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W.~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~W Jll clingOE Prtrotr L Pilars~ of thne Temiple of our"Lb Jbi, *and if it mzust fall, wc will Prnandttn uu~"VL
W. . DRISE, ropietr.EDG-EFIELIh C., APRIL 13, 1854
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The Nebraska Bill.
IN TIE Senate, on Monday last, Mr.
Badger took occasion to- defend his amel
tnent to this bill, providing that it should not
be construed to revive any preceed law
either in favor of or agaiist slavery. Judge
Butler followed him on the same subject.
We quote his remmtks in full.
Mr. Butler. Mr. President, I hope the
Senate will hear tme with some patience up.
on this subject ; I shall not speak long ; but
it is due to myself that I should make some
explaatiion in referetice to the true legal
character of the provision referred to by tmy
hotinorable friend from North Carolina, Ps I
think it has been misconceived, and, as I
think, errors have been put into circulation
calculated to aflct the public mind ; and
put in circulation, too, by the suggestions
of Southern men at Washington.
I concur with my hioniorable friend from
N. Carolinta in all that he has said as to Ilte
legal import of his proviso upon the general
provision of the lill. And, sir, that I tmy
lie distintely understood, I lay dowin this
proposition broadly, as far as my authority
ean-g4 its a lawyer, that, according to the
legal import of the hill, we have conferred
upoI the terrilotial governiments Created by
it all rightfuli powers of legisltion over every
stilject; and the proviso itself, inl a court ofi
jushie.., would not. give it a difflerenlt ch:rae.
ter. Now, what is the provision of the lili
aind the proviso? The proviso does not at
all change the character or interpretation of*
the irovisiotn (if the ot igin:l hil; antd, ill my1V
Opinion, if we had simply conferred upon
the territorial governmenit the power to. legis
late up1on all matters of rightful legislation,
it would be, before a court of justice, abill
laving exactly the same operation.
Now, sir, take that bill with all its provi.
siois, and is there a reasonable man-i will
not appeal to genitletnen as lawyers merely,
who may he supiosed to have some techni
ral peculiarity of reasoiig; but is there a
reasonable mtan who has read the hill, who
will say, that by its p)rov'isionis it intetnded to
- .revive the French and Spantiish laws upon
the sttbject of shlvery ? It neither itended
to revive, nor by its p~rovision~s could it revive
*either the Spainish eer the Frentch law. I
would say, sir, that by desuetude those laws
*heave gonie out of existeiice; but I attaich nto
more iportatnce to the Miussiouri cotmpro
.mise thati this -vwhile I say the Missouri Comn
promise is repealble and cotntrohlli le by atny
other aict of Cotngress, I amt tiot goiing tee say
that there ate not pows1ers under the M'dissoturi
.compiroimise, whichh, hiavintg bieen executetd,
are niot well aind poiperly execnted. T[he
States wvhich have been formied, andi~ the
Tlerritorinel govermnoenits wvhich have been
*.orgnized under its itmplied :itd acugtiesee.d
authority, were gooid excetiuons utider it.
Anid, sir, I suppose that freon 1803 unitil this
- t-ne, nto court, no legal tributiad, nii lawy'er
. hasi ever advertedi to, or evoeked itt anyv wtay
the Spanish or French laws ini these T'entito
ries. I do not say thoese laws were repealed
hiv the Missouri comipr'omiise expiressly ; but
if custom gr'ew up undeer the Missoniri comt
piromise, under which the laws of the TIerri
tory wtere adgomistered, the former was a
T1he bill wvhich ha;s passed0( the Sentate, byv
:its own*i provisioins, indtepen'tdently of the
proviso of my honorable frietnd fr-om Norlthl
* Carolina, excludes the ve-ry idea of reviving
any old lawt'; so thait it stands ats nothing
miore than this: An act cot'ferirng uponi
the Territorial Legislature all rightful pow
e-rs of legislation over every subject. Th'lat
- .is rJI the ptowers whlich it conifers. In this
r-espect allow me to say in this conntection,
it is a better bill than the coimpromiise ktnowni
.as the Clayton Comipromtise Elf 1848, in
wvhich: my late distiniguished colleague [Mr.
Calhoun] acquiesced. What was that coim
promiise ?I wish to biring up that issue so
AS to compare thle two'E, anid let them stand
upon the same principle.
And dtoing the time whetn that bill was
under conisidertation by the commrittee oft
eight, of which Mr. Calhouti wtas a member,
I w'as frequenitly consulted, and I will not
give tihe opinionis of any body else. Th'le
predicate of northern muen was, that what
ever cotmpromise should be entered into, the
Mexican law should niot be repealed by the
act expressly or otherwise ; and what was
mnore, I remtember it was said. "~ We will
tnt consent to confer upoti the territorial
government the power to repeal thatt existiing
la w which excludes slavery." T1he northern
men said, very properly, " Here is a south.
b erni President ; you propose to put into oper
ation a governtment unider his auspices and
direction; will be not appoinit a governior
anid judges; wtill lie not put into opeCration
a government that nmayi repeat that Mexican
lawv, and thus introdpce slavery into theg ter.
