Newspaper Page Text
From the South Garolinian.
THE BANK-A PROFITABLECONCERN
In our last number, in which we- ex
amined into the profits of the Bank forthe
last thirty-seven years, we staled that the
institution still owed the State $1,353,
336 74. We have since had access to a
document of authority-being a statement
made by the Bank itself-the accuracy of
which we are willing to acknowledge.
That document enables us to correct an
error. And the correction is in favor of
the Bank. It is in regard to the stated
- capital. It would appear that the stated
capital from 1812 to 1848 arnoutted an
nually, on an average, to only $1,032.
649 20, so that the btatemeut would be
more accurate thus:
"Debit the Bank with
]; Am'ts paid in as capital, $1,372,250 60
2. Interest on average capi
tal, 2,601.275 84
3, Surplus revenue U. S. 1,051,422 09
4, Interept on do. for 11 years, 735,995 46
4. Railroad Bank dividends
and interest, - 37.310 00
Credit the Bank-with
1. Moneys paid into State
Treasury and Interests, $643.106 61
2. Revolutionary 6's and 3's
paid, 248,892 87
3. Interest on State Drht 1,849,750 45
4. State subscription to Rail
- road, 200.009 00
5. Six per cents. paid 990.378 06
6. Five per cents, paid 744.523 54
Balance due State 1,122,632 43
_ It would hence appear. according to
this statement drawn from bank authority,
that so far from the large surplus claimed
as having been cleared by the Bank, it
still owes the state $1,122,632 43, or did
so at the last report made up to October,
But, be itobservetl, that in this statement
the Bank is not debited tith the fire loan
bonds. Now, the Bank received vlte
on those donls to the amount of $1,810,
253 37. In 1848 it held of those hoods
$797.800 30. So that it was then answer
able to the State on that account for S1,
012,453 01. If we add this amount to
the balance above of 81.122,632 43. we
have $2,135,085 44-exhibiting the true
balance due the State in October, 1843.
Where. then, is the round sum of surplus
- . profits so triumphantly proclaimed by the
advocates of recharter? As far as the ac
count has gone, it does not appear, or, at
all events, as far as we have yet had an
account. We shall be told, it is to be
shown in the funds now in the Bank, we
- presume. We hope it may be so;-ir is
for the interest of us all that it should be
so. But we maintain that, as far as-we
have been able to obtain information from
the Bank through its published statements,
it owes the State an amount far exceeding
the original capital wherewith- the State
endowed it thirty-seven years ago. We
do not pretend to call in question the so
lidity of the futids iri tts-p e sion. If
they are all good; our impressionisthat
- the Bank will meet alHit is charged wiih
by State, and] pay its balance due the
State. But that matter we have no wish
forther'to enter upon at the present time.
Our purpose is simply to show that the
notion held out-thatthte Batnk has been,
and is highly profitable to the State-ia.
groundless. And, if we have in any wise
shaken the faith of those whou have regar
died that point as incontrovertitbly establish
- d, our design is accomplishcd. Z.
From the Colutnbia Telegrapht, Oct. 19.
LATER NEWS FROMl TIlE EAST.
AR~IVAL OF TnE STEAMtER NIAOARtA.
* The Steamer IN.iagara arrived at Hali
fax at a late hour on Tuesday evening,
bringing L iverpool dates to the 6th inst.:
LtvERPoc'L, Oct. 6.
In Com~mercial affairs we have no ma
terial or important changes to note sitnce
* - advices by the Caledonia.
*The Cotton markets exhibits the same
state and the same prices as reported by
the previous arrival.
[For the information of our renders we
repeat the quotations by the last and t wo
previous steamers -Upland 45 a 56d ; Mo
bile 5 a Sjd; Orleans.1
The Molney market had been a shade
firmer. The probability of War betwveent
Turkey and Russia has caused some fluc
tuation int public securities.
Later advices from Calcuitta to the 26'h
of,August wvere more l'avorable in their
Thte Potato Rot is rapidly spreading in
Russa Aan TuaRE.-Trhe probability
of War between Russia and Turkey is the
. leading topic in both the English aud
The Turkish Government, seconded by
- the English and French Ministers, per..
misted in its resolution not to deliver the
* fugitive exiles-Kossuth and his compa
triots-and in consequence of this, the
- Russian Ambassador took his leave ab
-'rutptly, and diplomatic intercourse betw'een
the two powers- had thus been suspended.
