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W- F. DUIMISOEl Proprietor. E EF LD S C,25, 1854.
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A TALE OF BY-GONE YEAtIS.
Ti deep totes of the iron sentinel of the
grand Cathedral ofSt. .lark's sounded leavi
lv ott the mitinight air, as a number of figures,
clad in the guise ot motiks, noiselessly wend
ed their way towards the westernt gate of
the city. A firtn resolve was written ott
their frowning features, and a wild, ialig
natit fire shoine fron their fiashitg eyes.
They had nearly reached the gate of the
city, when they paused before an old dilapi
dated building, and made a l' w sigrnal. It
was soon answered from within, and, alter
the drawitg back of bolts, the door slowly
opened, while the party of monks entered
and then the door closed behind them with
a dull sound.
They followed their guite into a long hall,
and throwing back their cowls, seated them
selves around a large oakei talde, while one,
who appeared to be the leader, drew a roll
of parchinent from under his gown and laid
iL on tie table.
'. -Viv is Otto not here?" he asked, inl a
harsh tone;"hitietmmg at a taI persot w
sat opposite to him.
" I know tot. Faust," returned the other;
vet I li-ar his abst-nce hides ito goild to our
cause, " he added in, a deep, mea niig tine.
" What iean Vou, Bolren f Thiik you
he dare say aught of our lt'ngic t'
- I thtinik lie has a secret, titl if it wrTe
revealed, would cause us to treml- e for our
" Yet he dare not betray us, PBohrn, for
be too well remembers the oath."
Think you, Rudolf Otte lars man?
It were Well that h1e should, lohren "
Perchatnce it were ; Vet I to,' well kn"i
Otto's fearless spirits, mid Artaud of Au is I
his enety ; for it was but a year since he
inurdered his aged sire, atd Rudolf swore
to be revenged."
A signaIl from without iterupted the
conversatiot, tand in a fe-w miiutes a youn
man~t, whose tine fe-atures ha~d bien darkenied
by the sun of sejtt twenzty stimniters, enter
odi the hatll anid seated himtself at the tabl e.
"You are late, Otto," spoke the leader
mnonk, tturtting towards the colmer.
-True, Faust; vet I an itt time for besi
ness," returtned the veouth, anid his hipis qttiv
cred with sonme stronig emttioun.
"Right ! Otto, you are," reji inted lichretn
and tnow, Faust, let tus hear of the plan of
"Silenc~e, thent," retirtied lthe Ileadter monk,
while he glanced suspiciously at thte youth
and his frietid liohren. " We are to t'eet
here to-mn-rrowv eve ; and, whlenm mmidntighit
steals over the city, Artiatid is tn jitn us,
with one thiousatnd Autstrin ttroops, andic e
dawn Wsesetn ceases to be ini the piower oif
These words were receivedl with cheers
by all, exrept by Otto and his fiienids. A
d'eep) meanting stmile rested ont the~ ine fent
tures of the younth, antd he gazed piyinigly
on Faust's stern visage. After againi tatkit
the oath to remtaini true, they separated, each
to returtn to his hiotte.
Otto antd his frietit took ae diiieretit course
fromt the rest, atnd were soon statniditig by
shte hake at the foot of the city.
" Now I would hear of yotir sucecess,
frienid," said the youth, stiiling fonidly ott
"I have colleeted five hiutndred of' the
peasatts who are ready to ettter the city
at ant hour's wvarninig;" returtied the miotnk,
while a sttile of satisfatction passed over his
"It is well, then, faithful Bidbren. We.
shall soon lie savedl, adh A rnaud of' Ati
dies ; yet did Faust spieak of tiy absenice
,last eve ?
"lHe did, Rudolf; atnd I also spoke ofa
secret you possessedh.
"And what did lie say int reply' ?"
*" That you dare ntot betray thetm,"
-" Tey iteetd not featr, liohiren ; the onth
Js s-'red-antd I would rot have them dui
by my means."
-" Yet at what hour will yotu meet us !
" An hour before vespers."
"Adieu, then, Otto, I will be at the wes
"It is well, IBobren, farewell ! I wil
meet you there," retutnted the youth ; atd
drawitng his cowl over his lace, lie agali
etitered the city.
It was near thte stinset htour, atnd the go
of day was s[owly disappearing itt th
gorgeously piledl up clouds that overhiuni
the p~roud city of Wessemn, while the nig1
queen htuitg like a silver crescent in the tdeef
er azure of the heavens, as it; by the sol
effulgence of liet silvery rays, to add mor
beauty to the scee
In a deep recess of his chateas, was thi
aged Baron, Walter Compte, reclining or
a couch, with his form half hidden by the
heavy folds of the costly drapery. A iron
bled expression rested on his noble features
and thu shade of sadness that played orei
his brow waxed darker. Rising from the
couch, he arranged his slightly disorderet
dress, and turning to a window he gazec
vacaitlv out into the street.
