Newspaper Page Text
By Last INight's Mail.
From the Baltimore Sun, 21st inst.
LATER NEWS FROM EUROPE.
ARRIVAL OF THE CAMBRIA.
The Steamer Cambria, Capt. Leitch,
arrived at Halifax last evening, bringing
dates from Liverpool to the 8th inst. aud
Loudon to the 7th.
LIVEa'ooL, Sept. 8.
In the early part of the week Cotton
was inactive, yielding in favor of buyers
for Middling and lower classes of Ameri
car. but without changing in better grades.
Theiransactions for the seek comprise
86,280 bales: of which Speculators took
8.540 American, and Exporters 6,070
The quotations ate as follows: Upland
45 to 51d; Mobile 5 to 5Jd; Orleans 5 d.
At the'time of the Steamer's sailing,
there was a brisk demand and prices firm.
The Corn trade is dull, and there is but
little alteration in the value of any article.
In-London the deaths for the week end
ing on the 8th amouted to tight thousand,
of which sixteen-hundred and sixty-three
were from cholera.
The deaths from the same disease -in
Livetpool wvere in a still greater proportion;
and were also on the increase in Dublin.
In Paris and the Provinces it also is
prevailing to a great extent. and several
distinguished persons have fallen victims
Vienna and Berlin are suffeting more
than Paris-in the latter cite the deaths
from it were averaging forty per day.
ENGoLAN.-In the manufacturing dis
tricts trade was active, and employtnent
The Royal family were, at the latest
dates, still sojourning in Scotland, but ex
pected to return to London by the 13th.
AUSTRtA AND HuNGAR.-The latest
news from Hungary reports that Conorn
and Peterwardin still hold out against the
Allied armies. Klapka commands at the
former place, and Kiel at the latter.
On the 23d ult. a long interview took
place between Kiel and the Russian Gen
eral Baig, which resulted in sending Kiel
to General Haynau to arrange the terms
of a capitulation.
The impregnable position of Klapka, in
Comorn, induces that General to demand
most favorable conditions before surren
A letter from Vienna, under date of the
31st ult. states that several of the chiefs of
the -Hungarian revolt have been executed
-among the number was an Austrian ex
minister. One General has been hung.
and another shot.
The wives and children of several of the
Hungarian leaders, as well as the mother
and children of Kossuth, had been sent as
prisoners to Presburg.
Garrisons of three thousand men each,
are to be posted at Grosswardein, Buda
The Hungarian Corps of Perrezel had
entered Orsova, but the Turkish authori
ties refused to received them until they
laid down their arms. Georgey's surren
der was first known at Comorn on the
18th nit.; and summons sent to the Garri
* son to surrender or propose terms of cap
Georgey has been pardoned by the Em
peror of Austria-he intends residing at
FRaac.-The Paris Monileur pub
Jishes a decree reinstating sevetnty-one
Lieut Generals, and fourteen Major Gen
erals. who were put on the retired list af
ter the Revolution of February. The
French Government still continues to re
fuse passports to German refusees on their
passage through France to America.
Gen. Oudinot was expected to arrive at
Paris on the 20th ult.
The appointment of Lucien Marat as
Minister to Madrid was considered as atn
attempt to conciliate the two parties in tihe
RoMEz.-Savelli, the Pope's former
Minister of the interior, had arrived at
Rome, and installed himself head of the
Police, under the control of the French
authorities. Hius first decree was for the
tssuing of guarantee notes for the declared
value of the paper motley, imposing line
and imprisoniment on all who refused it.
The Russian Etmporer was at Warsaw,
- at the latest advices.
On the 20tht ult.. the Austrian troops
evacuated Monega the last place occupied
in the Piedmontese territory.
* ANoTHER RtoT AT MONTREAL-On
Monday, a public meetinA was called at
Bytown, by the Ministerial party for the
purpose of framing .an address to Lord
Elgin. The oppostiton were present in
full force. By their acts the Ministerial
President was compelled to leave thte chair.
