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tisements must be paid forinii.dvmnce.
For aunatning a Cinidldte, Three Dollars,
For Advcrsing Estrays Tolled, Two Dollars,
to be paiadythe vertising.
it, Tuesday.g, 1851.
Saen tr the usual routine of
e ss,the resolution ofMr. Brad
r, ning removals from office, was
U66by 'Mr. Mangum. Mr. Ewing ob
the Woor for to-day, and the Senate
. o ntatives, Mr, Ro
i . nthe sub
reillII.. Ap eprompt
hebountLax' i Iv, passed
r~eiate, its further
* t , poned until Thursday
-asked leave to present a
early meeting of the reli
ti-slavery Friends in Indi
enerally, and the Fugi
ieular. He desired it to
ittee, with instructions
e repeal of that law.
d to suspend the rules for
icated-yeas 68, nays 119.
c establishment of a Board of
made the special order of the day
January; and Mr. Bayly re
supply deficiencies in the ap
e tiscal year ending June
Wednesday, Jan. 8.
I, the Committee on Public
adversely on the joint resolu
se, which declares that no
act of September 28, 1851, grant
S.bo ylands to certain oflicers and Sol
beconstrutedas prohibiting an
t of military land warrants. After
dbury's resolulion was further
essrs. Ewing, CasAZ dbury,
In the House of Representatives nearly an
hour was consumed in the consideration 64i
motion made by Mr. Julian to amend the
journal; and the remainder of the sitting was
consumed with the New Hampshire contested
In the Scnate, Mr. Houston appeared for
-1the first time this session. lHe is evidently
disposed to take matters easily, intending to
reserve his energies for the Presidential cam
- rstd iast year on suispicion of a design o:
thte life of Mr. Clay. He received a conipen
stion of a hundred dollars, and now want
athousand or thereabouts. The Senate, be
ig desirous of preventing any further annoi
ance, rejected the pra:yer of the petitioner.
Mr. Shields, from the Committee on Pula
lie Lands, reported back, without ameudmnen1
the bill granting alternate sections of th'
public land to Floridat, to aid in the construe
lion of a Railroad from the Atlantic to th,
Gnf of Mexico.
Mr. Underwood moved to take up the join
resolution c-f the house, making bounty laui
warrants assignable. A fter debate. hiowevel
the motion wvas withdrawn, but will be rc
newed to-morrow. It appears though thi
Secretary of the Interior has made u tp hi
md to issue no warrants until Congres
' shall have decided upon the question of as
-rTe consideration of the bill for settlin;
private land claims in California, was then ie
Mr. Gwin spoke for sonme hoturs in opposi
tion to the pending amendmetnt of Mr. Bien
ton, and the latter replied. The subject wa
then laid over till to-morrow.
In the House, the Miletary Academyv bill
the Navy Pension bill, the Revolutionar:
Pension bill, the Post Oflice and othier A ppro
priation bills, were reported from the Comi
taittee on Ways and leatns, and referred to:
Committee of the Whole.
After the disposal of seome private matter:
the Hlouse, at an early hotur, aidjourned.
This morninig as soon as the Speaker de
clared the Hlouse adjourned, there was, all o
a sudden, a general rush into the space be
hind the Chair, and nearly a hundred mnembers
wore seen crowding round and shaking handcl
with a very modest looking gentleman, t<
wit: Mr. Holloway, the Representative fron
Duchess County, New York. There wm
such laughing, congratulatory speeches :i
excitement that people wondered what couk
be the matter. On inquiry, however, it up
)~ . peared that Mr. H. yesterd'ay perpet ratedl ma:
trimiony, lhe being a Free Soiler, and the lady
of his choice being a Marylander owning
number of slaves. This shows how much
Free Soilism is worth when it comes in con
tact with the silken cords of Cupid.
The slab eontributed by South Carolina
and which a few months ago was so wantonly
defaced by some miscreant, is now nearly re
stored to its former state. The expense will
be over sixty dollars.
Another new daily paper, to be publishied
in Washington City, is talked of. It will
support General Scott for the Presidency.
In the Senate, a bill to authorize the State
of Wisconsin to select the residue of the land
to which that State is entitled under the act
of the 8th August, 1846, to aid in the im
provement of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers,
was reported from the comtmittee on public
lands, and debated by Messrs. Dawson, Walk
er, Foote, Dodge, of Wisconsin, Cass, and
Underwood. The bill was then ordered t c
be engrossed, by a vote of yeas 32, nays 10.
The Senate then adjourned till Moiiday.
