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K ~ ~ ~ W A. '.?
Hle' trql cling to the Pillars of the Tenmple of vu I(bTUSOads ffl ewl crs&ais un.
P13ULISIIED EVERY WEDNESDAY
BY WM. F. DURAIZSOE.
EDITOR & PROPRIETOR.
V-o DOLLA s aiid FIFT. C ENrs. per annum
ifpaid in advance -$ if nlot paid withim six
months from the date of subsctiptiln. and
$4 if not paid before thp expiration of the
year. All subscriptions will be contilned,
unless otherwise ordered before tie cxpira
tion of the year ; but no paper will be dis
continued utintil all arrearages are paid, un
less at the option of the Publisher. .
Any person procaring five responsible Stlo
setibers, shall receive the paper for one
ADVERT:SENE'S conspicnotistyi iserted at 75
cents per square, (12 lines, or less.) for the
firstinsertion.-and 371 for each continitance.
Those published monthly or quiarterly. will
be char,e.i $1 per square. Avertisements
not having the number of itnertionq moarked
on them, wvill be contiined untit oidered out
and charged accordingly.
Comnmunications, pest paid, will be prompt
ly and strictly attended to.
- P.S. BrOOK, ..
0 F F E R S his professionat services in
LAW and EQUITY.
Oct 4 - if - 37
A4TTURAEY AT LA 1'.
WILL practise in the Court,; of Edgefield
and the udjoining Districts.
Aug 23 t! ^1
W ILL practise in the Courts of Law
W and Equity in the Districts of Edgefeld6
and Abbeville. Cfice, Edgefield C 11.
Sept 20 3m 35
, A CA[ BD.
ELBERT BLAND respec.fully offers
his Profesioal Services to (Ie citizens
cf Edgefield viliage %: ucinity.
Office next door to the Court House
Atig 16 tf 30
CAN D IATE S.
E7The friends of WESLEY BODIE, Esqr.,
announce him as a candidate for te Offhce of
Sheriff of this District at the ensning election.
We are authorized to announce Capi.
I1UMPHREY BOULMARE,asa Can
didatq tor Sheriff, at the ensuing electionu
(ErThe friends of Col. THUS. W. LAN
HAM announce him as a candidate for the
office ofSheuiff at the next election.
uThe friens f Col. JOHN H -
ae hin. asa ciin Iate,Td i.rff 6dg
WHITAKER, as-a candidate for the Office
of Shertj, at the ensning election. -
The Friends of WMP. BUTLER, Esq.,
announc.e hiin as a Candidate for Sheriff at the
"" w'ie Friends of A LF RED MAY,
annouce him as a Candidate for Sheriff,
at the ensuitg election.
g We are authorised to aunnunce
NvM. m. JOHNSON, Esq., a/eandidtie
for Clerk of the District Coupoif Edgtfiold
at the ensuing election.
'97 The friends of P - 'ER QUATTLE
BUM, Esqv.. announce iin as a candidate for
the Office of Clerkif tbe Court of Coniuion
Pleas, of this D;trict. at the en.*uing elec.tion
We are ,Aorized to annoutnce osi0.
G. BACo1, a candidate for re-elotiun as
Clerk-it the Court. for Edgeield Diitrict.
Trie friends of E. PENN, nnuounce
Min as a Candidate for the Office of Clerk
at the ensuing election.
We are authorized to announce EDWAit D
PRESLEY, as a Candidate for the Olice of
Ordinary at the ensning election.
We are authorized to announce Col.
WiLLIAM H. MOSS, as a Candidate
for the ofEece of Ordinary at -the ensumn?
election,.red fHNYT VIGI
07 The finso NYT RGl
- Esqr., announice him a.n a candidate for the of
fice of Ordinary of this District, at. the ensuinig
We are authorized to annountce Maj.
WV. L. COLEMAN. ats a candidate fur
Ordinary at the ensuing election.
The friends of tHUG [1 A. NiXON, Esq..
respectfully announce hitn as a Candidate
foir the office of~ Ordinary, at the next
FOR TAX COLLECTOR.