" Ah, father, the-n are all my young hopei
thus to be crushed !"
These words were spoken by a young
girl of scarce fifteen suminers, and her dark
lustious orbs were bent imploringly on thc
stern face of her father. 0
" Why those tears, Ada !" asked the
Baron ; while a smile, for a moment, pass
ed over his face.
" Know you not, father, that I love anoth.
er ?" replied the fair girl, throwing her long
tresses back from her pale brow.
Who, pray child t"
One who is worthy of our regard."
And who may that be, Ada 1"
Rudolf Otto, our preserver."
The peasant youth !"
The samne, fiather."
"Then would you disgrace our noble
race, child, by wedding Rudolf Otto !
" Yet, father, do we not owe Rudolf
For what child !"
"Diu he not rescue us from the banditti
on tie mountains !"
"' True, he did, Ada; and I would not for
get the generous act, for ho saved our lives
at the peril of his own ; yet Ada, I would
have you give your hand to Arnaud of Au."
- Father, wouid you have me to give my
hand to one I can not love ?"
" Never! father. I would sonner enter a
convent, and live the secluded life of a nun,
than wed one I could not love."
Yet Arnaud is brave and noble."
"Did lie not slay Rndolf's father."
That was in time of war child."
Yet it was a cruel deed."
"Think not so hard of Arniaud, Ada, but
judge him less harshly."
" I will try for your sake, father," return.
ed the fair girl ; and, imprinting a kiss on
he brow of the Baron, she glided from the
Twilight gave way to darker night, as the
fsmiliar form of Rudolf Otto might have
been seen wending his way tow ards the
western gate of the city. He was differently
ressed than on the preceding night, he was
lad in the humble guise of a peasarut, while
4oon to niete out justice to th8 nrdereFS1
is aged sire. A firim resolve wais stamped
n his ine features, and a wild fire shot from
is vere. lie was soon at the gate of the
city, amid had not long to wait ere his faith.
ul frieid, Bolren, was at his side.
- I have waited for you with reluctance,
" Whv, Bohren F" asked the youth, smiling
fon:dlV on his friend.
- The Austrians have already entered the
'Then have they been apprised of our
- They have, Rudolf; and, ero an hour,
they will make the attack," said Boliren, in
an excited tone.
" Yet, thanks to the Holy Virgin, they
know not the conispirator's secret, Bohren."
And that secret-"
Is this, B~ohren; heneath the house,
where they are to meet, are depnsited fifty
kegs of powdmer, and at a moment's warning,
thevy can he launebed into eternity.''
" Thena let us hasten ere they make the
"lThey will not sally forth at this early
" Yet I was informed so by the spy."
" Think you he can he trusted, Biohren !"
"I c.,uldinot doubt his word, Otto, fur he
is a noble fellow."
" Thien it were better to be expeditious,
Bohren. Are the meni ready' !"
" They but await your orders, Otto."
"Thieni let the report of my carbine be
the signial for the attack."
"A ire the citizens apprised of our scheme !'
"They are, IBohren, and are ready to
" 'Thien all will be well, Otto."
"True, Bohiren. Wesen shall yet bie say
eil. You can guide the men as near the
city as possible without being seen by any~
of the conspirators, while I hasteni on aid
aplhy the match."
Not so, Rtudolf; you can guide th<
troops, I light the train ; and if I fall, y'
will be miore completent to head the charge.'
"Ah ! mno, faithful Buhren ; it shall nevel
be saiid of Rtudolf Otto that lie endangeret
the life of his truest friend to shield his own.
"Yet thiink of the fair Ada, Riudolf; hiou
she would mourn you loss, if you shioub
"Fear not, kind Bohren ; hoaven will pro
"Mi ! Rudolf, I would not have one s<
iioblle (lie by the hands of the hated Aus
trians; vet I could not deny you, Otto,
sobbed~ the aged moan, while tears course
over his weather-roughed features.
-" Dry your tears, kind Bohiren, for the,
unan me, arid we have a duty to perfortn,
returned Otto, in a conciliatory tone.
T lhe faithful Bohren, wvith a deep drawr
sihi, tu rned from the lace to join his met
wihile Otto hasteuned to lire thu train.