In the House of Representatives several
bills were introduced and appropriately re
ferred. The consideration of the New Hanmp
shire contested election case was termiinated
by declaring Mr. Morrison, (Democrat,) thec
sitting member from the third Congressional
district of that State, entitled to fill the va.
cancy occasioned by the resignation of Gen.
James Wilson. Mr. Jared Perkins (Whtig)
was the contestant.
Many are willing enough to wound, who
are yet afraid to strike.
EDGEFIELD, 8. C.
THURSDAY, JANUARY 16, 1851.
grWe adiiit9n request the article signed
"ALGERKOd SjDirEY," but we are far from ap.
proving the sentiments it contains.
Turs-issue closes ie ffteenth ,olume of
the Adviser, aid with it, the undersigned
ends his Editoria career. 'vate matters of
importance, and a desire f' evote;ihnself
more exclusively to his prfession, ure him
from an occupation, Which has been both
agreeable and instructive.
. Tobis contemporaries, from whom he has
reebid uniform courtesy, and many valuable
suggestions on matters of public policy, he
tenders a agl farewell! His piers ant
assoeiationi wthth'iem-utheir marks of
kindness to him e impressions, on which,
in future, his memory will dwell with fond
In bidding adieu to the patrons of the Ad
rertiser, it would be affectation to coceal
the emotions of regret felt on the separation.
Communion with them for two years, in
thought and sentiment, has created attach
ments that can be broken only with pain.
The undersigned feels deeply sensible of the
kind indulgence with which they.h ,egard
ed the many imperfections of PaEditoritt
labors, and ackdowledges the lasting obliga
tions under which, in other respects, manyof
them have placed him. From the interestihey
have taken ih the Adrertiser, during his con
nection with it, he is led to hope tha, his ef
forts to render the paper useful",litive not
been altogether in vain. If he has'igt with
success in imparting to it something of an
elevated moral tone, and in rendering it a
faithful organ-of the District in political af
fairs, his expectatiors have been realized.
That he has not been able to give it fully the
character it should have as a public Journal
of the District, he but too deeply feels.
Under the superintendenee of the new
Editor, Col. ARTHun Sxiwcis, who now
takes charge of it, higher hopes may .be in
dulged. In leaving the paper, it gives pleas
ure to know, that it will be placed under the
direction of a gentleman, whose varied at
tainments, and whose polished pen, will irm
part to it additional interest, and will render
it, doubtless, more iceeptable to the public.
With sincerest wishes -for the con
success of the Advertiser, the undo i
now offers its readers and patrons an
W. C. MORAGN
EDGEFIELD FE3AL TE
TirE exercises of
sumed on Monday la
auspices. A numbe
tion to thosa nr.-A
a niise of brilliant sucaess. Thie inn.
- partment is, we are glad to learn, well sus~
Stained. TIhe ability with which it is filled,
- ought to place its success beyond doubt.
Mrs. NICHOtts is known to be highly skilled
-on the Piano, and Miss RARtTLETT, to have
much experience on the Harp and Piano.
. 3Miss HiAnnisTos, also, is, we arc informed,
3equaLlly skilled on the Piamno and Guitar.
She teaches also painting in oil. Miss BAnT
L.ETT teaches in addition to music, French,
., Gernman, and Painting. 31iss PE1.oT, who
- was in the Institute last year, and who hati
Sexperience ras an instructress, has charge of
the primary department. With these valua
. ble assistants, Prof. Nienott~s, whose reputa
tion as an Instructor of youth is now well
established in our community, places it in the
- power of parents in the District to give their
. da~ughters a substantial and finished educa
- tio~n near home. To those at a distance who
Smay wish to send their daughters to the In
stitute we may alnost guaranty, that they
.' will not be disappointed in the faicilities af
- forded for their education. The healthful
- ness of our village, the convenience of good
boarding, and the superior advantages of the
school, offer no slight inducements to their
patronage. In leaving the Editorial chair,
we record our sincere wishes for the long
rcontinued success of thc Institute, and our
ardent hopes, that the Parents of the Dis.
triet, will wvatch and nurture it as a publie
>nursiery : as a gardeni of science in which the
lovely flowers of the land may be trained in
the true comeliness of their being.*
(Ol'RTS OF~ APPEAL.
TnE~ Law and Equity Courts of Appeal
convenecd in Charleston en Mionday last.
Law Court of Appeals.-Prcsent, O'NEAL.L,
EvANs, D. L.. WVARDLAw-, FROST, WI1TnERS5,
Equity Cou ri <f A ppcals.-Pre-sent, Jon
sTON, DUNKIs, F. H. WVARDLAw, Chancellors.
