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Dn otra c er ee ht cyr lilt 36 3 hiisnlJtlitu Citb(ainu, :fl~vora t nyrimnu 4 ad nuie &
WeV will cling to the Pillars oif thne Tenuple of our Llbn les, and if it uust fall, we wvill Perishu amidst tihe Ruins."
W.F. DUJRISOE, Proprietor. EDGEFIELI C., APRIL 13, 1854.VO.XL-O1
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The Nebraska Bill.
IN THE Senate, on Monday lnst, Mr.
Badger took occasitin to- defend his amtind.
mient to this hill, providing that it should not
be construed to revive any preceed law
either in favor of or against slavery. Judge
Butler followed him onl the same subject.
We quote his remin ks in full.
Mr. Butler. Mr. President, I hope the
Senate will hear ime with sonie patience up
(in this subject; I shall iot speak long ; but
it is due to mynself that I should make some
explanaiion in refereice to the true legal
eharacter of the provisioi referred to by toy
lonorabile friend from North Carolina, as I
thitnk it has heen itisconceived, aid, as I
think, errors have been put iito circulation
calculated to atffi-et the iblic mind ; and
pout in circulation, too, by the suggestions
of Southern mten at Washington.
I concur with tmy lo norabile friend from
N. Carolina in all that lie has said as to The
legal import of his proviso upon the general
provision of the hill. And, sir, that I 9maY
lie distinctly unlerstood, I lay down this
proposition broadly, as far as ny authority
can-gds its a lawyer, that, accarding to te
legal iinport of .thehbill, we have colferred
uponi the territorial governments created byV
it all rightful powers of lIegislation over every
subsject; and the proviso itself, itt a court of
justic., would not give it a dilferent chatac
ter. Now, what is the provision of the hill
.tad the proviso ? The proviso does not at
ll chaige the eharacter or ititerpretation of
the protviit of the otiginal ball; and, in tmy
otpinions, if we had simply conferred upon
the territorial government the power to-legis
late tupp1n all matters of rightful legislion,
it would he, befire at court of' justicea'bill
baving exactly the same operation.
Now, sir, take that bill with all its provi.
sins, and is there a reasonable man-i will
not appeal to gentlemen as lawyers merely,
who may he suiposed to have some techni.
-al peculiarity of reasoninig; but is there a
reasonable itanl who has read the hill, who
will say, that by its provisionas it itntetnded to
- .revive the Frentch atnd Spanitish laws upon
the sutbject of slavery It neither itntended
to revive, nior biy its pr~ovi~sions could it revive
*either the Sptaish or the French haw. I
would say, sir, thtat by desuetude those laws
have gone out or existenice ; hut I attatch nto
more importance to the Al issiouri comapro
.tnise than this 'vwhile I say the M is.souiri Comn
p~romnise is re-pealalbe atnd controllabale byv any
other act of Cotress, sa.nt gin to say
that there aire tnot powers unider the 3lissouri
-compromtiise, whicht, having bieti executed,
aire not w'ell and properly executed. Thle
States wvhich have been formed, and the
Territoriasl govertnmenits which have beeni
.organized unmder its impa~lied antd acquniesed
.authority, were good,~ executions unider it.
And, sir, I supSpose that frotm 1803 until thtis
- ti-ne, no court, no legalI tribunad, nit lawyer
. has~ ever adverted to, or evoked in atny wiiv
the Spanish or Frentch laws ini these Tentito
ries. I do not say those laws were repealed
by the Missouri comtprotmise expressly ; but
if custom grew up unider the Missouri comn
promise, under which the hiws of the Terri
tolry were adittistered, the former was a
The bill which has passedh the Setnate, by
Ats owna provisions, itndepen-tdently of the
proviso of moy honorable friend frour. North
- .Carolina, excltudes the ve-ry idea of reviving
any old Iaw; so that it stand(s as nottig
more thatn this: An act om'feri rig upont
the Territorial Legislature all rightful pow
-rs of legislationm over every subject. TIhat
.is rJI the ptowers whiich it conafers. Itn this
resptect allowv mte to say in this connection,
it is a better bill than the compromtise knownt
ats the Clayton Com promise of 1848, in
avhichi my late distinguished colleague [Mr.
Calhoun] acquiesced. What was that comn
promtise ? I wish to bring up that issue so
as to comopare the t wo, atnd let them: stand
'upon the same priniciple.
-And (liing the titme when that bill was
ender consideration by the committee of
eight, of which Mr. Calhoun wvas a memnber,
I was frequently consulted, and I will not
give the opinions of any body else. The
predicate of northern mien was, that what
ever compromise should be entered ino, the
Mexican law should tnot lbe repealed by the
act exptressly or otherwise ; and wvhat w~as
mnore, I remtember it was said. " We will
tiot consent to confer upon the territorial
governmrent the power to repeal that existing)
law which excluides slavery." The tiortherni
mten said, very prolperly, " Here is a south
6 erni President ; you propose to put ito oper
ation a govermentt unader his auspices and
directiont wile not appoint a governtor
and judges; wilhlihe not put into operattion
a government that maty repeal that Mexican
law, anid thus introdyce slavery itnto the tee-.
