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june 14 Gm 21
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julyyt f 24_
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may 31 3m 19
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July 19, 1848 26 3m
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Julyt5 tf .24
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may '31 am 19
Correspondcnce of te Charleston CourTier.
WASH:eOTON, Auogust 9.
The Senate have not yet voted upon the
prjet, which they still have before them,
for the purchase of the territorial and pos
sessory rights of the Hudson's Bay and
Pajet's Sound Company, on our Oregon
By this session, the United States will
acqu:re the wholo teiritory which was in)
di"pute between us and Great Britain.
with that of the Columbia river. We will
forever settle, by this means, all territori
al questions with Great Britain. vod it is ,
well known that the Ashhurton treaty left
to us an inheritance of difficulty in regard
to that hour:dary.
The Hudson -Bay Company and the
British Government. which has always t
supported and maintained that Company,
make the proposition from no fear of the t
future hostility of the United States.
We, who aredescendeots of the English
men know and feel that no such motive
could influence either party, either in the
offer or the acceptance. But it is appre
hended that, in 1868. adifficuhy will arise
as to the constructiou of the clause giving
to the British Company the right of navi
gating the Columbia, and certain other
rights. The charter of the Company be
ing perpetual instead of being limited to I
The proposition is before the Senate in
secret session. Mr. Calhoun and Mr. i
Webster and ot hers of the members of both i
houses are known to be in faver of it.
The resolution before the Senate advi- i
ses and recotnit ends the purhase. It may t
he too late, at this session to effect the oh)i
August 10,th 1848. I
The Senate have been engaged during
the whole day on the Oregon Bill from the
House, and the various amendments there
to. The Committee on Terttories had t
moved an amendment to the bill which i
recognizes the'M issouri Cornprottise. leap- I
ing a provision itn the bill, extending the
Ordinance of 1787 over the territory.- I
There was some.doubt whether the amend. t
ment of the Committee distinctly adopted
the-Missouri Compromise as to the whole
of the new territories; b':
Dauglass maide the matte
ingas an amendment, t:.
Misst'i 'Compromise. It
ded b- the.friends of the me
'd P tia u 'ition7_- --_
rejected. It was ruled out of (
session. It was thought that t,
Compromise on the line of 36* ?
plication to the whole of the ti
would be, in fact, to securt the loaeof thea1
bill ; others, however, thought that the I
House would concur in it.
'rom the tone of the debates this morn
ing no one could have imagined the possi,
bility that the M issouri Compromise Bill i
would he agreed to. The Committee on
Territories had not ventured to propose it, i
except in a very indistinct way.
Mr. Webster was the first to rise and op.+
pose all compromises by which slave re
presentation should be increased. He did
not pretend, he said, to speak- for the North,
but every one who had known his course.
would aHow hin the credit of consistency,
for he had foreseen this danger, and had
resisted the acquisition of a I new territo
ry-Texas, California and New Mexico
he had opposed the Mexican war and the
Mexican peace and all extension of hivery.
-Mr. Btler made a very eloquent har.
angue on the sutbject, evidently considering
that all chance for compromise was out of
the question, and talled upon the South to
stand to their arme. Mr. Hale declared
that the North would never recede from
their position against the extension of
slavery. Mr. Niles threw thte responsibil
ity of' the issue thus made upon tne South
--which, lie said'. had demanded tthe ex
tetnsion of shavery over the Continent.
.\lr. Calhoutn's speech was made und'er
the most solemn and glomy imnpressions
as to the result. He was willing, on the
part of the Stouth, to acquiesce in a Comt
promise on the Missouri hiue, if tendered
by the other party-the stronger sectiotn of
the Union. But, after the failure of the
Compromise based on the Constitution, he
had tno hope or the adjustment of the ques
tion by Congress. The mainer in which
the evil had grown to its present magni
tude, he exhihited in a vived mnantuer. It
was a dise;ase which, if left to run its
course, must termtinate fatally. It tntst
be arrested, and the South mu<t take the
matter into her own hands. If not arres
ted, it tmust terminate in disstalution, or in
the destruction of our mtatutions-one or
both-atnd in both more probably than in
Mr. Reverdy Johnson declared that if
the North persisted in their premensior.s to
exclude slavery from all the niew territories,
the danys of the Uniotn were ntutbered.
After these and many speeches of a ve
ry decided character, the question was
mooted whether it would yet be better to
try the M issouri Cornprotmise as an amend
ment to the bill, and, itn the wvords of ihe
Compromise, so as to remove all doubt.