The opposition then took possession of the
ground, and passed resolutions condemning
the course pursued by Lord Elgit. Much
confusion ensued, fire-arms were used, and
several were wounded, and some reported
killed. The military were called out, who
finally restored order.
[Correspondence of thte N. Y: [Herald.]
SARaTAYBVno, S. C., Sept. 4.
In my last, I alluded to a visit I had
paid Mr. Barrett itn his cell- I was ac
companied.by Major Legg. who introduced
me te the prisoner. I informed him thatt I
was attached to the Herald, and shtould
relate whatever occurred in our conversa-.
tion. He is a young man about 2S years of
age, and has rather an intellectual cast of
coulntenance ; his hair wvas very long--his
race very pale, and looked as thotugh he
had suf'ered considerable anxiety. Ilis
manners are those of a gentleman, and he
converses very fluently.
I remarked that I was very sorry to see
a Northerner in .so unpleasant a fix. H e
replied thatit certainly wams nmot a pleasant
one, and wanted to know what the people
of the North thlought of the whole matter.
I told hitm frankly, that I helieved the
opinion generally entertained wats simply
this--that if he had foolishly come South,.
ntent, to produce excitement and anarchy,
by disseminating the Brutus papers, he de
served to suffer. lie said, "I am not an
abolitionist; 1 have no connexion with
them; it can't be proved against me.
Even if I were, 1 have a right to be ; but I
have not circulated any documents, and is
can't be proved. I go for the Wilmot
proviso up to the hub. Congress have a
right to abolish slavery in the territories,
under the constitution, and they ought to
do it. There is a large majority in the
North that are free soilers."
Ile then entered into a discussion and
defence of the free soil movement. and
spoke so clearly on the subject, that I felt
certain it was one to which he had devo
ted a great deal offstudy and attention. Jn
fact, he remarked to Major Legg that he
wrote the free soil ;address to the people of
the State of indiana, and that he made
many stump speeches, which had made
him many friends, and he had been pro
nounced a good stump speaker.
lie said he was in this State merely to
get names. "My good sir, I happened in
a town where you had btt recently passed,
and saw the clerk who furnished you with
names of people in that town. Every
name given you, even the most obscure,
who never had before received a paper of
any kind received by the mail a copy of
Brutus and while persons whose names
were not handed to you, did not receive
one." "It was at Anderson. It was not
so. I have seen the same names given
me, in an almanac; whoever sent the co
pies of Brutus, might have seen those
names, and got them from the almanac.
There is not a particle of proof against me,
except in the copies found on me, and-I
don't know who sent them to me. I can
get out an habeas corpus." "Nonsense-I
have been among the people in this town
to-day; they are awfully excited, anl if
you were turned loose in this community,
you would be lynched as sure as your
name is Barrett."
I then related the adventure of the ped
lar with the Cincinnati wagon, when he
jumped up from his cot bed, and. asked
Major Legg to produce them. "If," said
he, "any Cincinr.att abolitionist have dared
to come here to insult this community
while I am here in prison, if I know them,
r will denounce them, declare who they
are, and tell of their connections, and come
out andI expose the whole matter."
Major Legg said, "Barrett I advise you,
as a friend, to order those letiers addressed
to you now lying in the Anderson Post
Office, to be sent to you. Open and read
them. It can do no harm and its sadly
against your case that you don't do it. I
tell' you honestly if you do not it will
result to your prejudice ; keep tip this ex
citement. and you may postpone your trial
six months longer."
"I will think of it, but I won't do it now.
I can clear myself. I can get a letter from
Brisbane, stating that he never was au
thorized by toe to send any pamphlets."
-t would not do your case any good.
People here believe him to be a most in
fernal scoundrel and a liar. Again your
employers, E. Hlarwood & Co. sent and
subscribed to the Spartan. The return
mail brought hack a copy of Brutus, ad.
dressed to'every man who had an adver
tisement, or whose name appeared in any
manner in that piper: Your friends seem
determined to identify you with the move.