I know what Mr. Ualhoun's views were,
an(d I know what were the viens of some
ol his distinguished legal advisers. Sir, Mr.
Calioun's --iew was, that, as common terri
tory, beloniiig to all the States as equals,
ani held by Congress as trustee to adminis
ter it for them, the Constitution of the Uni.
ted States, proprio rigore, extended over
the Territories, whether we carried it there
expressly or not ; and that it had iot only a
conitrolling, hut a repealing operaition upon
the laws of the conquered country. I ap.
peal to my friend from Deliware [Mr. Clay.
tonj] if I amit not ri'ht in this ?
Then that bill vith even tlie Mexican law,
thent exi.tling, was so shaped that we were
willing' to a bide by tlit dec. ibion of the courts.
Sir, I w ill here state what I have niever said
I before: In the councils which I had upon
the subject, I said, that whatever might he
Mr. Calhoun's opinions upon these subjects
-aMd I conicurred witi him-it was a haz
ardous experiment to leave to the courts so
important a question. I recollect his reply
well. lie said:
" It will give rise to the greatest debate
that has ever heen conducten in America ;
let that issue be made before the Federal
.Courts of this Union, and there never has
been such a debate as will then arise ; the
Amierienn mind has tever beei eigaged in
such a debate as will take place upon that
" If, sir, it is decided that the common
territory, won by the common blood and
Coimlimnii treasure of the South as well as
the North, shall be appropriated to one clas
in preference to another, the sooner tiMe
South know their fate the beter, and then
let them look out either to acquiesce or to
take the position which a fbee people have a
right to take when they think their rights
havi"'Ve beett invaded."
Those were his views.
Now this lill is infiiitely better than that
becvause we use this bill as a sponge to wipe
out the Missouri line. As long as the Mis.
souri Compromise line remains, it is a certain.
tY that southern men will niot carry their
slaves over the line. There is that certain
ty before you if.you draw ti.e line and let it
exist But I say to southern gentlemen, who
are prying into this matter with something
like legal subtlety, and letting the great
question of southern rights-I will not say
Southern rights, but the common rights or
the country-rest upon a mere apexjuns, a
mere poiit of law-thnse who are looking
about endeavoring to find a flaw here and
there, with a ie~w, it some measure to dis.
satisrv the South, let them take :his alterna
tive vhiih I now present. Let any south.
ern man take this alternative ; Will yon
take this hill, with its legal provision-s and
certain legal import, by which the southern
shiveholders may have-I do tinot say by
wiicih they rill have, but by which they
mf(l have-a potential capacity to enjov
the common territory of the country, or will
you reject the hill upon your respoiisibility
as a public main, and hug the Missouri Com.
promiise, and keep that odious geographical
ine inl force ? Under one, it is certain we
can have no rights; under the other, we may
Now. Mr. President, is it not something
for a Southern man to fight for his border?
If Missouri is to lie exposed to the itivasion
of Northern fanaticism, is there anything
wrong in her Southern sisters coming to her
rescue ? 1 (10 not say that I wuould .wish
Missouri to carry shavery over into Nebraaka
or Kanesas. We wish no0 suich thing. But
whlen the certatinty is before us, that if thlat
hine continues, and tile waves of agitation
are poured onlt ulpon it. Missouri may lbe
sweplt fromi tile ma~p of Southern Stattes, is it
nlot somelthling for a Southern main to go to
the~ rescuae of thlat biorder sister of ours ? I
do not say that will lie the fact ; but I am
very im lch inclinied to thinik that the opera.
tion~ of this1hill, if it shall blecome a law, will
be sueh thatt thle territorial gOvernmenC~t will
pass no statute upoun thle subject of slavery,
onme way or the other. I think it will Coil
tinne to be a tneutral territory-neither slave
ry pouring into it, inor free-soilikm and fana
ticien rolling their w"aves upon.*Missouri. I
am inlclinied to think it will retain its true
piosit ionl, it it mal~intatins any thing like dis
cretin-iieutrality being neither one way
or the othe(r: am satistied thiat the Terri
torial Legishiture, after wve have sponged out
this line, will not pass any -law upon the
subject. Do you suppose thiat any Territo
rial ILegislature will pass a law to exclude or
expressly to admit slavery 1 It would L.e a
suicidal aict on the part of the Legislature,
and they are not goinlg to commit such ani
act of folly. No, sir, they will leave it to he
settledl by American citizenls, without regard
to whether thier own or do not own slaves.
Thtwl e thie operation of the bill, in my
opuinionl ; aind I say that to miy Southerin
associates wh are dipsdto act wvith us
up)on this subiject.
Now, sir, is there not something due from
the South i Ought they not cordially to
giv up mneh in order to concur in the de
!ihierate jiudgmnent of a portioni of our north.
western and~ nlorthern friends, whlo have
come forward amidst perils among whlich
we have nlever trod, to do us justice ? Sir, I
wudg verv far to stand by them. I
will lie the last to desert them. I will statnd
by them because I believe they are right. I
will stanld by thiem because they have intre.
pidly assumed tile position of justice, with
the proscription of an ulnealcuLlating fatnati.
cism over their heads. Someting is due to
them, anld I will stand by thetn.