T HlE CONV ENTIO5.
By an act passed at the last Session of our
Legislature, as many of the readers of the
Advertiser are aware, Delegates arc to be
elected by the people of the different Districts
of the State, on the second Monday in Feb
ruary next, for a Convention of the people
of the State to assemble at some future day.
Our readers will see a card in this paper from
the members of the Legislature, touching the
matter, to which we invite their special at
tention. They will also find a number of
names in another column, that have been put
in nomination for seats in the Convention.
Our District will be entitled to seven dele
This is a matter of very great importance
to the people of the District, and it is rea
sonable to suppose they will evince an inter
st in it commensurate with its importance.
The Convention assembled, will have large
powers, and will hold in its grasp the political
destinies of the State. It will have to deter
mine, whether the State will longer submit to
the m.-s wrmngs inflicted on her by the
GenietalGovernmef; o a ti
1 n go'r whether, in eda . e utir
Statemoves, she will resoitto jeparate Stil
action, and seek her independence out of the
Union. In a word, it will have to determinc
whether the State will secede or submit; and
as we think 'there is oly a probability of
some o' Southern States moving with
ours, it may be well to look at the matter a
to-consequences of separate State Secession
it is' -tthe true interests of our people
th ublic should look at this question in
all thes.e bearing S eaect, calling the Con.'
vention, does nolrimit the Convention in
these matters. :h 43eople will have it all
in their own power. The Legislature by ap
propriating $300,000 to put athe State in a
condition of defence, has shown incontestibly
that it looked to consequences; and
if it did not do e Fit shotld hav
done, it d eno I event%,f'" the
attention of the o to , yeapction, and
to'induce the ople -o pre th'eir mings
for the dkercise ot 61highet sovereign
Such being the character -'o lations
and of the C neld;
it is of the last,'conseee b
in that Convetion. Ti i
moderation , e gh e
who .can harmo p e
haveno political to indug
will161b lelyt6 theod of~tho country
-b above -, -ithi~~ fear tlie
re it Stati
action: who will b - iii the right wa
and at the right time, idly to in
ards of separate *O e '
"We eainot but thiAi h
jeople should know 'bere 8en
ments of the differeitcan
ris points. But 'a
the ould have thIE}j
in the premises..It
crt* Oin, ev
-~ ei~iie~h 5the Dis
mehr1lis~p, and men ma:
019ld.0O questions h iflve thi
lbe approved by the largest possible numbi
MELAICHOLY DEAnr.-A case of remore
of conscience has been related to us. TI
wife of Mr.-, or Woodward township,i
this country had been lingering in an illness fI
several months previous to her death whic
occurred about three wecks ago. She w:
often dependant on her neighbors for wh:i
attentions she received. 11cr husband oth
left her alone for daiys at a time, and whc
he would return it was not to make her sie
bed cheerful by those attentions which a kin
heart would render and a cenfiding compm
ion would expect. Whilst away, his wil
died. IIe. was sent for immediately; but, be
ing slow to come, he found her hnried, whe
he arrived, lie had the body dug up fro
the grave. He gazed upon the features<
the dead a moment and then ordered the rt
mains to be restored to the earth. lieretur.
ed to his labor, but the memory of' hisi
treatment to her haunted him in his moment
of laibor and rest. His mind became a wreec
lie grew crazy and gnawed the very flet
from his body. Even in his insanity he wa
a preCy to remorse. Ilis system soon yield
to the influence of sympathy, and in tw
weeks from the time when lie last look upo
the coffin of his wife, hie had taken his plae
by her side in the grave. Mr.--was a ma~
of some property, was industrious, savin,
honest, and alt ogether a better citizen than
husband. He has never, pterhaps, learnedt
" bear and forbear," and had faile~d to trai
his heart to endure the domestic trials whie
distinguish the life of the mere citizen frof
that of the head of a family.-Clinton (Pa.
DEA~TH OF THE HION. TIIoiAS SPADNc.
The death of this wecll known and di.stii
guished citizen of Georgia, took place on th
4th inst. at Ashantilly, near Darien, at the resi
dence of his son, Charles Spalding, esq.
Thue deceased was '76 years 9 months and 1:
days old at the time of his death. Mr. Spald
ing has taken an active pamrt in the polities
Georgia, for the lamst 50 years, and was a pron
inient and influential member of the Demen
ertie party, Hie was President of' the lat
Georgia convention, and as lhe passed througl
our city on his way to Milledgeville lie rc
marked to a friend, that it wvould be the las
act of his political life, Hie wais very feel
when wve saw him, and never returned to hi
home. Thus has passed to the tomb, f'ullo
years and honor, anmother of Georgia's wor
thiest sons.-Savannh News.
