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W. F.DITRIOE, roprilor.EDGEFIEL , SO C., DECEMBER6184
:'-' -N -UI E P r p i t r --. -l -A-b4
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ARTHUR -SI KINS, Editor.
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Gentlemen of tit n
and House of R e'u.Sm;?a!irTs :
Under the unifoarm acjmt io our systemi of
governtment, witihout srie or cotlinttAit, new
tnembers to the General. Assembly have ieen
e.hosen, to reipresem the blest views if t he leo.
jle t' thi Commnneallh, and thearwi,-e tam
pravide for teir halpiness :amd welf'are. At
though lhis event is oif regnhiar reenrrenace, it is.
nevertheless, one full tof zaeret boilt to you and
Ito a coutary like this.so rapidly growin .: atd
developing each day anew eveats t ail fre,h te
soni-ces, the legisltive mind tamya% WCH lix.i' u t ta.
eit, 'y thle (ttmistaman1 of .: wt-te negtaileot
,or sA:ne dty-tlie progressive strides io the
State toAvards -weih and power may, for l
space, be retarde.i. A strong inclinataion tam
progres is a characteristic o he race whitli
you itt part represent, :anod is, periaps, time secret
af'AnglAtneriman success and ascetdancy. Its
sirit prevaitls over time coa!itett, :amd is coti-i.
untyl hurrntg us itao n-w piaiaas ofr taheorv
and o governtmea. It pervadt s, to a greater
or le.-s extenit, eveiy &:ate int tle- Amtiiem
Utio, and is inetrpor.ted inato ii a aws, relrigitaon.
ttadutatri, and polhiies. Ba i, on the ther hanm.
al Ih-rerulated u'aderstandings iwill rergard.
n ith ,mrthig like anxiety, that restless- de,ite
for cbange in futdament :l tprUii!5es vL.ovtyr
mneaaL tad strong thintnat itl to specibe hg a.
tiflon, as encouragirinlg, to an tund411e extett, ilt'
senifetcies of popular instiitits tao taut iltto
etaXretmtes of opinlionl :an1d action, the eid -.f, whicbl
is license without liberty, and law nithout the
:ssurmace of order.
W!ti!st lite State for whic! you leg'islate can
scarcely be staid to have kepmt la:ce ni:h others
itt thi rapid mareb of imlrovement. it t:iy-lit
claited lor it that it has more sartly a'ttamt'd
tlose qualities o giotiverntitent wiaich are tmas
likelv to ia-tre :he grva;t-t iamoitl e real h::p
plin:e's t tithe i:izent. litatield a lighr dgree
of social order, precrved . mre even a titta
Il power iatmtmg tle co-urdinate trches of
goertment,. mit beeti less canit;irolled by einpidi.
ty aind ;Cbitit-to.e tertain forerunners tat'
national degeneam. Wel, then. may% yoi take
pride itt your Stale. The feling is alwOa ad
mi.,sible, but e.ptcialiy so nt teat you iive tnder
a Constitulion and laws onceived itt justice tad
adminitiered n i hit purity ; under a Legisl.tlure
Jitdepeideiat il i;ts views, and capable and rapid
int the dir:charre tof its fanctiamii under Execu
tives conteit wiih lteir limited prerog.ives;
ufui'tter at religion without thte htetermaaoxie's of
*these presenat days; :and uandter a sotind, 'must,
ad haataightnem1 puiblic sent: ittent. I cuantntt,
athere-lure, tetcommttentd to yout, genatlemen~t, toaom
stroangly hto watch'l maer, nt ith solicitudte, this
imoble paoliticatl uorg.ti.izato. :mtd taa prs'rve it
tat wet'aka'n, and e'venatuaaly to de-troy, thea httappy
equilibriumt wihich exists; antd I tfertvettly thmpa
thtat. bar down m itn the ista tat atime, whlett :dl
antemoarital. oft us tare lost excep t Itose' wich Cmtttiy
rematint tamontig its atrchtives, a1 gr'aciaaus I'rovi-lence
wa I:preserve this Satle Gtavertment, itn all 'ts
tisefln iess :anda betatym ; to remtelt posterity.