'T'he night crept on apace, as still WValtc
Comtme remiaiined in the deep recess, lost in
pleasiung reverie, when the stunning report 4
the explosion lgroke upon his ears, followe
by the clash of steel and the cry of " t
" Ieavens, there is a revolt !" gasped ti
Baron, drawiing his sword, and hiastenin
from the room. " Ada, miy .hild, may tl
j loly Virgin protect you !" be cried, as ti
fair girl hasteiied to his side.
Ere the young girl had time to spea
tArinud rushed iinto the hall with a party
his men, having hlt thme others at the conl
cil house ; and erc the Baron could defer
himmself, lie wvas struck to the floor by one
if "\h spare my aged father!" sobbed Ada
i throwing her arms around her father's neck
G " Res)ect age, Roaz; and, as to the Ba.
ron, his time on earth is short, for that blc.n
was dealt by a strong arm!" rejoined Ar.
naud, while a fiendish smile rested on hii
dark visage. "Take the girl, my men, and
we will return," he added, pointing towardt
" Oh ! let me remain with my aged fa.
ther!" cried tie fair girl, struggling to free
herself from the rough grasp of the soldiers.
" Cease your cries, pretty one, for Itudoll
Otto is now no iore !"
" Murderer! receive your reward!" soun
ded on the rullian's ears like a kneel ; and
the next instant the heavy sword descended,
cleaving his skull.
For a moment the heavy body swayed to
and fro, and fell heavily on the marble floor;
the soul of Arnaud of An had fled to God,
who gave it, and Rudolf Otto, had perform.
ed his vow.
All the Austrians, except those who per.
ished in the council house, were taken pri
soners, and Weson was saved. Not long
after, the fair Ada was united to Rudolf
Otto, with the free consent of the Baron,
who soon recovered from his wounds, and
lived happily with the peasant boy, now
Faust, and the other conspirators, were
killed by the explosion, while the faitliful
Bohren was knighted flor his ardent zeal in
saving Wesen.-Waverly Magazino.
Tns "GIFTs OF Gon."-%Ve cut the fol
lowing paragraph from an able and interest
ing article in the Albany Daily State Reg
ister, on a passage in the minority report of
Mr. Crosby to the Senate of New York :
" But are these intoxicaling drinks " the
Gifts of God ?" We deny it. We affirm
that in all the world-nay, in all the uni
verse of God, there is not a lake, a river,
streamlet, or a fountain, of intoxicating
drinks. There is no such a thing in nature.
Water, God has everywhere given, spread
it all over the world, sent it down from the
clouds, sent it bubbling up from the earth,
made it journey in ceaseless activity in rills,
and streams, and great rivers, towards the
ocean. lie has, wherever mai can live,
given it to him at his very door, but intoxica
ting drinks lie has provided no where on the
face of the whole earth. That " gift," wea.
ther " good" or evil, is not the gift of God,
but the inventioni that has desroyed more
lives, dissolved more homes, occasioned more
sorrow and aniguish, than war, - pestilence
and famine combined.
policy to deprive men' of Ie use 61 itly
legislativo enactment, but to call intoxica
ting drinks the " Good gift of God" is an
abuse of terms, and a burning reproach
against thu benuvolence and holy attributes
of the Diety."
A VELLER in England, observing a
peasant at work, and seeing he Was taking it
remarkably easy, said
" My friend, you do not appear to sweat
Why, no master, six shillings a week
ain't sweating wages."
A WA, was one day speaking of two of
his acquaintances who had gone west, where
new coiers were usually attacked the first
season, with the agne, and said lie.
" Neither of these two men will be afilic.
" Why not ?" ilnired( a bystander.
" Because," was the reply", " one of them
is too lazy to shake, and the other won't
shake unless lhe gets pay for it."
The best arts of human qualities are the
tenderness and delicacy of feelinig in little
matters, the desire to sooth and~ pleaLse others,
the minute of the social virtnes. Some ridi
cule these feminine attributos, which are
left out of mnany' men's nature; but I have
known the brave, the intellectual, the elo
quent, possess these gentle qualities; the
braggart, the weak, never! Benevolence
and feeling ennoble the most trifling actions
WoiRhD's FI R IN l'~nis-The Paris
correspondent of the New York T1imies
"A deputation of commercial men and
manufacturers waited on the Emperor, recen
ly, to ask whleher the great Exhibition,
appj~jointed for 18534, would take lace, niot.
withstanding the war, Louis Napoleoni repli
ed most decidedly in the allirimativ-e. lHe also
promised to have thme Exhibiitioni Palace
made half as large again as was originally
intenided, and iiitimiated that the war could
iiot, in any case, be of great duration."