FATAL RENCot'NTRE xN MACoN.-We learl
from a private despatch, says the Savannal
Republican of the 7th inst., that a difficult;
ocurred in Macan, Sunday evening, bet wee1
WV. I. Hughes and T. Knight, Jr. which re
sulted in the death of the former. This de
spatch says that Knight maide some insinua
tions about the defeat of Hlughes, who Wa
a candidate at the municipal election onSa
urday, which produced harsh words betwee
them; and Hughes struck Knight and seize<
him by the throat. when K. shot him. Hughe
died in a few minutes. Aihr. Hughes is thi
person who went to Boston in quest of thm
fugitives, and Mr. Knight is the brother
the one who accompanied him.--State:
CrxcxxNATI is not only a greait place fo
slaughtering hogs, but Cincinnati editors ai
great at describing the operation, as the fo
lowing from the Commercial will prove:
" The cries of swinish death now echo thrc
the cireumjaeent vallies, and the rivulet
around are incarnadined with the gore of th
, tt : -
To t District.
Asyou resentat atthe Legisla
ture, we it tb b f i trto call your
earlynd arnet to perhaps the
mostji- aelt;, of tion, which h:as
ma tory o tate: We allude
to th ed ,t ! astf Session, " to
pro, of Deputies to a
S S, andt Convention
"0 lb- of this S ur chief rea
aii 'f_; .0 'communi that in the
go ~ inary pub n of the Act
of rIth p not have rc
ceivda as to the provi
sionsf e have alluded,
until after y ave e most important
election for vhich-itip
The Act, in accordaj ith tihc recoin
mnendation of the Naibi Convention, pro
vides, for the apponti u Eghteen De
ties to repreent this S any Conress
of the Southern States ch mayntemblt
four 'byt' Legislature' tsco by the voters
onChonuressionalD" ice in the State.
The four. wvere electea4# the Legislature,
and the, other fourteenQ to toe chosenl inl
Srespective Conar e hal Districts, on
the e?~cond Monday in Kber next, and the
The Actinao The Ac ects the Goer
rrespond with xeCeutives of the
tie to rersn thi - angCnges
of Sthern Stas a urgh e that the
proposed gs d at the city o
Montomnri the of Alabama, oil
the 2d day of Januar, 2.
The Act further pr that a ConrLsa
tion of the PeqWkoftlfli'it I hd ~ ii'
for the purposu t c
mendtione of the a t
shall beheold, and f
sideri epntion te u oent
ein new of her rea
onment of the Ur of Aamo
to take crc that th tha o
arolina, shall suf ~ ~ ~
The election of t~
on, is ordered to
anagers of I
n of the Stat
to electas M
nators and R1
re. The timn,
onvention it no
ted from a de
e Southern Co
dicated the p
Would meet, anc
such period if fix
e changed to sr,
other Stag.s coi
- seen that there v
in the Act,.the
Session of thc
shall, by proclar
3 tion; bu4if.-t
* m~'eanj mA,
ra have the pou~
tr shall fix the tia
e passed the
in viding for c
r of this Sta -
sending of '
it and they d
n the State
nand they 1
dState thus nem- sumouII ij- *. .
. all the vital ques;tions of Southe'rn Cor,?irs
re Southecrn Con federac, and s eesssion. Tha
Bill from the Senate received the support
a large majority of the House, but not qit
~fthe const itutional majorit, of /ro-thirds, ain
~-after all hope of the passage of that bill ha:a
1- flailed, the bill uniting the Southecrn Congres
and Convention, was deemed the b~est shapi
in u hieh the whole subject could be left, am
h was finally adopted with greait unanim't:.
*8 in both Houses. We regret to see that a
d attempt has been made to cre.tte the impjres
nsion, that the " recent Legislature" intende<
eby the Act to which we have calhad your at
n tention, to create confus;ion. or mahe it imbe
is elle. Although as we have saidl, we prfrret
a the Bill from the Senate, we do not believe
n that any such intention cnn be fa:-ly imput:<
h to those who preferred the measure whaie
n ul'imately passed. Those who opposed the
Bill simp~lly calling a Convention, were t1h
warma advocates of ai Southern Con;;ress, a:
-leading to secession and a Southern Conifede
racy, and expresssd the opinion, that tim
State ought not to be put ini Convention, unti
- the time had arrived to .secede, with the view
Sto enter that Confederacy. On the othei
jside it was urged, that the Staite had pledgei
-itself to follow thme lend of any of the ng
-grieved States in resisting the encroaichmenti
e of the Federal Governument, and that it wa
Sdue to her character and p)ositionm, to marei
Sup to the side of the nobile State of alii
e sippli, whose Legislature had already called:
s. Conrention of her people, :md be ready ti
act promptly in conjuetion with that State, 01
any other which might adopt an eflicien
ae ebelieved that South Carolina could not
Ii consistently with her declared intentionse, re
main in aL Union which sought to oppress ani
.degrade her, and our object was to place lie
-in her sorcign position in Conrenztion, ii
-which position she could with propriety awai!