But there is another remark which I wish
to make. I was nlot in the Chamber at the
time when the honorable Senato'r from Mieh
igain claimedl the passage of this bill as a
triumph of what is called the inherent right
of the people of a Territory to invest them
selves with a government. HeI claims this,
I understand, upon the broad ground that
they can assume upon thlemselves such righlt
whenlever they may think that a proper case
to dho so arises.
Mr. Caiss.. Does the bcsncsrable Senator
~ay thlat down as my doetiine i IA isn~
In so attl
Mr. Butler. Then I do not know what
Mr. Cass. The gentleman attributes that
doctrine to mie. I never laid it diown at all.
Mr. Butler. I do not wish to do the Sen
Mr. Cass. I know the Senator does not.
Mr. Ruter. Certainily not.
Mr. Cass. My doctrine is simply the doe.
trinse of our sevolutionary fathers. I do not
deny the power of Coigress, as a matter of
necessiy, to precrilie a iori of goverimnent.
for fihe ')erritories; but fihe moment they do
so, then Comes inl tie inherent right of the
people to reguiate their insterinal affiirs for
thiiIs-lves. This is precisely the grosund
which our revol stionary fathers took. I do
not wish to argue this gniestion now, and I
have not the strength to do so if I would
but I repeat, what I said on ia former oeca.
sion, that there may i a diffecrensce (i opis.
ion, and a very right fil (fie; as to low far
such powers of legisiation may go. As the
honorable Seiater from North Carolinsa Ias
slid, under our legislation, at ne time, aI
Governor and threp judges were anthurized
to goveri a rerritory. We dtid h--ve such
a regulation ; but I think it was all wrong .
Better ideas have now begun to prevatil, nd
we have a more definiite idea thani we had
formeriy of how far we may properly go.
Mr. Butler. I would lie fhe lst to do
injustice to the distinguished Senator from
.\Michigan ; but allow me to say, ailthough a
voniger m;n than lie is, thongh I do nsot
know that the world will think so, that I
thiik it was outside tihe record, and contra
dicted by the record, when lie assumed that
this hill either recognized or counteniced
that species of sovereignty which, in his own
langua.ge, lie has descriled, an11d " hichs I will
not undertake to explain. :o far froy lie
ing so, the bill is a recogIition of the fact
that Congress has the originals anud excksive
authority upon the suliject of territorial gov
ernments, and that a tesritoriil government
cans take. mark the word, I use it as a law
yer-no more thans Congress iy give, and
that Congress canl give io more than is eon
f'errable by the Cnistitition of tie United
States. So that, if upon this occasion, .ons.
gress Ims thought proper to part with a
great deal of the original and exclasive pow
er which it once had, and to coifer it upon
the territorial gnverniSas a mere deputy,
it has beenl an act of discretion entirely. It
is not what the people of thederi, -
enact ; it'is not what they c.
is not what they had iny righ
Now, sir,.as my friend from
lina has said, I would deal i
diflerent Territories, areordii
that were on them. Suppost
quire the Sinidwich ilnds t
you thiiik that 1, as a repre4
'South Carolina, or as a repres .
American miid, would dehlgvate to) those
Colored people, the Sandwich Isamd penple,
(who kniow nothing of tle commoin law.
notIhing of those piies of MagnerChar/a
which infuse themse-lves into the Eish
intd,) the powers which I have agredt
Igive in this hill to American citizens, cotn
ductinsg the operations of goverimenlt, unsder
I the saiction of tie sacred and re-cogni:ed
principles of the common law ? No, not at
all, sir. I will give these powers inl this cse,
becasuse it is prudeit anld proper. I will
give thesi to those who, uiderstandig flse
great principle of American iswtituilns, will
impres it ipon the statutes of te'l'ei ritory,
until it shsall assumses such a positions ;s will
ena bise st to comse inito the Uniions as ass egnsal
state; but I ass not gigto del so withs
ll othesr T erritosries. I will deail so withs
this,~ becaiuse, if yosi wili allsow mse to sayV so,
I knsow thaies cyaisuiPnsl
vaiaii , North: Carolinack, anin pr,Ssuth
Caroliina, ha ve minigied thseir jiudgmsensts ins
the popuslations of M1issou ri; and tisat wililibe
a jusdgmienst whsiebs is likely to psreva'il iin lhe
laws of these territories. Sir, the msing;e'd
opinionf the citizenss liingst in andst beyovind
Miss'ouri ilil carry out that juudgmsenst ini the
territoriali latws of these territories, and I
believe they will bie just. There are a gret
many from tihe North wiho will go inito thsee
territories. I have seen some of thteim; they
are mess who are caspablse, befosre leasving~
homsse. of lifingisu thseselves above the preju.
dices which psrevauil there ; or whso have left
homse with a view to take a fasir position in
reerensce to this niatter.
