled to inform you that
the CalIfornians-hav'e succeeded in their
eff'orts - against the government-- of the
reglargovernor and commandant general
D)en Manuel Micheltorena. The Califor
nians-to the number of one hundred and
fifty, after remaining in this vicinity for ai
few days, wient to the town of Angela. one
hundred- miles north of this port, atnd
stormited it in the night witY the loss of but
two men. -They were soon-.joined by- the
Californians of that place. On thie 10th
10th or-,J2th -of January, Governor Gon
eral Micheltorena left this town with his
offiers, one hundredl and fifty Mexica n
soia-s, some citizens of Old Maerieo.
mxty or eighty wild Indians, tramoed to
irmsby Capt. Sutter, (a Swiss settler, on
the river Sacratieni,) and one..hundred
foreigners; apart-of whom areosettled on
the same river. He had alsQ oitearts,
cannon and baggage ; had to make a road
as he'proceeded, over a difficult muntain
sus route. Sometimes he went a.league a
day, and then again would lialifour or
fve-days at a place without any apparent
object. During all this time, the talifor
nians, (insurgents) travelled t jugboui
the country from ten to 'wenty es (30
to 50 miles) a day. They re ed at
times to the vicinity of the Grnor
General forces, from a long d ace of'
and would then disappear.
After the governor general hadt-been on
the road a month. the. foreigners and his
soldiers began to leave him by fyes and
tens at a time; the former being, "sgusted
with the slowness of his progress, and the
latter left him with the hope of getting
free from the service; whilefmany of
those remaing were in hop ~s:3 the
Californians would be vic wand
would ship them back to San1B( 'where
they had families or relations y hav
ing been forced int6the ranks andbrought
into California against their will. Gen.
Mlicheltorena, after having been forty days
in reaching the vicinity of the town of
Angels,-for the third time came-near the
insurgents, who then offered him battle.
They (the i surgents) were .three or four
htrundred str. g, under Don Jos astro,
who had persuaded many for ners to
join his party.
On the 50th of February, thd.two par
ties (consisting of about six hunfred men
all together, Mexicans, Califo as. for
eigners, and Indians) got inf ion.
Castro commenced the fight annon,
firing large shot; and the governor gener
al, on his side, returning his"fire with
grape. Both parties remained" adapart
all that day as not to lose a m , On the'
next day, (the 21st,) the hattle ain com
menced, and was continued in i fat is here
considered a warm and desperate contest.
The governor general, however, soon sur
rendered ; -for forty or fifty 'foreigners
having left him some time before, the
remainder refused to fight against their
countrymen in the insurgents ranks. Some
rc'ports make the total loss (on;boih sides)
amount to three or four men, while others
make it as many horses. In all proba
bility, there were not six tnet killed or
wounderd in the whole two day' fighting,
atlthough 250 cannon balls wdeajfired1 -
A-er tile battle, a treaty was made, by
which it was agreed that every, perso on
-ituer side might go where beaisthed--lte
;obliers to go to 'au Blas or iemini ccti
sets of California. Tpe-Mexican officers
who wish to remain will cr-ntinue to hold
heir present conmissions and pay. But
few of them, however, , ill remait; here.
'rhe governor geueral is to go by water to
San Blas with all who choose:to accom
pany hin, and from thence he is to pro
:eed to Mexico. Don Pico has become
governor, as he is the lending.member of
he house or deputies or Staie Legisla
ture; and Don Jose Castro has become
Lommiandant General of ,mifrnia.
He I ill,. I suppose, make mans change.
3f officers. Tn revenue of the country
is from eighty to one hundred thousand
dollars, and is allI from the custom house.
The ground over which they (the Mfx
icat) forces took thirty or forty days to
travel, was passed by theo Californiaas in
ten days oni thei'r r-eturn to this capital to
take possessionc of ir. This mode of travel
caused his ruin ; but had he suCceeded,
the Califorhians would have risen again.