Tus Vovriix-rme Cousn.-TLhe St.
Louis Morning H erald oh the 6th inst. say;
that Hion. John J. Crittenden, on visiting
the National Miedical Convention in session
in that city, on the 5th inst., was actually
hissed out of it by that distinguished body
of men. This is one of the most withering
rebukes Mr. C. has received since the tria
of Ward-and one that lie wvill remembel
to his dying dlay.
Tu''is " Do-No-rmN(;ss."-A society enille
the " Do-Nothings" has been formed ini Net'
IBedford. There are several hund:ed in tha
"city who approve its priniciples, but are to'
lazy to join.
"A so-rnER~ Sat mwHmE(K.-Th~e steame
'Washington reacehed quaranitinie at Nov
York oni Saturday night. Sue bring's 2:'
passengers and a full cargo.
aThe Washington also brings the passer
gers and crew, about five hundred soulh
dtaken from the ship Winchester, bound froi
*Liverpool to Boston. She wvas wrecked i
the frightful gale of the 16th of A pril ani
1 had been ini a crippled condition, kept fror
g sinking by constant lahbor at the putmip
0 T1hie Washington fell in with her on the 2
instant, and notwithstandinig the prev doem
of a heavy gale, succeeded in rescuing a
c, the passengers and crew.
>f The Winchester went down in thirt
i- minutes alter thec last of the crew left he
iShe belonged to iUoston, and had a vahu:
f bl e cargo. She sailed from Liverpool o
the 9th no' Apnril
Recollections of the late Ron. John
0. alho ,
Mr. Powers, in a letterrritton to a friend
in the United States froir Florence, is said
to have made the folloing statement re
garding the bust of Mr. (I houn:
" I have no bust in mj studio which at
traets so much attention 4s Calhoun's if I
except the ideal ones. Mny have said that
it would pass for a bustiof Brtus. One
said, " I should not like to be judged by
that man, unless my caus was good." An.
other said, " fie is a ver stern man ; but
good and amiable, notwilstanding." Nei
ther of these knew whosebust it was."
Of all the public men :otenorary with
Mr. Calhoun, it so chanesetthat I knew him
best. My first acquaintanp with him dates
back as far as 1832. Ittts at Columbia,
in South Carolina, wherdl was on a brief
visit during the session, of he State Legisla.
ture. le was then on hisway to Washing
ton, from Fort Hill, his reldence in Pendle
At that time nullificatioi ran very high.
It was deemed by Mr. Calhoun and his
friends to be a constitutikual States-trglt
remedy, to he applied in ho last resort, to
check the unconstitutionallegislation of an
irresponsible majority in Congress.
We found Mr. Calhoun: at the interview
referred to, plainly and sirply dressed, and
quite unpretending in his manners. He was
frank and accessible in his intercourse ; yet
earnest and animated in conversation. He
then wore a blue dress coat,-with gilt buttons,
and dark colored pants and vest, which had
been so well worn on his frame, as to give
them externally a rather "seedy" look.
The next time we saw Mr. Calhoun was
at Washington, in 1836. He was then in
the Senate, and as industrious and as active
He then stood very high as a forcible and
argumentative debater. I heard him on
several occasions, and was impressed with
the earnestness of his manner, closo logical
deductions, and the terse brevity with which
his iduas were expressed. There was no
attempt at rhetorical ornament, nor was
there a waste of words. There was noth
ing sacrificed to the applause to be gained
by the use of rounded periods or of empty
sounds, conveyed in beautifully selected
words, destitute of ideas. Every sentence
e uttered abounded in thought, or in ideas
strictly applicable to the subject in debate.
and was expressed in just the number of
ornur wnesis to c eis meaning to the
was peculiuar arid forcnhspect his oratory
were better when delivered n
We did not meet Mr. Calhoun again un
til the called session of 1841, in Tyler's Ad.
ininistration. We found him in opposition
to Mr. Clay on the question of a national
Bank, and occupying., as usual, strong ground
on the democratic side of politics.
We were at this time frequently in his
company, and had frequent conversations
with him. We had then just returned from
a visit to Europe. lie asked many ques
tions about England. ie said that the in
crease of pauperism and the necessity for
its relief, was proof to him that the people
were over taxed, and that those who had
despoiled them were compelled to return
a portion of the money, Lo mantain them, or
to save them from starvtion. .
It cannot be denied that Mr. Calhoun was
ambitious, and at times, Do doubt, indulged
reaoniable hopes of one day reaching the
Presidency ; but his oper rupture with Gen.