The projec't was tried, and it was carried
by a vote of 33 to 21-Mr. Ctalhoun voting
for it, but staling that for reasons given by
him heretof'ore, he would vote against the
bill, but he will acquiesce in the Compro
mise wthen made. The Bill, .as amended,
Seldom has there been witnessed in the
Sente a more exciting atd important dis
cussion than that which has just termina-j
ted. The s,,hject wna t he bill from the
Rouse establishing a territorial govern
neut for Oregon, and the question was on
in amendment proposed by the Senate
Committee on Territories, to insert after
he prohibition of slavery in the hill the
words "inasmuch as said tertirory lies
iorth of 36e 30' north latitude." It was
nost gratifying to witness the ability and
he unanimity with which the rights and
tonor of the South were maintained by
Southern Senators, Whig and- Dem1ocrat.
3alhonn and Berrien. Butler attT\Th nson.
>f Md., Mangum and King, and Johsison,
f Ga., and Hunter and Mason, stood
boulder tn shoulder in resistanco to the
issanits of Webster, Davis. Hale. Niles,
nd Walker; while Douglas, of Illinois,
leserves all hottor and credit for his patri.
tic and manly movement with a view to
iarmonize the disgentions in Cougresstand
estore peace to the Union.
Mr. Webster (whose absence from the
5enate during the debate on the Compro
nise Bill has been the subject of so much
omment) took thi- opportunity of declar
ng his unalterable determinati-n never to
onsent to the addition of another inch of
lave territory to the Union. or to any aa
ession to the slave power in Congres.
le was opposed to all cnncesions and
ompromises. and would vote against the
till if the proposed amendment was adop
Mr. Butler, of your State, made an el
iquent and forcible reply to Mr. Webster,
td expressed his determination to advise
he people of his State to- defend their
ights to an equal participation in the ter
itories of the Union at all and every haz
ird, and to resist any invasion of th-rn ev
in to the death if necessary. lie called
ipon Northern -men to settle this question
intw on fair and equitable terms, as the
tnly means of avoiding results most dis
istrous to the Union.
Mr. Hale. the Abolitionist, followed in
nome sneering remarks upon the modera
ion of South Carlina and in opposition to
The vote was about to he taken, when
"r. Calhoun arose, an able and impres
ive speech, during which he reviewed the
rigin and progress of the Ahulizian-or
tn tb.+ -.I.
be- ..- .
he South-citter to une-" 'n a"
ton or to such mon".rt.
t disruption of the Union. He professed
i strong attachment for the Union, and
aid that the South had done much and
nf'crcd much for its perpetuation. hui
here is a limit beyond which she could
ot pass. It could not be expeeted that
he Southern States would consent to re
rain i, the Union except as the equals of
heir Northern Confedrates. He referred to
he ellorts of Abolitionista in, ither cotn
ties, and their results in St. Damingo and
ther British West ludia Islands. The
)roducts of slave labor in the S.tithern
States had enriched the North, gave em
iloyment :o a large portion of Europe,
itnd furnished the most important element
if the commerce of the world. Its evils,
f any were attendant upon the institution,
ell only upon the South. and so long as
the was content to bear them it wa: im
ertinent and presumpttoug iu the North
He declated his opposition to the anend
Hnent as ambiguous and delusive. He
was for fair dlealinh, and wished the North
o state explicitly and without reserve its
urposes, so (btat the South might under
tand them and act accordingly.
The question was then taken on the
smetdment of. M r. Douglas incorporating
he Missouri Cotmpromise iitto the bill, and
twas carried-ayes 32, noes21, as follows:
Yeas--Messtea. Atchison, Badger, Bell,
Ieton, Berrietn. Botrlatnd, Bright, Butler,
ameron, Davis, otf Missi-asippi, Dickinson,
Douglass, Downs. Fitzgerrald, Foote, H-Ian
tegan, Houston, Hunter. Johnson, of Ma
yland, Johnson, of Louisianta, Johnti,
>f Georgia, King. Lewis. .Mfangum, Ma
on, Metcalfe, Pearce, Sebastian. Spro
mne, Sitwgeon,- Turney and Underwood
Nays--Messrs. Allen, At hertotn, Bald
win, Bradbury, Breese, Clarke, Gorwin,
Davis, of Massaeltusette, Daytotn, Dix,
Dodge. Felch, Greene. Hale, Hamtlin,
liller, Niles. Phelps, Uphamn, W alker and
You will perceive that every friend of
3en. Taylor from the non-Slaveholding
tates voted against this amendment ;
while seven Democratic Senators from the
Free States voted in its favor. The South.