' Pray Doctor, what is a horroscopel
Why, madam; you perceive, thtat
when the nocturnal hour has so far pro
citastinated, by a superabundant appli,
cations of the obganeous, accidulous peps
pporine, mustardific components, of a
*crustacce, piscatory salad, and veneous
and alcholic accidents. that an undue
expansion of the stomach integuments
ensues, whtich in the course of its con
-.stipating influence stigmatises the cele
A brated functions, confuses the nervo-op
tic system, and gives a scope to the hor-.
Widow Grizzle has an only sister ;
- that sister is a widow also.
* Her lora died lately of cholic. In the
midst of his most acute bodily pain,
utter the hand of death had toucheod him,
and while writing in agony, his. gentle
wife said to him:
Well, Mr. Shylock, you needn't kick
raound so and wear out the sheets, if yeu
EDGEFIELD C. H.
WrEDNESDAT. OCTOBER 24, 1849.
J The Minutes of the Edgefield Baptist
Association will be ready in the Clerk's Office,
on Monday 29th instant, fur the Churches.
- W. B. JOHNSON.
Oct. 23, 1849.
0 We call attention to the communnication
of Mr. George M. Blocker, in reply to "An
old Planter'' in our last.
113 We call attention to the teports of the
Commissioners of the Poor on the first page of
U' A Gotoner's inquest was held on Sunday
afternoon last, over a dead body a few miles
below the village on the Aiken road. The
body was that of a foreigner, unknown to any
one in our midst. There was no appearance,
we learn, of his having come to his death by
ti' The Rail Road litre from Columbia to
Charleston, and we pResume, from Hamburg to
Charleston, has been reduced to five dollars.
117 B. F. Perry, Esq., of Creenville, has
been recently elected to fill the vacancy in the
House of Representatives (St'tte Legislature,)
occasioned by the death of Edward H. Earle,
07 We ate gratified at the imptovement
making by our contemporaries. and we would
come forth ourselves in a new garb, if our de.
linquent subscribers could be induced to help
us in the effoart. While out enterprising neigh
bors are enabled to advance, shall we alone be
forced to a stand-still for the want of prompt
patronage ? Our list of subscribers is a lengthy
one; our outgoings are abundant; but our
incomings are few and meagre. Under these
circumstances, is it strange, that we should
make no improvement ? Or is it remarkable
that we should cull for Reform ? The prompt
payment of their dues by our fairng subscri
bers would enable us much better to fulfill our
duties to the community, by increasing our
means for spreading information and by giving
.nore character to our Journal. And this is a
matter ofsome importance. The District is as
much interested in the reputation of her public
:organs, as she is in the reputation of her public
men. If she take pride in one, she should take
pride in the other-if both be worthy of pride.
Both contribute to her character, both to her
wolfire. Both deserve, therefore, prompt and
efficient patronage. It should be the aim of
a Journalto ngke itse.wostly.fpthepub'a.
o Tucb .rofijeslo'.belthe.organ. i it.
unaidcd efFurts will avail littlo in accomplishing
this purpose. From its very character, it needs
the constant and firm support of the intelligent
and public spirited citizens of the community.
Without this, like all other public enterprizes.
it must fail. W~e, therefore, appeal once more
to the generosity of our patrons; we invoke the
aid of the District !
(0- A rumor has foundl its way into some of
the Northern papers, that M r. CALrnOUI intends
to resign his seat before the sitting of the next
Congress. It-is not known whence the rumor
started; but it was first discovered in a North
crn Journal. The wish was no doubt father to
the thought. It would be doubtless highly
gratifying to the great body of Northern Free
soilers for Mr. Calhoun to retire. One of the
great Pillars which supports the Temple of
Southern rights would then be removed, and
it would be an easier task for these vandalic
enthusiasts to accomnpliih their work of do'.
struction to Southern liberty. In view of this
wished-for event, they already begin to augur
favorably to the " cause of freedom." Already
in the vista of the future they see the " chains
of slavery " let loose. Already they behold
freedom achieved for the wchole human race.