S the action of thme proposed Southern Con.
gress, and at the same time be ready to niee
:1 any contingency that might presenit itself.
B And in the event that no such Conigressa wva
o convened, and all efforts to secure the umnior
of the other Southern States should Iail, shi
' might adopt the course which the wisdomn o:
her people might determine to be best. Be
r lieving that the State wvould pursue a polie)
a which her reputation demanded; we have put
- her in her highest political position, and wt
hatve iiot hesitated to vote the necessary sup
plies of money to organize her miilitamry re
Ssources, with the view of sustaining her it
ny ourma whinh sh e n dont.
We have endeavored to meet the issue, to
became your Representatives, and we trust
that we have discharged our duties, with no
disposition to evade any responsibility. Ve
have no fears that you will not properly dis
charge the solemn duties now devolved upon
you. On the 2d MIonday in February, and
the day following, you will elect seven dele
gates to represent this District in the Conven
tion. :d whell VV Say to you, that that Con
vention w:.i hold in itshands the sovereign
power of the State, and in virtue of that
power will be ehILd to decide the most vital
question which the State has met since the
American Revolu;ion, W&e hve said enongh,!
we know, to induce you at once to give your
serious, undivided and devoted attention to
this great subject. We trust that yo'i will
not take it amits, if we suggest to you, that
in our opinion, you ought to select for this
duty, men of wisdom, men who are identified
with your soil, and who may justly share your
confidence, and by all means, men of the
true staip and right metal.
N. L. GRIFFIN,
GEO. A. ADDISON,
WM. D. JENNINGS,
JOHN R. WEVER.
From the South Carolinian.
The Convention and its Consequencos.
We are on the eve of selecting delegates
to a convention which may be the most im
port:nt in its results that ever assembled in
South Carolina. Has public attention been
nfr 4. 1"" .ler which
. on us.
is dear to
ids, and is
- ople, when
say that they
-rvants have, in
"sumned to limit
nergy nd su
ay t theye
1rvits e, in
51 cand the Scat
org ana he.f
tL w theverlse
tolb lite thex
or a yeouhern~f
the purpose of
n Congress does
10 power to call
thre Convenution t ogethter. And the very act
itselfI coutemiplates that the meeting of sarid
Congres; shall no)t take placee until the 2d day
fof .rmuarv, 1 852 ; for the 9th sectioin ex
phressly surgcests that day, and the city of
Montg~omnery as the proper plamce.
It is plamin that the intention was to elect
the members to the Cnvetio a1 year betibre
it could aissemnble. Will this bie a~ represen.
t::tion fresh froma the people ?
llow many questions mayr airise between
the election' and the assemlhing of the eutn
vent ion of the deepest imiportanee? The
whole ismes before the country may be in
thet cha nged. Are thmese members, thus to
be elected niow, the sole depository of sov
ereign power ill Souih Carrolina for more
th:m a year ? If new questions of vitarl mo1
- ment :ari~e in the nmeantime, rest assured they
w ~ill assume juri-diction. Th'lere never has
been' sineh a convenitionl organized before, and
let t he canntwry, look u-eli to whou are to consti
tuie liea! rorentlion. Every mn:m of famil y or
propert~y wvill have a stake that may yet cause
hhn~ to) trembille in the progress of events.
T1hiere is confusion ahead. The vessel of
State ird bel'ore the breezec with breakers
athwarit hecr bow. It will require a stern and
steadi' piot, withi a ciear isighit and thorough
knowledge, to save her from a rocky anid
The firing of onle hundred guns for the
convention bill may be too soon. This Tro
jan horse ma1 y be in reality an innocent thing;
I bt it mar, too, bear ill its sides armed men,
not to dei'end the liberties of Troy, but to
Ibear conistenation and confusion amontest
ou01rselves. Was it intended to limit the
meeting of the convention to the condition of
the Sout hern Conmgress assembling, and then
to conisider and ratify whart they should do ?
Sonmc parts of the bill seem to leek to this,
and it may be that this was ini fact meant.