I know what Mr. Ca-houn's views were,
and I know what were the viens of some
of his distinguished legal advisers. Sir, Mr.
Calhoun's view was, that, as common terri
tory, belonging to all the States as equals,
and held by Congress as trustee to adminis
ter it lor them, the Constitution of the Uni.
ted States, proprio rigore, extended over
tile Territories, whetlher we carried it there
expressly or not ; and that it had not only a
Controlling, but a repealing operation upon
the laws of the conquered country. I ap
peal to mny friend from Delaware [Mr. Clay
ton] if I amr not ri-ht in this ?
Thien that bill with even the Mexican law,
then exi.ting, was so shapedl that we were
willinig to abitde by the dec.iion of the courts.
Sir, I will here state what I have never said
before: In the counicils which I had upon
the subject, I said, that whaltever night be
Mr. Calhoun's opinians upon these subjects
-and I concurred with him-it was a haz
ardous experiment to leave to the courts so
important a question. I recollect his reply
well. He said:
" It will give rise to the greatest debate
that has ever been conductea in America ;
let that issue be made belfore the Federal
Couirts of this Union, and there never has
been such a debate as will then arise ; the
Aiericiin mind has never been engaged in
such a debate as will take place upon that
" If, sir, it is decided that the common
territory, won by the commnion blood and
coiion treasure of the South as well as
the North, shall he appropriated to fine class
ill Jretferelle to allother, tle sonler die
South know their fate the better, and then
let then look out either to acquiesce or to
lake the position which a fiee people have a
right to take when they think their rights
have been invaded."
Those werte his views.
Now this bill is inlfinitely better than that;
because we use this bill as a sponge to wipe
out the Missouri line. As long as the Mis
souri Compromise line remains, it is a certain-*
tv that southern men will not carry their
slaves over the line. There is that certain.
tv before you if.you draw tl.e line and let it
exist But I say to southern gentlemen, who
are prying into this matter with something
like legal !-ubtlety, and letting the great
question of southern rights-1 will not say
Southern righlts, but the common rights of
the cnttry-rest upon a mere apex juris, a
mere poiit of law-those who are looking
about endeavoring to find a flaw here and
there,, wi.h a v'iew, ill some measure to dis.
satisfv the South, let theim take :his alterna
tive which I now present. Let any south.
ern man take this alternative ; W ill yon
take this hill, with its legal provisiolns and
certain legal import, by which the southern
slavelnlil-ers may have-I do not say by
which they rill have, but by which they
muy have-a potential capacity to enijoy
the comimion territory of the country, or will
you reject the hill upon Your responsibility
as a public man, and hug the Missouri Com
pronise, and keep that odious geographical
line ill force ? Under one, it is certain we
can have no rights; under the other, we may
Now. Mr. President, is it not something
for a Southern man to fight for his border?
If Missouri is to be exposed to the iIvasit)n
of Northern fnaiticism. is there anything
wrniig inl her Southern sisters coming ito her
rescuie ? I do not say that I wounld wish
Mkisouri to carry slavery over into Nehraska
or Kansas. We wish no such thing. But
when tile certainty is before us, that if that
line continues, and tile waves of agitation
are poulred out upon it, Missouri mlay be~
swept from the map of Southern States, is It
not somlething for a Southernl man to go to
the~ resciue (If that border sister of ours ? I
do not say that will he tile faict ; but 01am
very mi leh inclinled to think that the opera
tion of this bill, if it shall become a law, will
b~e suchI that the territorial government will
pass i'o statute upon thle subject of slavery',
oneC wayV or tile o)ther. I think it will con
tinuie to be a nenltral territory-neither slave
ry pouin~g into it, nor1 free-soilikm anid faina
ticisjn rollinig their wayes upon.1M issourli. I
amii inclinied to thintk it wVill retail) its trule
positionl, if it malinltainis any thing like dis
cretionl-elnrality being neither one way
or thle other: I ami satisfied thlat the Terri
torial Legislature, after we have sponged out
this line, will not pass any -law upon the
subject. Dio you suppose that any Tlerrito
rial L.egislature will palss a law to exclude or
expressly to admnit slavery 1 It wvould Le a
suicidal act on) tihe part of the Legislature,
an~d they are not going to commit such an
act of folly. No, sir, they' will leave it to he
settled by Americanl citizens, without regar-d
to whether thlev own or do tiot own slaves.
That will be thie operation of the bill, in myi~
opinioni ; anhd I say that to my Southern
associates who are disposed to act with us
uponII this subject.