I'rea'ai tand gloraiont., in its immaiortal t'ou th.
T'he yet~ar, whliebi is niow atearly lpast, hais beent
one taf great calamity' thmraaughtout thme worhl.
WVar anid petstilenttce, disuisters ton thme (ce'at,
c tommitceial aitxietie"s ad tdistrte-s, ith I ales
*atnd drottght materialIly siiortnin g the' graitn and(
other croptls, arte sotme ot' the tmelanchiotly inati
dents wichil have muatked it. Nor ha~ve tate peta
pl of' thais Stte' esceapied te cotonat tmisfo'ar
-tunst. Thme mietropJolis, amid somte tat te le er
-towns and piortitans oft the comuntry', htavet beet
visited by a fatal fever, and thter diseaseN al-'
:motst :as destruetite to lfe, whtich f'ar z aitime have
arreated allh busintessa, desatoed a numabetr tat
valutable lives,. antd inivested 'their coatttmmitiest
ith a proaftaund gloomti. But few ftailies atre
witiabout somie sorrowt'ul eventt to call to teir
rcecolection lime paist -uttmner :ts a peariod sat
se-vere trial atnd mtourtaing. Still we have atbutt
ilatt c:amse tot' gratiititlde to Gaid, foar ~arra s: izg
te ravages otf dise'a--, andt tfor restiniag bathl
.te eity ad catntttry to thteir uisutid healbhi.
The aggregate itncomte <t lthe Sltat e 'm Ouagi
-cultural sontrees far the piretent ye tar as lkely to
- bo materimally ditmiihed. 'IThe yia-i o' shoar.
* oitton to thte plunters, insalwi thsltandlin t a t ina-at
favoratble sezasona for ga tering tanda parepatring
it for mnarket, will scairce-ly be a-gith ton the erop
uaf last y-ear, whilst thme lonag coatn hamntd rice ont
lhe seaboard htave been very tath taltoajareal gen-a
e'raily, and in somie intstant ces emairely deastom ed
by~ theteqtt~uinoati.ml storm<. Thie -e numtae'' ans
sirtemttt.datces, tzaken itn connection t t he Iit
staintga-tay in4: thle maotney market, andl the conta'e
quenL't IChemck givn to commatetree anda tadedi-t
docte a s- ting neest fr ectonomyat baoth tat
disbur-emnta taf timaney ftrait thle Treasury , antd
in parivate expenrdiature.s. Faitunattely. owin totr i
thme previonts comzparatiive freedm Iroam de bt tat
* t~ab tate, I le hl-aes boath itt btusiness-~- andli atgi
culiure wtill.onlly work a I tmporarmy itnjutry, whiach
aoardinaary parudenace c~tatnamt t bilitaon tot re-tmedy.
For zo ;tbatract of te caantdititt tat thet fIna
aces oaf tht it~e I bae to refer yon ho ttmy tast
-Atmuaid: Message. *
-- -i'The net t proafits of the Batik of the State fair
*thtv.p 4reenai, liscal y'm-ar amtountt tot thle .,umtt of
w jo hiundretd ad 'niiey-tive thouandtt dollai rs,
.-$295.000) ngaintst threet htundre-d and itirte
*thoatitti tdollhrt, (833,000O,) thte mitt proftits
of' 1853. thits shtotwing a dimtitiutiona int the it..
come oh' tile State front thamt souree-~ ho the extett
otf thairtyv-litve thtouts:and dolltars, ($.o000.)