The truth is, the fixing of a day was an es
sential part of orgamizing a convention. The
Iday being fixed, would confine ittio the issues
then before the State. The election and thme
assembling of the conrention oughit to be unear
toeh:,so that the people, in famct, by the ee
ti'n, could dhecide in reality upon the issucs
then made. T here can be 110 true representa
ton o f sorrrein power wcithout this. Fixing
a day certain is an essential part of any legal
convyentionl. There is nowv danger of us sink
ing inito imbecility on one side, or of irregu
lar and convulsive movements on the othecr.
The convention act seems to assume that
there can~ be no contingency in which the con
v-ent inn e:mn be called befoire 2d January, 1852;
for in this very aict that is the day fixed or
sugtgested for thme assenibling of theSouthern
Congress, at Montgomery ; and tihe meeting
of our State convenltion is expressly limiited
to the contingency of thatt Southern Congress
first meeting. 'Ihe power of the Governor
to call it together is limited to the assembling
of that Congress; and in ease it is not so
called, then the Legish~iure, at its next ses
sion, inl December,'1851, may, by a simle
"iimajotity," fix the day. Can a simple ma
jority of the Legislatture fix the day ? The
consiitti declares that a vote of two-thirds
is neces-ar to al .a ceninon. The fixing
of a day for it to assemble or nkct is essen
tial to its very existence-a daj certain, un
der existing issues, when the leetion is to
take place, (in February next,l is v:ital in
principle. To elect now and meet in 1852 is
not a convention representing tfe sovereign
will of the people upon questions involving
perhaps the existence of the Sta e itself.
The circumstances may be so clkanged in a
year, the issues may be'so varied Py all con
tingent questions that may :rise, that an ex
pression of opinion by the people ' Februn
ry next mny not be the same at all Ts it might
be a year hence. We are in the commence
ment of great events-it may be the eve of
a revolution-the formation of a new ei
pire ; and, under these circumstances, the
day for the assemb!ing of such a convention
ought to be fixed and certain. The fact is it
is rital, and many in the Legiblature who vo
ted eagerly for its call and for this bill, will,
by tle meeting of the next session of th
Legislature, take the ground t
quire two-thirds tofix theday
Mark the prediction.
'rere is a feeling in a large
populous portion of South Carolina,
litical power is not settled and adjusted upon
principles of justice and equality in the State.
Recent events have not weakened that feeling.
There is also a feeling among many reflecting
men that the recent Legislature rather en
deavored to shift the responsibilities of their
position to a convention not definitely organ
ized; and from the length of time between
the election of it and its assembling, it may
have been intended to create confusion or
make it imbecile.
Many, no doubt, voted at the close of an
excited session, because they " thought it the
best they could get;" and many voted with
out examining minutely the bill.
But its now being passed will place the
people in a situation eminently critical, and
the members that may be elected may have
the most painful responsibility to discharge.
We hope every part of the State will send
their truest and best men to that convention,
if it ever meets; but most especially do we
conjure every district, above a line drawn
from Hamburg to Cheraw, in the State to
take care and see that their ablest and most
experienced men are sent. The representa
tion in the State has recently been adjusted
under the State census of 1819 and under the
taxes of 1849, and that adjustment stands un
til 1859. Yet the recent tax law will raise
I' 1iould chancre essentially represen
- ion this basis,
-f that the taxa
7 - 1 axation of the
A one representa
-g-second part that the
.,0ja district bears to the
Pis the whole State, it is en
- r representative. This is the
h'ijlical and wisest basis of repre
ever conceived of in constitutional
fgovernment. It was at first adopted as a com
promise between what was at the time (1808)
called the low country and up country inter.
est. In the early settlement of South Caro.
lina, the up country or western part of the
State was denied all representation; but in
the progress of events they were admitted.
Finally the excitement extended in a elamor
for popular liberty, which brought the State
to the verge of a'revolution. Robert Good.
low IHarper, from the old "96" district,
wrote a pamphlet in favor of extending rights
to the up country, that produced intense ex
itement. He was elected to Congress, and,
heclieve. to seats in the Legislature from ai
om a ditd, all* at
esnndatewad moved to Bahti
inore, a'dbecame Attorney General of the
United States. Col. Alston, from near
Georgetown, afterwards Governor, took the
side of the uip country, in favor of enlarging
their representattion. The great William
Lowdes-the purest and one of the greatest
men that ever blessed his country-made ,his
first speech in the Legislature on the compro
mise and the general philosophy of govern.
ment. It is said to have been, from tradition,
fill of wisdom and patriotism. Col. Bilan
ding, afterwvards so distinguished in our State
as a jurist. was in that Legislature, and it is
said drew the compromise in our constitution
for i808, wvhich settled the excitinig questions
upon the presen~t basis. Mr. Lowndes' speech
covered all the grounds ith matured wvis
dom, and Col. Bla:ndinmg's proposition was
adopted. This is believed to be a brief' his
tory of thme conmpronmise. Sin~ce then the
State ha.s vamstly changed. Education and in
telligence with wealthlm ave- gone into the up.
per country. Even in slaives the " upper di
vsion " o'f the State has more than the
"lower division." And it' the Legislature
were to change the objects of' taxation, it
would change represenmtationi in thme State.