I wish to mauike these explanations, and to
lay downs the psropsositions thast tise H1ons. Ser-s-i
tor froms North Carolinsa hs not chsanged
the hegal chairacter ofi the bill. I aillirmn that
it leaves the Territory oin this subiject as. a
T fabuila rosa, upnsn whsich dhe A msericans msisd
is to mas~ke ans imipressions, ansd fors whichs it
is to fosrm iawis. I say, further, thsat there is
no probatbiity of intserferessce onse way or
the other wvith slavery' until Nebrasska and
IKansaIs shall aussumise the positions, and
be ready to perfonrm the responssible duties
of States. I lay down, fuzrtherssosre, theo proi
positions that there is iso recognitions by the
hill of any power ini the pecople oif ai Terri
tory to governs, except what we confer upons
them under the powers which we~ ourselves
hasve under the Conistitution of tise Uniited
If there should bie ansy ques:iesn masde as
to the right of si negro or slave to hsis free
donm, to hsis emanlcipastioln, the issue would
he ini this way : " Ye (l5dend your free
domIn" " I dis." " Upon what grosund C"
"On the g rousnd tha4t I asm in thme territory
of the United States, thse commnonl property
of alhl the States." What wvosuld be tine re
ply ? If thse reply' wsere worth ansyting, it
would lielthis: tihe ow'ner woul say, "1I hldi
my property by a leisure higher than ansy
ayi legal enacetment whsich cnn be imade of
a locasl chasracter to exclude me. 1 hold
under the constitution of the counitry." That
Iis the grounid which we have tatken. But,
sir, the sooner that wve iearsn these is to lie
a discrimination witha regard to the enljoy
ment of the territories, thast there is to tie a
mark of inequality, insdep;endenstly of the
Missouri line, by theo adjudication osf a court
respondinig to the doctrine of psopular sover
eigty or thse fanastical senitimsenat whieb is
infusing" itself intlo the country- the sooner
- mnw this thte better. I smae no thireats.
Mr. President, you ll ear le witness that
I have never made
IIn all literature, in irtnry, in poetry, and
in the Scripture thesni'e s, the crow of the
cock has eenti used ns lotlily illustrative nod
indicative language. The game cock, when
lie stands in the piresenegof his adversary,
gives forth a note of dgfinace, inspired by
the danger and the exitement of the con.
test. and animates hin t'inove onl 11pon the
path of peril to victory or death. But how
different, ir, is the clanoi note of the chan.
ticleer, when he proCIilts to us the coming
of the day. It is as diff*rent a note as anl.
ger is fromn pence. It is fite nole of intelli.
genice. of hope, of 'peace. I say, sir, that if
this hill shall pass, and sall he ncquieseed
in cordially iv all sectioag of the Uinioi. it
will lie the note of godomen. It will be
the clario:t note 6f the chanticleer proclaim.
iIg to the Sottult thatIt hits dawniing upotn
Iter ; it will proclaim peae to all sections
a peace to which we ca honioriy he re
conceiled.. However, thieri Northern gen-.
ilemen shall let bosO.e tht a ters of..agita
tioun, I will change the fiuJre. If they will
continue to hate torch which has been
lighted by discord, I do tn't kitow how soon
the note may be changed to that of the
proud bird to 'which I hIavewdlinded.
Mr. President, I have siad more than I in
tended, but allow-Ine to add a few words
more. What a spectacle' will the United
Stats exhibit at this crisisnnd at this event
ful period of the world's history ? Sir, at a
time when a war is likely to take pltce at
the East which may mark the nge at a time
when a war may take plade to. change the
whole character of European piower, shall
we exhibit to the world these evidences of
weakness and distritetion t It itny lie ot]
of place for me to say a word upott this
matter ; but 1 must say, that I do not think
that the United States are- likely to 6e in
any dager so long as war is going ot, he
catse we may maintain the:?positioi id tle
s:ifety of neutral; but I will make this pre
dietion: If Russia- shall, he ernshed as a
power in Europs by the combhinationt of
France and Etiglhmid, the teimtiation uf that
war. will place France and Eiglanid in a
positiott to induce them hinterfere with
Americnn affairs. They will come out of
that war, if' they shall crus: ussia, with
triumph:t arnies, t eetsto.ied to war and
i thank the Senate for liavintg allowed tie
to make these remarks.
From tle Carolina Tineo.
En;EFIELD C. U1., Feb. 13, 1854.
My Dear Sir:-Your noble .vindication
of the cause of learning ami, popular educa
tion iii our State, must serve to revive the
drooping hopes of many who fe-A deeply on
these subl1jects, and will. I am :ure, lead to
impiotant and happy results. The high po
sition yon claim for our State College, and
the hold dignity with which yU have por
raved its true aims, reje-ctim at the same
tine, the false apptmiages, which a purely
utilitarin spirit is seeking to throw around
it, cannot hut exeit~e the approvd1 attd admti
ration of. everv scholar. Taehabit, so char
ateristic of our age and country, of crowd
ing ite iil with insulated facts before it
has beeni traitied to systemaitie 311ort, or to
investigate thte causes or first pricples of
things, while lowering the generalI esteem for
real schtolarshtip, bhas created among us a
taste foar frivolous and superficial aittaiinments.