Verily the resignation of Mir. Calhoun would
be cause of jubilee to these daluded fanatics !
Hear the National Era on the subject :
o Ina view oF all this, it were hypocrisy in us
to say, that the retirement of Mr. Calhonn
would be a loss to the Senate: it would be a
decided gain to the Senate, to the coutry, to
the cause of freedom. Courtesy binds us to
treat an opponent honorably, and to award to
hint whatever may be due on the score of abil
ity or integrity, but it does not bind us to mourn
over his retirement from a position .where he is
nothing but an obstacle to the progress of prin
ciples regarded by us as sacred."
But is is our pleasing task to undeceive these
wvild dreamers in their illusive hopes. On good
authority, we learn, that Mr. Calhoun does not
yet intend to resign. And our constant and fer
vent prayer, is, that he may long be kept from
the necessity of taking this step. But when
that tunfotunmate event does arrive, let not nur
Northern confedernrtes be too confident of suc
cess in carrying ont their obnoxious principles.
We have another giant form, (atnd we may have
others still) who has stood side by side with
Mr. Calhoun in the Senate Chamber, battling
for our rights, and supporting by his massive
strength the noble temple of our liberties
Should he lose his noble compeer. he will still
stand in his owen might, to beat back our North
ern invaders. 'lie will still cling to the pillars
of the temple of our liberties, and if it must
fall he will perish amid the ruins.'
Let not Northern fanaticism, thierefore, be
too sanguine in its horrid work of butchery and
The Calama a Telegraph, the South Caroli-.
naian, and the.4iderson Gazette, all come to ns
much improved and .enlarged. Surely the dai
ly Journals at therCapital of cur State may
now well clann rank among the first daily pa.
pers at the South. W~e experienqe a feeling
of pride in- knowing that they deaerve this
rank. We exult in their reputation; for they
reflect honor and credit upon the Stata-theob
Specimens of these Roads hai seen laid h
down near Hamburg, by the enter tiing citi- a
zens of that Town, and we learn t t they are- n
the theme of admiration by all whohive trav
elled over them. Why are efforts ot made at
once to obtain stock for the whole pad? The
experiment hss been made, and hI'sucteeded
to the satisfaction of all. Let us Atliwith bd
gin the work.
An address signed by large nut1bera of the t
Canadian people, has been publiahed, propo- g
sing, with the consent of the Eng i.Govern' ce
ment, annexation to the United $tes. _-ltis c
proposed to divide Canada into the 5tates I
an East, West anl Central State o hay }
them admitted on a fnoting with tht! States
of the Union. -We may have soi ting- fui
ther to say on this subject in fdturr
The probability of a war with 'Ji key. and I
Russia in cmaseqnence of the per nptory re
fusal of the former power to surren& Kosisuth;
and other Hungarian patriots, wa uch dis- i
cussed in the English and French Jfrnals. It
is said that Turkey is sustained in .epoition I
by both England and France. -
The ltussian Ambassador took arupt leave
of Constantinople, and the Ministerbad closed
all diplomatic intercourse with the Gsvernment.
Calhoun & Webste,:
These two distinguished statesmepate about
to appear before the public as authots A trea
tise on the elementary principles of govern
ment, and the constitution of the Utsted States.
from the pen of Mr. Calhoun, willieso issue, it
is said, from the Press of the Harpers
It is, likewise,: confidently statedj that' Mr.
Webster ;s engaged in writing. story of
These works, on subjects so highlyititeresting
and useful, coming from men of so'greatabili'
ty, cannot fail to awaken the higltexpecta
tions. It is sincerely hoped, that amid-the la
mentable shallowness of the large mass of the
writings of our countrymen, we are atlength to I
have some at once profound and pracl ul.aOur
people are wonderfully averse to a1'rusespec
ulations, and some have already expresscd the
fear that Mr. Calhoun's work will deal largely
in abstractions. We trust it will. Tojbe prop,
erly executed it must. We trust " titin the
composition of his Treatise, he has tot yielded
to the popular taste of the day, and discussed
his subject in a light and superficial manner for
the sake of mere applause. .A higbergobject is I
before him. lie is writing for posterityon the
most interesting of all suhjects, in n pblitical
point of view. And it is a subject, tobe hand
led properly, requiring deep and abssracUtought
-rigid analysis-and dose argumnt. The
theory or science of government, is t astudy
for the lounging chair, or the tea ialb. It
demands masterly application, and profound
thought. Let not the public, then expect a
book from Mr. Calhnn, which ca read, as
the many idle fictions of the da w t pause,
or iont miation.. .as pare' fora
'rk; cleaf, comected and pr fonid, and
which, to te mastered, will require hours of pa
tient study and sobuer thought.