Now, sir, is there not something due from
the South!? Ought they not cordially to
give uip mnelCh in order to concur in the de
libierate judgmnent of a portion of our north
western and( nlorthlern friends, who have
come forward amiidst perils among wvhich
we have niever trod, to do us justicei Sir, I
wold~ go very far to stand by them, I
will bie thle last to desert them. I will stand
by them because I believe they are right. I
will stand by thenm because they have inltre
pidly assumed the position of justice, with
the proscription of an uncalculating favnti
cism over theirheads. Somethitng is due to
them, and I will stand by them,
But there is another remark wvhich I wish
to niake. I was nlot in the Chamber at the
time whlen the honorable Senator from Mich
igan) claimied the passage of this bill as a
triumph of what is called the inherent right
of the people of a Territory to invest them
selves with a government. He claims this,
I understand, upon the broad ground that
they can assume upon themselves suchm rights
whenever they may thinik that a proper case
to do so arises.
Mr. Cass. Does the honorable Senator
so at all,
Mr. Butler. Then I do not know what
Mr. Cass. The gentleman attributes that
doetrine to me. I never laid it down it all.
Mr. Butler. I do not wish to do the Sen
Mr. Casm. I know the Senator does not.
Mr. Iutier. Certainlv not.
Mr. Cass. Mv doctrine is simply the doc.
trine of (our ievolutioatry fathers. I do not
deny the power of Congress, as a matter of
necessity, to precribe a Io'rmo of government
for the Territories; but the moment the- do
so, then comes in the inherent right of the
pieople to regulate their internal afairs for
theiselves. This is preciseil the ground
which onur revolutionary fathers took. I do
not wish to argue this question now, and I
have not the strength to o so if I wotld ;
but I repeat, what I said on a former occa.
sion, that there may be at differeice of opin
ion, anid a very rightfu1l otie; as to how far
such powers of legislatioi mlay go. As the
honorable Senate'r from North Carolina has
said, ntder our legislation, at one time, a
Governor and three judges were anthorized
to govern a rerritory. We did h-ve such
a regulation ; but I think it was all wrng.
Better ideas have now lawgun to prevail, and1i
we have a more definite idea than we had
formerly of how far we may properly go.
Mr. Butler. I would lie the last to (10
injustice to the distinguished Senator from
Nlichigan ; but allow ie to say, althotug'h a1
youiger man than he is, though I do not
kiiow that the world will think so, that I
think it was outside the record, and contra
dieted hv the record, when he assutmed that
this bill'either recognized or countenanced
that species of sovereig nty which, in his owti
language, lie has described, aind % hieh I will
not undertake to explain. So far from lie
ing-so, the bill is a recognition of the fact
that Congress has the origina atid exclusive
authority uiin the subject of territorial gov.
eruments, atnd that a teoritorinl governmentI
can take. mark the word, I use it as a law
yer-no more than Congress may give, anud I
that Cotigress can give no more thai is con
ferrable by the Constittion of the United I
States. So that, if ipon this occasion, Con.
gress has thought proper to part with a t
great deal of the original and exclssive'pow.
er whiclh it once had, and to confer it upon
the territorial governniias a mere deputy, i
it has been an act of diseretion entirely. .it i
is not what the people of thekre--4 - - '
enact ; it'is not what they c
is not what they had any righ
. Now, sir,.as my .friend fre
lina has said, I would deal I
different Territories, arcorditiq
that were oii them. Suppost
quire the Sandwich Islands t
you think that 1, as a repre,
South Carolina, or as a repres .
American mind, would delegate to those t
colored people, the Sandwich Island people,
(who know nothiig of the coimmon law,
iotiting (of tiose priniciples of Magnu-Charla
which infuse themselves into the English
mind,) the powers which I have aigreed tor
give in this bill to American citizens, con- t
ducting the operations of government, iuder
the sanction of the sacred and r-cognized t
principles of the common law I No, not at i
all, sir. I will give these plowers in this ease,
because it is piudent and proper. I will
give them to those who, understanding the t
great principle of Aimerican institutions, will t
impress it upon the statutes of the Teiritory,
until it shiatl aissume such a positiont as willi
enaible it to conme into the Un iion as an eqgnalr
taite ; but I am not going to deal so wvith
all other Tlerritories. I will deal so with
this, because, if you will allow me to say so,
I know that tKentucky, Missouri, Pennsyl- i
vaiuiat, Northt Catrolinia, andl, in pairt, Sioutht
Caroliiia, haive mingled thieir judgmtents inr
the population of'.4issouri: aral thait will lbe
a judgment whieb is likely to prevail in the
laws of these territories. Sir, the ingj~-l t
opnosof the citizens livinig in atn i eon
Missouri w~ill catrry' out that judlgmenit in the
territorial laws of these territories, and I a
believe they will lbe just. There are a greate
many frott the North who will go intot these(
territories. I haive seeni sotne ot' thenm ; they
are tmen who are capable, before leaivingr
home, of liling thiemselves abiove the preju- t
dices which prevail there ; or whio haive leftf
home with a view to taike a fatir positionl ine
reference to this miatter. .
