Newspaper Page Text
"We will cling to the Pillars of the Temple of our Liberlies, and if it must fall, -Fe will PerI anidst the Ruins."
W. F. DURISOE, Proprictor. EDGEFIELD, S. C., D)ECEMBER 1, 1852. O- - - -
THE EDGEFIELD ADVERTISER,
IS PUCLISHED EVERY WEDNESDAtr BY
IV. F. DURlISOE, Proprietor,
A. S13lKINS & JOHN. BACON, Editors.
Two DULLAS. per year, if paid in advance-Two
DOL.AIs and Fzrmv Cx'-ra if not paid in six months
-and TumEE DOLLARS if not paid before the expira.
tion of the year. All subscriptions not distinctly
limited at the time of subscribing, will he conaitlere'l
a, made for ani indefinite period, and will be constinnu
eJ ur.til all arrearages are paid. or at the option of
the Publisher. Sul.crptims from other States must
invariably be accompanied with thc cash or reference
to some one known to us.
AnvrrTISEMENT will be conspicuouslV inserted
at 75 cents per S4quare (12 lines or less) ft'r the first
insertion, and 37 1- for each suiequent insertion.
When only published 3lonlthly or Quarterlv, Ono
Dollar per square will he charged. All Advertise
ment. not having the des4ired number of insertin.ns
marked on the margin, %%ill be continued until forbid
and chargcd accordingly.
Thmse desiring to advertime by the vear can t'o so
on liberal terms-it bein:- distinietly mamlrstood that
cosntracts for yearly alvertrising are contined to the
immn.diate. legitimate husiness of the firm or individu
al Contracting. Tra.sient Advertisements must be
paid for in advance.
For announcing a Candilate, Three Dollars, in
For Adverti-ing Eftrays Tolled. Two Dollars, to be
paid by tihe 31;-i'tate adver-isiinr.
- FELIX E. l1ODIE".
R. s. KEY,
ior Tax Collector.
P BOYlP11 D.
THOMAI~S ft. IZEESR,
M. B. W11171.TTL,
VIRGI3. X WIITE,
if. T. ilitiT,.
JOl1 W. S311,T,
W. F. DURISOE,
PICKENS B. WEVER.
T UE Undersigned have this day associated
themelves together .in the PRACTICE OF
LAW, f oE.lgelield Distriet. Any business en
trusted to them shall be promptly attended to.
Mr. A-xissos will keep an Oflice at Edgefield C.
If., where'he can be found at all timnm.
3 L.M. GRtA Y,
W. U. ATKINSON.
HTamburg, Nov 5, 1852. .tf 43
T E nders'gned have aswninted thenmelves
T "inEt'e pract'ee of LAW and EQUITY, un
der the name of NIAGRATII & STYL .
T. P. MAGRATIT,
C. W. STYLES.
Sept. 1st 1852. tf 43
G. W. LANDRUM,
W ILL Practicc in the Courts of LAW and
EQULITY for EdgeiFd and Lexington Dis
tricts. Office itn Law Range, Edgefield C. 11.
.Jan 16, tf 52
JOSEPH ABNEY, .
WITL be found at all times in his Office, at
W Edgelield Court Rouse, near the PILANTER's
lie will atten4 promptly and strictly to bidsiness
in his prolession.
Nov. 14 tf 51
JA IES .7M. DAY
OF RICH310ND, VA.,
Permanently located at Edgefield C.
-H., offers his professional services to
the citizens of the Village and its vi
einity ; and will attend to any call he may have
eith~er ini the Village or Country.
All operations warranted.
Mtarch 13.18~5(. - -tf 8
Operations on the Teeth,
.BY HORACE PARKERS
Address Edlgefield C. IL., or Sleepy Creek,
March IT 1859 ly ., 8
INCIDENTS OF A JOURNEY
FROM1 ABBEVIL.LE, SOUTlf CA~ROLINA,
To Ocala, Florida,
~BT AN OBSERVER OF "SMALL TEIGS."
r O ll E above is the Title of a lively and interesting
.I little work, just published and for sale at this
Office, and the Stores of SrLt.vs & Bao-rnca, G.
L. Pss~ and Wart.I.tAss & Cuxos-ria.
gJ- Price only 25 Cents.
.June 24 tf 23
Pair Hlome made Pantation
B ROGA NS !
UlARNEMS, SOLE AND) UPPlER LEATT1ER.
or ALLr DEU.eCtPrZONS.
Tanners, Neats Foot and Lamp Oil.
ShIOEMAKERS' - FINDINGS.
At the Shoe Store, next door to Sullivan & Brother.
Rs Tr. MlIMs.
.itly 21 tf 27
Ladies Cloaks and llantillas,
SNOWDEN & SHEAR, Augnutt.", Ga.,
~.have just received J.a.Iies Silk and~ Velvet
CLOAKS and Velvet and Silk IA NTI LLAS nnd
SACK(S, of new and beatntiful styles, to wvhich they
rewpectlblly irwite the attentiomn of the Ladies.
Nov 3 ___ tf 42
Extracts for Flavoring.
PITETON & MERR ELL'S Extract of Lemon.
P .' Extract of V'anilla,
" Ornnee Flower Water,
"Superior Rose Water,
just received and for sale by
Oct1 la tf 0. L~. PENN, Aor.
Pink SEaticers for Dycing
S ILK STOCK INGS, Gloves, Feathers. Flowers,
Gunges. Camb~ries, Cottmns, &c. A supply
just rceived and for sale very ceep by
Oct 13 tf 39
3,500 LBS. Choice Up-Country BA CON,
1,000 " " altim~ore "
For sale by F. ML NICIIOLA S.
Oct26 __ f 41-- '
Extra Fine Chewing.