Fort THtE ADVERTI9ER.
MR. I DTOR :--l saw, in your last .numr
her, ihe request of tan "Old Planter." tsr
information, in regard to the qjuality of, my
land, the mannerofplantinc and culaivating
mny crop of corn, together with my mannaer
of measuring both the corin and the hand
upon which it grew.
As the reqnest intimates douht with
respect to a staiement which nplieared inna
previous number of yonr paper, I shall
comply with it more fully.
The landi, which cost me about eleven
dollars and iwenty-five cents per acre. lies
on Turkey Creek. adjoining lands nf Felix
Lake and others, and is esteemed very
My manner of cultivating my con does
not differ materially from that of many
other plnaters, unless it be in ridgin2 early
and ploughinug deep, I comineucaa ridg
ing. according to my present recollectioni.
in the latter part of January. The 28
acres specially alluded to. .had been for
three successive years. planted in cotton ;
consequently I pursued the counse~ unusual
to myself, of ridging up early for corn, in
order that the. cotton leaves and stalks
might decompose before planting time. I
ridged rmy la.,d after the followinagmanner,
with senoters and t wisters longer than such
ploughas are usually made, the twisters
also, being sharp pointed. I laid Li this
land with the scooters, followinug in the
same furrows with the twisters. I had
two furrows thrown together over the
gench thus made, which orined a deep,
btat the sanme time, a broad ridge at the
hase, gradually narrowiang towards the
top so as to prevent the laud from baking
by rain and sun. The land remained in
this condition until planting time, when I
had the ridges opened by both scooters and
twisters, longer thtan the first. I thetn
planted the corn, throwving two furrows on
it, and knocking off the top with a board.
I jpresume the plant w'as. from six to
eight inches high, when I began to break
up tho mididles. I had it ploughed twice
afterwards, the last time deeper then the
first. From the depth of the laist plough
ing, my Overseer expressed serious appre
hensions, that my horses would be killedi.
My measurement.of the land was by fre'
quently stepping it seventy steps square,
to give my hoe bands their tasks, whilst it
was cultivated in cotton. This is the
usual mode with us. The piece is con
Bidered, by some in the neighborhood, not
to contain so many acres las represented.
1 am ready, however, to measure it with
"an old Planter," in any way he may
suggest. If-he please, I will also measure
the corn with him.
The mode by which myself and others,
measured the corn was by guaging the
crib, and also, by measuring the wvaggon
body in which it was hauled.
The acre that yielded the 80 bushels,
was measured by myself and Mr. Felix
Lake, hy stepping seventy steps squaere.
Refference can be made to Mr. L. and the
Overseer, in regard to the fact of the actual
quantity being' gathered from the one acre
specified. . --
Te ra.. or ,the 28 .a,... ...e..ur. -feet
ide, and the grain about one foot and a
alf in the drill. From eight acres of the
mo land I shall endeavor, next year, to
take 640 bushels.
Does my friend," an Old Planter," es
mer me too sanguine?
OAS FonEsT. Oct. 19. 1849.
FOR THE ADVERTISER.
Thle same subject Continued.
We say it is of the nature of Reform.
>preserve and to improve. What now are
Dme. of its objects ? It may refer to
orreeting defects and abuses in govern
nent; or, to the bettering of public opin
rn and of the morals, manners and customs
First, as to reform in government. If a
adical defect be clearly thought to exist in
ie fundamental organic law of a state.
t is the part of wisdom to reform,' if, in
uring the-defect, no evil is likely to result
o'overbalance the good to be effected.