Below a certain line there is a different mnode
of valuation and taxamion on land, and if that
were equ alized it would changre re'presenta
tion. T1he Legislature is not confined to any
particular objects of' taxation. Maniy sup
poe thait the compiromise was made upon
slaves being taxed, anmd therefore represented.
Not so at all. It is a far wiser amnd profound
er princeiple, amnd pervades every form of' so
ciety' that may arise. It is, that taxation and
reresentatiolt shi:dl follow each ot her. No
matter how weamlth may change or how it may
be distributed-no matter from what the gov.
enent mayv raise taxes-still the principle
at taches, andl it is the true basis of conserva
timn and regulated liberty. But mere territo
rial representation in theSenate is a dityerert
matter. Let thme Legislature select the prop
er objects of' taxation wiithi wisdom and jus
tie, anud 1 hope the r-eal compromise of our
constitution will never be disturbed.
We are approaching a juncture in our af
tirs where wvisdom and tirmnness may be of
the gravest importaince to South Carolina.
A convention of the people to represent then
sovereignty is to be elected 2d Monday in
February next, and not to assemble for a year
thereafter; and no nman can tell what ques
tions may arise in the meantime, and what
issues they may be forced to decide. It puts
us in a crifical and uncertain position, from the
want of distinctness as to its objects, and the
want of a definite time for it to meet. Let
t he State bc sure as to the men who are to com
pose that bodU.
Our feelings and rights have wantonly
spurned and defied by the legislation of Con
ress, as well as by our co-States in the Con
federacy. We have a great confiet to meet
sooner or later. It is a contest between two
distinct orders of civilization-the one rest
ing upon the basis of free soil and individual
equality, and the other resting upon domestic
servitude. As population grows dense, and
society' becomes pressed downa into its differ
ent classificationis, this conflict will become
deadly. It will be a struggle for powver on
one hand and for existence on the other.
Those who suppose that it can be avoided by
palliatives sec but the surface of things. It
springs from the difference in our soeci sys
tems. All ehitsses in the free States, from
the schoolnaster up to the minister, are train
ed tup with bitter and hostile feelings to us
and to our institutions. It first sprung from
the philosophy of the French school, taught
before their great revolution. It arose in thme
dr..a......Rousneaun. and brenthed forth in
Lhe cynical sarcasm and levelling doctrines
of Voltaire. Under such philoso phy the rev
olution broke forth, and converte the Frensli
people into a nation of wild propogandists
Even Franklin and Jefferson beemne deeply
imbued with their doctrines. And now the
whole North begin to believe that they are
the elect people of Providence, chosen for the
express purpose of preaching the political re
demption and regeneration of mankind, of
every clime and color.
Formerly, the great struggle in the history'
of nations was for the people to nequire and.
sustain their personal rights. The Magna
Charta, the trial by jury, the habeas.corpus, 3
as burnt into the British constitution, all se
cure those rights beyond contingency; and
we have long sinee passed that stage in the
progress of civil liberty. The great struggle-,
now is to preserve and maintain the separate
rih ' dependent communities. There
egulated liberty but what springs
-ants and necessities of society
nature of its organization;
nt under different cir
stem of govern.
would be as ile'as o, tte optto
plant the orange tree the frozen a of
the Green Mountains, expecting it to
and to attempt to introduce a system of theo
retical government, suited to-, Ohio, for- the'
people of South Carolina, would be-s nau- i: K
seating as to feed us upon the whaleblubber
upon which the EsquimauxJives. -No I -ii.
lightened liberty consists in every people
judging for themselves as to what forms of
government or social institutions may best
This Union is but a confederacy 'of sep
rate and independent people, with- certain
specified powers upon given subjects, leaving
all vital and local interests exclusively unaer
the control of the separate governments
The Constitution itself was mado b the
States as separate States; it can alone be
tered or amended now by the States
rate. They can make and unmake the organ
ic laws of the confederacy.