The Friends of Maj. F. WV. BU R, an
nounce him ns a candidate fir Tax Collec
tor. at the ensuing election.
The frientds of.Col. J. QUA TT LEUUM,
a~nhounco him as a candidate for Tax Col
lector, at the ensuing election.
WVe aro authorized to announce WM L.
PA RKS, as a Candidate foir Tax Collec
- tor, at the next election.
New Boot anid 51i0o
'JH ERE Gentlcenn! Boots and Shoes
,W are tmade in a most superior style of fit
Gentlemen wanting cork soled, double soled.
water proof, walking,-dress, patent Iteathrer.
atd a fmne pnmp soled BOOTS, need -but
leave their orders with the subscriber.
miareh b 1 f 6
ALL those indebted to the Estate of Barnett
F.lBrmd, aire required to make immediate
payment, and th,ose havinigdenmands to pii esenit
thern properly attested.
JO HN IIILL, 0. E. D.
Nov 20 t 44
Wm, Ketchum & Co.
AKE pleaasre ii returniu; their grate
fi ackino% l-dameints foir the very iiberal
patronauge heret(,fore hestowed upal them. naid
h1ope by lberality and fuir dualiing to merit a
We now invite the atevii-n of or numer..
on031 fri,nds and cn.totmers tid the pub!ir gei
erally, to our vew stowk of
FINE. FAJ:SHUillNABLE AND
CHEAP FAN('Y AND
STAPLE DRtY GOODS.
Selected by one of the Firm during the last
month frot the
Nu Yorc and Philaddjphia Markets.
Oir w.3irtme..t will cimp.ri6e every article
usually ralild ir in this Al nrl,et, anl we plede
nrain-VS inot it) be idesuid by any ii llam
burg or A ognaea.
go-ds j i-w1 is-shownj with plesanre. No
charg for looking.
Give us a call.
N. i. Sli-re in thr merican Hotel Build
ing, l-iaiurg S. .
Oct 4 12t
UN biAR & BURSNIDE has jusi rcceiv
ed hv iaid Road and River, the bliwiAng
list or GOl)S, 11) which they respectfully in,.
vile allentionl. Plier-i visitin, unr marketi
would dt% well to ;-ive us a call before purlIai
47 lih(6. St. Croix, Porto Rico uaid N. 0.
25 11bi6. No I Clarified Siizars,
70 Supi-rior CilTiee Siugar-:.
5 anad 5 boxes Loal, Crushcd and Pow
Wt,t Ildia and New Orleis Molas'les,
175 Bags 1ti), La;luar.- and Ja%a Colfee,
4U0 Sacks of Snit..
75 barrds Mackerels,
511 bdxes fine Cheese,
3 iermes ttiee,
135 kegs'o Naiik aild Brads,
;30,00 Ihs. Sweedes iron-all sizes,
and Iroi, German and Cast Steel,
100 bo.xes Window Glas-all sizes,
500 ponndi Putty. in Bladders,
4,500 po~unds VditeLead, Vernon Mills,
2 barrels Liosee Oil,
Ditchers Boots. Broganis and Ladies Shoes,
500 Heavy Dufl*el Blankets,
20 pair Fine Bed Bl'akels.
Keseys. Osnaburgs, Shirtings and Sheetings,
2 cases P1jints-all patterns.
Painted Bi-akets and Tiias,
Bra-sbouad Buckets and Wire Seeves,
3000 pounds klenilalj, ind 300 pounds oak tan
iied Sule Leather, Upper Lywhanutal.
na ae1000 pounds Ti viie,
25 bags Slot, 50 keg beat Powder,
Chewing- . oba-eco, -
Sngar Cans. Measures. Peppdr, Spice. Gin
ger, Cane Set Chairs. Wood amd Cane Seat
Rocking Chairs, and many other articles too te
dious to enumerate.
We will he making ahnost daily avccpsions Ill
on stock, and would be pleased It? attend to all
order- from our friends, and feel assured of giv
DUNBAR & BU3NSTDE.