TUST received a few Boxes of ENTRA FlNE
,CHEWING TOBA CCO, the celebrated " Cal
houti Brand," mnufactutred expressly for thme Sub
scriber. G, L. P EN N, AGS-r.
Augs. 18 Q . 31
COLUMIA, Nov. 23, 1852.
Gentlemen of the Senate,
and House of Representatires:
Another year has ro!led around, and brought
the day, when, as iepreser.tatives of the People,
we have assmnabled together to deliberate upon
the alliirs of the Conimonwe:alth. And before I
proceed to treat of the subjects which, for the
gotd of our State I may deem proper to bring
to your attention, permit me eariest ly to request
that you will join me in rendering heartfelt
tlanks and praises to Almighty God,for the many
and nideserved mercies bestowed upon its as a
People during the past year. Although some
portion of our State has trembled beeiath lie
scourge of the "Pestilence that walketh by
darkness and wasteth by noonday," yet we have
caus1e for thisankflness that we have been per.
mitted to enjoy, in other portions, more than a
usual degree of he:.h h; and although we have
been called upon to mourn the devastation and
ruin that marked the trick of the late disastrous
and unprecedented flood, yet wherever its deso
lating effects were nm.t felt, a rich aid'ahuntidint
harvest will reward the labor of the husband
Terrible as has lien the blow to the prosper
ity of our State hy the destruction of erops aid
bilhges on our water courses, aid as deeply as
we synmpali7e with those of our fellow-citizens
who have sull'red, vet we are lcound to bow
submii[a6ivelv to the Aillieting rod of our Heaven
ly F aternd render to lihii the homage of grate.
'ul hears for wh:tever mercies lie has seen it,
in Ilis wisdom and goodness, to vouchsafe to
us, his delpendent creatures.
It gives ile pleasure to inform you that the
same flourishing condition of our ditl'errnt In
slitutions (of Leaiig, noticed in miy last antinual
lessage, still continlues. The South Carolina
College, under the judicious and energetic man
:agement of its able President, is still progress.
ing in its onward course of usefulness. To the
already able and eflicient Corps of Professors,
has been :added dur'ng the past year the services
of Dr. Reynolds, whoso high eharacter, devoted
piety, and elegant eruditioln, amply qualify him
fur iie exalted stationi to which he h::s teen
enaled, and which lie has thus far tilled with hioni
ur to himself, and us'efulness to the Institution.
The Military Academies s-ill give evidence of
increasing uiseulness, and bid fair to stand as
eiduring monutimenis of the wisdom and muni
lieenee of tie sate, in establishing so eniglit
ned a plan of eleemosynary education. The ,
tudies at the Citadel were suspended during I
part of the past summer and fall, in consequence I
f the prevalence of yellow fever; but in future i
iteps will be taken to prevent the disbanding of
he Corps, by tiemping in some healthy region,
in case tids epidemic should again visit the city.
I'he addition to the Arsvinal, ordered by the last
Legislature, is completed, and, with tie former
)uilding, will be of sullicient capacity to accom.
nodate all the Fourth Class, (say from ninety
o one hundred.)
The last Legislature authorized the Trustees
>f the South Carottna College to buildChael,
rovided they did not call upon it for more than
110,000. This building, so much needed, has
:een contracted for by the Trustees at $22,000,
nd will he of sutlicient size to accommodate
.00 persons.* The Trustees have paid $4,000
(thie first instalmnent.) out of the Tuition Fund,
id have contracted to pay $10,000 after the
adjournment of tih Legi-dature, and the bai:ance
when the building is completed. You will per.
eive from this statement that the Legislature
will only be called upon for the sum which it
uthorized the Trustees to use. _As no appro.
priation was made fAir this purpose, and as the
Trustees, acting under the authority of the Le
gislature, have coitracted for the payment of
that suni after your adjournment, I recommend
that at the present Session you make an appro
priation to meet this c:dl.
Before I leave the subject of these your cher
ished Institutions of learning-the one which
has given to your history some oIf its brightest
names, and die other, which, talthouigh but in its
infaniec, begins to show its praeICical tility by
giving'to the State the services of~ wel-educsated
gentlemen, who, but for its munificence, miught
have grovelled forever in obscuiri ty-permit mle
earnestly to invoke for them a continuanace of
your care and liberality.
I have endeavored, during the past summer, to
inform myself thoroughly upon the subject of
our Free school System; but from the wsant of
interest geiierally manifested, I have been able
to collect but little infoi-msati-on. Thera .eems
to be a general belief thast it works badly, except
in the larg~e cities. Coiidae'ed as they arc in
the country, I do not hesitate to pronounce it an
imost useless expenditure of the pdlblie fund ;
yet I am far from being willing to recomnmnend a
discontinuance of the appl~ropriation. Th'le ob.
ject of extending the blesiings of education to
the poor is too just and iiob~le a one to be aban
doned. Ini sonme of the older States more dense
ly poupulsated than our own, beneficisl results
have been seen from it. I am sure the system
could be so altered aind improved as to work
well with us. But to do this would require a
thorough knowledge of the subject; and it ap.
pasto mec that the only way in which you
could ombtsain that knowledge would be to auth
orize the Governor to appoint a suitsable and
competent person to travel over the State for a
year, and notice the masnner of its operations,
point out its defects, and suggest improvements.
To do this, it niust be insde the specific duty of
some one to colleet this information ; pay him
for it and require a strict performance ~at his
hands. -1 feel more certain of the propriety of
this recommendation, inasmnuch as I am sustain
ed in it by high authority. One of my prede
essors c~illed upon all the Conummissioners of
Free Schools to make reports of the condition
of them in their respective Districts, and to sug
gest such alterations and improvements as they
deemed necessary. These repoirts were placed
in the hands of Dr. Thornwell and Bishop El
liott, who, safter a careful examination of them,
recommended the plain whiichi' have done.