Dxurintg the last twel've years there have
been fou'r revolutions again'st the Mexican
commandinig generafs. which' have all
been unsuccessful. During th'e twelve.
yeaxs, six Mexic-an generals have arrived
iut here; otne of whom died, and the rest
n'ere setnt hack by the Calilbrnians, hav
ing altogether held commanid but for -ix
years ; while Alvarado, a native, whoi put
himself into office eight years ace, ruled
the other six.
California. from Bodega to Sani Diego.
i, now once more uder its own commcandl
-tiie Russians having left Bodega, which
now bcic.ngs to Capt. S. Smith, of Balti
more, United States of' Ameriira, who is a
naturalized ccizen of Califoraia. WVheth
er thce natives of mhia counti-y will'-keep
peaice amiong themselvis, or~ he agatin
conquered for a year or two by Mexico,
remains to be seed. If allowed to govertn
themtselves, they acknnt ledge the Mexidan
flag andI their laws, wvhen they please
them. .They pay little attention to thc
Mexicant tarif, except to raise the amroujnt'
if salaries and a few odd matters. Ini
fact, the State of California, and its wvants
acid commerce, are such that the tariff' and'
laws of Mexico are but little applitahle to'
POILT or MoYTEREY,
Ma rch 24, 1845.
Don Pico has taken co~mmand of this
department as governor, and Don Jose
Castro as commandant general at the
town of Angels, near' San Pedro. They
received this- command by treaty with
General M. Micheltorena, and they have
now chartered thle American bark Don
Quixotte' formerly .of Boston, liut now
belonging to Messrs. Jtchn and William
Paty, merchants of the Sanwich Itlands,
for eleven-' housand dollars, (1J,000 to
bring tihe getneral and his forces to tbis
port. The bark 'nosy lies atanchor' here,
es ith the soldiers on board prisoners-. Thie
general and his officers 'are allowed six
(lays to arrange their business and take on
board-their families-; they then proceed to
San' Blas, thence to the city oft Mexicto.
Capt. Sutter and all the foreigners who
joined the Govertrment Ibrees have ret urrf
ed to their farms on the headiwateruof the
San Francisco, as- tihey fouind many of
their' countrymen' ith the insurgents.
Both parties' withdrew from the field of
battle. AMthough the Mexican troops and
Californians were firing 'several c'annons
witb grape and ball at each other a part of
Iwo days, it is'aecertained 'that not' one
man is even wounded-their resplective
situations 'being too seeni-e, and the dis
Affairs are now apparently quiet in the
deportment of Upper. California. The
natives now 'hold the reigris of Govert&
tment under ther expectation that the an
preme government'of Mex ico will confirm
their di flerent acts 'mnl appointments. At
the same time maniy have their fears that
snmn. conmandcr. more snevere thnn ,he
former one, will arrive to punish thorn
during the next year. There may be dis
sentions between the North and the South
-of the country, as each want the seat of
government in their vicinity.-Tlamburg
From the Charleston Courier.
SECOND MEETING OF FASHION
ACCIDENT.ON THE CAM
DEN RACE COURSE.
In another column we give an account
(copied from the Philadelphia United
States Gazette) of the race over the Cam
den Course. between the celetirated rival
cnursers. Fashion and Peytona, four mile
heats, for a purse of $10,000, in which the
former was victorious. It would appear
from the publisned statements that Fash
ion was an easy conqueror. This will
doubtless- create much surprise among
turfsmnen, particularly as there is'no men
tion made of her opponent being out of
condition. The cerdant amateurs of the
race track will learn, however, that it is
always difficult tn tell ' who will be Gov
ernor. until after the election."
We se, it stated in some of the papers,
that another match race was promptly
proposed, for $20,000 a side, over the
Canton Cotrse, near Baltimore. and that
it will come off very soon. If this state
ment is correct we shall look quite an
xiously for the result. Should the South
ern mare be in proper "fix," we have
little doubt that she will tell a tale that
will "astonish the naives" of New Jer
sey, and all who back the now tfnrivalled
and beautiful Fashion.