Am1t trviface been Anticiptated ttat the prof
its otf the Dlattk for the presentt year iwould bail
short of Ia that' hfte year pretiouas. The~ gretat
strinigantcy itn the uttamey maarket, whichi has ex
tenided oter the whole coauntry', necessarily a-tr
or to- lay before you the Annual. Statemwnt. of
the Bank to October 1, 1854, showing total fund-;
to the atnoutit of seven millions three hundred
and eighLt thiousantd six hundred aid five dollars
ai lifrv cents (87,308.605.50)
Dtring the year, twenly-five thousand dollars
(6:15,000) have been applied to the reduction of
IIhe Stte de-bt.
By cioimring the balance in the treasury oit
the 1st or October, 1853, with tiat of a corres.
pondi, perid duringr the year 1854, it will be
perceived that there ik a ili ig off f eighty.ine
thmoaid four hundied anid ixt-three dolhirs
and live cents, ($81,403.05.) 'Tie incom'te de
rived for s-everal vears trom stock inl the South
Carolina Railromi Company will be withdrawn
fromni the Ireas.Iry, ill cmisequenet' of its exchange
fir stock in wther railroad companies. On the
other hand. there is reiason to suppose that the
canh receiits from taxes will conside-rably ex
ceed iho.e of the lst year. In the Upper divi
siut altne the receipts from this siuree exceed
those of tle year previous by the stun of eigh
teen thousand five hundred and thirtv-eight dol.
lars and seventy-two cents, (818 538 72)
in June last I received from Mr. Anthnny
tiyde, ot Washiniigton, treasury draft for seven
teen tiou-aid seven hiidred and eighty-six
dollars and tive cenits, (517,78G.05.) whichi I have
placed ill the batik to tle credit of tihe State.
This is a portion tif lie sni tippripriated by tie
iist Congrevs in sati.,faction of a claim tmadie by
this State for lo-ses su-t:.in-d inl eqnipping a
r.-giment(of volum ers. inl 1836, for the Florida
war. It alilearsi t hat there is the firther sum
of fiteen hundred anrd eighity-three' dollars
($1,583) still dite uider the appropriation.
A charge if* teli ier cet. for commissions was
tma:1de by M r. Hvde for collei ont, but I did not
conevive tyse-t' authorized to pay it without
anth it frim the Legi-slat uire. Untail-this ques.
tiin is determined by yin, I have stffe'red the
lifIten idred and eighty-three dillars ($1,583)
atove Ientioted to remalin in the United States
treasury, to tueet, such compensation as yott
I hierew ith lay before you both Mr. 11yde's re
por, til ill tihe case, anid other IperS cotnnected
At the List annual meeting of the Legislature,
ill coinectii with the Cotimptroller General, I
wa-, directed by Act, to isste botd. if the -State
to thlte atoiun t iv' iio hun(dred id fifty thousatid
dollars, ($259,000.) for the purpose of forward
iii! tile coistruetion (f the nuw Sutte Capitol.
'e Ioids were accordingly prep.;red under the
imwediate auspices of the Prezidet of the B.nk,
Were duly exetited, and offered in tihe market
ii-r sale. Bit, owing to nuetary ditlieulties,
there was little or no demnid for such seenri
ies, and but a poriion of them were disposed osf.
U:der thise circumstances, after consulta:min
winh the lPresideit ofr tie Bantk, it was deenid
ad i.a'e f or him to proceed to New York, and
stier them inl that market. TILere he foiund sim.
ilar dillicihie-, souiewhat increaf.ed from the
'.et that tihe bonds were In ide payable at tile
Sai:e Treasury, and toti iin New York, as was
11e iieveriieless efreetd a sale to the :iaiunt
.f . - -.-.-.- $130,000 00
Upon which a prenium was re
ceived tt of - - - 3.393 64
There remain uiold bouds to the
aioinnt of - - - 120,000 00
f itese there are lodged it the
13niak ofh the aSiite - - - 20,000 00
Atd in tile Iaiik of the Republic,
New York - - - 100.000 00
In coitection with this statement of our finan
*ial alhairs, I deire, withi Lreat dee'treinee, to sub
tit a fIw jImgesionIs n" ith regard to the present
:andition (I bantikinig operatiuns, their effcet up.