DIFFICULTY WITH FRANCE.-We re
ceived last night the following despatch
from Baltimore, giving the partieulari of
the dilliculty with the French Minister.
From it we learn that M. Poussin, last
February, presented to Mr. Buchanan,
thetn Secretary of State, a claim in behalf
of M't. Porte, a Frenchman, residing in
Mexico. w'ho bad purchased Tobacco,
knowing it to be private property. Gov.
Childs had ordered the TJobacco to be
restored to its right owner, and gave the
Frenchman back his money.
The French Minister thien set up a clat
The Court of Inquiry decided against
this claim, and their decision was approv
ed of by General Scott, and afterwards by
M. Poussin, in a note to -Mr. Clayton,
used in'sulhing language towards Gov.
Childs, but wi:hdreav the offensive letter
t the suggestiotn of Mr. Clayton.
Subsequently however M. Poussin ad
dressed another note to the Department of
State, mtakiug charges against Comman
der Carpenter, in connection with saving
the French ship Eugenia from shipwreck
Car penter claiming salvage for his cre w,
which wvas refused,
On this subject Poussin wrote a very
insulting letter to M r. Clayton reflecting.
Ott the honor of our Government. Gen.
Taylor then caused the whole correspon
dnce'to be laid before the French Govern
men t, expecting immediiate redress-which
not being aff'orded, he ordered all com-.
tmunication with M. Poussin to 'be closed
and his passports at his disposal.
TUE SToRx.-The witnd, which for thae
last thtree week's, with searcely a day's
interruption, tins blown steadily from the
the Northeast, commenced freshening yes.
terday morning between 2 and 3 o'clock,
nd at 7 the appearances indicated an
approaching gale. instead, thowever, of
getting r-ound to the Southwest, as was
apprehended, it veered more to the North
ward. and as we write it teas sensibly
slackened, and it is probable the blow will
exhaust itself from the Northwest. We'
fear that it has been violent at sea, end
has been fruitful of disasters to vessels on
The steamer Vanderbilt, which waited
for the mail at Wilmington until 5 p. m.
on Tuesday, crossed Cape Fear har about
8 p. m. with the wind blowing moderately
from the Northeast. At midnight tho sea
began to roll heavily, and at 2 a. m. the
winad commenced blowing a gale from thle
Northeast, which continued up to the time
of her crossing the Charlestotn lar. The
sea much of the time was a complete steeet
of foam, coming int occasionally from the
Southeast as well as the Northeast. The
boat wvas compelled to lay-to a part of the
time, arnd was slightly inju red in leer up
per works, but born herself quite gallant.
ly through the gale.-Charlestont Mercury,
The daunghter of the Quecn of Sweden
who is about to marry Louis Nepoleon,
has a dowry of E.,000,000~ sterlinig.
EDGEFIELD C. H.
WEDNESDAY. SEPTEMBER 26, 1849.
The long contintance of the drought has
parched the earth in this region,- and dried up
wells and water courses. The section of coun
try for twelve or fifteen miles above this place
is almost destitute of running water, and the in.
habitants are forced to do their milling at a dis
tance from fifteen to twenty-five mites in the
piney woods, where, thanks to the properties
of the soil, the streams are abundant and well
The court of Cominon Pleas and General
Sessions will sit at this place on., Monday the
1st of October, to continue in session for two
weeks. There will be a very heavy docket on
the criminal side of the Coutt.
The slave Joe, the murderer of JEssE
W EATHERFORD, was hanged near this place on
His Excellency, Governor SEABRoOK passed
through this place on Friday last. on his way
from Greenville to Columbia. He tarried but
one night in our village.
M. Pous'in, the French Minister,at Wash
ington. sent an insulting note to the State De
partment, whereon the President immediately
demanded his recall. The French Govern
ment not having complied, Mr. Poussin has
been informed that his passports are ready for
Medal for Gen. Scott.