Hiamburg, S. C., (ct.5 if 40
ACKSON & KINCHLEY I-avig asso.
ciated themselves tpicther i:. the Dr.y
(oud businme, would it respectiilly stoii
cit the citizes, aid platers vi.-iting Hl'n rg
to call and exanile their well se!ected stuck o'r
Smple nd Faicy Dry Goods, which they offier
low hir CASH, ain1gst whicih ae the following:
Brow n HimesylnSl, from 6,4 to 374,
Biteaeled do . G1 to 45.
Eiglisi and American Piints, 5 to 20.
Anrican and Scotin Ulicg-hams, 12.A to 31. I
Bla k anl Colored Alpccas, plaim, plaid
Ponat1)ssim- and Muslin DeLaiil.
Blaek Silks. plaines trijpera aid Plaid,
Co!ored Siiks from 84 00 Ito 225,
Sp1un-Silk Pinid s..
.\iohlair Lustre, Salin stripie.
Plaid and stripe Carolineis, (lnnw' style dress
C'ashmenrs fromi 18 t'i SI 00,
8 4 and 94. Dahlia Blainkets,
1(0 4. 11,4 uand 124 Bed Bil:akec:
Hosiery the mogast comxpilee stock ever ofTered
n this malrket,
Red ar.d White FI:anneal all wool, froma 25
l.o Si 00,
Dormlet dho ,
Merrinao tand Lamub's wool Dran\rs~a and
Sattineats, Kenttucky Je:mns, anid Merrinao
Engtlish. Aimerican and French Cloths anld
Kerseys, front 15an 311.
Furniaitire Dimai y, fromi 18 to 50,
Umbitrell:as, Bininets. anmd Flowers,
Rhibboa,u 1f ailt dec.riptiuuns.
Plaid Liind-ys ad apron chccks,
B3rownv anid lache'd Iio.lbmiid,
d.a do D)rill.
O~asnhngs aiwd lFactury stripes.
Swiss. M 11ll. B3ook. PlInid and .aconet M luslin,
4-4. 54. 0.1 47-4 aind 8-4 wool Shawls,
Lisles thiread and cottona Laces.
Siaspeniders, t love. riand hilandkerchaiefs,
Lidies andi Clahibei's shoies.
8.4, 9-4 an:d 10-4 Tl'able Daaatk,
Tr iminlgs for dresses &c. &c. &e.
Sept '20 Ua. 2ma
Ilamb,urg, S. C.
- RJ1Y PA~ RTLW haavmig lby muitiual
]Jcmns~ent withdraiwn fromll the fim of
Geiger. Parllow& 4.IEnightl. the W.\ RlEHIt U SE
aiid CO.i MiSsION hlies iilC beI a coinnedlil(
at thie sae ustanid by W. WV GEiGER & .J. L.
Kstan-ri, uander the lirma ohf
GE1G ER & KNIG HT,
Who resapecitrolly tender to former ciutome'rs
anud Platers geinerally thecir services ill the Stor
age alid sale of Cotton, and other produace..
Advyanceis wvill be made wvhen reqpuired (in
produce iln Store unld their chiarge wvill beo reg
lunted biy a due regard to itje st:ate of the timaes.
Nov .1 1848 2m 41
T0'llE itborilhr has lustreceived his FALL
I mid WINTIr STO;K of GOODS
eisisting in part of a splendid lot of
1'Crsttad Goods jor Ladies Dresses
of all kinds. a ite let tf Ginghams, English &
Americait Prits, Col'd & Black Alpacca's,
A LAIGE AND SPENDID STOCK OF
Negro Shoes, Clanket & lierseYs. Groceries,
Hardware, Crockery. Hats & Caps.
-To which hI- inviies his friends. and the
pmble to call and ex.mine, bef'ore pnrrhaing
el'cwhere, ashe f-.els colflident that hite can
give sati.faclion to all n ho may favor him with
a call. I B- C. BRYAN.
-Oct. 10, IS48. tf 38
FiOM 1.5 T025 PElR CENT LESS
TIAN LAST YEAR'S PRICES!!
At T. Elre an's Chr:ap.
Oppositc tMe ansimln louse and ncz
door to Hand 4- Iillians Gro
Cery Stare, Augasta, Ga.