Whig and Democrat, was uttanimously in
he affirmative, with the except ion of Mr.
Jalhoun and Messrs. Yulee and 4' estcott,
who, while they declined to vote for it;
expressed their willingness to acquiesce in
The bill, as amended, was then - passed
ty a majority of nine, and sent to the
ose for concurrenCe, and at 10 o'cloCk
he Senate adjourned. -
Prom the Charleston Mercury, Aug. I Ith.
THE OREGON BILL,
An effort has been made to make some
thing of the vote -in the Senate on Mr.
R ale's'proposition to etngraft tire Wilmot
Proviso on. the Oregon bill. It -is said
that on his ,otloan an actual majority of
thnser" ovoted to insert it in the bill wece
Deso Y. Hence the inference that the
Demo s are do better than the Whigs
in the" ih and the West 0d the subject
of(sav Now, admit the facts and the
infer to be true, how do they justify
the usion that we ought to go with
the in support of Gen. Taylor ?
If theh ery qtestion is to be the cxclu
sive : itihn in the next Presidential
elect'tn hen these facts will only -how
that io -ought to go with neither the
Whig the Democrats. We ought to
put thte eahdtidnte of our own, truly
reflec our principle4, tdii look to onr
own , independent of either of the
two g parties in the Union. But the
facts. y no such inference. The ful
lowin- the vote referred to:
YF Allen, Atherton, Baldwin, Ben
ton, Bi ury, Clarke. Corwin, Davis. of
Mass., yton. Dix, Dodge. Felch, Fitz
gerald reene, Hale, Hamlin, vliller.
Niles. uance. Upham. and Walker- 21.
N -Atchison. Badger, Bell. Herrien,
Borta~ eese, Bright, lutler, Calhann,
Clays aevis, of Miss.. Dickinsor,,
Dougl Downs, Foote, Hantegan,
Housla unter. John-on, of Md.. John
son,, , Johnson, of Ga.. King. Lewis.
Man Mason. Metcalfe, Rusk, Sebas
tian, Siu on. Tirney, Underwood, West
cott, and ulee.-3.
[Mr. helps absent. Messrs. Cane
ron. Pe . and Webster absent.]
Noi. . order to understand ttte true
naruire he vote fro-n the Free States,
it is no bough to inquire who of the
Whigs. the Democrats voted for the
Wilaiot viso but we must know also
who yo against it. The following
Detoc frttto the Free States voted
againott. Breese, Bright, Dickinson,
Douglas onnegan. and Sturgeon. Now
ho =tid Whigs frotm the Free States
voted tr?t them. Not one! HIere, then,
are six ocrats from the Free States
voting the Sout hern Senators against
the inu to aild the WiIhot Proviso to
the Ore bill. Does this prove that the
ttr- ,us tttoWb; ur1H0
-Allen. A,..,.. ..., :r.tduury. Dodge,
r"etct, Fitzgerald, Hamlin, Walker-S.
Whigs-Baldwin, Clake, Corwin, Davis.
of Mass., Dayton, Greene, Miller, Spru
ance, Upham-9 There is not mntth to
boast of it -this result on the side of the
Detocrats, but ii shtd up the mouths of
the Southern Whigs; whilst, taking the
whole question in its aflirmative and nega
tive extent, it is cleat that the vote does
not prove, what is attempted to be estab
lished, that there is no ditlerence hetween
the two great parties at the North on the
geestion of Slavery in their relations to
wards the South.
From the coinmm'encement of the aaita
tion on the subject of Slavery itt Co- aress,
with the repeal of the Twenty first Rule,
and subsequently ou the question of the
Annexation of Texas, the Democratic
party in the Free ,tates have given us
more support than the Wh'ig party, and
this must necessarily lie the case, because
the former regards more the rights of the
States, and the limitations of the Consti
tution. So now on the Wilmot Prwviso.
The only friendei we have from the Free
Sta-es-fewv though they may be-are of
the Democratic party; atnd we have not a
dotut>t that, were the South united, we
might carry atty reasonable adjustment of
the Territories which we might desire.
But when we see the South itself divid
ed, when Southern Whtigs- will not utnite
with usitn sustaining the side of the South,
what right have they to talk of the fatith.
les-mess of Northern Detmocrats, atnd this
too when they still hetld otn in aff'ectihonate
fraternity to the Northtertn Whig party,
which did not give a single matn in the
late vote in the House of Represeutatives,
supp)orting the rights of the South Ott thte
Comnprom ise Bill? B-ut wve do no)t desigti
to champion any party at the Netrth on
this qttestin. Neither of them have fully
at,d resolutely mainitained our rights, as
guaranttied by .the Constitution. WVe of
the South ought to be atbove all parties,
hoth as tonour rights- atnd the enjoyment
of them. When we echttuit tata itndepen
dence and firmness which our interests
and our honor demand, we shall prothubly
find that we can' commtatnd the suppott of
both the two great parties at the North.