A most serious accident occurred at the
Camden Course, just at the moment the
bugle sounded for the appearance of the
horses on the track, and it is truly wonder
fil that the result was not much more dis
asirous thitn it proved to be. The details
will he found attached to the account of
Reports. hougiht by passenlgers, arriv'd
here on Saturday morning, induced the
belief that there had been a sacrifice of
one or two hundred lives, and these ru
mors lost notl'iing in their progress from
mouth to iniouth, until it was asserted that
thonsands smfered' hj the awful cata
tripe. It appears. Jiowever, by the
papers, that there were hut .rom 12 to
1500 tersoos in the stand th;,t fell, and
that only 40 o: 50 were injured, a numter
of them, however. quite seriously. We
conversed with a gentleman who was
present on the occasion, who informs us
that the scene was of the most distressing
.character. At first a slight cracking of
the timbers was heard. which created
2reat alarm, and the dense mass of human
beings with n hich the stand was crowde'I,
made a movement towards the stair-way
to escape. This movement caused tim
bers to give way. and for an instant or two
there wasfa swaying to and fro of the
entire building, when it came down with
a tremendous crash. amid a general
screeching from all who were in anl ahout
the stand, a cry of horror from the sur
rounding multitnde who were spectators
of the dreadful scene. - -
Our informant states that two persons
died from the injuries received, and that
three, others were not expected tosurvive.
The cracking the timbers above, wvas for
tunately heard by the mass helow engaged
engaeed in drinking and gambling, many
of wvhom were thu-s cnabledi to make their
escape, otherwise the loss of life must
have been niuch greatet.
From the Charles fon Mltercury,.
LouruSIEN, A bbeville District.
May 25, 1845.
Mr. Editor.-To correct misstatements
and to relieve the anxieries ol many frietnds
of General McD.,fio, I am itnduced to re
psort he state oh his health ait 'his time.
Since the Generatls return from Wash
ingtim he has been incessantly engaged in
supe-rintending and directing his plamtatiomn
atillairs.- The exercise amnd excitement cotn
nected aith tbis. hmad a favorable influ
ence on his healhh until lately. amnd the had
become much more vigorous thatn he was
during the winter. Sincp the wveather he
came warm: he continued to' walk and fa
tigue himself imuprntdetntly on his' plant a
mt.,t. Heb awoke otn the mo'rning of the
20th inst. feelitng soime stiflness and numb
ness in his right arm and leg, and cotnclu
d'ed exercise would relieve it. He walked
two tmiles to one bf his fields where his
hands was at work, atnd became motre fee
ble, and .ad to take his- overse.-rs arm to
enable him to return to the house. lie
last' downm and sootn after was conuscious
that he'had lost the partial'use of his right
artm.and leg. His head atnd ilitellect are
nhlt afi'ected'ih the slightest degree. Tihe
umuscles of the face are un.Iiarmned. The
sensibility of 'he 'arm and-leg is not im
pained the least. and' hie has perfect com
mand over and use of-some of the tmuecles
onf those metmbers. HfiR general health is
as good as it was previous to the attack.
Hoe remained at mny house within a mile
of his prantationi from the time lie was at
tacked till the mnornsing uf the" 25th inst.
After being assisted in his carriage hte
was then able to drive himself to Cherry
Hill, a distanee of 10 miles..
1- visited the General -yesterdiay, and
was gratified-to fiud'him have more use of
his arm and hatnd than he had a fen~ day s
previously' He hiad %rote a shoit note;
and signed his naine.readily to 8 lettrer or
two which I wrote for him.
I have heett somewhat minute, but I am
sure this report fra'm his attending physi
cian willbe satisfactory to his friends
H. H. TOWNES.
Ib New Orleans, on the 10th uIt., Allen
Jones was fined $1000, atnd J. J. Bryant
$2000.,(being hsis second offence.) for vio
laion of the laws against gatmbling, and
remain tn prison until the fines were paid.