Thme Bank of the State. according to a Report
made to mec by its Presidenit, is in a highly pros
prus condition. The capit.-l is $ 100,000 muore
thiain last year.
The csaisa in use may be set down
Deduct Fire Loan Bonds...... .. 28,500
The Profits are...................309,405
Deduct literest on Fire Losan Bonds... 29,680
which is about 9 par cenat. on its capitial.
The Charter of this Bamik expires in 1856.
The short time it has to run renders it proper
that you should consider the question of re-char
ter at this Session. I thaiink there are nanny
reasonis why it should be re-chartered. This
istitution has proved itself to be highly useful
aad safe as a fiscsal agent of the State, and has
aided msaterially in sustaining our people during
the severe monetary crisis through which we
have psassed, As all hutman institutions are im
perfect, nio doubt but some instances of amisman
agemnent have occurred is the conduct of its af
airse. I believe Ibsat the only mismanagement that
s. bc- c.plaimned of isnn over Iudulgence
ofsome of its debtors. I have not been able to
learn, however, that the Bank has sustainedI any
I wsex from this cause. In some instances along
intdulgence has secured the final payment of the
debt, and at the same time enabled the creditor
to secure a competence to his family, when the
sudden calling in of the debts would have re
sulted in heavy losses to the lank, and brought
ruin and bankruptcy upon the debtor.
It is much more creditable to the management
of this Institution th.it it should have erred in
this particular, than that it should have proved
a relentless creditor, by forcing sales of properly
at a ruinous sacrifiee. If any real abuses do
exist, they ought, most certuinly, to be reformed.
The existence of them in a system is no proof
that they are incident to it, or that the syatem
itself is a bad one.
The Charters of many of the Private Banks
are about to expire ; and in all probability appli
cntion -will be made to you for a renewal of
them. Whatever may be Lhougit of the policy
of the Banking Syten, were the qlestin of!
its intronduction amongt4 us for the first time
made. one thing is certain, it has so completely
interwoven itself into all our habits of business,
that to abandon it now would greatly embarrass
the commercial interest, and probably bring ruin
on the country. It perhaps would be wike to
re-charter theini all ; vet sone check ought to be
placed upon themn. I know ofi no other better
than a strung Bank of the State.
Another argument inl favor of i's re-clarer is
the anount of taxes it saves oil citizens. Du
ring the iast year, as I have already stated, its
profits have amonted to *279,725, which, of
course has relieved our people of that amount
ot taxation. But, above all other reasons why
vot: should renew its Charter, the fact that the
honor of the S:ate is pledged to it should have
greater influence wit h1 you than anything else.
Whein the Fire Loan Bonds were negotiated in
England by Ex-Governor McDutlie, the profits
of the Bank were pledged as a security for their
payment.* Thus it would appear that a refusal
to re-charter this Bank, at least until these bonds
are liquidated, would involve a violation of the I
pledges, affect the credit, snd tarnish the honor
itf the State, which every Carolinian should re
gard as sacred -as his own. ! i
Without making posi;iee recommendation on
the subject, I suggest to you the propriety of 3
lonsidering.at this tine whether it wouldt not be
wise, under existing circumstances to increase
the capital of the Bank of the State. The great
increa.e of all kinds (of business, cnused by onr
Railroads,calls for addi:i-unal Banking Capital. I
Some of the large manufeitturing establislments
vhich have receitly spruntg up amongst us, have
Lcen greatly embarrassed during the past sum
ner for the want of Bank aecomtmodation. InI
ract, the complaint is very general on this subject.
Vo doubt this state of things will produce ap
lications for charters for more Banks. Now,
is the Banking system has proved so highly pro.
itable, would it not be wise to appropriate a
arge portion of it to the State, and thus in a.
neasure free our people from taxation.
But a still stronger reason for an increase, is.
o give it the power (if nteting as a check upon
.he private Banks. They are certainly much to 1
)e dreaded,iTeft entfretyuncontrollr
he condition of the country is prosperous, the 4
emptation to expand their currency, and thus
necrease ther priofits is ltuost irresistible. Such
xpanimions cause all kinds of proper-y to assutne
L fictitious value, and the whole country runs 1
itit in the wildest speculations. Scenes of great c
listress always follow such periods as these,and 1
generally hastened and rendered still more
errible by the sudden calling in of the deb:s, t
nd the contractioi of the currency. In tnct the t
alue of the property is alnot entirely at the
nerey of those who control the currency of the
ountry. An expansioi alwayvi runs it far be- -
ond its value, and a contraction far below.- t
-vcn the price of our great staple ean be atlleet. j
d by the Banks' refutsing to lhnd- money
reelv, anid thus scriouly inijure the planter. I
There should be somae check upon this im
neuse, this fearful power.
I know that great, fears are entertained as to
he political power which a strong Blank if he
State would wield-but these are rather imagiiin
ry than real, if you will reflect that it will be
mitirely under the control of the Legislature.
[ts oflicers are elected annually, and ot courset
:ould be removed if fusnnd exerting any influ-<
mueat vairiance witha thte trtue interests of the I
people. Alt the arguments which go to estab
ish our fears that a corrupting influence would
Le equally :tpplienble to other Blanks, If there I
.s any real danger of such intluences from mnon.. I
-yed mnoipolies, it is far bet ter thamt they should
Le under the cotitro.l of the Stautc, than that they
hould control the State. The Bank of the
State is directly responsible to the Legi.slature.t
while the private Banks are pierfe.ctly independ- I
mt of it, from the time they receive their char. 4
e~rs, until they expir&
Itf you, in youi wt om, should detud that It is
inexpedient to inicrease the capital of the Banik
uf the. Staite, so as to give it the controlling in- j
Iluence, prudetnce requires that you should grant I
io charter te anty private Bank withI a capital of t
~uticiont size to give suclf influence to it. No
Bank should be chartered with a cnpital beyonad
s uiillion of dollars.