Jackson, planned and funenrted by another
less scrupulous aspirant, together with the
odiuma which selfish poltical partisans at.
tempted to fix upon the dbctriune of nullifica
tion, had tihe effect (so nuch tbe worse for
the country) of disappoiting bis views in
Notwithstanding his ~rilliant services in
the cabinet of Mr. Tyle, to which he had
been reluctantly on Iris >art called, and Iris
great agency rn securin, the annexation of
Texas, instead of receirrg the nomination
of the Democratic para in 1844, he was
overlookted, and Jamres A Polk, greatly his
inferior in every respec. was taken up) and
elected, arid nmainly Ontre strength of Mr.
Cloun's annexation nnsures.
Mr. Polk, at Ihis iniauration, found Mr.
Calhoun in ottice, andworked down to a
bed of sickness. A fter. good deal of insiri
cerity displayed on theart of Mr. Polk to
wards Mr. Calhoun ai Ihis friends, whom
ie led to believe at oratime that Mr. Cal
houni would be retanine in Olhice, to com
plete thre great work oarnnexationi, as well
as important reformns e had commeinced
and partially accomphied in Iris depart
ment, and which woubcqmire some months
of additional labor to fsh up, (after which
he himself proposed t-etire,) Ihe was dis
missed, arid Mr. Buchan installed in his
It was at this periodve called to seo Mr.
Calhoun. Hie had fai'ully, honorably and
usefully devoted thiirtjr forty years of Iris
life to tire service of I country. Ho was
Inow redueed by illnefrom over exertion,
aid had just been disirged by Mr. Polk,
aid apparently desert by the country at
large. It is at such tincture that we carn
best judge of a manr'sie greatness of soul.
On entering his ro we found him sit
ti apira arim ch: arid cheerful, but
wsted arid thin. Ha~lulged in no repin
rings, ini rio cernsnre of r. Polk's course, no
coplairts of thre peop ingratitude.
Our conversation ohat occasion I shalh
never forget, anid shiabroceed to give it in
I his fatce was turner thre direction of a
anorthern window, threar subdued light of
;.which illuminated hisatures. His eyes,
Jnaturally of a large ec blue, beamed with
egreat I~rillianey and fligence. I sat ra
ther at one side and'ront oif hinm, which
gave nie a sort of fullle view of hris fea
'trus. After some ie conversation he
kalluded to thne Texas stioni.
-lie said that manyietulties had preseni
iitel themselves. Thenglish had ev'idenft
I.,y intriged,- with thaxan authorities to
prevent annexation. They had also tamper.
ed with Mexico, and he had received evi
dences through a party in Mexico, that they
had proposed negotiations for the purchase
of California, all of which designs " I labor
ed to defeat !"
He bad been called from private retire.
ment to fill the office of Secretary of State,
and it was only after repeated solicitations,
combined with a sense of duty to the coun
try, that he had consented to accept the
oflice. Ho however expressed a want of
confidence in professional politicians, and
considered that their corruption and time.
serving intrigues for oflice and spoils, would
continually tend to mislead the people.
" The time is past," said he, " when men
shall be elevated by the people for their
long services or talents. The scramble for
plunder is becoming worse every year. The
jealousies of ollice-seeking conmatants will
induce them to compromise on either second
rate civilians, or incompetent military men.
The time, I fear, is past, when the country
is to be ruled by truly great, experienced,
and patriotic men.
" We have two extremes to apprehend
under our form of government, centralization
on the one hand, aid anarchy onl the other;
both leading by different roads to the same
gaol, monarchy, or to the one man power.
The impossibility of filling important offices,
except with second rate men, of easy prini
ples, is an evidence of the press in favor of
anarchy ; while the continual encroachments
made upon State rights by the will of a
Congressional majority, indicates a corres
ponding progress in favor of centralization
an antagonistic principle to all permnanent
liberty. We thus find that both priciples
are active, even at this early stage of our
Itepublic. Neither can be successfully
reached and maintained for any great length
of time, without ending in monarcby, or in
a central government.
"I think it likely that the days have gone
by when men of great statesmanship an
patriotism are to fill the executive ollice
The election of Mr. Polk commences a new
era for the country, the results of which I
cannot look forward to with satisfaction
The fear is, that the people will become
passive to the Intrigues of political conven
tions, composed chiefly of men intent ornly
upon personal aggradizement, or the acquisi
tion of spoils, at the expense of the peopk
or their government. A system of politica
juggling, having its orgin in New York, ha
become wide spread in its influence. Thei
will clamor for any man who promises t<
dispense benefits for them, and at anothei
some new, but not' better quafified "polaieti
idol, or dispenser of official patronage."