The add',iotns sought to. be made to the
Cl~lege course will, it is eviden;, only tenid I
o increase these tinipromising .r esults. A n
elevated standard of knowledge, arising from
a high development of our intellectual pow
er, is ailotie to be -attained by keeping the
Cllege true to its legititmate objectb ; and
thse as I view them, atre-to develop the
moure mai~steriv faculties of the mniid arid soul,
to formn the literatry taste of our yonntg tmen
for the higher and broader fields of kntowl
edge-itn a word, to enable our youth to
grpple with the great principles of science,
ad to britig ordler andl use out cf the world
f detail surrounding us.
I concur wvithi you, that to accomplish
these ends, the style of instruct-ont pursued
int outr Coilk-ge, is bietter adapted than tha-tt
usually termied the Untiversity systemi. The
fiedoim of the Untiversity affourds too loose!
a rein tat our impatient y'outh, while the dlog-.
tmatical discourses of the University leeturer
woubal lbe little calculated to educe their
metital etiergies, or to lead thenm to any very
thoroght research. Dialectic insitrucittin
a sharp catechetical contest between the
Professor and the Ptipil is the sure'st, perhiaps
the only tmode, by which the latter can be
urged properly to tax his mental powers.
The German Universities, so fan'sed for their
literature atid science, derive their chief v'al-I
e, i n my humble judgment, frcom two im
pirtant adjuncts: first from the Gymnasia,
which are tmost excellent preparatory acade
iies; secondly, from a deep devotiotn to
knowledge, fromt that national li/crary enlit
siasm, to lie found nowhere out of Germanty.
W'hile urging, therefore, no chatge, at least
for the present, in our College curricuhumn, 1
ust however, lie permitted to state ta,~
witout some change in the preparatory in
struction of our y-ouing metn, the ful betnefits
of thte College catn never be realized. Stu
ents too often enter College in a raw state,
with their mintds slightly discipline], atnd with
a mere smattering oif the branches to which
they have given their attetntion. 'How 'is it
possible they catn be1 prepared ihr the se.vetre
disciplitne required of them withis. the College
wallsi How can they he excpreted rightly
to aptpreciate the profound rezuoninsgs, and
close analytic teachtings of the learneil Pro
fessor ? Hlow master the abstru'e, ditlicult
gnestions occurring in mnenital.pnd qnital
E:Inennto - cmsopmlienuted pr bloninn~d
subtle analysis and pinlosophic structure o
tie- anci'ent itiguiges ? or, indeed, any o
the graver studies of the College course ?
You will agree with mue I think, in sa ying
thatt much of the talent ami learning of' ti
Professor is thrown awa y upon iinds, nol
suiciently tatored for a just appreciation Ue
This must, in the main, ie aserihed to de
fective prepartion. And ft fimit is niot so
much. with the teachers of' our aeadeties
as in the organization oftie itademies them
selves. Can one man, for instance, wiilk
attending to the disciplinary duties of the
school-room, instruct thoroughlly in all tit
branches usually taglit in our -aademnies
in Latin, Greek, Matiaotlics, Natural amt
Moral Philos-ophy, H istory. Geography, nd
almost the whole eyelopedia I impossible
Yet this. at present, is required of iearlv II
thoteacthers in the State. The result is, t hti
iistruetion has been giveii in ; most imp-r
fect maier : the teachlier has been kept 11romr
all chance of distinction, or from making
proficientcy in schob-irship, :nd, ;fter a fe
years, has usually a brokeni down constitu
To remedy these defects-in other words
to emtlie the instructoir to attain to a inas
terv ove.r the btanclies he tmay ie called on
to teach, and to train the minds of our youth
by sound, accurate instructioi, the State will
he compelled to establish aedemies of an
Pil:rged cbaracter. As at imperfect outline
(if a lanht, I wiyultt respectfully suggest the
following: Let six academies lit lormed in
suitable places-oie, for instance, iii eaoch
Congressiial District-with an organiztion
atier this tmanner: There shall le a Board
of Trustees, to he uppointed hy the Legisla
ture, from the respective Districts (-f each
Congressional District, whose duty it shall
be, in connection with the superiitendeit of
public edreationi, to order the erection ol
proper buildings, and to supervise the insti
tutions when established. Each academy
shall contain eiglt chiel instructors
1. A director, who may teach Moral Phi.
losophy id Evidences of* Chritianityn.
2. A i instructfr in the Ancitt Launguages.
3. " itt tihe 313 dern L:magmges.
4. " " in the English Language
53. " ' int Mathemaitics. ..