'lThe Lunattie Asylum, that charitable Instit tu
ion so creditable to the humanity oif the State,
lemanids your special care and anentionl. .Jus.
tie reqltilres that I should again report to you
not only the admirable order of its arrangement,
but the devoted attentioni of its ollieers to the
delicate and laborious duties they are called upon
During the past year forty-four (4.4) new pa
tients htave been received, thtirty of whlomu are
pay patient, and twenty-eighmt of those hereto
fore under treatment have been dismissed, either
entirely cured or greatly benefltted. Thte build
ings are now not only full, but crowded. I was
particularly struck wvith the want of room in the
enlosed grountds. They are nltogeter too
much contined either for the comfort of the pa
tients, or the degree of exegelse which might
conduce to their final cure. The imtprovemnents
of the age have shown that the original build
ig was improperly constructed; biut the addi
tions which :tre hereafter mtide can lbe done in
accordantce with t hose in) provemett which willI
greatly remedy the defect.
If~ the Legislature will grant a further appro
priation. it is proposed to enelose with a wall
four acres of the lands belonging to the Asylum
on thec east side of it, and erct suitable build
ings to acecommtodate the female pntients. For
this purpose the~ Regents, Physician, anid Super
intetndent ask an appropriation of thirty thous
and dollars. This will enable them better to
provide for the reception of pay patients, which
will greatly relieve the State of the bturthen of
the Institution, perhaps to a suflicient extent
even to ruimbturse it for the amount, of thme ap
propriation; ats for the want of such neeonimo
dtionts many, who aro abie and willinig to pay
highest, tire carried to other Institutions. All
must feel it to be the duty of a State to pro.
vide for that unfortunaute class of our fellow
ereatures who have beeni deprIved of reason.
Yet notne cnn feel that ditty with the degree of
ntensity which their helpless nnd deplorable
situation demands, but those who have been
brought in cotntact with themi. I aim sure, if
* See Mr. MeDutle's letter to Col. Elmore, Bank
Comnpilat'oun. n. 661t.
you all could be eye witnesses to their suffir
ings, you would. feel youielves called upon by
every consideration of humanity and Christi
anity, to place within theirreach all the means
that science has discovere'. for their care, and
to make your Institution ot merely a prison
house, but really an Asylum. Those who have
watched this Institution itith a paternal care,
and have no interest apdrtrom its good, who
have carefully considered'i wants. ask this ap
propriation at your hands.- I trust you will not
A memorial from the Diictors of the South
Carolina Institute is herewith transmitted, to
which I invite your attention. This Institute,
established for the encouragement of all the in.
dustrial pursuits of the couitry was incorpora
ted by an act of the Le'gislature in 1850. One
fair was held presious to ilt incorporation, and
two since that time, wlihb. have given a most
gratirying evidence of itsi ecess in pr(moting
the gr'eat object for whieliIt was established.
When we reflect how farilhind our State has
been in the great race ofthe improvement of
the mechanic srts, the exhi ition 4of meclaniical
skill and ingenui:y, which'ihe fairs of this In
Atitute have developed, Tmst be a source of
pri'le and satisfaction to every one who has the
real interests of his couintry at heart. They
have clealy shown that th're was no want of
bilent or energy on the piit of our nachanies,
but that it only required sog e stimulant of this
kind to P.pring it into life.: These exhibiions
ire cosmnon to all those Stites which have been
most remarkable for theiir improvements in the
miechanic arts, an-i hae reepived the particular
patronage of their Legi.,laitres.
This lnstitution'has beengestablislied by the
rivate enterprise of its. tfinders, to etfect a
rreat public good ; and while it reflects credit
ipon their publie spirit, deserves your patronage.
Since it was founded, thetarticles otfered for
xlibitmn have been so nauierous, that no hall
:an be found of sutlicientilapacity to contain
hem. The necessity of blilding another has
nduced them to call uponpu for aid to con
truct it. By giving tlissid, you adopt the
nost enlightened plan off neonraging all the
.ndustrial pursuits of the. 'ountry; but more
%articularly the mechanic a ', which have here
ofore been too much n- ected. Encourage
pnur own mechanics, by bri 'ng the results of
heir talent-and enterpris o notice, and it
will be seen that our.-itat i1.1 rival any other
n useful improvements. -gIt them, and you
vill find that they will see -ome more favored
-egion, where their skill wi be appreciated and
The Attorney General . my request, has
lrawn up a report on the s' ct of Prisons and
'rison Discipline, to-whic e'has added a re
ort on the Criminal Law. it contains much
'aluable information, and., y inportant sug
restions, I herewith transn and invite your at
ention to it.
Without pretending to "'fully upon the
uhject, I will state a few to show there
ught to be a change i 7 vm'nagement of
lrisons, and also intie gi6 executiins.
There is no provision , &th'e separa
ion of the differntn ,
if some small offence, and uponi whom the pun
shment of imprisonment might have so salutary
n effect as to bring about his reformation, if
eft alone to the workings of his own con
cience, is confined with-the hardened felon, and
f course subjected to hi.4 pernicious influence.
'lie debtor, who is perhaps more unfortunate
han criminal, is herded with the felon and nnr
lerer. Good sense, as well asjustice and good
aste, revolt at this state of things.