I- E, tidersigned ha4 reeiived his sopply
of Fall & Winter Good, ainong which are
Fi-rmed. Wa';tered anid plain black silks,
Black Alpacas and liombazines,
Colored AlIpe-nc, plaii ::rd satin striped,
Freich Vnhs!eres and Eglish Merinos,
50 plieces Mu Islio DeLaihies, 12.. to 25 cents,
30 do Cthmeres, 23 lu 50 ce ns
100 do S:!otch ad French Ginghams,*12
to 31 Cents.
501) pieces Prints. from 4 to 12. centis per yatld,
10 bales brown Shij tings aid Sheeting, 4 to
Friiges. Gimps and Buttons,
I'lealched shirtitigs. etc., 5 to 12.1 cents,
Ir:sh Linets aid Taile ,masks,
Needle workes Colbars Chemisetts,
Irish Linen and thread Ed-1ingS.
Linen Cambric tlandkerclies,. i to 37. cents;.
Hosiery. Gloves. Rtibbonis Laces, etc.
Cloths, Casimeres, Tweeds and Erninetts,
battinets, Kentucky Jeans and Kerseys,
Negro and llichinaw Btaikets,
Fine Bed and Crib do
A few cases of Hats and Shoes.
N. B.-Prints and Domestics, 20.per-ednt
ess than lasi year's prices.
New Goods received weekly by the Steasmer.
Parcels delivered in lamnburg free of charge.
Oct 25 .2m-i
AS just receii
elling from 20 to
-eal's prices, he wv.
l others who wish to in'- ti goods Iw to
give 'inl a call. In his stuci pra many Rich
rind Fashi.-noblc Goods, such as
Hich Satin S:ripe aid Chni algeaile Silks..
Wide Black Gro D0Lhne nod .usire Silks,
Rich.Satin Stripe and Figured Cashmeres,
ashmere Decosso and Muslin DeLanes,
Lamertine Stripes and Plaid Worstcds,
Satin Stripe and Plaid Alpaccas.
Mohair Lustres and Changeable Plaids,
Plain, Black and Silk Warp Alpaccas,
A large assortment of, English and American
Prins, handsome Patters and very cheap.
Ficnch and Scotch GingIans,
Ric], Cashmere and Plaid Woolen Shawls,
Elegant Lace Caps,and Muslin Collars,
Gabriels and Jenny Lind Collars,
Drapery Muslin and Furn.tie Dimety,
Welch Gauze and Milled Flannels,
10-4 & 12-4 Ribon Bound Whitmey Blankets.
The above, together with a large assort
ment of Cloths. Cassamcres. Vetings. Sati
nets, Kentucky Janes, Blankets, Flannels,
Kerseys, Negro Cloths, Bedtitk, Drapery,
Liniog, Lawns, Mu,fns, Cambrics, Hand.
kcrlt:ef, Brown aid Blrached Shirtings and
Saecctig. (vcry cheap), with a v'ariety of
other goods too numerous to mention int this:
Adve: tisement. -
Oct 25 4it 40 .
- IV o i cc.
A Lpros iolebted to the I:state of
Ralph Sury. are regnested to make
immiedimie paymtol. -
I1. C. CULER EA TH, Adm'r.
Oct 18 5m 39
Brought to the Jail
O F this Dlistrici. n negro man who ays his
.tamye i, IIAlItiRY.:cinl tht he bielontgs to
Mr. S:rnnael Y'onolg. of1 Lanantus D)istrici. 8. C.
5:. iin fell>w is abouitt live feet. 5 or (I inchtes
high, about 401 yoars of age~. of dark comlelx.
ion, lie lhas a s(car over his irighit eye and onie
near his left eye. huis foariniger on his right
hiantd has beenc: br oken. his forehtead is very Tibt;
hea says lie rantaway sumetimei in May ot Jntne
last. TIhe owner is regntestedi to com'e forward,
prove property, pay chatrges and take him
away. or he wyili be dealt with according tio law.