There is no power to alter or amend .the
constitution but in the States. If the States
should choose to withhold or not to elect a
majority of Senators to send to the Senate,
the government itself is at an end. The
truth is, it is a government entirely dependent
upon States, with totally different toeal inter
ests. It is not a popular government, or de
inocracy at all; for all its vital parts-its ex
* mmndamental law-de Vnden
lircly upon le ee
of the confederacy are the estates of the realm;
and, in any great emergency involking their
rights under the organie compact by which
they are connected, their sense must be taken
and their power must be acknowledged, or
there can be no reform in the government
or no re-adjustment of the compact. Every
constitutional lawyer aequaintea with''the
struggles in Great 'Britinf6Y chartered liber
ty, particularly under Chnrles-2'd and Jafs
2d, will at once comprehend-the full mesing
of the estates of the realm.
There can be ndecharteied liberty without
separate estates, with power to enforee 'the
provisions of the charter. No charteri.or.no
governMent created under it, will enfoieits
own provisions and preserve its original puri
ty, without practical power'somewhere repo.
sing in the community. to enforceits obser
vance. That power under our system restf
with the States. And this is the im*ofe
ment wve have made over European 'libirt .
We can re-adjust the compact or we can dis.
Even if the slaveholdin~ States -na fdr
finally to form n'separate cosgf '.
may form- a league o -
Northern States, upon which thef can adjus~
their intercourse by mutual agreemets~of'4'
interest, by which thiey may be able to avoid 4
the necessity of fortifying the whole oppme
interior line between us, and also to~define our
mutual intercourse with foreign nitions.
This will involve the consid'eration of great
questions that will arise in the progress of
events, and may be considered as they arise.
But I forbear at present. Cloud. and dark
ness rest upon the future. The starof-Soiith
Carolina now twinkles and flashes amid the
bright constellation that blazes on the ban
ner of the Union; but come what may, in
any and every emergency, to That star alone I
swrear undi idled allegiance, now and forever,
let it rise where it may.
WIISlINr: TON Md.-There was a great horse
ramce on the '7th instant, from Christiana to
Dover and back-distance 84 miles. The
downward run-42 miles-was made in two
hmours, 15 minutes. On the return one of the
horses dropped dead, 25 miles from the start
ing place. The other came in and died three
hours after, making the distance in about 6
hours. There was a bet pending of 6100 a
[The pecrpetrat-:rs of such a cruelty as this
deserves universal execration and the severest
that the gin house, with about eight bales of
ginned cotton, belonging to Maj. H. WV. Har
rington, of Marlboro' District, was consumed
by fire, on the evening of the 31st ult. The
fire caught from a lantern, used to weigh cot
ton by, and was accidenta.-Cheraw Gaz.
WVIscoxsTx.-Ollial returns of the con
gressional elections, show Durkee and Doty
(free-soil) elected for the first and third dis--'
tricts, and Eastman (democrat) for the second.,'
At Aiken, on Tuesday, the 3d of Deeeb!
by Rev. H. A. Tupper, Rev. F. C. Jon.~
Miss CAROLINE, daughter of Levi Hicksnon
that place. '.4
At Abbeville, on the 2d inst., by Rev. '~
Reid, Col. SAMUEL. M'GowAN, to Miss SUSA, -
daughter of Judge Wardlaw, both of Abbevlle.
In Hamburg, on the 7th irnst., by Wm.W. Sale,
Esq., Mr. JAurEs A. BARXMAs~ to Mliss ANN
WnnmlEas, all of Augusta.
~DiED, near Edgefield Court House, on the 3d
of January, 1851, CIIAIIERLAIN LaRor Goon
win. 'The deeased was born at Henley, in
Edgefield District, on the 21st of May 179L.
lie lived in this community, for a long teramof
years, and was well known to the citizen. gener
ally. As a marn he was most exemplary. So
far as the knowledge of the writer, who knew
him intimately, extends, his wvhole conduet was
marked by strict integrity.
1.1 his family relation. he was without fang.
Hie was a kind and indulgent father, a devcWd
hu..band to-a wife, who has for-many years bieen
almost a helpless invalid, a humane master, and
a pcaceable and obliging neighbor.
In his intercourse with society, his manners
were charaeterized by a cheerfulness and --
ty, which was pleasing to all. For. any,
he had been an orderly member of thet15
Church. lie was a member of the. rder.of
the Sons of Temperanee of this. ple amnd $uy
that body, his remains were attended Is the
His death was sudden but. it is confidently
hoped, that he died in..the ejoymenlt of that re
ligion w-hich he proesed.