The Gold medal voted by Congress to Gen.
Scutt has been received at the war Department.
The value of the Gold is said to be $450, on
one side is a portrait of Gen. Scott. On the re
verse, the battles of the City of Mexico, Chas
pultepec, Vero Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras,
Churubusco, and Mohlino del Rey.
Didiculty with France.
The Government of France has taken of.
fence at the appointment of Mr. Rivesas Min.
ister Plenipotentiary, to reside near that court
on account of personal objections to this 7Gen
tlcman. Remonstrance has been made to th
Cabinet at Washington against the appoint
ment. What will be the result, we are une
to state. Unless some amicable adjustmen ..
once take place, l suppose we shall have an.
er flare 'up with la belle France-our Rev
Louis Napoleon is about to marry a Princess
of Sweden. It is said, moreover, that he has
a ritten letters to the Czar of Russia congratu
lating him upon his success over the Hungari
ans. Coming events are certainly casting their
shadows before thema. We have lung believed
in the monarchical propmensities of the French
President. Little doubt is now left on our
mind, that a deliberate attempt will soon be
made in France, favored, doubtless, by many
of the crowned heads on the continent, to re
Fever in Charleston.
We have for a week past listened to rnmors
of yellow fever in Charleston without giving
credit to themt, as the Charleston papers were
entirely silent on the matter. The last Mercu
ry and Conrier, however, allude to the matter.
and report six deaths from this disease-" four
from Ireland, one from England, and one from
Germany." A part from this fever, the city is
said never to have been healthier. Owing to
the lateness of the season, it is not probable this
disease will hecome generally prevalent ot be
very fatal. There need be, therefore, wve think,
no serious cause of alarm.
We learn, that the citadel Academy has been
snspended for the presenat in apprehension of
Greenville & Laurens R. Road.
Public meetings have been recently held at
the Villages of Greenville and Laurens to
take steps to build Rail Roads to these Villages.
Much interest was evinced in the matter; and
large stock taken. There seems to be little
doubt of success. We admire the public spirit
and energy of our Fellow-citizens of neighbor
ing Districts and henstily wish them good speed
in their generous enterprise. Will old Edge
ield look indiff'erenihy- on till she is surpassed by
all her sister Districts in enterprise and public
works ? By the love that we bear our country
and our posterity, this must nut be. Let us
arouse from our lethargy and exert the true
spirit of our District. H~ave we no persevering,
public-spirited heart among us, who will boldly
lead in these matters of pulic improvement?
0, f.r some master spirit of inspiring eloqjuence
to ewaken is the mninds of our people a just
sense of their real interest and welfare!
Diliclulty with Post R~Iaster.
The last Pendleton Messenger gives an ac
count of a stirring scene in the village of Pent
detomn at the Post Oficee on Friday the 4thinst
Aolition documents, signed Junius, "of a
most malicious, offensive and insulting charac
ter to the Southern People." were receivedl in
large quantities on the arrival of the Southern
Mail, uapon the knowledge of which, the execu
tive committee of the committee of safety and
vigilance, after consultation. "entered the of
fre, shoved the Postmaster aside, took posses
siotn of the papers, and now have them'n under
lock and key, where thaey will remain until the
meeting of' the committee of vigilance and safe
ty on the ~29th inst." For a ?tuh, otur Post
Ollico Departmetnt tunder thle new Admnm.straZ
tin is likely to canse us perpetual annoyance
ati inin natin.
W. A. Brisbane, whose name has been asso
ciated with the Barrett case, has published a
letter of self-vindication in the Cincinnatti
Globe. lie repels the charge of being author
of the abolition pamphlets, " Brutus " and
"Carolinian," but " fully coincides with the
views" expressed in the former, and is " per
fectly willing to shoulder all responsibility.''