Il tle mitontey market, and upon tle people atid
business of the Stae.
The Legislature, two years since, acting un
ler what appeared then to be a general 41emarid
'or increased baiking fielities, established a
number of new banks, thereby etiharging the
:imikiig capital to the extent of two millions
.ix huidred and eightyf-ive thousand four hun
Ired and seventy-five doliars, ($2,685,475.)
'hte imjressiii seened generally to prevail that
id that the increased want of it, bot for com
neree anid itnternal tratnsactions, would be' tm
ry) met. Those who dealt in s t'cks, and ini
brtieign t and domtiest ic exebnige, jineiid the ateri
-iuhutral initere'sts init the demandiii ;iru li te result,
as hasi been clearlyv demiionst rated bty experince,
hts di-appoiiinted tine expiectationis of biioth.
ltsteid ofi itcreatted discouints by nties iin ap
i'id iof utinual dillicutlty ini mio'ney ailfair-. antd
tn increased :tnnnut i of. moniey in citeii!atiiini.
he i.,enn ts tire less Itim thIey were pretious5
o the establishmient iif thle tnew baniks, antd thle
wsiant of imotney greater thanir at :m iy pieriod since
he coiiinerei.d di,,asters oif 1 837. BonthI those
wh'io dheal iii .seks anid exchuatge, antd thonse en
.age~d in aigrienb ure, tire tihke clamnorotns for
somte legilation to remuedy existinig pecuniary
It is ptroper to inquire into thle causes which
have ledl to th'ese res-t , and to etndeavor to
ugigest a remnedy. which I shall do us briefly as
It is well knownu that, previiits to Ite creation
of' thle tiewi bainks. at letast one-i tir of thle cap ii
talh and credit of thne old bainks was empijloyeid
beyonud th lim itits ofi the St ate, which would go
to showi~ t hat even't then tere was too mitch batik.
iiig capitanl. With lie recent inicreaise oh it, thie
:nonutt sent. nibroad is g rieatly enilaured, aind
perhatp< is eqial to half of aill t lie btinking capital
ini thle Staite; anid whilst stickhoitlders are bent'
ittedI by thik mtodne of iip'ratin, the watmts of'
thle eretl it mass of thle ci iinu nityv aret neglectedi.
It is certaniily to lie expIieted t hat thle moni iey iof
the ha tks will be e'mplioyed in thosne places fromti
which thne largest per cet'iia ini buisiniess is to
be deriv'ted, antd that u here the iteri'st. at htime
is rest ricted to si per~ ec't. , capitail wilt go
wher'e ten atnd lifteeni peir cett. is to be ha~d.
Thet utter failutre oh' batnkinig ini M1is" isippi.
silt' fie'lJ for the emptiliiymeitnt ofi banik ctipital:
antd thne reptut:itioni oh the hititiks oh' ot~h Caro.ii
'Eta, anid thle ere'dit which is attachntd to t heir'
i,nes ini thio-t St:.tes, t "gethter with the large
per tcintai..e to be dt'rived thier', we'tre a stroiig
temttnionet to our batin toi senid their mniits
tiiad. The r'esult of' theiir opierations wats
evidenced by Itrgeiy-itnresed dziiends, which
for .sevetral years reachned six and eight pi'r cent.
petr imi.tinm, anid moture r''eenti- wenit :ts high as
en to fihteitn per cenit. They' intvest latrge
amountts in those' Stahes itn thle pitirehiase' oh' hiIs
pyvable ini New Orbi-anis, Mobihle, and other WVes
tern ci tes, tund wlhen they arrii t m atuirityv the
funds are rie-inivested ini bilhs paiyable at the
Nonrth or in Eniruipe. Th~e-e fitndls e'tetre chieif.