At this stage of his remarks a torch lighi
procession passed through the street, nearlj
unider his window, shouting antd cheering a
it went, in honor of Polk. " Do you hen
that," said he. " That same collection o0
mncii will, four years hence, shout just a!
lustily for a new incumbent, though perhap
inferior to Polk himself. People accuse nut
of ambition, and say that mv greatest aim
is to be the President. I state frankly tc
you, what the people and especially the poli.
ticians would never believe if publicly an
nounced,-l would not turn over my hand
to be President, unless some greater danger
or threatened calamity to the country could
byi my instrumentality alone be averted. A
man who seeks to have his name go down
and stand well with posterity, must riot sa
crifice to the temporary applause of' thre multi.
tude, whicht from its inability, produced by
biased or fleeting excitem rent or passion, is
incapable of duly appreciating what it would
condemn or praise; but rather resign himself
to the discharge of his highest dtuties to his
country, to human happiness, to liberty, and
to his God ; arid leave the reward to the just
and enlightened praise of men wvho shall
follow him in after ages.
"Most men who have advanced to more
or less distinction among their fellow-beings,
are too prone to court the popular breeze, to
trim by its course, or to change when it shifts
its direction, vaiinly hoping to base a perma
nent arid just fame on the foundation of rno
temporary apiplause, which is as frequently
bestowed upon unjust men and measures, as
upon the soundest policy ; and the most
wiso, disinterested arid patriotic imotives.
" My rule of life has been to (10 right, or
at all times to be governed in my actions by
the most scrupulous arid conscientious coni.
itions of duty, arid without the slighest re
gard to the popularity or unplopularity of
ry course. 1 never entertained a thought
whether moy course would either pleaso or
lisplease my constituenrts. I presumed that
hey gave me their confidence from a conrvie
ion of my honesty; aind wvhenever I failed
o give satisfaction, they wvould, as they ought
o do, discontinue my services. I feel deeply
ensible of the long and resposible trust they
haye reposed in mec, which, during a public
ife of over thirty years, has never been
hanged or withdrawn."
Here his eyes flashed wvith renewed ani
ation, and his cheeks had become flushed
from his excite d conrversationr. Col. lBentomn,
who had followed up his illiberal attacks up
n Mr. Calhoun with much persornal bitter
ess, had a short time previously made a
iolent assault upon him, in a speech he had
elivered iu the Senate on the annexation of
'exas. I asked Mr. Calhoun if he intended
o reply to it. lHe said, riot at all ; that lhe
ad made it a point never to notice personal
ttacks ; that silence towards those guilty of
ersonal vituperation was the best mreans of
WVhen honorable attacks were made upon
is political views or principles, in which hre
eemed the interest of thre country corncrned
e felt it to b~e hris duty to vinidicaite thremr to
te utmost of Iris power. " it was riot for
emporary appllause men should act. Per
seral contest arid triumph were too much of
gladiatorial character from whlich neither
tar victor nor the vaimiished cotuld retire
rithl proper self respect, anid nothing could
e gained for the country. A muan whose
haracter could riot stand alone against
oarse personal abuse, we l scarcely be
orth defending. No man ublic life canI
uuea strictly homiest, co - jenitious arid
patriotic course, looking to the future bear
ing of principles on the welfare and happiness
of the people, without having the masses
of those people alternately with him and
against hin. The great error in popular
judgment is, to decide solely upon grounds
of the temporary expediency of public meas
ures; and after subsequent experience has
proved their fallacy, they too often repent of
their course when it is too 'ate.
" It requires more than Roman firmness
and disinterested patriotism to stand out for
the right, in diret opposition to the tempora.
iy popular outcry of moment, and time-ser
ving politicians, who seize upon such occa
sions to obtain an elevation to which their
talents could never raise them. Yet, the
cause of truth and justice is eternal ; and
will regain its sway, when the honest inan
will be recalled from exile, and may be as
much over praised by the people as his pre
vious integrity was undervalued, and to this
excess of praise he should be as insensible,
as to unmerited censure. When such a man
is thus restored, the temporary expedientist
will sink into oblivion.