But if this- shall not he our coturse, mapat
asuredly we must discredtt all fatcis and'
all history to believe that the South has
any- thing to expect itt the pro)tection of
her slave institutioas by an-aliliatioin with
it is e Qmon to overlook what is
near in, 'g-the eye fixed on se'
thino %:J the satme manner
presen ities are neglected, and
attatnm to4- is slighted by minds
busie We ranges, and intent
upon nitages. Life, however~
short, bsorter by.waste of time:
and oress atowards happiness,
though naturallys slow, is mr8e still
From the Charleston Mercury, August 5th.
We commend to our renders, and especially
that portion of thent who have been seduced
into the Taylor movement. the cotmmunicatior
in our columns to-dary signed -State Rights.'
As a further conrnentary on the views will
thich onrcorrespnuden closes, we submit the
following synopsis of the voto in the House of
Representatives on the Ternr w ial Bir.
M11r. Stephens. of Georgia, a Whig. moved
to lay the bill on the table; the vote stood thus:
Non-Slaccholding States. North and East.
. L AINE.
4 Democrats 2 Democrats
9 Whigs J
4 Whigs I
21 Whigs I I Democrat
8 Democrats |
4 Whigs I
14 Whigs 3 Democrats
I 1 Whig
1 Whig 2 Whigs
1 Whig 5 Whigs
I Whig 4 Whigs
I 3 Deulocrats
y 7 Deniocratt
I Whig 3 Whigs
Wcstcrn Non Sla,eholding States.
10 Whigs 5 Democrata
3 Democrats .
4 Whigs 4 Democrats
1 Democrat .
1 hig I 5 Democrats
I Democrat I
2 Democrals. I
Naithern whir' - 73 Sonthern Denocrats 5(
Northern Democrats 31 Southern Whig - e(
Southern Vhigs - 8 Northern tlnuocrats 21
Southern Deuocrat,, 0U Norther Whigs - U
in the Senate, it will be remembered, that
erry Southern Democrat, and ua majorty of the
Northern Democrats, vote.l for the bill: while
oiu.tun/f the Southlern Whligs, and all bill one
of thle Northern Whigs. voted against it.
Thuis, upon the '.parainoutnt qutestion" thle
"developmeltnt'' in this instanice shows ii
majority of ihe friends of Cass with the Smnth,
and a mnjority of the friends of Taylor with
We still r,ay, however, let us5 "await furthtel
developments" -wrait and reatch.
STATISTICS OF THE MEX
The New Orleans Bulletin is sumtming
up tbe losses in the Mexican war, hy,dleut
ini the battle field and by disease. Thet
former bear but a smrall propurtioh to the
latter. TIhe soldier in Mexico had muel
less danger to enicotitter frotm the bullets al
the foe thatn from the inhospitable elimate.
The whole ntumber of Americans killed.
in. the war, includin:: the line of thte Ric
Grande antd that of Vera Cruz. is etitma
ed att 2000 and te wotumted at 4000 11
is impossible to say how manty of the Iat
ter have died in consequence of thecii
wouds, but we should supponse not lest
tan one fourth. say 1000, making in all
000 deaths frota battle.
The ravages of disense were terrible -
A t Petroe there are 200 American gravis
all vtctims of disease. At the City o1
Mexico the deaths were, for the greate.
prt of the time, 1000 montbly.
The first Mississippi Regimettt that went
out to the Rio Gratnde. butried 135 on then
banks of that river before it ever went in
to battle, and. finally hrought back lest
than oine third of their number. They suf
fered dreadfully at Buetna Vista.
The first anti secoad Pennsylvania Regi'
mets recently returned. went Out 1800
strong, (900 each ;). they brought home
abou t 600 of t heir original number. A boul
22Ofell iis battle, nearly 400 died, atnd 600
were discharged as unfit for duty. Hot
manly of the latter have aince died is ol
The third and fourth Tennessee Regi
merts, also recenly teturned, lost 300 by
death. Neither of these regiments have
been in action.
Capt. Naylor, of Pennsylvania. took
down a company of one hundred and four
men, he brought bak seventeen; he enter:
ed the battle of Contreras with 33 men;
he brought 19 out of it.