I wish to mnake the-se explainations, and to a
lay downi the piroposition that the lion. Se-na.
tor fronm North Carolina has not changed
the legal chiatraicter of the bill. I alirmn thaitt
it leaives the Territory on this subject as ai
Tabuila rosa, upont which the American muindt
is to maike an impression, and for which it
is to form aw's. I say, further, thait there is a
no probabidity of interfereince one way orr
the other with shavery until Nebraska aind,
Kansats shall assumie the position, andr
be ready to perform the responsible dutiest
of States. I laty down, furthermore, the p~ro- a
position that there is no recognition by the I
hill of any power in the peopule of a Terri- It
tory to govern, except whait we confer upon
them under the piower-s which we ourselves
have under the Cotnstitution of the United I
if there should lbe any question made as I
to the right of a negro or slav-e to his free
dloml, to his emaincipiatilon, the issue would
he in this waty: " Ye demand your ft-ce
doni " " I do." " Upon whait grotiud I"
"On the oround that I atm in the territory
of the United States, the common property I
of aill the States" Wha ~t would lie the re
ply 1 If the rephy were worth ainything, it1
would lbe this: the ow'ner wvould saty, " I hold
my property by a tenure higher than any<
anv legal enatctment which can be made of<
a local character to exclnde me. I bold
under thle constitution of the country." That
is the ground wvhich we have taken. But,
sir, the sooner that wve learn there is to lie ~
a discrimination with regaird to the enjoy-<
ment of the territories, thait there is to be a
mark of inequality, indepiendently of the
Nissouri line, by the adjudienution of a court<
respond~ing to the doctrine ofC popular sover
eignty or the fanattical sentiment whuieb ist
infusing itself into the country- the sooner
we know this the betr I makey no thireats.
Mr. President, youptMill ar time witness that
I have never mdagny
fin ill literature in'h mory, in poetry, and
in the Scripture themse , the crow of the
cock has been used as h ily illustrative and
indicative laguage. 'l gamne cock, when
he stands in the p'retenagof his adversarv,
gives forth a note or dfinmace, iispired by
time danger aind thme etment of time con.
test. and a111 nites hii stvhove On Uponi tihe
path of peril to victory deatl. But how
differtnt, sir, iste char i note of tie chan.
tieleer, when he. procdnims to us time conmingv
of the day. it is as diffiremit at note uIs mami
ger is from penice It is time note of intelli.
gence, of hope, if peaceI' I say, sir, that if
this bill.shall pass, amid sIall be aquiesced
in cordially iq all sectioai orf tii Uni. it
will lie the note .g'oodmen. It will be
tie clarion noteiof-the chdhticleer, proclaiim.
ing to time Sothitlethat I lA is dawniing upon
her ;.it will proch.im peace to all sections
it peace to which we CA hlton oralily be re.
eonciled.. However, th ,rp No-thern gen.
tIlemen shall let loose thiWaters of..mgita
tion, I will chige th figure. If they will
[hntinue to (tmiiitiile toreh 'which has been I
lighted by discord, I inm tit know how sooin
Ile note nimy be chanigeg to that of the
roud bird to which I Ii me mlmded.
Mr. President ,; haie said iore than I in
ended, but atllwv e to(~dd a few word
nore. - What. spectaele will the United
Statels exhibit at this crisistd at this event
ul period of time world's liistory ? Sir, at a
imie when a war .is likely .to take place it
he East which may miark tie age at at time
hen a war may ttke plin& to. phange the
whole character of Europdim power, shalli
me exhibit to the 'vorld these evidences of
xenkness and distr'Aetion I It mnyi lie ont.
if place for ine to say a word npoii this
natter ; but 1 must sa. that. I do not thimink
hat the.United. States nrelikely to be in
lmiy danmger so ,1on, as wa-ois goig ol, he
:ntse We may naitmiiin theosition and tie
mfety of neutral.; , ut I wi make this pre.
fiction: I" Russi shall le crshed as a
nwer in Europe by tomeomiation of
rnnee and Enghand; thie ternnitation of that
Aa- . will place Frane aitil. England in at
)sition to. indue them t interrere ssith
kmerican affairs. Ihey wil come out of
hat wni;of they 'shall- cru4j ussia, with
riuniphait nrmitesi stod to i war and
i tliatik the Senate for having al lowed me
o make these remarks.
Fron the Carolina Tines.
E DG EFELD C, If., Feb. 13, 1854.
My Dcar Sir:-Your noble .vindicati v
f tie case of learning and, popular educa.
ion iii our State, imust serve to revive the
rooping hopes of many who feel deeply on
bese subjects, and will, .1 aim sure, lead to
important and happy results. Tho high po
ition yon claim for our State College, and
lie hold dignity with which you have por. r
raved its true aims, rejectin!v at the samme
ine, the false appendtages, which a purely
ilitsirianit spirit is seeking to throw around
t, nnnot tt exeite tie approval a id admi.
at ion of' eveLry'scholar. Time hai t, so char.
teristie of our age antd country, of crowd
ag time minid with insulated faicts before it
as beeni trainted to sy'stemaiic effort, or to
rvestigatte time causes or first principles of
higs, while lowering the general esteem for
al schioarshiip, hams creatted' aimong us a
iste l'r frivolous and superficial attaiments.
he addtins sought to. be made ton time
olle'ge course wtill, it is evident, only tenid
nm increamse these unipromi~wing results. An
levted standard of knowledge, ariing from
high developmenmt of our intellectual pow
rs, is alonie to be attained by keepinig the
slege true to its legitimaite objects ; sand
Iese ais I view them, are-to develop time
ore massterhy faculties of thte mind and soul ,
n fo'rm time literary taste of our younmg men
otr tme higher and broader fields of knmowi
dge-ins a word, to enabthle our y'outh to
rum pple wvithm the great principles of' science,
d to brintg order and use out of time world
f detail surroundig us5.