Dec 0. 1848 tf 4G
I P UNA W~AY frmn thte S'.bscriber
~ .,oo the 2d inst, tmy NEGRO
MJL 'lA N P'EER. Said hoy is ahott
S thiirty--tise ye-ars of age, rather light
a cojmleionu, stontly made anid has a
hetivy head of htair ihe lso has a
scr on otno of his feet, niear the first
juinti of the greet to'e. caused by the cnt of ant
axe ; lie speaiks rathmer shoirt when spoken to,
and has a somewhat, doni n look. I will give~
thte ahive rewatrd to any one who will deliver
him to moe at my residence,or twentty dollars
($20) if lodged int jail where I may get him.
JOH-N L. BOYD.
Warrenton, Atbb. Nov. 8th (it .43
SADDL~ES, Bridles, and Saddle Bags,
at New York Retail Prices, at
J. COHN'S CepCash Store.
INov 5 1f 4
To fhe S d IRouse of Representatives
of the!4dW States.
slSUI-ro-. Dec. 5, 1848.
Undedi itbeaignanm Providence of Al.
mnigfy thi Representatives of the
Stats fie people are again brought
totCie iherate flor the public good.
The grd Cthe nation to the sovereign
Arbito man events, should be
comm Rh ihc boundless blestings
Peac nnd contentment reign
through. borders, and our h iloved
country pre,ents a sulhme moral specta
cle to -the .rld. * * * *
I am ha .o inform you that our rela
tions w'' ni'tions are frienlly and pa.
cific. A V*tageous realies of commerce
have beedi-toluded within the last four'
years wvite- i413reniada, Pdru. the Two
Sicilies, 41e,ium, Hanover, Oldenburg,
and 31ec k1eburpgSchweriu.
Viih A 'governments on this conti
nent our4 8, it is believed, aru now
on a mor' ly and satisfactory footing
than tley 'been at any former period.
Since-time 1age of ratificatioirs of the
treaty of, pOWO with blexico, our inter
course iifitlii overnment of that repub
lie has bekof-.ihe most friendly'character.
The Entoj traordinary and liinisler
Plenipeodte y of the United States of
MIexico ha azi received and accredied;
and a dip *tc representative from Alex
ico of ? i ift 06k has been received and
accridii$j thi government. The ati.
cable re-aWuAs iet ween the two countries
which-had bin suspended have been hap
pily restore, destiued, I trust, to be
long 'are prt1erd Ihe two republies.
both sitd:1o.this continent, and witi
-Cotertmitle erjitries, have every inive
ofyinpat- anid*Of interest to biud them
togetier'l Mbitel amity.
- this g' tQg condition (if our foreign
ri ltons r -era it uun'ecessary For tme to
ea -yourtention.-.more specifically to
ar h ith -Aexico has demonstrated
not I .Alility of the governhent to
or aiz roui armny upon a siudden
rovide it with. all the niui
battleq,. it 1%U',...
ihose.olicers nec.ssarily siationed at hone,
who were gchnr d with the duty of fur.
nishing the ar iy io proper time, and at
proper,places. with all the munitions of
war .and other supplies so necessary to
make it efficient, the commendaiilt to
which they aro-entitled. The credit due
to this class of our 611icers is the greater,
when it is considered that no - army in an
cient or modern times was ever better
appointed or provided than our artmy in
Mexico. Operating in an enemies' coun
try. relfloved two thnusand miles from the
seat of the federal government, i:s litl'rent
corps spread over a vast extent of territory.
hutidreds and even thousands of iniles aport
from each other, nothing alot of the unti
iing vigilance and extraordinary energy of
these officers could have enabled them to
provide the army at all points, and1 in pro
per season, with all that was required for
ite most elTicietit service.
It is but an act of justice to declare, that
the olikers iu charge of the several exect
tive bureaus, all under the imimediate eye
tind supervision of the SPeretary oif War,
performted their respective duties with rhil
ity, energy, utnd efliciency!. They have
reaped less of the glory of the watr. not
having been persotnally exposed to) its perils
in hatnic, than their comnpanions in arms;
but withoot-their forcast, eticienit aid and
co-operation, those in the field would nmot
have been provided with the ample mteanis
they possessed of achieving for ihetmselves
and their eounatry the- unfading honors
whichm they have won for bo'h.