He says, lie takes occasion to publish, that he
is " ready at all times to receive cotnnunica
tions from Carolinians, such as the " Brutus"
Pamphleti', or the answers to Mr. Elwood Fish
er's celebrated lecture, and to share the respon
sibility of their circulation."
He studiedly conceals finm the public his
connection with Barrett, now in Spartanburg
Jail; but unfortunately for him that fact is now
too well attested to admit of doubt. A recent
correspondent of the New York Herald, wri
ting from Spartanburg C. 11. of the date Sept.
4th, givesan account of an interview in Jail with
Barrett. in which he represents the latter as say
ing-:" I can clear myself. I can get a letter
from Brisbane, stating that he never was author
ized by me to send any pamphlets."
The Rev. Gentleman complains bitterly,
that, when he was in South Carolina about
eighteen months ago, lie was treated with great
indignity, and was forced with his wife and in
fanit secretly at night to leave the State. le
may think his good fortune, that lie escaped so
well. Should lie venture again to visit the
State, his reception, we opine, will be a little
more cordial and his flight less certain.
After all his equivucatiop, in the postscript
to his letter published in the Globe, he reveals
the fact that lie is an accomplice in the Barrett
case. Ile writes-" Perhaps at some future
time I shall be at liberty to communicate to
your readers some things connected with this
affair (Barrett's) that I cannot now do without
a breach of private colfidonce." Does this
not fix his guilt? How long shall this man
abuse our patience !
FOR TUE ADVERTtSER.
MR. ErDTo:-The success attending
the enterprise of constricting Plank Roads,
by way of "profitable investments," in all
the sections of country where they are
most used and appreciated, has Induced
Capitalists to subscribe liberally for the
stock, with an eye to. large dividends, and
their most sanguine views have been in a
majority of ciases fully realized.
The first road of the kind made in the
United States, was in the State of New
York, from the city of Syracuse to Central
Square. The right of way cost the Com-.
pany nothing, and the bed of an old and
much traveled road being used, there was
but little grubbing or grdiug required. It
has but a single track, eight feet wide, ac
cornmodating an immense travel, without
The tolls taken during L.wu ....
No. 1, amounted to $7.957 14
Tolls taken at gate, No 2, 4.930 01
Total, $12.87 15
The hinlaries of gate keepers,
and repairs.during the two
years amounted to 1,530 00
Leaving for rebuildi'g &div. $11,357 (00
We see from the above, that there was
paid into the Trensury of the Compa
ny, by the end of the first two years
after they commenced receiving tolls, and
after paying all expe es-an amount al
most equal to the tonnt expetuded in
buildiug the roads
On the route $roposed foir laying dowvn
a Plank Road, between Edlgefield and
H-amburg, you have the best materials for
constructing a road in the most economical
and durable muanner-yott have lumber,
and men near the whole line of the rood,
from whom the lumber can be purchased,
at a moderate price, atnd you would have
little or no grading on the whole road.
Considering the duranility of the pine Itum
ber, that would lbe used in the construc
tion of this road, together wvith the dry
nature of the land over which it would
pass, it would probably stand, some eight
to ten years with but little repair.
Besides, the fact that Plank Roads, are
good investments, they are also sources of|
By the present system of road working,
the planter is frequently subjected to the
inotvenience, of taking all his a ble bodied
hands from his crop and putting them on the
pblic road, where they are liable by law,
to work for twelve days, repairing dama
gsa, perhaps, made by men, who never in
any way contribute to like repairs. A
citizen, whose employment is to haul
heavy goods from one portin of the coun
try to another, in no wvay indenmnifies the
public, for the repairs he renders necessary,
by the small amount of .road duty lie per
forms at home. If every man, wh-len hau
ling heavy goods over tho public roads,
should pay his tax in the- wvay of told,
then, instead of doing an injury to a par
ticular neighborhood, he would help that
neighborhood support a better road for the
accommodation of all. It is estimated
that the cost of laying a single track, over
a route liko this, will vary from 51500 to
2000, per mile,
it is highly probable, that it would be
very safe to put the Jowest figure on the
road fromn Edgefield to Hamburg, which
would fall very much under the estimate of
your correspondent ''Farmer."'