Iconcur with-you, that to necomplisha
bese entds, the style of imstructioni pitrsued
ii onr College, is better aidapted titan that
Isualy terimed the 11riversity systemi. Thie
reedonm of the University aiffords too loose
rein to our impatient youth, while the dog.
iaticatl discourses of thme University lecturer
ould lie little calculaited to educe theiri
aental emnergies, or to lend thenm to any very Ii
boroughm research. Dialectic instructiomn -
Sshairp catechetienl contest between time
'rofessor anud the Pimpii is the surest, perhasps
le only miode, by which time latter can be
rGe rnperl to tax his mental powers.
['le ma lniversities, so famed for their
iterature and science, derive thmeir chief vail
ite, itn my humble jutdgmenit, from two im
ortanit adjuncts: first from thme Uiymnaasia,
'hich sare most excellent preparatory acade
ies; secondly,' from a deep devotioni to1
nowledge, front thait nattional iterary ent hu
ism, to bo found nowhere out of Germany.'
While urging, themefore, no change, at least i
or te present, in our College curriculum, I
nust however, lhe permitted to staite thsat,
vithout somse chianmge in time pre'partory in- 1
trction of our young ment, the full benmefits
if time College can never be reidized. Stu- I
lents too often enter College iin a raws state,1
vith their inmids slightly disciplimled, amid with Ia
Si mer smattemrig of thte branchles to which!
hey have given their attention, 'How lis it I
ossible they can be prepa. d ihr the severe
iscipline required or them withi'. the. Collhege
vallsi How can they 1be ex~p etsd rghmtly1
o appreciate the profound. resuonine.g, amid
lose ansalytic teachings of time esnt Pro.
essor ? Hor master the abstruse, difcult
nmestionts occurri ; in mental and nmorail1
hilosophmy ? time cornplienmted priblemsnd
imc,...,m of the Ihian atl un14mSir. I5O i
subtle analysis and philosophic structure (or
the-ancient languages I or, indeed, any of
tie graver studies of the College course ?
You will agree with me I think, in saying,
that much of the talent and learning of the
Professor is throwin away upon tuinds, not
suflicientlv tutored for a just appreciationl of
This must, in the main, he aseribed to de.
fective preparation. Aid the ftiult is inot so
miuch with the teachers of oir academies,
as in the organization of the academies them
selves. Can one man, for instance,vhile
nitending to the disciplinary dluties of the
scholroomi, instruct thoroughly in all the
branches usually taught in our academiaies 1
in Latin, Greek, Mathenaties, Natural mid
Moral Philosophy, H isiory. Geography, :md
ilmost the whole cyclopedia I im pos.ible !
Yet this, at present, is required of nearly .all
th/teachers in the State. The result is, that
instruction has been giveni inl a most imper
reet manner: the teacher has been kept from
ill chance of distinction, or from making
proficienicy iin scholarship, nd, after a flew
rears, has usually a brokei down constitu
To remedy these defects-in other words,
o enable the instructoir to attain to a mas
Pry ov.r the brancles he may lie called onIf
o teach, and to train the minds ofoumr youth
iy sound, accurate instruction, the State will i
ie compelled to establish academies of an
larged character. As an imperfect outline
f i plan,I, wiould respectfully suggest the
Illowing: Let six academies ht formed in
mitable places--one, for instance, in each
Con gressiota District-with an organizatiomi
after this manner: There shall ie a Board
if Trustees, to lie uppointed by the Legisla
ure, fromn the respective Districts of each
.ongressional District, whose duty it shall
le, in connection with the superintende-it of
mblic education, to order tile erection (t
iroper buildings, and to supervise the inisti
utiois when esfallished. Each academy
hall contain eight chief iistructors
1. A director, who nav teach M!oral Phi.
osophy and Evidences of Christianity.
2. Ai instructdrin the Anacieat Lanages.
3. " - in tle Mogdern L:mngages.
4. in the English Laaguage
5. ": ." in M e s
.all 11a.1 appear1 - xpensivt
.VO imidred pupils at $40 exeh wiuld
ccet the expense ; and, I venture to aflirm,
bat, for the edneation of the same nmnber
( youths, a larger soim is now amaally ex.
eaded, while tlhe iastruction received, frim
lie very nature of the case, is much less
. To erect these Academics and to keep
bem in operation, it would lie wi.e iin the
egislature to use a part of our educatanian
ad, which should be incrersed to $100,000, 1
nd to cause all moneys received from pupils
a he paid into thie State Treasury. These
an be little doubt, that these academies will,
a a short time, support themselves ; but to
emove all contingeincy, aid to place them
t once on a sure iad permanent basis, ;ilal
t the same time, to afford beneficiary inl
truction to a nnnber of indigent, pronising
oung men in the various Dist ricts,the State
ould hhld itself responsible for the salaries
f the Teachers. .1In a word, these should
e Stale academics.