,,,an1may appea xpensivr
.. w tidred pupils at $10 ea-hi would
meet the expense ; aid, I venture to aillirni,
that, for the education of the smne nimiher
of youths, a larger sum is )o3w miilly ex
pended, while the iiistruction received, froi
the very nature of the case, is much less
. To erect these Academies and to keep
them itn operation, it would be w-ie in the
Legislature to use a part of our dittiimi
fund, which should be incrersed to S100,000,
aid to cause all moneys received rom pupils
to he Iid into the State Treasury. Theie
can be little doubt, that these academies will,
in a short time, support themselves ; but it
remove all contingeii'y, and to place them
at once oi a sure and permanent Isis, and
it the Saie time, to alrord beneficiary in
struction to a numier oh inidigeit, proimising
young men in the various Districts, the State
should hold itself responsible for thie sailaries
of the Teachers. .itt a word, these should
he State academies.
fThe advanitages of such institutions must
readily suggest themselves to every relketing'
mid. They wvill lbe conmprehtensive anid sci
entiie: affording a substantial, utinir edin
cationi to the yoiung men of the State, ani
preparinig all, who may desire it, for entter
ing our coillege under ample anid equal bi-e
fits. Uttlike our present. academies, whieh
usually spring up undter the direction of sonu~
poular teacher, and as suddenily die away
withi him, sinikinig thtousanids of dallars it
improvenments renidered useless, they will li<
stationary anid pernaient. [Ibmidreds o
years to comei they will be stamnding mono
merts of the energy atnd wisdomn of omt
people, entlighttening the youthful mninds
the State, and impartinig a ptermanuentt, aint
increasing value to prop~erty around themt.
Instead of onie teacher aus nouw, whlo lead:
almost the life. of a reclnse ini onie of om1
acaemies, rernoved from every stimtulii,
necessary to n etive itellec-tual eilert. ter<
will he a little socicty of literary meni, en
gaged itn similar pursuits, with a generou
emulation, utrging anid aiding one attouherm
in the road to ktnowledge. There will exist
also, both a division and a combiiit ion 0
lao(r in the several diuties of disceiphinie anm
instruction-mtatters as imnportantt ini the pro(
vice of literature, as itn thamt of political econi
omy. Two meni occupyin~g themtselves with
different branichtes cai istrutct tifty pupil
with greater emise to thtemselves, andi witi
higher advanitage to the pupil. titan onec mat
can instruct twenty-five in all the branches
And thtis rule, it is believed, will hold goot
to almost any extent.
Young men, taught in these acadlemiet
wouldl enter college with advatntaige unknowi
to our yotuth at presenit. Thecy wvould b<
prepared to derive profit fromi tihe ablest in
strqction of learned professorrs, andti hy thi
tite they gradluate, would receive a mienta
discipline, aind a relish ior study aind acegir
ients, which in after life, would gnatlify thea
fr -bedoming useful ment and scholars. Ti
College would then, indeed, hbe a ntoble in
sitution of I earning-exeitinig a happy in
fuence over the public tasto in literature
and imipartinig to the younlg minids of thi
State a polish and a powver that wvould so
be felt in all the higher wvalks of knowledg
While, too, in the plan submitted, grea
care has been givent to intellectual training
moral culture has not been overlooked. I
is too mnch the fiashtion,ntow-a-days, to pt-e
on the young intelleet by every artihiciai
stimulus, eramtming~ it wvith facts and ambi
tious aspirations, with little regard to thle de
velopmentt of its moral capabilities. Mind
this trained, thoiwh enlightened hvy the rav
r' or genlin. and knowledge, may be, aid often
I ar*e. prostituted to the worst purposes. . It is
needless to reinark that in every wise plan
of eduentiotn, to train properly the natural
-affectiis, and to inculeate sound morsal pre
cepts, should be deemed great and leading
" Recti cultus pectora roborant:
Ultunque defcere min-.
Indecurant benle niata culgPe "-IHon
Hence the studies of 1loral Philosophy
aid tihe Evideices of Christiuit have been
introdnced, while nusic, as a science, theo
retienlly and practicaily taught, is oflered as
an auxiltiry disciliie to the iatural affiec
tions. These academies should likewise be
surrounded by beatifuifl, cultivated groves,
wii arrangemits far gvniastic exercises,
a forditig innocent recrentions and joyous
patst tines, to alinre the yonth of tie cotintry
f(o)mI idle, misclhieios itediutionts, and111 fromt
t iose tummlttious ontbreakings of passion
am1 violence, that so ofteni disgrace olurU
Souther in istittions. Scenes like these, en.
ijoyed t11miog the delitfl academic groves
of unient Atheims, helped to inspire the
youth there assembled with that beautiful
antd romtttitic attachment to tle causef or
letters, which gave to Greece her magnil
ie idea of musical instruction in a lite.
rary academy may excite a smile from many
of tle g'rave seniors of the land ; but. I am
addressinr my1i'f. to one profoundly aic
quamiled withi the human .heart, and whose
searching analysis Ias enabled him to trace
out thle Iimost secret springs of human act;)n.
To you, sir, the poet's words can be no mere
lu-ie alt... witl stolei ebarmn can bind
The wannteriig sensie, and ea the tri.ibl-d mind."
" Musie the fierc'st gzrie'f cnn charm,
A nil rte's sever est ran:: disarm;
3Mnsi t n softent paul it enae,
And make- detsp~a r and imadness please;
Our jeoys lwit.n it e:it improive.
A id anteith-dutec' the 1)i1s above."-Porr.