The most frightful ind'ance of mortality,
however, that we have heard of, was id
that eallaut corps, the Geoi-gia Battalion;
commanded by a gallant and accomplish
ed ollicer, Colonel Seymour.
They were considered ai:climated, and
actually suffered much less whilst in the
lower country, than when marched into
the interior, on the high land. The battal
ion went to Mexico 410 strong; about 220
actually died ; a large number were dis
charged with broken down and ruined
constitutions; and many of them, no doubt
have since gone to their graves; and the
battalion was reduced to thirty four med
fit for duty!! On one parade, when a cer
tain company was called; that had muster
ed upwards of 100 men, a single private
answered to the call, nod was its sole lit
ing representative. The Captain, the
three Lieut enants. the four Sergeants. and
the four Corporals, (every commissioned
and non commissioned officer) were dead
We hatte heard from officers of maoy
other regiments details very 9iritilar to
those we have given ah,tve, which may
be taken as about the fair average losaes
of all the volunteer regiment?. The ieg'
ulars did not suffer to the same extedt.
Mr. Greeley; of the New York Trihdnp,
in his paper of the 31st July, thus briefly
retracts his fundamental objectioni to the
noniunatiod of General Taylor:
1. He is a Military Chieftan, whose
whole mature life has been, passed in the
Army, necessarily diverted his mind to a
great degree from civil affairs. We dislike
the principles of choosiog our civil ruleri
merely or mainly because of the distinc
tion they have achiexed in military service.
sent professions are
worthy m.rn"' and secured by the t orce
of. coosiderati.ns we heartily deteit. Its
advocates either assumed ihat .the-kreat
distinctive. measures fir which the Whig
party had long and honora' etrugeled
were obsolete, (that is sutrendered,)' or
ihat they were not sulliciedt.ly popular to
triumph on their own merits, but must be
c;trried by the roll of the drum and the
flt,h of Buena Vista guns. We deny these
assertions and despise the counils they in
4. Geo. Taylor stood before the public
in an eluivoce.l attitude with regatd to tb
Whig party. He was supported by some
as independent of party ; by others as a
'hiig but not an ultrd Whig;' an'd again
by others as -a ul Whig and a,quarter
orer.' lie was pledged to some to run for
President, even in opposition to the Whig
ninee;' by others be was tinderstood'
and represented as committed to abide the
decision of the Philadelphia Convention.
It seems'difficult to see how a frank,- hn
est, strai'htforward man should get invol
ved in such labyrinths of misapprehension.
5. HIe was first proposed and' most
warmly urged for the Presidetcy, itt go'd
part bty mten in whose initegrity we had no
coufluence and. whtose characters we could
not esteem-who had belonged to several
p :rties antd acquired no gaiod reputation
witj ny--men whom wye htad been corn.
pel~ to regurd as speculators' tn' politics
ati mercenary hunters after sp,oils.
6. lIe wvas an especial favorite with
those knowtt to us as Northtern Whigs withr
Sioutherni printciples, advocatesof a 'vigo..
rous p)rosecuttn-t of the War,' ''no peace
withnut indemnity,' 'our douhtry right or
wrong.' &c. Thiis class dd'not likse the
Tribune, nor we them.
7. Last and worst of all, he was the can
didate of thte ultra Slaveholding interest,
so far as atny portion of it adheres to the
\Vhig-pary-of Gerorgia. Alabamna, Miss
sissip,pi. Artkansns, Florida. and Texas
of those who claimi for the South the night
of phiutintg Slavery itn the new Territories.
WVe do saty, however, that he was the only
donde mong aill those proposed as Whig catn.
di.tfrthte Presidency who had never
Iuttered a word in ptublic reprehension of
Slavery anid was not ktnown to us to be'
hostile to its exteosioni.
These are the reasons which induced us-,
in opposition to our uniifiorm course hither
to, to hesPate as to supporting the regular
Whig nomainations, so far as the Preddtent
w as concerned. To us they seemed strong
enough t. require hesitation at least. Yer
we said at the first, and have stood to it
over ,,ince, that if compelled to choose he,
tweetn the suijptort of Taylor anti the elec
tion of C ass, we should support Taylor.
We-have doubts as to Tavlor's fitness for
the Presidency. Gen. C. lacks the good
traits in GSen. Taylor's character which we
have cheerfully recognoized' and acktnowl
edged ; he is disqualified for t he Presidency
alike by what he has dotte and what he
has failed to do. Even on the Slayery
question, where he has naturally the bet
ter ,,nosinn by fifteen dngrees of litue.