A change ought to be made in the manner of
,xecutions. Al! public executions are demor
lizing to the community, and fail to produce
lie effect upon it they were intended to produce.
morbid curiosity collects thousands together
o witness them, and when the criminal is
rought forth for execution, the natural synia
hies of the crowd convert him into a hcro or
nartyr. Thus, much more of pitty than terror
s inspired boy the exhibition. Or where, by fre
muent recurrence, they become failiar, from
ome stranige perversity of human nature, a
-ulgar taste is inspired for them, which is revolt
ng to witness. It is a familiar fact, thatiduring
he Reign of' Terror in France, whmen the streets
f Paris were flowing wvith the blood of inno
ent victims, the populace actually clamored for
nre executions, when each individual wvas not
are but that his head would be the next to be
ronght to the guillotine. If it intended to
trike terror to the heart of the multitutde, by
vitnessing ex ecutions, thme very publicity oh'
hemi defeats this end. Much more of terror
vould lbe inspired by the knowledge, that at
he tolling of a bell, or sonic other signal, a
tuman being, withiin thme narrow compass ntf his
elI. was launched into etctity, unsnatained ini
ds last dark miomente by the sympauthies of a
If the Punishment ,f Whipping is to be con
inued, that, too, wveie better done ini private. I
loubt exceedingly, however, the propriety of
his mode of punishment under any circum
tancs. Reformatlon of the, culprit (one of
lie important ends of punishinent) is seldom or
ver effected by it. If one spark of' good. upon
vhichi a hope of reformation can be built, is
eft in his heart, it is entirely extinguished by
lie degradamtion of a public wvhip.ping. If lhe is
lready hardenmed in crime, and lost to all sense
af shame, no otlher effect is produced upon himu
>eyonid the physical pain intlieted by thme lasih.
[think that the general feeling of our peeple is
1(cidedly opposed to this mode of punishmnent;
o much so, that it is exceedingly dihlcult for
he Executive to resist the earniest appeals anid
~owerfl influences brought to bear upon hinm,
~iter to remit or change it.
But I will not tresspass on your time by pur
ming the subject further. I merely wish to
ir yotur attention to it. This subject, to
~eher with the revisal of the whole Criminal
Code, requires r..more careful examination thamn
you would probably be able to give it during a
short Session of the Legislature. I therefore
recommend that you appoint or authorize the
overnor to appoint. a Commission, consisting
of the Attorney General and the Solicitors, or
some other competent persons, to take the
whole subject of our Criminal Lawv, Prisons and
Prison Dicipiline, under consideration, and re
port to the next Legislaturo such changes as
may be expedient or necessary. In this main
nr, all the facts and statistics necessary to formn
s correct judgmnent on the subject wvill he
brought before you by those who are most fa
milir with them.
By a joint resolution of the last General As
sebly, I was requested to comimuniente withI
the Governor of Georgia oni the subject of the
obstructions to commerce amid intercourse be
tween the two States, tnd to take such other
steps as would lead to a full exposition and ci'
derstanding of the rIghts of all parties con
cerned, and to a frank and friendly settlement
of the whole matter."
On the 6th of M~ay, I addressed a letter to 1His
Excellency Governor Con, in accordariCe with
the spirit of the said joint resoldtion, and re
quested the Attorney Geineral to look into the
matter, and report to nie what were the legal
rights of the parties concerned. I. hulve re
eived as yet no direct reply from Goy. Cbnn.
My letter to him, together with the correspon
dence betwe.. ,t.e Attorney. Gneral and them
Executive Secretary of Georgia-the statement
of the Attorney General, and the result of his
legal investigations of the case, embodied in the
form of a Report, are all herewith transmitted.
I think it, however, proper to state that the
question of the boundaries between the two
States has lost much of its interest at present,
since an arrangement has been made by the
President (if the Souith Carolina Railroad Coin
pany with the city nuthoritis (if Augusta, by
w'hich a free passage across the Savannah river
is secured to the Company.
I feel it my duty to call your attention to
certain proceedings which have grown out of
the enforcement of that law of our State, which
requir-es the Sheriff of Charleston to seize and
imprison colored seamen, who are brought to
that Port. You will remember that the British
Consul addressed a communication to the Leg
islature in December, 1850, on the subject of a
modification of this law. A Committee was ap
pointed by the House and Senate to report upon
it at the Session of the Legislature. The Com
inittees reported adverse to any modifieation.
On the 24th of Marcb, 1852, Manuel 1'ereira
was imprisoned in accordance with the law al
luded to. The vessel in which he sailed was
driven into the port of Charleston in distress.
This was looked upon as a favorablet case upon
which to make an issue, as so strong an element
of sympathy vas connected with it. Accord
ingly, a motion was made before Judoe Withers
for a Writ (if "11:heas Corpus," which was re
fused liv him. These proceedings were insti
tuted by the British Consul, it is said, under in
structions from his Governmient, to test tIme con
stitutic nality of the Act. I think it here pro
per to state, that Pereira was at perfect liberty
to depart at any moment that he could get a
vessel to transport him beyond the limits of the
State. In truth, in consideration of the fict
that his coming into the State was involuntary,
the Sheriff of Charleston, with his characteristic
kindness. procured for him a place in a ship
about to sail for Liverpool. Early in April,
Pereira was actually released, and on his way to
the ship, having himself signed the shipping ar
[icles, when, by interposition of the British
Consul, he was again consigned to the custody
of the Sheriff. A few days after this the Brit
ish Consul insisted no longer on Lis detention,
but voluntarily paid his pa..s:ige to New York.
This was looked upon as an abandonment of
that case. The statement of Mr. YATeS, to
rether with the letter of the British Consul, are
While these proceedings were pending, the
Sheriff of Charleston had tmy instruction not to
give up the prisoner, even if'a writ of Habeas
Corpus had been granted. I considered that
the "Act of 1844," entitled "An Act more ef
feetually to prevent. nogroes and others persons
of coto'r from entering into this State, and for
other purposes," made it my duty to do so.
On the 19th of May, Reuben Roberts, a col
>red seaman, a native of Nassau, arrived in the
teamer Clyde, from Baracon. The Sheriff of
Charleston, in conformity with the law of the
State, which has been in force since 1823, ar
rested and lodged him in the district jail, where
e: was detained until the 26th of May, wheo,
Mig!a --g--n---iy hlt.N~t
n board, and sailed the same day.