" Constitutional liberty will suffer the
greatest dangr from anarchy, which can
never long endure anywhere. The people
will become alarmed for their personal safety,
and intinctively seek security beneath the
despotic sway of the first hold and daring
man who may seizo upon the reigns of Gov
ernment. It is by yielding implicit obedience,
right or wrong, to the temporary excitements
and demands of the people, that States are
" Our present and only safety is to be
found in the inviolable preservation of State
rights, and in a rigid adherence to the Con.
stitution. So lowg as State rights can be
preserved, so will centralization be preven
ted; and so long as the Constitution, in its
strictly defined limits, is adhered to, so long
will the dark spirit of anarchy be stayed. i
do not consider our Constitution perfect. It
contains some serious defects, the contempla.
tion of which greatly excites my fears for
the future. Yet, it is the best under the
circumstances, that probably could have
been formed. I feel contident that, had its
patriotic founders been in possesion of our
present experience, or could they have fore
seen the strained construction many of its
less clear provision were to Le exposed to,
they would have made the instrument more
perfect. And, above all, the bare possibility
that an interested majority would or could
I be iiduced to vote for measures in conflict,
With the reserved rights of the States, would
have been thoroughly and effectually guarded
" say tuIlit you nave travenieu t
France ?" I replied that I had. "What do you
think of the state oilher present government r,
(That of Louis Phillippe.) I replied that, f romn
observations in the proviices of France, or ag
ricultural districts, I thought the people were
capable, under favorable circumstances, of
maintaining a Republic, but that in Paris,
though the people were more enlightened,
yet with them there existed greater corrup
tion, and also greater devotiour to centraliza
Mv dear sir," said Mr. Calhoun, " if the
French overthrow Louis Phillippe, which I
think they will do, they will have much trou
ble, and not perceive their mistake until it is
too late. Whenever they again try a Re
public, they will probably run into anarchy,
from which the people will seek protection
under an Imperial Dictator, or Usurper, who
will seize upon the govern'nent anid find his
support in tho usual accessories of despotism
the chief of which will be miilitary force.
.\ly fears for the establishment of perimanenit
liberty in Europe, rest on the ignorance of
the people. It is only a people enlightened
by education, and instructed in sound politi
cal principles, who are prepared to sustain
constitutional liberty. Education must pre
eede all succussful efforts to build up a
When an ignorant people hawl for a r
public, they only seek for a change. And
when they have obtained it, they have only
gained a namne for a novelty, which is (loomed
to pauss into aniare~y on the one hand, or in
to despotism on the other. Fraunce can ne.
ier he free until she educates her people, and
decentralizes her government. Paris must
cease to be France, and her pow~er must he
distributed among the peopile of the depart
ments." " hlave you no hope of seeing
liberty established on the continett?" I in
ruired. " None," lhe replied, " in this gene
ration. There will be freilnuent outbreaks
and bloody struggles ; but until the people
are better educated ini regard to their p)oliti
al rights anid duties, those efforts wvill only
forge new chains for them. Th'le Govern
nments of Europie are all more or less militar~y
centralizations ; the sword being made to
execute their decrees. When, or how, pop.
ular and useful education is to be introduced,
is more than I can see or foretell."
lt may be reniarked, that this conversa
waus held in the spring of 1815, anid anterior
o thme revolution of 1848 in Europe.
I recollect afterwards readinig the debate
n the Senate in 1848, when a resolution was
itroduced instructing our minister in France
(.Ir. Rives) to recognise the new, or provi
ional government, and to congratutlate
France on the establishiment of a rep~ublic.
r. Calhoun made a speech in opposition to
it, on the ground that the recognition would
e premature, and that we had better wait
o witness the results likely to flowv from this
udden change ; and ini the course of his re
narks, lie stated his belief, that there was
reat danger of~ the pleI running into an
rcy, Irom which they would fly for pro.
ection to the government of a dictator."
e was taken to tausk by some of the san.
uime and progressive puIblic men for his
ardiness, and taunted for his "masterly inac,
tivity."~ Mr. Calhoun did not live to see
ouis Napoleon crowned Emperor of France
nd the Republic scattered to the wvinds;
yet ttever was pirophecy- more truly fulfilled.
Mr. Calhoui always gave conversations a
rave and usehtl turn and was always ready
o give and se~ in formatmion, llis conversat
tion was often '.ariiest and aiiimated hut nei
r frivolous, ie never indulged in light jest.
or admirer in him. No common place by.
words, nor the slightest taint of vulgarity,
ever appeared in his language or allusions.