Whent all these facts are considered. it
ay cease to be a matter of so much
ar.axznment abroad how it happened that
or noble army in Miexice, rLeulalrs andI
voluneers, were Victorious on every battlo
led, however fearful the odds against
them.- * * * S
WVithin less that four year the annexa
tion of Texas to the Union has been cou
smamated; tall contflicting title to the Ore
con TerritIory south.of the forty-iinth de
-ree of itortht latitude, being all that wvas
isitedi on by any of toy predecessors,
htd been adjusted; atnd New Mexico and
Uipper California have been acquired to by
treaty. Trho aren of these sever-al Tler
ritories. according to a report careflilly
prepare.d by the Comnmissionter of the Gern
eral Land Ollice from the mast authentie
infortnation in his possession, and which
is herewtith tranmitted, contains onte tmill
iton one hundred and ninety-three thou
sand and sixty..one square miles, or seven
hundred and, sixty-three million live hutn
dred and fifty-nine thousand an'l forty
acres; while the area of the remnaining
twenry.nin'e States, and the territory not1
yet organized inito States east of the I}.-ocky
hounitaineS contaitns two million fifty ttine
thousand live hundred and thirteen quart
miles, or thirteen hundred anid eighteer
million otte hundtred-and twienty--six thoun
sand and fifty-eight acres.
Trhese estimates show that tbe territorie
r.c-'utl mcaircd, nd.over whtich our ex
clusive jiftisdietion and dominion have
boco extended, constitute a couniry more
than) half as large as all that which was
field by the 111ited States before their
neqiisition. f Oregon be excluded from
. ile estim;iate, there Will still remain within
tihe limits of Texas.New Mexico, antd Cali
fornia, eight hunidrd and liliy one ih> u
said live hundred and iinety.eighlt i-are
miles, or five hundred and fority live roilit.
twelve thousatd seven lrndr;ed and twen
ty acres; iming an addition equal to more
than nue third of all ifah terrvory ownmd
by the United States helire their acquibi
lions; aud, incloding Oregon, inarly as
great an exient of territory, as the wihole
or E:urope, Ilossia, only excepted. The
&1iS3i.Sippl)i,s lately the frontier ofour
country. is now Onliy in its ceire.
With the additions of the late acquisi..
tions, the United States are nnw estimted,
to be nearly a; large as the whole of l .rope.
It is estiilated by the suwrintendeil of
the coast silr-vey, in lie accoripanlying
rr-pori, tlat the extent of the senena-t of
of' ex-as on the Gtill* of Al xico is up,
wards, of four hundred miles; of the coast
Upper Califrornia, on the Pacific, of nine
hundred and seventy miles; nid ofOre
"On, incliing the Straits of' 1-iie of six
Ihundred and fifiy miles, making the whole
extet if searoast on the Pacific one thn
sand six hundred and twenty miles. and
rho whole extent on both the Pacific and
tie Gulf' of Mexico two thousand and
t wenty miles. Thle-cngtlr of the coast on
I the Atlantic from the northern fiiits of the
United States, arouid the Capes of Flori
da to thle Sabine, on the eastern boundary
of Texas. is estimated to ho three thousand
due hundred miles. so that the addition of
seacoast, including Oregon, is very nearly
tvo-thairds as great as all we possessed he
fore; and excluding Oregon, is an addition
lflone ihousmnd three hundred aid seventy
miles; heing tnearly, equal to one half of
the extent of the coast which we possesseed
before these acquisitions. We have now
three great maritime fronts-on the Allan
tic. the Gulf of Mexico. and the Pacific
making in the whole an extent ofscenast
exceeding five thousand inlics. This is
the extent of tihe sea coast of the United
States, not including hay. sounds, and
smrall irregilarities of the main shore, and
.. n extensive seacoast. could
rot lung have remained in the hands of a
foreign power without endangering the
pece of our southwe!tern frontier.. Her
prodrits in the vicinity of the tributaries
of the Mississippi musi htave snught a mar-.
ket throughr nor terriitory; and fite danier
of irri:mion arid collision of interesrs be
iween Texas as a foreign States and our
elves would have been imminent, while
the embarrassments in the crmmercial ia
tercourse between them must have been
constan' and unavoidable. Hlad Texas
fallen into the hands, or unler the influ
ence and control of a Ltrong mnarititne or
military foreign'power. ns site might have
done, these dangers would have been smil
reater. They hrave been avoided by her
voitutary and penceful annexption to the
United States. Texas, from her position,
was a natural and almno< indipesablu
part of our territories. Forninnately. she
hias been restored to our country, nd now
constitutes one of the Sr.tcs 'of our con.
fodtracv. -1upon an equal footing with the
riginal Stres." Tie saltibrity of climale.