TIhae adv'antages of such institutions mnst
edily suggest themselves to every relkecting
indl. They w~ill be conmprcehensive and sei
ntific :affording a substantial, unaiformi cdi
ationi to the young men of tihe State, and
reparing all, who may dlesire it, for enter
our college under ample anid equal benie
ts. Untlike our present. academies, wich
sually spring up under the direction of som~e
oular teacher, antd as suddlenly die aw ay
itia him, sinkinag thousands of dallars ina
mprovements rendered useless, they will be
at ionary :ancd peramanent. Iinnmdreds of
ears to come they will bc ste.aiding miona-~
nents of the energy arid wisdom (if our
eople, entlightening the youthful minds of*
he State, anad imparting a permanent, and
icreasing value to property around them.
nstead of oae teacher as niow, wvho leads
Imost the life. of a recluse ini one of our
Lcaemies, rernoved froma every stimulus
eessary to active inte-llectuial ehiht. there
till lbe a little .socicty of literary meni, en
aged in similar piursuits, with a generous
mulation, urging and aidinig oiie a nother on
n the road to knowledge. There will exist,
Iso, bioth a division and a comblinat ion of
ahor in the severi.1 duties of di.=eipiniie ;aid
nstrution-matters as important in the pro-.
'inee of literature, as in that of political econ
my. Two ment occupying themiselves with
lifferent branches cana iinstruct tifty pupils
ith greater eta.se to themselves, ad with
ligher advantage to the pupil, thani onie mian
:an instruct twrenty-five in all the braunchies.
nd this rule, it is bielieved, will hold good
o almost any extent.
Young men, taught in these academies,
v~ould enter college with advantaige unknown
o our yoth at presenit. 'They would be
irepared to derive profit from the ablest in
trqction of learned professors, iad by the
ime they gradluate, would receive a maental
lisciplinie, and a telish for study and acquire.
mants, which in after life, would quaify themr
r .bedoming useful men and scholar;. The
Jolego would theni, indeed, lbe a iioble in
titution of learning-exciting a happy ini
luence over the public taste in literature,
mnd imparting to the young minds of the
'tate a polish and a power that would soon
>e felt in all the higher walks of knowledge.
While, too, in the plan submitted, great
-are has been given to intellectual traiann,
noral culture has not been overlooked. It
s too much the fashion, now-a-days, to press
n the young intellect by every artificial
timulus, cramming it with facts and ambi
ious aspirations, with little regard to the de
elopment of its moral capabilities. Minds
hus trained, thouig eanightened hby the rays
of genius and knowledge, may be, and ofte
are, prostituted to the worst purposes. . It i
needless to reinark that in every wise pla
of edueation, to train properly the natur.
affectiois, and to inculcate sound moral pre
cepts, should be deemed great and leadin
" Recti eultus pectora roborant:
Uteunque defrecre' mn-r's.
Indecorant bene nnta culpae "-HIOe
Hence the studies of Moral Philosoph,
aind the Evidences of Christianits have beei
intridced, while music, as a science, then
rtically and practically taught, is ofllered a
an auxiliuTry discipline to the natural affee
tions. These academies shonld likewise bi
surrounded hy beautiful, cuhivated groveE
with iarrangemet'n ts for gymnastic exercises
alhordinig innocent recreations and joyou
11astlimes, to allnre the youth of the coitri
fr.om idle, mischieonis mieditalions, and fron
t iose tininiltuous ontbreakings of' passiol
amid violence, that so often disgr'ace ou
Soutiern institutions. Seenes like these, en
joyed aimong the delightuli academic grove
of ancient Athens, helped to inipire thi
youth there assembled with that beantifu
and romantic attachment to the canse o
letters, whieb gave to Greece her magniti
The idea of musical instrnetion in a lite
rary academy may excite a smile from miani
of the grave seniors of the land ; but I an
addressitng myj'self. to one profoundly ac
qnininted with the human heart, and Ihos
searching analysis has enabled him to tract
out the most secret springs of' human action.
To you, sir, the poet's words can he no inert
"u'ie al.n' with sudlen cianrm can bind
The wandering seis., and eal the triubled mind.7
Music the fiereest grief can cliari,
A nd iate' seer e'st rare disarm:
Mausic enn softeni pain to e'a'e,
A id make despa r ind a lmaLess please
Our jo.ys below it can improve,
A ndii aite-dute the b:iss above."-Pore.