lence before taking the stops of reform, it
viii be necessary to weigh well the nature
nd extent of the evil: then,- the remedy
reposed : and afterwards thefefects of the
hange. If the evil he serious, and the
emedy-be thought suflicient, yet, if the
onsequences likely to ensue from the
hange will, in reasonable probability, lead
o evils, greater than those, this correction
f which is designed, the genuine Refor'
ner will long hesitate before adopting the
hange.' If, for example from a profound
tnowlcdge of the human h'rt, and of the
haracter and tendoncy of the institutions
tf his country, he becomes convinced, that
mn important change, wrought in the fun.
lamental organie law. will so weaken ir
he rninds of his countrymen, affection fot
he existing gevernment, as to open the
way to repeated changes, tending ulimate
y to destroy its blessings altogether-he
ili exert the might of his influence tc
tay the innovation. He will rationally
:onclude, it were better to subn t on
lefect, or to one striking incod gc'
ha'i to run the risk of upsetting the whole
abric of his constitutional liberties. The
:xperienee ofthe world teaches the fearfu
Jangers of innovating upon the fundamen.
al laws of a state-especitlly when the3
ire embodied in a written constitution
Founded usually in wisdom and pur.
y of intention, these laws can seldom he
eplaced without great evil. In nll guy
ratnents of a free character, political par.
ies, governed by a variety of interest
ad passions, are sure to arise, effectually
rcventiog, in the adoption of laws, tha
risdom and impartiality so necessary t
:oustttute the organic structure of govCrn
neut. Changes inttoduccd under party
'eeling and excitement (and after the lony
:ntinuence of government nearly all chan.
;es are of this kind) are almost certain tc
>rtake-of party bias, and to alTect som<
terests-much more favorably than others
he dominant party will be apt to guars
tnd favor its own interests, even at- the
:xponse of the interests of the weaket
party. In other words, the change is sure
o be the work of faction. This is a priri
:iple of human nature that may be.ieferred
o with certainty. All history attests its
truth. All history proves, that. in the suc
:eeding administration of government, it it
elmost impossible to bringi into actior
he satme disiuterestedness of feelittg-the
ame patriotic atnd benevolent design. thal
rughlt in its lfurniation. T1he wyork o
he sages that usually prepare constitutiotn
ii charters, is neatly always free frorn
~atio-is generally the re'ult of cool de
iheration, of sober reflection . atnd philan
hropic design. Hence the great wisdon
>f their productions ; and htetnce arises tin
3otion of some great writrs*, - that thJz
reservation of states depends upon ttl
nore than reforming and bringing then
~ack to their ancient customs." T here is
;reat wisdom in the remark ; and it is wor
hy (If special observation that the earli
istory of all nations is tmost temarkabbi
or indlividua'l and political liberty. Near
y all charters of rights and liber ties oh
ained in the succeeding history of nations
rne little more than acknowledgements o
Zfncirntt rights !
True wisdom, therefore, teaches us t<
tld on to these originally secur~ed rights
No good, but great danger is to be expect
ad iy chnging them. T.lhe trtte patie
thoulId not give way to the rash spirit ir
tie community which urges him to this
:hange- It is not fit to carry out the
'ishes of a faction, when tbat t'action con
titutes even the majority of the people
sgainst important charter rights. Al
power, it is true, belongs origitnally to the
people. atnd' all law ful govcrnments resi
upon their authority; and the people, oj
eonsequence, have the right, if dluly exer.
ised, to reclaim the power they hayt
granted, and to convey it in another form
his cannot be questionted; but by reasut
af te awful dangers likely to ensue, hon'
long should a people pause before takirig
O fatal a stop? Experience clearly pointt
at the itnminetnt risk. The powers origi.
r~ally granted, in our -constitutions, were
delegated by the people in their politica
sovreign capacity : in primary conventions
ully represetnting the jnterests of all, anc
actuated by the good of the whole-noi
knowing yet which interest, under the
aperaion of the new government, would
be predominant, and throwving, therefore
alutary safeguards around each and every
ne. Rules fur Legislative action th'ui
formed will certainly be better adapted t<
the maintetnance of a nation's rights anc
liberties, than the interested conclusions o
a prevailing faction; and hence to yielt
the former to the clamorous demands a
factious majorities would he as unwsise al
fatal. to all rational liberty.