All the gaming apparatus was counscated.
-Dr. Louis E, Gavarre has-been convic
ted of-stealing a negro at M acon, Miss.,
and sentenced -to the penitentiary for tea
Letters from -Washington state that J.
C. Clinton, [late Mi. U. from N. Y..] has
been appointed a Clerk in the W ar De
liartment atS1600 a year. l'oor business
this of the metmbers of Congress going to
Washington 'to "rat" clerks out of their
EDGEFIELD C. H.
WEDNESDAY, JUNE 11, 1845.
"ie will Cling to the Pillars of the Temple of
Our Liberies. and if it most fall, tbe per.
ish amidst the Ruins."
(O We are-requested'to state, that the
Rev BRUCE WALKER, of Beaufort, 5. C.,
having accepted the Rectorship of Trinity
Church (Episcopal,) in this Village, is ex
peeted tocommence his labors on Sunday
next, the 15th instaoi.
The Court of Appeals ivhich recently assem
bled at Columbia, adjourned on the 2nd inst;
The Court of Eqtii-y for Edgeffeld District,
adjourned on Saturday last. *
The Wheat Crop.-The Anderson Gazette of
the 6th instant says-" Wheat, we understand
is turning off better than was anticipated, the
dry weather not having injured the grain so
much as it retarded the growth of the stalk ; we.
hear no complaint of either smut or rust, and
presume that wheat is- effected by neither to
any considerable extent." -
The Greenville Mountaineer of the same
date says:-Many of the farmers are harvest
ing their Wheat, and we are happy to learn
that the grain ia excellent; the yield is better
than was expected, although less than usual.
The Oat crop upon upland will he very a hort
-many fields of that grain not sufficiently tall
Tum Coors.-We are informed that on the
River plantation of Col. F. W. Pickens, the
first Cotton blooms were seen on the 6th of
Jttne. The first which were deean last year
were on the 8th of June In the lower part of
the District. Cotton .blootns appeared, we tn
dea'snnd. as early as the 27th of May, iii 1844.
Though we are snfrfering greatly fr'm drought.
Cotton Which was planted early, is in good con.
diti'an. Cotton vliich was planted late is very
midifirent. Small grain is almost entirely
destroyed by the dry weather. Early Corn is
good and stillhas a fine color.
Edgcieltd Male Academy.-On Friday last
we were present at theexamination of the'Sti
dents of the Male Academy at this place. The
proficiency which they exhibited, reflected great
credit upon their instructor, Ar. H. K. Mc
Clintock. a gentler n . long and favorably
known to this commnnity. We were much
pleased with the appearance of-neatness and
order aboutthe Academy and the grounds at
tached to it. W~e were informed by Nr'Mc
Clintock that the conduct of- his pupils has
been exemplary throughotut the session, and
that lhe htas never had les difficulty in the man
agement of a school. This speaks well for his
discipline,which is firm, mildar d parenttal. W~e
earnestly hope, that this gentleman will receive
that patronage to which his long experience
andi capability for the business of instruction
Revohadion in California-Great Batle
Terrible Slauglter ! I-In another portion of
our paper..our readers will find an account of
the Revolumilen in Califoi-nia., It will be seen
:hat a destructive baitle has been fought be
tween tihe Mexican troopd ott the one side and
the Californians on the other-the lattEr gain.
ing the victory. California or at least a large
portion of it, appears to be in possession of the
settlers, who have driven out the Mlexic-in ar
'mies. This magnificent battle which settles
the fate of the country, for a time at least, will
doubtless be spoken of by posterity as one of
the most ext'raor dinary battles which was ever
fought. Ir appears that about six hundred
men in all were' engag'ed' ini it. The combat
lasted abont two days. It tock, place on the
20th of February and ended Ott this 21st. Two
hundred and fifty cannon balls were fired by
the belligerents. .Of the killed and wounded
it is reported that the numtber amounted to three
or four horses! Not a soldier on either side
lust blood. The account states that though the
Mexican and Californian troops lited at each
other with grape ?Id cautnon shot for two
days, none were wotdtded, their respective sit.
niations bettg too secure! Certainly these
valiant men will never he accused of .reckles,
ness, They helieve that "discretion is the
betther part of valor." Jadk Falstaff'is doubt
less the very beau ideal of a-chevalier with them.