Ar. EAsY RULE FOR FAaR~as.-The
Augusta Chronicle gives the following sim
*ple plan of estimating the value of pro
duce in the Foreign markets. Our far
mers will find it useful:
A "quarter of wvheat" is an English
measure of eight standard bushels, so if you
sea that quoted at fifty-six shillings it is
seven shillings a bushel. A shilling is
twenty-four cents; multiply by sev nil
you have One dollar and sixty eight cents
FOR THE ADVtITSar.Rl.
Mn. EnhT-,-It will no doubt, be
readily admit ted by all, that a Plank Road,
passing through or near a Plantation,
bringing it in immediate communication
with n:arket by a safe and easy road. is of
direct and immediate benefit to it. Such
is not the ease with Ra:L Roads. altny
Barnwell Planters, living on the lite of
the Charleston Rail Road. find it for their
interest, and do send their Cotton twenty
to thirty miles by wagon, to the Hamburg
market ; and some planters on the Geor
gia Rail Road, now wagon. their Cotton
sixty or eighty miles to the Augusta mar
ket, in preference to sendi"g it to market
by Rail Road. But it should be kept in
mind that the common roals in Georgia.
are not so uncommonly bad, as the roa ds
leading to Hamburg from the up-country.
There are sonie objections to Rail Roads
passing through lands anti plantntions,
which cannot well be obviated,-one is,
the danger of sparks from the Locomotive,
setting fire and burningtimberiand. About
twelve months ago, there were many
thousand acres of valuable timber burnt,
on the line of the Long Island Rail Road,
injuring the farmers on the line, to the
amount of about half a million of dollars.
Another objection to Rail Roads, is the
danger of stock being run over and killed.
Many planters on the line of Rail Roads,
keep up two lines of fence, to keep their
cattle off the track. Neither of these ob
jections apply to Plank Roads..
It may seem extravagant, at first sight,
but on examination, [ believe those who
waggon cotton to Hamburg, will agree
with me. that the value of the horses and
mules killed or injured so as to be worthless,
during the last ten years, by pulling
through the drep sand from Hamburg to
the twelve mile post, would build the Plank
Road from Edgefjeld to Hamburg. The
Proprietots of the Greenville line of stages,
have lost some eight or ten valuable hor
ses within the last twelve months, which
can probably be traced to that cause.
To build a Plank Road from Edgefield
to Hamburg, ten feet wide, 3 inches thick,
resting on 3 stringers 3 x 4, would take
174,240 feet lumber -per mile, supposing
the length of the road to be 25 miles, it
would take 4,336,000 feet of lumber, to
build the Road. The Mills on the route
could probably furnish 10,000 feet per
day, which would require about eighteen
months for them to supply the amount
needed. It thus becomes obvious, that it
is necessary to call in the aid of steam, in
building the road. By taking what lum
ber the Mills on the route could supply,
and erecting a Steam Engine, on some
ridge where timber is- plenty, moving the
Engine as the timber is exhausted, the
road could he completeJ in six to ten
mouths. I will recur to the subject aecain;
FOR THE ADVERTtSER.
ta boni civis'
DE. Or. I.
. y history of a
al error. Two
and political pus.. et have much
that is common between them;. and a
style of government suited to one may be
well adlapted to the other. The great
principles of justice and equity, which lie
at the bottom of all good governmentt, arc
general propositiuns of abstracted reasotn,
and are ;not accommodated to times and
to men. They do not change witht the
conditiotns of society, nor with the ages of
the world. They are the same, yesterday,
to-day, atnd forever. Andt every govetn
ment wrhich has existed for any length of
tme, howv despotic soever, has developed
mnany of these principles in the fornm of
salutary laws, customs anid institutions.