As to reform in the mere laws or legis
lative acts of a state or unation, though lesa
imporlant in its effects, n hien not conflict
ing with constitntional provisions, wve art
bound to believe there are many erroneon.
views which desetve to be corrected. I
is thought by many that laws should be
changed merely to gratify clamors fron
the people or a portion of the people with
out any reference to -the merits of thi
change. Nothiung wouid.sooner put an eni
to all real'liberty. We believe wvhen thi
people with sorne sort of umanimity ser
ously and deliberately demand change,
should lie made by those for the time hold
ing legislative power, unless by spreadin
information a change may bo effected il
eMachinalli and Lord Bacon.
public sentiment ; but wet ill not grant,
that laws, which are. impartial-and cxpe
dient-whicht iine has siown, to operate
for the good of the-whole anil for. all alike
should be altered to gratify the-peculiar
tastes olUfe( w malcon:ets. or to suit the
fauciful' biins of a visL4:faction;: The
law maker should be allowed: toa aercise
his own-wisdom andjudgment.:And he
should always have" $ii icriterions
of. judicious legislation-=vii:ihis constitu
lion, and an ample fund of sound, practical
knowledge suited to the nature of -his
duties, From a 'proper use of these he
will, in general, be enabled to judge of the
expediency and ellicacy of laws; for laws,.
like any oilier rules of human conduct,
have their practical tests. by which their
eliTeet or teiddency may be judged.
That is a good law, says 'an eminent
Philosopher,' "which is (1) clear and cer
tain in its seuse-(2) just in its command
-(3) commodious in the execution-t4)
agreeable to the constitution-aud (5) pro
ductive of vittue in the subject." Any
important failure in a law to fulfill these
requisitions may provoke the idea of
change; but it would certainly be unwise
to repeal a law, proper in itself, merely
because some slight inconvenience may
attend its .corking. It would be folly to
attempt to reform every abuse or inconve
nience in society. In the present state of
human imperfection this is utterly unat
tainable. Shall the Legislator, therefore,
undertake to repeal laws, which fur 'years
havo worked well, simply for the purpose.
of trying to introduce better, or to seenre
some~imlaginlarTy good? These arc nice
pointii foirehim. to weigh..hey require
matured jtidgmei! t lHIterition.
Many wise men have maintained;
"that ancient laws which are good, are
preferable to new ones though beller."t
And :history seems to favor this notion.
The laws of Sparta were, in many respects,
highly inconvenient and rigid; yet Sparta
was prosperos ad tl owerful, and fell
only when these laws t.-ere changed. So
of the Republic of Carthage. and so of
Crete under the wise laws and institutic na
of Minos. The tvelve Tablee of Rome
were not only severe, but terrible: yet du
ring their existence Rome-g.ew in power
and prosperity. nod sunk into despotism
and decay. after innovation had made se
rious inroads upon these plain laws.
The above remark is founded, also,
upon a correct principle of human nature.
Laws generally produce happiness and
prosperity, when they are cheerfully obey
ed; and minds properly tutored are always
inclined to esteem the laws and customs of
their ancestors. There is, perhaps. no
quality of the human heart more striking
in its effects 'han this. We instinctively
look hack to the days of our Fathers for
all that is holy in principle and revered in
wisdom. Legislators have been 'evell
aware of this principle in human nature,
and found it necessary.in establishing new
laws, through a want of this ancestral feel
ing, to refer their laws to a Divine origin.
The lesson was first taught to Moses on
the Mount of Sini, and afterwards put in
practice by Minos, Lycurgus, Solon, Ro
milus, Mahomed. and others.
-l eti we ftrthier copsider the great
difficulty of--bringihgerr [i"ivs into prad
tical operation, and the-danger of repeated
changes. anarchical in tlietr tendency,
from a mwant of deep, abiding respect for.
existing laws-little doubt can exist as'-to.
the truth and wisdom of Aristotle's remark.
The laws, then, in successful operation,
and answering very wsdl the legitimate
Iends of society, should be reluctantly given
up, even n hien, on a prospective view, a
greater good may be'expected by the
change. As a generul rule it is wvise to
let well alone. If latws be just and equal,
the great en:is fotr which they are instituted
have been attained: for 'ljtstice is thte
fundametntal virtue of political soecety ; and
laws are instituted to declare what is just."f
Secondly, as to reform in bettering pub
lie opinion, or the morals of a people. To
direct his attentin to these objects is the
high duty as well of the political, as of the
moral reformer. Thte first meatns to be
ttsed, is moralsuasion; and then, legi'sla.
tive etnactment. The legislation of a cotin
try bas a direct and immediate influence
upon the morals atid matnners of a people.