On the 9th of June a Writ in Trespass, for
Assault and False Imprisonment, from the Fed
eral Court, was served upon Sheriff YATES, lay
ing the damnae at $4.000.
The Act oF 1814, 1 take it, was intenied to
prevent all interference on the part of any power
mik the face of the e:arth with this exenution (if
this police regulation, which is so essential to
the peace and safety of our community. Had
the Legislature which passed it ever dreamed
hat the Sheritf was to be subjected to the an
noyance of being dragged before the Federal
Court for doing his duty under a law of the
State, I am sure it would have provided for his
irotection. As no such provision has been
nade for so unexpected a contingeney, I recom
mend that you so amend this Act of 18 1.1, that
it may meet any case that may arise.
It is certainly wrong to tolerate this inter
erence with the laws enacted for the protection
if our institution. Inm thme general distribution
f power between the Federnil and State Govern
nemts, the right to mnake their own police regu-|
ations was cleaurly reserved to the St ates. In1
thet, it is nothing more nor tess tha~n the right
f sdf-presciralo-a right which is above all
onstitutione, and above all laws, and one
hich never was, nor never will be, abandoned
y a people who are worthy to be free. It Is a
ight which has never yet been attempted to be
leied to any people, except to us.
Th'le complaint against this law is very strange,
mnd the attempt to bring us in conflict with the
eneral Governmcnt on account 'of it, is still1
nore remarkable; when, so far from its being at1
ariance with the Jaws of the Uniited States it, isi
oly requiring the State authorities to enforce
mn act of Congress, :pproved Feb'ry 28th, 1803,
mtitled, an Act to prevenit the) implortationi ofi
ertain personls into certain States, where, byi
he laws thereof, their importation is prohlibited.*1
By referring to this Act, you will see that the
lintifl'in the action alluded to, was prohibited
y it from entering into this State. [ deeom it
unecessary, howecver; to enter fully into the
argutment. If any doubt should be etntertained
my you, as to its constitutionality, I beg leave to
efer to thme able Opinion of the Hon. J. Mc
1'uERSON BERtRIENu, delivered at the tiume lie was
A torney General of the United States, which 1
lersvitii send you.
On thme subject of thme muodificat ion of' this law,
I nm free to say, that when Hecr B. M.'s Govern
ent, through its Consul, made a respectful re
qtest to our Legislature to that effect, I was
axious that it should be made. It wvas with
leasure that I transmitted his first communica
ion to the last Legislature. I would have made
a recommendation of its modification a special
point in 'my first Message, but that I thought it
indelicate to do so, as the matter was already
before the Legislature, and comimittee~s had been
appoiinted to report upon it. Ainuther reason
for the neglect of this recommen~idation, was the
then excited state oif party p)olities, which might
ave precludled thme possibilty of a enlm enid
ratiotn of the subiject. Bitt for the proceedings
instituted in the premises, 1 wvould even now re
coinmend a mnoditiienaion of the law, so as to re
quire .Captainis, to contfine their seamen to their
vessels, and to prevent their landing uinder heavy
penalties. For while I think the State has a
perfect, right to pass whatever law~s on this
subject it may deem necessary for its safety, yet
the .pirit of the age requires, that while they
should be so formed as to be adequate to our
protection, they should he at the same time as
little offensive as possible to other nations, with
whom we have friendly relations. But since imn
attempt has been made to defy our laws, and
bring us in conflict with the Federal Govern
ment, on a subject tipon wvhich we are so justly
sensitive, our own self-respect demands that we
should not abate one jot orttille of that law, which
was enacted to protect us from the influence of
It gives nme pleasure to inform you that the
Railroads, of our State are rapidly progi-essing.
The Columbia & Charlotte Railroad, and the
King's MIoutitain Road, are coiileted. Al
though heavy aniges were sustained by the
Geenville Road from the late freshet, they will
*e 2da ory's,.. Lawm- T. S. p. S 6a
soon be repaired, and, under the energetic man
ageiment of its President and Directors will ere
long be completed. Tle Manchester Road is
also progressing rapidly. Already do we see
the potent effects of these Roads in developing
the resources of thd state, itnd springing into
lire the energies of the people. The prosperity
which follows in their track is no lunger pro
blematical. Living witnesses of it are all a
round us, Yet this grand system, which is to
bring wealth and prosperity to us, and energize
into action resources which were heretofore dor
mant, has just begun. If we would realize their
full effets, they must be extended until the rich
commerce of the mighty valleys of the West is
poured into Charleston. This can easily be ef
fecled by pursuing a liberal and enlightened
policy-towards them-a policy worthy of the
age in which we live. The golden opportunity
to command this trade is within our reach.