They believe that fighting consiste in making e
great noise, and care fully keepinig ont of the
reach of danger. Sowe of- theum hfave proba
bly-read Hudibras, and followed his maxim
which he thus lays down
-'He who fights and runs away,
* May live to-fight another day ;
. But hemi battle who is slain,
Will never live to fight again."
This great battle in California willbe classe<
witli those of Thermopylae, Waterloo and oth
era comme morated on the page of history. The
illustrioua commianders on this occasion..will
rank with Leonidnts, Nap oleon and Welling'
ton, and will he the theme of thxe inuse in atl
But jesting apart, this battle bloodles.as.
wvas. may be followed by veryimportant results
We would rejoice if California should succeed
in entirely throwing ofiP-the ,Mexican'yoke ani
maintaining her independence. We'hope tm
see the day when that. country will~ enjoy then
blessings of-a well regttatedl republican' gov
Mr. cahon.--At a Demtocratic mieeting hek
in Mobile on. the 14tli nu., a committee wn
.anteda to tender to Mr. Calhoun a public
dlnner at that place, at such .time as b.e might
designaie. The following is his .reply to the
letter of invitation. .
FORT HILL, 15th 1ay, 1845.
GentIimen:-From some delay. in the
mail, I did'not receive, until a few days
since, your letterof-the 21st A pril, iform-n
ini me; that a democratic meeting held in
the' city of Mobile on- the 14t.h ofithe
same mouth, you were appointed a- coitt
millee to express the *dial approbationt -
of the meeting of my public conduct;
their gratitude for my services,- and to -
offer on the part of the .meeting, such
other manifestations' of their respect and
esteem as you might think proper.
I will not attenit to express the deep
gratiiude 1'feel for the warm approbation
of my public conduct and 9ervices.-er
pressed by the meeting in their resolutions
and,he very acceprable manner in wiech
you have. perforedthe-d uty entrusted to
In performitfg it, you have alluded with
particular approbation to.my condnet.and
Cervices in reference to StateRigbts,'ind
during the-period I filled, for gbort tiie,
the SIate Department under the iate: ad.. -
To ho part of my public life do [Jo'ok
back with greater -pleasdre, than that de-;
voted'to -expountdintg and maijning -te.
relatiois bet'ween-the Federal atd State
Governmentsr on which the' doctrineotr.
State Rights depend. and-it is a great pon
solation for me to ihiak it-has not been in
. The Federal Government' regaded in
ifs federative. h-aractert in which Sjates
and not individuils, are itrconstituenta, is.. -
the most remarkable ever formed ' and
promises, if carried'out-honesely'and fair
ly as such, a higher:degiee prosperity abd
happiness; than has ever fallen-to'thelot.
of atiy people. Oh th'e- other 'had,-.re
garded as a national Governmenit,in whib.
individuals and not States are rhe-coaSti
tuents, it-has nothing novel or remarlable
about it. Instead of a grearFederal Re
public, as it'is. it wddld be in that eherac
tera huge, tinwieldly.democracy,'destined
to be torn into fragments' by hostile 'atd
conflicting .interests, and to terminats -ia
convulsions.. Such being. my doohierion,.
I felt it my duty to maintain -the Federal
character -of the Government against- the -
national or consolidativ.e, at aty sacrifice
aid hazard, and.shall coniinue.to do soiso
long as it shall please' the uthor of:my
being to spare my -life.