Physiologists contend that, while the study
aind1 praclice of music exert a happy influ.
mie upoi the mental and i norni qualities 01
or nature, they also greatly improve the
physical consiitution. But if a special ad'
VocaIcy of the science, as a branch of edo
.. . ... 1esrlo Imiturt- m
lie eicert or the opera, or by gentle diver
iioiis on some favorite instrument.
The skill oh' the ancient Greeks in this re
Sned science, is almost proverbial. It was a
rare thing to find a cultivated Athenian
without a knowledge of it, and withnut skill
Ilon smne instrumient. Thenistocles, we
ire told. w'as deened uncaurd, beeaise of
is inability to play the lyre at a feast. You
VcoleCt a Cnrionu passage on this subject
n Cireero's Tus. Disp. Lib. i. aiii, 3.:
*-1Surmmn ertaliinem Grav ,:ilam eenschban:
n nervorum voenmquie enntibus, Igituir et Epa
iiiino ,hi porinepsi in-o judlicist, Gr.eeim fidlibuts
irn-elare cevinisoe diciur : Themistoelesqueniut
mte anno4, cum in evpis reeuaer-t tyram. et hn;tuim
nid.e'tior. Eruis iin G roe a .\nsici t'irIneruilt : IIs
.eaniqie d ilm n es l: neanacebul S1ti8 excul
'us doaerina putahaturn."
So mnuch for the aeademies: the establish.
nen'it of wihcheb mist. be deemed of' great im
or'taince, and1( may be considered the se'ondl
,tepi towanrds a comprehensive systeni of
State edneatiun. Th'le forming of commonJ
,chools is the niext step.
T1o furnish a systema of commfonJ school in
trnetion for our State, likely to he success
ul, is 'oin lessedly a thing of1 great priactical]
lifftc'-.lty. 'The imiportmaice of' it, however,
s od strongly felt at present, thant one should
iot be restrained from offering his suigges'
tins f'romi a fear of failuire or of' criticism.
Though nmuch has been said aind written on
this subiject, little, I bielieve, in tile way ofh
well digested, suitable plan has been brought
to the public eye. TJhe boasted systenis 01
Prussia, and of New Enigland, recommend
ed hi sonme, may at once be rejected as till
suited to) onr pr)eent state, not to speakt ol
their failure to achieve the granid results sc
confidently expected inl the regions wvhere
they have been established. No system,
which is wholly compuilsory, or entirely vol.
utary, can sneceed with us. T[hese twr
things mu1st he piropexrly blendted in order ti
develop really usef'ul results. Tfhe system
should be so far voluntary ats to enlist the
cordial efforts ot' our pecople in the cause of
education, yet snficiently' coercive to impairt
order and( permanen~icy to thme arrangemienit.
'With much dfitlidence, yet, with some as'
surance of its feasibility, I submit the fl
lomig outline of' a plani:-Let the Legisla'
tre appoint fromi tenl to fifteen school com~
missioners for each district in the State', with
directions so to distribute their labors among
I em~selv'es, that each commissioner wviilliave
a ee.taini circuit within which to perform his
uuties. It shall, in the first place, he incumo
ben t on himi to seek out all the neighborhoods
within his cir'cuit in wihiebi schools may be
established, and to formi precincts, if practi'
able, not exceeding fivo miles square. He
shall then appoint five trustees within each
precinect, whio shall constitute a body corpo'
rate for specific purposes, anid shall assisi
himi ini selecting suitale and central sites fit
the estahlishment of' school hlouses. Thiese
trustees shall endeavor by voluntary contri
butions fronm all tihe inhabitants ot' their re
spective precinects to ralise the funds, neces
sary durinig the first y'ear, to erect the build
igs, andi af'terw~ards to payt the salaries o1
the teachers. Should thle sumis thus raised be
insufficient, it shall be the (duty of the corn
missioners with the aid of the trustees, tc
*Norr..-The Grecians thought that to sing and
to play well wa'is the highlest accomnpiishmeint. Anw
therefore Epaminondus the chief ini my. opinion o
the Greeks is said' to hav'e ac.conmpanied the lyri
mst beautif'ully. A ad Theicstnck's, sonme few yean
before w'hen tic refuse'd the lyre at thec feast was es
teemledl rather unlearned. Therefore in Greece
Osicianls flourishecd aind alt euthivateeil that art. No
was that mian deemed hlighily polishied wvho wals ig
al ssess all the inhabitmits of their rpspect ps
s preeinects a t a per centum, ofWhich- thle VadL
imun shall lie fixed by the. boaiidof coni'- .
missinners on a basis to le -le'enfter stated'
provided no one be assessed. on' moethaii -.
$45,000: which assessment shall, if resisted,
he collected by the usu:al process or la'jwu
the name of the trustees. Vluntary*ion
tributions may now be adled to this assess
ment ; and 'should the'e still: lie a'deficit it
shall be repored to the leArd or dommis
sioners, who shall distribute tie education
fund received from the State towardsspply
ing the deficiency. And should theretilb
a deficit, the commissioners shall piroceekt'"
levy a certain per cent. upon the dene'raflx
or the district at large, .as is. now done b4
the commissioners of roads to raiswimoney
for bridges, &c.