Ire fernility ofsiril, peculiar' adapted to thre
production of some 1of rtmot valtuabIle
s apfle accor mmoduities, a ln' '01 commerciail
advantages, mrusi soon make her one of
our most populous States.
New Mexico. though situatedl ira mIre irr
teior, nnd wvithotut a snacoast, is kitowrr to
contain much ternile Inimd, to abounrd in
rich rintes of' thre p)reciious mcetals, anrd to
ie capabhle of sustnirring a lirge porpulIa
ton. F'rom its po-irronr, it is the iter
mediate territory bretween orur sm'etrments
and our possessionis in Te'xas, and those ona
tIre Pacific con)st.
IUppier Caihlforinin, irrespective of tIre
vast mineral wearlth recently developedi
terp, holds nit this day. in point of' valiue
and importance in the rest in' thr Unrion,
Ire samea relation that Lonisia id u. 'vheno
that fi-se terriory wvas acqptired fromr F4nntre
lorty five years ago. Extemnding nearly
ten degrees of latitudt' alorng tIre P;ieille,
anrd emrbracintg tIhe only safe and commo
dred miles, with a tempecrate elimate, and
an extensive interior of f'eirile lands, it is
scarcely possiblfe to estimate its weaikhl
utiri it shell Ire brroughrt iunder the govern
ment of ourr laws, and its resources ftully
dfeielopedl. From its position, it rmost
coirmad tIhe rich commerce of Chinn, of
Asia. of the islarnds of1 the Pacili,:, of Wes
tmrn Mexico, of Central Amterica, the S.
A merican Starea. nil of thre Russin?s pis'
sessiiin brrrde'riug on thrat ocean. A greal
ermporium will doubtless 1-peedily arise on
the Galifria coatst, which mray Ire des
tinedf to rival ini imrportance New Orlean:
itself. Ther depiot of ther vast commerce
which muisi exist on the Pacifie will prrobra
lly he nt some pirnt on the bay oif Sar
Francisco, andl will occupy tIme samne rela
tion to tIhe whole wesrni ci ast of ta
oeann, as New Orleans does toi thd valley
of the Misstssipii and the gnilf of Mexico
I' Tor tis depot our inercus .whala ship:
-' will resort. with their cnrgoes, to trarde,
refit, and obtain supplies. This of itself
will largely contribute to build up a city,
which would soon become the centre ol a
trreut and rapidly ingeasing commerce.
Situated on a safe harmor, bufliciently c8
pacious for all the navies as well as the -
marine of the world, and convenient to
ex-ellent iimber for ship building, owned
by the United States, it must become our
greit western naval depot.
It was known tht mines of the precious
metals cxisted to a considerable extent in
California at the time of its arquisition. -
Icent disco cries render it Probable that
the.me mines are more extensive and valua
ile than wias aticipated. The accounts
of the abutdane.of gold in that territory
are of such an extraordinary character as
woalJ searcely commniand belief were they
unt corr.itorated by authentic re'ports of
ifticers in the public service, who have
vi,ited tia mineral distric, and derived
the facts which they detail from personal
observatiou. Reluctant to credit the re
pMort. in general circulation, as to the
q.mwity of goldil the olicer conmmaudin* - -
iur f,rvee in California viiited thie mineral
district in July last. for the purpose of oh
iniing necurate information on the sub
ject. Ilis report to the War Department
of tle restlt of his examination, and the
fAets oltniined on the spoi, is herewith laid
lc,ore Congress.-When he visited the
country there -were about four thousand
persons engaged in cnllecting- gold. There
is every reason to believe that the number
of persnns so employed has been augment
ed. . The explorations already . is very
large, and that gold is found. at various
places in an extensive district of country.