Phltysiologists coniteid thauit, while the study
aid practice of musitc exert a happoy intiu
eice upon tt- metal and ioral qualities of
our naure, they also greatly imttprove the
phyisical elnstituionl. But if a special ad
voency of the suictee, as a tbranch of edu
.. - . . .. lnture M
the concert or the opera, or by genle diver
siots otl stme favorite instruteLlt.
The skill or the ancient Grtee'ks in this re
filled scientce, is atbntuost proverbial. It was a
rare titg to find a cultivated Athenian.
without a knowledge of it, and without skill
upon: some illstrument. Themistoee, wve
are toild. was deemed 1u lewtrlcl, becanse of
his inability to play the lyre at a feiast. You
recoileet a enri u passage on this subject
in Circero's Tus. Disp. Lib. i. 2, 3.:
*** Stin -rttelitiotm Cra-vl !itamn censt-ball
ti ii'rvtrui n V'iik mgle eii ibuls. t I itr e liii jii
min-nelas plrinepsj. ite-o judiiciot, G;r.ueimt fidibusI
prnchte eeiiss diitu :Themi.ettoelesquei aliqit
ante ann<), 'eui In eoi1.S i'etunrr-t lyram. est hatus il
ind.,--tior. Ert' in G rae a .sici ti'rnerunt : dts
tetIntsmique il noi11-4 : hor lu: uIit: ne*ciebut (ti$ excel!
tum douerina putabatir."
So mch for the :eademies: the establish.
mntt of whtieb mnest be deemed of great imt.
piortantce, atnd nmty be considered the sectondt
step towards a cotmprehtensive systei of
State edutcation. Thle forming of common
schools is the next step.
To furn.sh a systemi of common school itn
struetion t'or our Staete, likely to be~ success
f'ul, is con fessedly a thing ofgraprcia
dii'Jy.Te imtportanice iof it, htowev'er,
isasrnly het t present, thaine shoutld
not be0 restrained from offeritng his suggr'es
tins frott a fe'ar of faihtire or of criltis.
Though imuch thas beetn said attd wirittetn otn
this subfjecet, little, 1 believe, ini the way' of' a
well dtigestedl, suiitabtle' pilan has been brought
to the pulic eye. 'The bo'asted systems of
r Prusaint, amt of New Entglanid, recotimentd
ed by~ somie, miay at onceO be rejected as unt
-suited to our presenlt state, tiot tot speak of
rliheir failuire to nehlieve the granid results so
Icotnfidently expected ini the regionts where
. they have been estatblishted. No system,
which is wholly computlsory, or enttirely vol
unitary, cani succeed with us. These two
thtings must be pror'l'y blended in order ton
develop really usetuh results. The systemn
shiould be so faer volutitary as to) entlist the
cordial efforts of our people in the cause of
educatin, yet sufliciently' coercive to impart
, rder andtt permtanlency to the atrrangetmenit.
f With mtuch ditlidence', vet, with some as
I suranrce of its feasibilityv, I subitt the fed
.tliwmn outlinte of a pltant:-Let the Legisla
-tre appoinit from tenm to fiftuen schtool comt
itmsiners for each dist rict ini the State, with
dtrections so to distributte their labors among
t htemselveLs, that eacti commtiissioner wilt htave
cc t ee-an circuit within whticht to perform his
.dutie. It shalt, in the first place, be incum
I bettt on htimt to seek out all the neighborhoods
within his circuit itn which schootls may be
establishied, and to form pirecinets, if praecti'
CabIle, niot exceeding five mtiles square. He
shall then aptpoinit five~ trustees withtin each
plrecinict, whto shall ctnstitute a body cotrpo
rate for specific purposes, and shall tassist
Ihitm ini selecting setuibe attd central sites fir
-the establishment of school honuses. T1hese
itrustees shatll endeavor by voluntary contri
biutions froit alhl thet iinthbitantts of' their re
-spective precinmcts to raise thie futtds, netces.'
-sry during thte first year, to erect the build
,ings, and afterwards to pay the salaries of
Sthe teachers. Should the stums thus raised he
Sinsuflicient, it shall be thme dluty of the corn
.tmissionter's with the aid of theo trustees, to
* Nor.-The Grecians thtoughit that to sing and
'to play wvell was the highest accoumplishtmtent. A int
ttherefore kpamtinoneidtus thte chief't ini my opmliton of
Sthe Greeks is satid to have accomipanied the lyre
tnmust beautifully. A nil Thtemistelees. some few years
.before whten hte refutsed the lyre at the feest wits es
teemed rather unleairned. Thterefoure in Greece,
*i tslusiitnns flourished and an ufnivated thi:.t art. No'r
swats that ant deentied hti:tly polisheud who was it;
S floaut tereo
assess all the inhabitants of their reLp'~, iG'e
precincts at a per centum, of which the mtz
imum shall ie fixed by the boa-d of coni
missioners on a basis to be heeafter stated:
provided no one be assessed on more-han
$45,000 : which assessment shall, if resisted,
he collected by the usual process of law is
the name of the trustees. Voluntary con
tributions may now he added to this assess
ment ; and should there still be acdeficit, it
shall be reported to the board of commis
sioners, who shall distribute tle education
fund received from the State towards supply
ing the deficiency. A nd should there still b
a deficit, the commissioners sl::ll proceed to'
levy a certain per cent. upon the generiLtax
of the district at large, as is now done by
tihe commissioners of roads to raise monej
for bridges, &c.