Otne great writer j nays, " Laws opcrate as
practical principles of moral action." A nd
another ! writes, "good laws make good
manners." These remarks are almost self
evident; for the daily practice of execu.,
ting laws, will soon -form habits, which at
otice give rise to rules of morality. Trhe
Reforme- wvill. then, feel it obligatory so
to frame the legislation of his countty as
to correct abtuses in moral action, and to
give a healthful tone to public sentiment.
In the langtuage of Lord Bacon. "all Icws
shouN' be produclive of virtue in thre
But the political Reformer may exert a
happy influence upont morals and manners,
and public oplnion, not otnly by legislation,
but to a -great extent in a more private
capacity. In all his various relations in
life-in his daily conversations-in' his
public discourses-in his wvritten comma.
nications : he can labor earnestly andi ef
fectively 'to correct public _sentimenit on
political tantiers, morals and customs.
Our idea of a genuine Reformer may
nowv be summed up in a few words. He
is an intelligent pattiotic citizen, wvho will
strive per petually to snstaini, in its parity,
the C'onstitution of his country ; wvho will
judiciously correct abuses and ineonverti
ences in legislation , but cannot be carried
away by every effort at innovation ; who
will legislate to promote virtue in the peo
ple ; who wvill carry his principles of re
form into the walks of private life-laboring
earnestly itn his oral and written discourse
to suppress evil habits and opinions, and
to elevate the moral and political tone of
ONE BOF TIJ!: PEOPILE.
MWE.Amcor.-We regret to learn that
Mr. Lewis Mathews, 16young. man about
I twenty .years of age, was' killjed. by the ac
cidental discharge of a shotgun, on the
10th instant. He had been 'hunting, and
in crossing a small sti-eam, attempted to
aiid himself in doing so wvith the guin. when
Ssome'.hing interfered -with the lock, and
the whole load was discharged into his left
side, cautsing his death in the course of the
"REF.MBnha ToUa 'AR o .&Ri AN
-The - South: Carolinian,:s-ys: -S'ncp
was the brief eh'irtatiati-of Mr.:Calious
last winter to the students of the' Soumiln
Carolina College. Theylhave againbeet:. ;
forcibly brought to nrmemory by.ths
perusal. of.anu excellent tdilress. deiivereci ;
by Professor W illiams; of the Soith Cer
olina College, to the "C.okesbury.Fe.i.
bles," a military corps, composidofArt
students of the Cokesburyiii'utitti, of r
which flourishing school Pr
formerly principal. We hail b oo -
the following brief but elo-u -'e io
Quoing the itords of Mrtiit "
"Allow me, my young rnd ii
occasion, to repeat .this fbxhor 2--I( '5
our pol tical sky be darliened ihl6u =
iog clouds-if dangers. tbreated jiril=
surround you and- your county ;i wi
fanaticism shall laya rudc and.violent hbsnd ?
upon the ark'of our political covenant; If
the naked force of ao rabers,:thp madness.
of an irresponsible -majority, shall' forgst
right, and, in the wantnness of miht
seek with insolent recklessness to inict. -.
upon u wrongand insult-I do not say,,
'if you have nature in you, bearitnot'.
hut Renember you are Caroininiid'.
What is it that makes us proud of. hat
name? it it because we were born in thy'-;
rice fields of the low country;, or ip'the
middle region. undulauiug with slopean .
plain, with hill and valley; or farther
Still from the coast. where liill rises into
mountains, and the proud spirit of:indepen.