In our own governmer.r, these principles
are inwrought in its very organism. Our
Republic sprang into existence, like the
Goddess of Wisdom, in full panoply, out
of the heads of men as pure in heart and
as sound in wisdom as ever fall to the lot
of men to become. 11, at once, establish
ed the broad basis of freedom, by embody.
ing the great eternal rules of justice and
wisdom. To cherish and prescrve, then,
the wise regulatione, which contatn these
great unchanging principles-these noble
safeguards of hutman liberty, that rise
above the cotnditions of metn-is the para
-nount dttty of all, wvho claim to be lovers
of genuine liberty. TIhe statmp of truth
and expediency is fixed upon them; for
they are in harmony with man's nature,
and with the great laws of universal gov
ernment. They should stand eternal as
Those self sty leJ reformers, therefore,
who, to amend, will swee away, as by a
revolutionary move. the w ,ole past order
of things, are retrograde itn their notions
and wvork to the lasting injury of mankind !
In the langttage tof atn emitneut political
writer, " to preserve atnd to reform, should
be the aitm of eiery statesman." t To.
hold on to that which titme antd judgment
have shown to be wisc and expedient;
cautiously tto amend to suit the growing
wants of society; to correct all real abuses
and inconveniences; anid etrenuously to
resist all rash and inmprud~ent changes
these constitute the duties of the enligh
tened and practical statesman. But the
distinguishing mark of thte conservative pa.
triot, is to hold on with bold firmness, to
the sound and valuable parts of his govern
ment and institutions, against a ruthless
spirit of chatnge !
The value to our country of a class of
men, thus conservative in their notions, is
at present incalculable. It is feared, we
are in great danger of anarclay from a
rabid and lawless spirit of innovation.
There is a retnarkable disposition atmong
us to work serious changes in the wise
laws and institutions franmed by our ances
tors, and to raise false colors of reformi.
We seeni tired of the admirable style of
governments inistituted after our Revulu
tion, and to be looking back towards
Greece and Rome for models, of true Ro
* Not to pull down, buit to prescrce in eguaity,
all the conventiences of the people, is tlte hi;;h-.
eat concernt atnd wisdom of the good citizen1.
+ SrEmndt Bnrhc.I
publics. We are breaking in with the
great principle of delrgated power, so
conducive to order and just administration
in modern anvernnents, and falling back
upon the antiquated notion of absolute
and direct popular agency. We are also
fast discarding the rntioual. conservative
principle, do admirably predominant in
our various polities, which gives the
right of rule to the concurring.majority _
of all the intetests of so'iety; nd we ate
bringing again into practice the absolute
power of t he numerical majority-the dan
gerous and exploded theory of the ancient
The important question arises, cii bon?
What good is to be -expected from these
changes ? Are they really needed ? Have
our Constitutions failed in their designs ?
have they not rather fulfilled the highest
dxpectatiuns of their framers, in making .us
the freest and most prosp us people on
the globe? Did the people t urming them,
surrender into the hands of government,
too many of their rights and -privileges?
Or did they omit to secure any important
charter rights ? The wisdom of the pres-.
eat day has not been able to point out
these defects. No people in any age of
the world, has ever experienced under
government a larger share of rationalliber.
ty, than may be enjoyed by the people of
this country, under the just interpretation
of the American Constitutions. It is a re
markable fact, that nearly all the abuses,
and all the oppressions that have appeared
in our Republic, have been perpetrated'
against the express provisions, of those.
noble instruments, or by insidious perver
sions of their true intent and meaning.
They are not to he traced to the govern- -
ments themselves, but to theitmal-adminis
tration ; to- the rude experiments of raish in
novation; to the cupidity and ambition of
designing politicians, of factions, and
wrongheaded numerical majorities!
No governments. ever existed, better
calculated, in our judgment, to secure to
freemen all their true rights and liberties..