. When the salaries have beenatbusaised,
the Trustees, with the commissionerefch i. c
prectict, shall with care, select competent
teachers, who shall be required to!Aeach
without distinction, ull the children ofithe
precinct that may be. sent to schooL..
The Commissioners shall ddtermiue the
maxiumnn of the assessment, by ascertaiin
first, as nearly as practicable, the aggregate .
wealth of their respective districts;'then, the
number of schools in the District, and the
aggiegate salaries of the teachers. .Tlhe per
centum on this aggregate wealth,.neasear
to raise the aggregate salaries, wil tlhe
maximum assessment. -
Let me illustrate... Tlhe.District of Edge-.
field, containing about 1700 square niies o
territory, will, after deducting the uninhatit.
ed portions, embrace about 55jrecincts of
five niles square, and hence'55 sclools-:ma
king about four schools for the. superitten
dence of each of the fifteen 'commissioners.
At a salary of 8500 each, the aggrgate of
Teacher's salaries vill be $27,500. Now'
the value of the aggregate real and personal
estate ofl' the district, according tothe repiort
of the United States- Marshal' in 1850,is
$16,485,079, [The' more correct.anfOot
would he 820,000,000.]* An assessment 6f
one-sixth of a cent per centuron the formr
sum, will give $27,475.'
The Commissieners and Trustees of;4
various precincts, in EdgefieldDistrit'iai
failing to raise. Ihe salaries'othe teachd -
by voluntary subscriptions shail' th
have power toassessthe iihabitan
precinct, not exceedI
per-centin n th I I
.ites; provided o on
more than 45,000
Wel sslun;l p
er qanyh' .j li sPfose 'o xe r0
amounts elsewhere in .the wayof, etion.
Should there ho a deficit after this, it shAll
be reported and acted on as above indicated.
If neces.ry, the commissiorers may re
ceive, as a compensation for their services,
one dollar an.1 fifty cents per diem for every
day while egaged on duties relative to the
1.schools; and it shall be their duty to super
ijitend said schools ;Ato. procure for them a
rond, uiiform systqoffinstruction ; to col
let a1l informnlationiIeecting them; and to
make an annual re-'to the-general super
iptendent of public education, who shball
nake a enudensed annual report for the
'The p1an here proposed seems easy, plain,
and to my view, entirely practicable. That
it is per-fect, no pretence is made. "Nihil
simuil inentum est et perfectum." Among
others, it offers these advantages. It will
s-eure permanent and respectable schools,
furishing, sibstantial uniform instruction for'
the general classes of the State. It ivill dis
tibiute the baurden of educating the poor
equally upon all, according to their capacity
to contribute; equalizing the burden through
the State, by mieans5 of the State fund, and
throug~h the Dis/riets, by an ad valorem as
sessmnent and tax. It moreover will enlist a
large number of respectable citizens through
out the State in the cause of education, and -
cannomt, ther'. fore, fail to excite a spirit of
emulation antd pride in contributing to the
education anid moral improvement of our
ent irec white population. In short it will en
able everv child in the State to receive a fair
-elementary education at an expense but a
tiile more' than that now incurred in half
educating only a portion of our youth.
Should these platns, both for the academies
and common schools, be carried into effect,
it may wvell he doubted whether a single
do~llair more will lbe expended in the cause of
edluen~tion thtan is expended at' present. The'
increase~d facilities afiorded w'ill be caused
not so mluch by the additional expense as by
a prope~r husbiandry of the means already
employed. What may not systematic effort
iachieve in any department of human science
atnd indlustry ? But to educate our people
and to raise the standard of knowledge and
scholarship among us, no lover of'his coun- -
tr-y or (if his race could hesitate to urge the
Legislature to make the most ample endow
mients. Who would not bestow liberally.;'
from the bonntie~s, with which a benignant
Deity has blessed him, for the promotion of
objects so useful, so noble ! Let the ecgis.
latur-e increase ontr school.fund to $100,O000
I-applying $50,000 to the support of an ex-.
eellent system of academical instruction,
and1( $50,000 to the common schools-and
at no distant day, wve will experience a'de'
gree of moral and mental impi-ovement, and'
a thirst for sound, practical, comprehentso
knowledge, that will both astonish *und glad
den the heart of every patriot in thK land.
II have Sir, thus. crudely thrown out my
v'iews to you on thyis interesting subject.
They are the result of some serious reflec
lion for several ,years past. If they be en
titled, to anly consideration I know you will
cheerfully accord. it. I have addressed this
communicationi to you because of the deep
interest you take in these matters, and lhe
cause I know of no one in the State, whb ...
can form a more' correct judgment upon the -
practical efficiency of any plan~ that may' Ibe
With high r'espect and esteem,
1 reinain your obed't serv't,
W. C. MORtANE.
To the Rev. Dr '. H.1 Tnoxswaz 4
. President o .. C. Clee
(t'y Cultivntion is as essential to the-mind as
fnod is to the bndy.