dence and patrutism is fed by a birth sky
and pure air ? . No, certainly not O'ur'
slaves enjoy this privilege eithsth es o -
us. The mere accident ofk rightnpon a
given soil may confer ciyil Soci and
religious privileges; but ifhas no rmagie
to clear the head, to -pdiify thehgart, to
fortify and elevate the soul. 'Weiare proud
of our birthright, proud of the name of
Carolinian, because it is everywhere a
letter of credit, a mark of dtstibction;"
because in the veins of a Carolinian eriws
in a mingled current the blood of the couit
ly and chivalrous Cavalier and that of the
Hugenot. distinguished for his stern o
yielding devotion to principle-and religious
truth ; because it is a name which distin
guishes a people renowned fur their gen
erous and elegant hospitalities, and for-tfie
bland and engaging courtesies of.socia -
life; because we are the descendants'of an,
ancestry n hose names live upon tie brigh:
test pages of our country's history; because
it is a name rendered yet more illustriour
by the late brilliant achievements of-the
gallant Palmettoes in the Mexican:cam..
paigo-by the chivalry of Butler,'whose
sun set in such a resplendent blaze of
glory-by the heroism nf Dickinson-hy
the lofty spirit and noble daring of _that
whole band of heroes, rank and file, colonel
and captain, officer and : private, who, at
Contreras, Churuhusco, Chapultepec, and
the Garita. proved to a gaiosaying world
that if a Carolinian boasts his country's
glory; he is- ready to illustrate it by his
deeds." - -
CANAD.-the :feelingin favor- of the
independenes- of Canada, with its natural
consequence of annefation, to'this Utn- -
ts'grbwings'flyitamlread aniy as.. -
are afloat forls. ;partition of the country
into three Staies.;eachi of which, t is'-ru
posed. shall he as large as one of our irst
class Staecs, with each from a halfmiillion,
of inhabiiants. with plenty of room for
more. The M~ont real Gazett e propounds
this scheme, and thgefollowing are statefi
to he the division and boundaries proposed.
. .'Ihe State of Canada West,.to in,
elude the whole of.Upper Canada down
to the foot of Lake Ontario. The popha
'ion of this would be exclusively English.
with the exception ~of some fifty or sixty -
thousand Frenuch, scattered over it or set
tied near Detroit.
2. The State of Canada East, to include
the districts of Quebec and Three Rivers, .a
with the exception of some of the South
ern TIownships. The population of this
would be almost exclusively IFrench with.
the exception of Quebec, where the Irish.
laboring classes are pretty numerous, but
go with the French--the mercantile clasuss
having no.political influence, and indeed
being quite apathetic.
3. The State of Central Canada, to con
silt of the Ottowa District, and of that por.
tilib of Upper Canada which lies between
the Ot towa and St. Lawrence, of the-Dis.
trict ofI Monutreal and of that of St. Fran
cis, leaving to Canada East the bordering
pa rishes of purely French character, iand
aking on the south, the townships oBritial
law and settlement. .
G EN. TArYLOR's PROCrisiTer rforbid
ding the invasion or the Island of Cuba has
received the warmest endomiums from
W~imer and Smih's European Times
That joual .winds~p its atticle on thia
subjeict with the following remarks: -
"We are glad to find that President.
Taylor is not disposed to 'acetion a migh
ty act of spoliation, to be contweited.by -a '
batid of mercenary . and tunprincied ad
venturers. Throughout the whole o s
dioing., it is carefully kept out of view
specific treatyu exists, to which 'France,- I
Spain. Englandl, and the United States ae
parties by wchich the independency of Cubai~
to the motlter country of .Spamn t espcially
CHRowicLE & SENT1NEL.-We copied
few week since an article from the South
Carolinian, upon the Cotton Crop and
Manut'actories of the United States, whicht
seems to have excited the umbrage of the
Chronicle &.Sentinel; or wve should judge
soat least fromithe iissuhing reqpestfor
warded us, written upon the mergtrpo-o
of its numbers. If this reqnest bad b~i
made in a more courteous manner, per
haps we should have treated it duiferent
ly. We shall not copy the "reply," lint
have ",aanuiniess" to say what we think of
the vile slang contained weekly it that
It is a matter of surprise to unsthat any
Carolinian should patronize that paper,
when he considers that its editors allow' ao
opportunity to slip of villifying our State
and denouncing one of our purest states
men, Mr. Calhoun. We have hitheo
refrained from joining in wit-h the paper.
oh this' State in holding uip t. ind-igoant
scorn the 'course of the Chronicle, because -
we believed if let alone, and given rope
enough, it wvould bang itself. We shall be
silent no longer.-Abbeville Banner. -