Itifrmation received from officers of -
the navy and other sources, though not so
full and minute, confirm the accounts of
the commander of our military force in
California. It appears, also, from these
reports, that mines orquicksilver are found
in the vicinity of the gold .region. One
of then i- now being worked, and it is
believed to be among.the most productive
in the world. * * * *
The acquisition of California and New
Mexico, the settlement of the Oregon.
boundary, and the annexatiin of Texas,
extehding-tn the Rio Grande,'ari results
which. combined, are of greater conse
quence nud will add more to the strength -
aud wealth of tte nation, than any which
have preceded them since thiadyptiow. on'
the constitution. -
bronlif mIunt ien-foI ~r&gidarly oV r
grnized gover-nments. The existing con
dlitton of Californii, and of' thai part of
New Moyico lying West of tie Rio Grande
and wthout Iie ii s of Texas, impert- -z
ously demiand tht Congress should, at its'
:)rcsent session, - organize territorial gov
ermneut,; over them. * * *
ft view of the high and responsible da
ties which we owe to ourselves and to
mankind, I trust you may he able, at your
present sessiou, to approach tile adjutst.
rem of' the only domestic question which
seriously threateus, or probably ever can
threaten, to disturb the harmony and suc
cessful ope.raion of our system.
The immenselv valuable possessions of -
New Mexico and' California are already
inliabite,l by a considerable pO"pulation.
Atracted by their great fertility, their
miueral wealth, their commercial advan
tages and the salubrity of the climate,
emigrants from the older States, in great
numbers, are already preparir.g to seek
now homes in their inviting regions.
Shall the di6similarity-of the domestic
instittitions in the differet S'ates prevent
its froinm providing for them suitable go.
vernmenis ? These insiittimons existed at
tile adoption of the constitution, but the
obstancl'-s which they interp-ed wcre over
crime by tIhar spit it of compromise wvhich
is niow-invodied. In a conflictci o oinionsi
orof interests, real or imaginai-y, between
ditiereot sections of our contry, neither
can justly demand ill which ii might de -
sire to obt ain. Each, ini the true spirit of'
our institutions, should co,nccde somethittgr
to the other.
Our g:dlanut forces itt the Mexican s'ar,
lby whose pmarintismn aind unparileled deeds
of arms we obtained these ponssession)s as
ant indemnity fotr (til jutst demands against
Alexico, wer:e composed of citir.ets wiho
hPlonlg- to no one State of sectiomn of our
Union. TIhey wvere men fromn slavehtoldI
inig and non-slavholding States. from te
INo,rtlia;nd thet Soth, fro:nm the East and
I he W.est. Tihe.y were all cotmmpatnions
in-armas antd fe'low citizens of the sameo
coommon ('lo ry. ene.ngedl in the santo
common enuse. When prosatcuting that
war. they were bre:heia and fr.iends, anid . .
shmared alike wvith ench other corn nt toils,
dunners atnd sufferings. Now, wvhen theit
works is etndedi, when pence is restored,
:ind they returtn aguitn to their homes, put
ofT'the habilimentt of war, t :ke their place '- -
in stociety, nd resume their pttrsuits in
civil life, suroly a spirit of harmony and
con)icessin-, and of equal regard for the
ights o.f a,ll aid of all secrions of the
Uijoncught t o prevail in providing govern
mets fhr the acquired territories-the
fruit.s of 'heir common service. The
whole people of the Unitedl St ates antd of
.'very Sin-e r-o:tgributed to d!efrav, the ex
penses of that! war; nimd it wouldl not be
ust of any ote section to exeulde another
from all participati'on ini the acquired ter.
ritory. This wvonuld tnt be in consonance
with tigjust system of govertnent whichi
-he framers of thme constitution adopted.
rThe question is believed to be rather
abstract than pirocmir al, whether s'avery --
etvetn cnn or wouldl ex st in any portion of
theg acqtuiredJ territofy, even if it were left
- -~ -. .*