. When the salaries have been:thus raised,
the Trustees, with the commissioners of each
precinct, shall with care, select competent
teachers, who shall be required to teach
without distinction, all the children of the
precinct that may be sent to schooL
The Commissioners shall ddtermine the
maximum of the assessment, by ascertaimni
first, :is nearly as practieable, the aggregat.
wealth of their respective districts; then, the
number of schools in the District, and the
aggriegate salaries of tihe teachers. The per
centum on this aggregate wealth, necessary,
to raise the aggregate salaries, Vill te the
maximum assessment. -
Let me illustrate... The.District of Edge
field, containing about 1700 square miles of
territory, will, after deducting the uninhabit
ed portions, embrace about 55 precincts, of
live miles square, and hence 55 schools-rma
king about four schools for the superinten
dence of each of the fifteen commissioners.
At a salary of $500 each, the aggregatelof
Teacher's salaries will be 827,500. Now,
tihe value of the aggregate real and personal
estate of the district, according to the report
of the United States Marshal- in 1850fis
$16,485,0794 [The more corirect. anfiunt*
would he 820,000,000.] An assessment of
one-sixth of a cent per centum on the former
sum, will give $27,475.
Tie (ommissioners and Trustees of the
various precincts. in Edgefield- District, in
fIiling to raise the salaries of the teachers
by voluntary subscriptionsi shall' therefore
have power to assess.,the ihabitantsof elch
precinct, not exceedings one.-Sixth .t
per cenium dn the i% 2i @oif
tates; provided no 2n6ahi1 e : e
more thain ??IPAWeih
er wea tI t*im sn0 Ole
a.mnounts elsewhere in .the way of' educati
Should there ho a deficit after this, it shall
be reported and acted on as above indicated.
It' necess.arv, the commissior.ers may re
ceive, as a compensation for their services,
one dollar nP.1 fifty cents per diem for every
day while engaged on duties relative to the
,schnils; and it shall be their duty to super.
intend said schools; to procure for them a
good, unilorm systemiof-instruction ; to col
eet all in*ornmationfoecting them; and to
make an annual reyettto the-general super
ijtendent of public education, who shall
make a COndensed annual report for the
The plait here proposed seems easy, plain,
and to my view, entirely practicable. That
it is prfeect, no pretence is made. "Nihil
siunl incentima est et perfectum." Among
others, it offers these advantages. It will
secure permanent and respectable schools,
f:rnishing subtiantial uniform instruction for
tihe general classes of the State. It will dis
tribute the biurdeni of educating the poor
equally upon all, according to their capacity
to contribute; egualizing the burden through
the State, by means of the State fund, and
thmriumgh the D.istricts, by an ad valorem as
ssment andl tax. It moreover will enlist a
large niumber of respectable citizens through.
out the State iln the cause of education, and
cannomt, ther. fore, fail to excite a spirit of
emulation andu pride in contributing to the
educamtion anid moral improvement of our
entire wuhite population. In short it will en
able everv child in the State to receive a fair
elemenmtarv education at an expense but a
trifle more than that now incurred in half
educating only a portion of our youth.
Should these plans, both for the academies
and common schools, be carried into effect,
it ma:y well lbe doubtred whether a single
(dlllar more will lie expended in the cause of
edutcation than is expended at present. The
increased facil.ities afiorded will be caused
not so much by the additional expense asby
a proper husbandry of' the mnean~s already
employed. What may not systematic effort
achieve in any departmnentof human science
anud indlustry ? But to educate our people
and to raise the standard of knowledge and.
scholarship among us. no lover of his conn
try or oif his race could hesitate to urge the
Legislature to mnake the most ample enidow
mtentts. Who would not bestowv liberally
from the bounties, with which a henignant~
Deity has blessed him, for the promotion of -
objects so useful, so noble! Let the Legis-.
l'ature increase our school-fund to $100,000~
-applying $50,000 to the support of an ex-.
cellent system of academical instruction,,
and $50,000 to the common schools-and
at no distant day, we will experience a de
gi'ee of moral and mental improvement, and
a thirst for sound, practical, comprehensive
knowledge, that will both astonish and glad
den the heart of every patriot in the land.
I have Sir, thus. crudely thrown out my
views to von on this interesting subject.
They arce the result of some serious reftec
tiomn for several ,years past. If they be en
tithed to any contsideration I know yo u'ill
cheerfully ~aecord. it. I have addressed this
communication to yIou because of the deep
interest you take in these matters, and be
cause I know of no one in the State, wl o~
can form a more .correct judgment upon the
practical efliciency of any plani that may be
With high r'espect and esteem,
I regain your obed't seryt
W. C. MOlRAGNE
To the Rev. Dr J. H. TnoRxwLL ,
President o a.. C. College.
( fge Cultivatin is nu essential to the miind as