Charters have been granted by the several States
through which it will pass for a Blue Ridge R'd,
which is to cross the Rabun Gap, and extend
through Clayton and Franklin to Calhoun,
where it will intersect the Knoxville and Dalton i
Road. Through Knoxville a communication will I
he opened with Cincinnati, (as.a Charter has
been granted by Tennessee for a Road to
the Kentncky line, and a Company is formed in
Kentucky to carry it on to Cincinnati.) A road I
is now in progress to connect Calhoun with 1
Chattanooga. From Chattanooga to Memphisa
road has already been built, and the Cha-tinooga I
road connect it with Nashville. A road is also :
about to be made between Nashville and Cairo. I
Thus you will pe:cive, that if the Blue Ridge i
is built. commencing at Anderson Court -ouse i
and extending to Calhoun, Charleston will i
be connected by a system of Roads, not only
with Cincinnati, but with Memphis and Cairo I
two important points on the Mississippi river, c
and at a distance fron each other, equal to <
the entire brendth of Tennessee, and nearly one- t
third of Kentucky. All the. immense trade I
which the Missiasippi and its tributaries bring z
to this important point, together with that of
the fertile regions through which these ronds t
and their numerous feeders pass, must find Its c
outlet through Charleston. At a single glance I
you must perceive the m-ignificent prospect it 4
presents. It would'be a suicidal policy in our c
State, not to secare this gigantic commerce, c
now that it is within its reach. But to secure
it, the Legislature must subscribe liberally. c
So great are the advantages it presents, so great
the prosperity which it will bring, the State v
eouli well alford alone' to boil.l this only link r
which is now wanting in this mighty chain. i
But there is no call for this. Charleston, I am t
informed, will subscribe half a million, and even t
more, if necessary. Enough has already been e
subscribed in Nofth Carolina to secure the c
Charter of that State, and Tennessee, by her v
general system of liberality to her roads, gives I
$8,000 per mile. As deeply. interested as all I
these States are in this grand scheme, none are
so deeply as South Carolina. I therefore re. r
commend that you subscribe a million of dollars I
to this road, or even more, if it be necessary. to t
omplete it. Even if the stock never paid a <
dollar of interest, it would be a judicious expen- i
fro the fct t i must inev ta ye e grea
thoroughfiare over which the commerce of five or
six of the largest States in this Union will pass, I
together with the immense amount of travel,
which from its position it will comm:md. there I
onnot be a doubt but that the stock will pay a r
eavy interest, and thus make the invesmnent a I
profiable one for the State. And if we add to c
this con.ide-ration the rnet that it wi'l increase a
'reatly the business, and consequently ihe profits c
tf the roads already built, in which the State has (
i large amount of stock, you will see a still fur. t
1 e inducement for fostering the enterprise. d
I trust that no sectional feeling will be brought t
to bear on this question. It is a great State (
atter. It in true that the interest of Charles- v
Ion will be more promoted than any other sec- e
tion or the State, but 'the we:ilth which will be u
poured into her lap, will be radiated throughout f
its entire extent.
There is also, I believe, a project on toot to a
xtentd the Charlotte Road so as to command ae
portion of this trade. These two projects can-t
rot interfere with each othieri and thterefore oughtv
ant to be considered anta.gonistie; but rather I
c-iting eachi other in carrying out a grand plann
af improvement. When application is ma:de fore
assistance to extend this ro:ad, the same liberal.
ty dught to be extendcd to it. The State can-t
nt expend ted much money in the construetion ji
afr Railroads providing they are judiciously lo
:ated and economically built; for every dollare
will be returned four-fold to its citizens by thee
advantages they afford. Nor will it be necessary I
to tax the peopale for this purpose. Borrow thev
roney, and the roads thtemselves will soon payi
the interest, and gradually liquidate the debt. e
By a Joint Resolution of the last General As-.i
sembly, a Commission wvas appointed to inquireh
into the feasibility of deepening, shortening, ora
n any .other manner imiprovi ig. the Channel ofe
~he Bar, and other approaches of the Charless
\ihen the Commission held its first meeting,;n
~ve found that thie Chamber of Conimerce ul- 1i
ready had the matter tinder consideratio~n. 1
reel it due to that enlightened and public-spirited.
asociation, publicly to acknowledge the kind-p
tess and courtesy extended to the Commission,
n placing at our'disposal the information which
it had already collected.
The Chamber of Commerce had memorialized
the CongF~ss of the United States, calling itse
ttention to this work as one of national utility
nd importance, and asking an appropriation to
earry it out. Trhe Congress of the United States 1
appropriate~d $50.000. The Commission tookr
no part in this memorial, but employed a portion
of the fund allowed by the State to detray the
expenses of a preliminary survey. The result
of this survey has afforded the most gratifying
assurance of the practicability of opening the
Bar. I must also acknowledge the courtesy and
kindness of the offiers of the Coast Survey,t
who placed at our disposatl the m:'p4 of the ianr.
bor, anid co-operated cordially with the Commis
sion in carr~ving out the sitrvey. The vast i
portance of' this work to the future prosperity
of Charleston,. renders it an object of pecula ar
interest to the State. It is scarcely possible to 1
estitmiate what amotunt of expetnditure its vast
importance would justify. There is, however,- 1
no need at present for the State to make any
further appropriation for this purpose, as the
Federal Governmnent hats taken it itn hand. It
will perhaps, however, be well to continue the
presentt Commission until the work is actually
comenced by the Government of the United
Thte report of Prof. Bache, the report of the
Commission, together with an account of the
exenditture of a portion of the fund appropria
ted by thmo Legislature, is herewvith transmitted.
In pursilanie of an Act of the last Legtisla
tre, the State Convention ntat at. the appointed
time. The proceedings of that body, together
with the expenses incurred, are herewvith trans
mitted to you in accordance with its request.
Perhaps there never was a body assembled
under circumstances of so much embarrassment,
aid wvhieh dalled for an exercise of sitch pru
dnce, sagacity, and devoted patriotistm on the
part of its members. The same cause of com
plaint against the Federal Governent which
cnae t i nto life, still exited in ull....c. No
evidence had been given that Its outward pro
gress towards a consolidated despotism was
stayed, or that any barrier had been erected
against that tide of fanaticism, which, with fear
ful rapidity, was still rolling on, threatening the
overthrow of the Instittitiotis of the South. No
security was afforded us that we should not for
ever remain in a state of vassalage to the Feder
al Government, paying far beyond our just pro
portion of its expenses, and receiving far less
than our share of the benefit of its expenditure..
Nor do I believe that any change hid taken place
in the feelings and opinions of the people of the
State.. An almost universal feeling of indigna
tion at our wrongs, and a burning desire to re
dress them, prevailed. bitt discord and party
strife, which have blasted the success of many a
glorious cause, had raised its head among us,
and paralyzed our strength. One party believed
that the time had come when every considera
tion of policy and duty required that the State
should act, even though it should stand alone..