None ever looked more closely to the real
interests of mankind-to the welfare of the
people generally/. When, with a reflect
ing eye we view their atnpleprovisions for.
popular liberty.; their wise restrictions upon
legislative and executive power ;and their
wonderful adaptation to all the wants and
reasonable desires of a free, virtuous, and
ntelligent people; we are almost forced
o conclude, that some super-human agen
:y contributed to their formation ; that
Providence, in His inscrutable wisdom,
mparted to theit virtuous framers, a more
han ordinary share of knowledge, virtue, -
ind patriotism. What could offer, then, a
bler field of efThrr, than to study out the
neaus by which these constitutions may
re perpetuated, and to give them practi
.al success in our country ? What a tree
ure they might become to generations yet -
iborn! The liberty of millions of our
ellow-beings, desceneents of our coon
rymen, depends, perhaps, upon their just
and equitable provisions!
To preserve, then, in their purity, these
dmirable Documents, is the part not only
f wisdom, but of moral duty and patriot
's. We may rest assured, -that, in the
:onflicting jratsions and interests that now.
and will. perhaps, forever agitate our
ountry, they can never be improved.
Every change, it is feared, will be for the
,orse. We should hang on; therefore, to
hese, as the Palladia of our rights-as the
greal safety ships of our nation's liberties,
it the turbulent political sea of ihe future.
As abuses in administration arise chiefly
n a departure freon their noble provisions,
is the first duty of the statesman, vigi
antly to w atch over these Consiitutions, and
o se'e that they are executed in good faith.
And it is the province sof an intelligent
2eople to have a guaranty of their faithful.
reservation, by always keeping at the
ead of afi'airs, men who are prudent,
noderate and conservativo. In- this way
done, can our liberties be perpetuated !
O~N of THE PEOnLE.
DmsTRESslro AcetDEtNT.-The Colm
>Ia Trelegr~aph of the 20th, inst., says-A
nost pair.ful occurrence took -place on
'uesday last in Brick Range. by which
Slife was lost. A little girl, daughter of
Mrs. A. Tarrar, atbout three years of age,
playing on the back steps of the second
soy, fell and received so severe an injury
he she expired from the effects of it early
mo Wedntesday (yesterday) tmorning.
The accident was onme w bich no care can.
aften suflice to gurd against. .The grief
af the bereaved parent should be mitigated
by the recollection that her loved one was
removed in her first fresh purity, 'before.
sin or sorrow hamd become- known to her,
ad "of buch is the kingdom of Heaven."
ADIERICAN CrrEs.-Nothing can ex
eeed, perhaps we say equal, the marvel
Ios grow th of many ofour A merican cities.
The "Ilome Jo unt" says that the num
br of people embraced within the limits
and suburbs of the city of New.York is
about half a million; and half that number
within those of Philadelphia. "NDw Or
leans contains about a hunidre~and fifty,
ostan one hundres1 and .thirty, and'Hal
timore one hundred and five thousand in
habitants. The 'secotnd child born in
Cincinnati,-it is said, is still living. ad-has
not reached the middle age of life, whlile
the city has a population of a hundred
thousand. The population of St. Louis
was one timusmand six hundred in 1811);
sixteen thousand in 1840; forty thousand 4
in 1845; and is probably now not less thatn
sixty thousand. Buffalo contained - two
thousand four hundred and twelve in1i825;
in 1846, twenty-nine thousand seven hun:
dred and seventy-three; and now contains
about forty-ive thousatnd. In 1828, the
population ef Lowell was three thousand
ive hundred and thirty-two, it is now
more than thirty thousand. Chicago, a
place scarcely known on the latest maps,
has already reached a population of eigh
teen thousand; and Milwaukie, of still
more recent origin, is rivalling it in its
COLD WVcArnERt.-At Sharon, yester
day morning, upon low ground, ice, was
rund of the thickness of a common wind
a'v glass, which had made during the
night. andl very heavy white frost was
isitle, It was feared that the vines in the
iinity were badly injurod.-Boton
Trats., 4th inst.
Kwect arc the slumnbers of the virtuous,