The set vices I rendered d'ring trie peri
oil filleI tihe State De partment, were
perfor ted uder great difficulties and em
barrassments. Nothing, indeed. but the
magniiude of the quesions involved In the.
negotiations in -reference to Texas- ind
Oregon, -with the difficulties and embar=.
rasemesta encircling them, and the pnnni
mous call of the coitutry to take charge of
the negotiations, could have induced me
to leate m y retirement anal return. to-pdb.
lic life. Besides those that weie int'rinsic,
there were many that were of an.estrane
Among others, the' administratio'n was'
literally without a' party in Congress. and
very feebly siupported by the people' and.
the presidential question'- was pending,;
which experience had taught me gverruled
in a great measure all others.
The negotiation in reference to.Texas'
first claitmed my attention, because it was
the most pressitng and could not be delay'ed
without hazard. In order to avoid the~
difficulties antd embarrassment which I
.. pprehetnned from t he presidetntial. eec
tion, gI resolved to keep entirely. aloof
aloof from the party politics of the day,
and especially from questions relating: to.
the election, and to use my efibrts tog*
dttee the candidates not to commit them
selves against annexcation. I -had- little
apprehension that Mlr. Van Buren would
as a gr,-at majority of his friends with
Gen. Jackson at thteir head, had declared
for it.- The position of Mr. Clay was
different. The masses of his' friends 16
the north opposed tt which I feared would
sway him. In ordler to prevesi it if pos
sible, I saw some of his most prominent
friends, with wvhotr. I was os friendly4
terms. and used every 'argtument I could
with them, to exert their infience to pre
vent him'f'rom coming out against it.
It wvas all in vain. His letter in oppo
sition soont after app)eared,- and Mr. Van
Buren's followed shortly after, most unex
pectedly to me.
Their effect was great. Mr. Clay's
friends were rallied agtnst it ahtnostjto a
man, 'although the grpat body of them in
the West and South were.stron'ly dis
posed to support it,-~atid not a few of the
prominlent opeuly commtiitted in its iavor.
It was different wish Mr. Vati Buren's.
The great body of his supporters remained
firm in its support ; but an active, influen
tial and not an inconsiderable numbe~r ad-.
hered to his course. lndeed, the 'stand
taken by "the selected candidates of-the
two great parthes. with the inluendceof the
preuidential question and-the feebleneisof
the t-d tiniration' in. Congress and the
country, seemed, for a titme, to render the
prospect of success almost hopeless.
To these cause's of opposition there mast
be taken into consideration-mnother, to re
alize the difficulties- and embarrassments -
that stood in the way of the success or the
measure. I aliie to. abolitimn. Jitmay,
indeed. be truly .regarded as the, main
spring whtich put the others in miotion.
The abolitin party in the North and.
West had taken an early and. decided
stand against it, and had gone. so. faras to
adopt measures to infiuance the party In
Great Britain, and through them thie Bit.
ish Government to oppose it,- as the most
effectual meant of abolishing slavery lo the
.United-Stases and throughout the' conti.
nent. T be scheme was.to abolish slavery
in Tex'as'as the most certairn means of do
ing so in the United States, and that of do
-ing it withotut the conti;nent. -To consum
mate :this,.gratnd and well, laid' scheme, it
was .indispensable that Texas'sho'ulid..be
prevent ed from being.anndred to the Enion;
while 'the only. possilile way to, defeat it
and . ptrevent. the ttiighty. cpnsequences.
which would flow from i;, was -'gabe-an
-nexation of Texas.' ,
The-course of the 'Britlsh Gornit
at any early stage of the nregoelatioa, mnade .
it manifest that it had warmly and fally
embracedl the scheme. The declaration
made by its minister-at Wa-hington to our
IGovernmopt before it- had fauly. ommen
Iced (a copy of which w as -h zt .e-De
partpient of State .after I had entered on