Another party believed the separate action of
the State would be ruinous, and that the co-op
iration of the other Southern State.i, whose in
terests and dest inv were the snme as ours, could
aid would beobtained. No doubt but that both
parties were honest in their convictions, that the
policy recommended by each would redound to
the welfare of our State. The discussion of
these conflicting opinions produced the bitterest.
party feeling. Amid the donvitisive throes of
this fierce strife, the question of our wrong was
ilmost forgotten. Thitus did our State present
he mournful spectacle of a people, whom con
non wrongs and common dangers should havo
,nited in closest bonds, completely prostrated
md paralyzed,'not by force and power of the
memy, but by their own internaIl strifes. It was
00 plainly seen that any action, tinder existing
ircumstances, could end in nothifg else but self
lestruction. Many a bold and gallant heart,
hat had never quailed before to power of the
cderal Government, grew faint at the prospect,
nd shrunk from the thought of civil strife.
The people had, by a large majority, passed
heir verdict against separate accssion, in the
leetion which had been recently held for mem
>ers to Southern Congress. Under these cir
umstances, the Conventsin thet. The only
ourse which wisdom and patrIotism could sug
rest, namely, to heal the wounds which had re
ently been inflicted, and re-unite the State. I
an but congratulate you on the happy result.
rhe members of that Convention, actuated by
spirit worthy of the palmiest days (if the Com
nonwealth, determined to bury all bitter feel
ngs which had been generated by the late con
est, and act with an eye slngCl to the good f
lie State, under the circumstances which thent
xisted. Nor do I think, in efecting this great
bject, that any snerifice of principle was in
olved. The principles which have ever been
ield dear amongst us, were not only reaffirmed,
mut set forth in the solemn form of an Ordinance.
But sincerely as I feel the gratilication of an
iouncing to you that the State has been united,
most call upon you to remetstyer that our safe
y has not yet been secured. The storm which,
ne day or other, is destined t67lirst upon.ss
s still brewin ., The.grett C o
me of the Northern States, th1 ngitive Slaie
aw has been nullified ; and id :ll the others it
s buta dead letter. A brutal murder of a slave
iolder has been the result (of an attempt to
eclaim a slave under this nitih vaunted law.
Fhs spirit of misch.ief is w'rking with fearful
nergy. Agitation still goes on with ceaseless
etivity. Every element whih ban be nade to
perate on public ( pinion is ptot lit action against
ur institutions. Even that powerful weapon,
lie Literature of the country, is employed to
lirect its polished bit poisoned shafts against
hem. It is true tl't nothitig has been done by
0ongress, since your last Sessioni; against whiek
ve can coiplain. Judging, htoievcr, from the
letments whiclh are at ivork, and trom the history
f the past, we cannot hope that this cessatioit
rota hostile acts against our Institittions will be
f long duration. Amid all our prosperity,
id the still greater prosperity which we would
nijoy if left alone, the heart sitkenss at the con
etmplation of that fierce fanatieism which is at
v~ork, and which still hangs like a pall upon our"
uture. hlowever strong may lie iny convictions
a to the propriety ot' an atempt to stayi the
ouming storm by the separate action uf the State;
nd however deeply I mayu 'leplore the decision
o which our people huave come tipmtln this sub'
eet, God forbid that I should rati into a flame
lie exp'irinrg embers of pa:rty stil by nowv re
ommendinug it to you. Our destinty, for weal
r for woe. is connected wvit h thtC whole South.
urther aggressions (wvhich ilhl surely come)
ill convince our uister Southern States that the
istituition upon which not only~ the prosperity
f the South, but Republicanism itself depends,
no longer safe in the Union. Then wec may
ope that they will rise in the majesty of their
trength and spirit, and itn eatijtthetioin with us,
ither force our rights to be respected in the
Jnion, or take our place as a Southern Confed
racy among the nations of the~ earth. In the
meantimue, let us utnite, heart and hand, in carry.
ag out those great schemes of internal improve'
ment, by wvhich the wealth and fesources of our
;tamte will be developed, rind thus give it all the
ower and strength of *hich it is enipable.
JOHN II. MlEANS.
ErrESIVE DloARDING.-In an article relating
o the Metropolitan Hotel, Na York, the " n
" In the matter of pribes, few pny less than
$25 per week ; anid one foreign emissary, who
Las taken rooms fur the season, is paying at the
ate of $80 per days besidbs a very libernl ex.
ra expenditure fbf the vbty cholcest of antique
vines. One gentleman pays 850 per week.
['he bills of others amotunt to $200, $250, and
5300 per Week. The bridal chamber is eon
tantly occupuied at the ramte of $20 per day.
"It is also stated, that "more people are.
urned away than are teeeived"-and that
rooms are taken by ..hetter and by telegraph,
or weeks In advahtie." .
" The jirojirietors.shouild have procured a sup.
ily 6f the wmeiis sold last wveek in this city, at
915b per bottle. They could no doubt retail
,bem out to their customters for a dollar a drop;
is those who w~ould fny the rates named for:
ioard, ioiid not liesitate to indulge in wine at
hat price. Of sush people it may be truly
taid; " a fool and hIrs hioney are soon parted."
A PRUDENYT MASTER advised his drunketi
tervant to ptut by his money for a rainy day,
in a fo* weeks the master inquired hbow
nuchb of his wages Ite bad saved.
~ "Faith, none at all," said he, "I did as
f 05 bid me; it rained yesterday, and it all~
LoiE, like the- mensels, is rather a juvenile.
comnplaint. Who, for instance, ever kde.
it widower to die from mixing a broken heartV
with a sixpence worth of arsenic O W
pause for a reply.
" 'ix writing for the preii," flu a yoting.
lady said, when she wrote' a letter to her~
young printer lover accepting hIs ofs