All his aims were pure, high and noble, and
looked to the honor, happiness, and glory of
the American people. During all our ram
bles over the world, in all our acquaintance
with, or knowledge of men, both great and
small, we never know just such another,
Among all the public men who ever resided
at Washington, he was the purest among the
pure. He once asked me what condition of
life I considered most favorable to intellectu
al and literary cultivation. I replied, that I
thouglt liberty was the most favorable. To
a certain extent, he said, this was true, but
he considered Icisure, secured against want,
without unusual wealth, was the best that
could be enjoyed. lie died at Washington
At one time a largo number of influential
citizens of New York signed on invitatibn
for him to visit the city, and partake of their
hospitality, In conversation with him Itold
him that he would meet a cordial reception,
and that it might be well, if convenient, for
him to accept it. I knew that although he
had graduated at Yale College, and although
urged to revisit it at public Commencement,
he had never returned north of Washington.
H1e had never visited Cincinnati or St. Louis,
His habits was to pass from his duties at
Washington to his fatrin at Fort Hill, in Pen
dleton District, and from his farm to his pub,
In reply to my remark about his visiting
New York, he shook his head, He said
that it would afford him nuch pleasure to
visit that city, as well as other places,-pro
vided he could be left alone to associate
with friends of his own choosing, and to be
entirely free and unrestrained in his own
movements. But he did not wish to fall in,
to the hands of a sort of committee of show,
men, appointed to lead him about to be gazed
at by the multitude, prompted more by
curiosity, than by any sentiment of personal
esteem or sympathy. On this account he
had abstained from traveling tours over the
country. The happiest hours of his life had
been spent on his farm, and he never left it
without regret, and never returned to it
without pleasure, Such was John Caldwell
I have never held any official position to,
wards Mr. Calhoun, nor indeed under the
Government, at all; and never received the
slightest political favor from him of any kind,
My admiration and friendship for him were
the spontaneous sentiment of respect for su,
perior talents, true patriotism, and exalted
ANEW YORK, May 6, 1854,
DEATH OF AN OLD PRINTER.-,It is with
sincere regret that we announce this mor
ning the death of Mr. E. C. Councell,
which occurred rather suddenly last evening
about seven o'clock.
Mr. Conncell lhas been for some years an
old member of the Typographical frater
nity of this city, and at one time was fore.
mai of the comiipusing room of this journal,
and afterwards filled the same responsible
situation in the otlice of one of our Savan
nah contemporaries. For the last few
yoars, however, he has been in business as
a Book and Job Printer in this city.
Mr. Councell fur some time has been in
deelining health, and was to have sailed this
dy in the Tennessee for 3altimore, in the
hope that his native air-having been born
on the Eastern shore of Maryland-might
be of service to him.
As a practical Printer, Mr. Counoell had
few superiors, by the craft and all who knew
him was much respected.-Char. Courier,
IIDIENIPJ INSrRtUCfo,-Somehody ad
vertises for agents to sell a work entitled
IlHymenial Instructor." A contemporary
adds," the best hymienial instructor we know
of is a young widow. WVhat she don't know
there is no use learning."
A LAD asked a silly Scotehman how it
happened that the Scots who came out of
their own country were, generally spieaking,
men of moore abilitios than thoso who remain
ed at homie,
"Oh, madam," said lhe, " the reason is 01).
vious. At every outlet there are persons
stationed to examine all who pass, that for
the honor of the country no one be permitt
ed to leave it who is not a nman of under
" Then," maid she, " I suppose your lord
ship was smuggled."
AN Irish Judge said wvhen addressing a
prisoner convicted of murder-" Your are to
bie hanged and I hope 'twill ho a warning to
"Wir is thme letter D. like a ring r' said a
young lady to her accepted, one day. The gen.
tlematn, like the generality of the sex in such a
situation, was as dull as a hammer.
"BDecause," added the lady, with a very mod
est look at the picture at the other end of the
room, " because we can't be wed without it."
Two or A FAMILY.-" How well he plays for
one so young,' said Mrs. Partington, as the or,
gn boy and his monkey performed near her
deer; ":and how much his little brother looks
like him, to be sure !
THE IlErIT oF iS AxBITo.-One of our
exchanges tells of a lazy genius up his way,
who being asked, as lhe lay sunning himself on
the grass, what was the height of his ambition,
re plied : "To marry a rich widowc thats g', a
CHEAP IvING.-The .leffersonville Adrocale,
of Tazewell county. Va., gives the prices cur
rent in that town as follows; Bacon 9 a 10
cents; eggs 95 cents; flour (per bbi.) $2,50;
dried apples 75 cents: dried peaches 81 a 1,50
per bus ; corn 50 cents.
CouNTEmRFEIT one dollar bills on the Bank of
East Tennessee are in circulation. Gen. Tay
lor's portrait on the right end is very imperfect, --.
and several other imperfections which ca be