lv ini New York. to the extentt iif their circuhi
tin ini the West , where they draw intetre'st, or
si-.ge'in'rahl y the ca-i, aire h;in i'td i-i South
eai pa pet'. All thne eh huge's a lirid a large peir
c,'nta'.e oin the mtoniey ini ite, a'nd it is theref'or'
noit ttrpriinig thant th le citizen cat.tti honrrow
tmiitev at homtte friom i batiks tat the r'ate of' intter
est ixced byv law, It is ini this waty thiat ini tine
pasit ei'hat mtf'th~s it iippoised thit thne ai'''re
gite amoutnt of excha tnge iipertioins mtore tha n
eqnals Iloans otn note's.:mda that the' sum ot' nitlls
discouted is act ually le:,s thitit it was beifiite thne
new batnks were est'abiishied. Dur'iing at period
t hat thoise States, alnre'aidy ntamedl, battked f' r
tlitn~'s .,id froknc.i ., supply of pttnttr
.nrrency to) their own citizeins. tile banks or' ii
State were paying ily five to seven per cent.
per annum in dividends, thus showing concilu*
sively that a very larsre portion ot our banking
capital was, and is, diverted fram the uses oi
our own people to situ'pply the finianival inecessit
ties of ite people of other StIres. Al . h not
here relr in the hazaids in b king ,ilt] and othier
incidental objeclions io snch-a system. where
the field of Iinianciial operaiions is so remote and
uneertain. MV obji'et is ti st:ite such fClits :s
will Arm the basis of legislationi to retdy 1r
mer errors, satifv ti le publit wats, aid coirrec
the present evil as far as it may be done wil
safety. But upon this hewd a great dilieiiliv
pre-ents itself as to a nide which will not em
barrass the coiniunit y, allet the value of prop
er or interfere n ith pblic crediL
Uoid.nh:edly the ..power rests with the Legu'
l:ture to aber or amend baik ciarter4. They
are no lntger itlependen! as forneirly, ut :ire
in all respcts subject Io yiur renisit. To use
that power, however, L ule-s for the stringest
reasons, is always quest ioniable, and smeiitnes
Sdaigerous as edined ly the Ii ncial iai.tory of
other States, pariienlarly ini the West.
The hiaw regua . ting baiks in MSassehusett s
wa, intended to be :tn effecital check tifitp tlie
abuses practised by them. Thait law restriets
thet to operations at their owit counters; deny.
iiig thiei tle privilege of. esta blisl:intig aigenietIs
a broad. If such a rule is never evAded, it may
be attributed rather to the lines!y of' ofieers
thIan to any want of financial skill. An evasion
of the law' is rendered easy by making lians to
agents, who shall stipllate to cirulite the issuts
of' banks paying a fixed stm for their nse' ; obli
amitig t hiemniselves to make returis at the time
agreed upon. and stipahling also fir the descrip
tion of niets*to Ilie received by tle bni iks in
retuni. It is oif' more thain doiibtfiul policy to
pass any law which eal be so easily rindered
itigatory. Besides, if complied with, taifiest
injury would resii; to a p..rtion of sueh, institu.
tions. Bainks in i Sate uisially tr:insiet a
large amounti of t heir buiiness through agrents,
and are dependait upoi tiein for a supply ouf
I Northern exehag.-, %oich van only be ubtained
lin the seaprts. '' prhibit the use l arnts
to the coutiry bani;ks would serin .- v enb:i-rass
them. Wiihout exchanget'. they coul int itl
ply the wants of tle i:nteior, :t1 their issues
would, tlirefore. be dvpreci.:ted in the seaports ;
tus giv ing to banks, there loc:;ed, a goreat. ad
vantage in business.
In questions (f so luch1t complexity as those
reliting t b n , it i xtriily diflicult to
point out a remedy for errors which exist in the
system. lit the case, however, which I have
presented to you, the e' ils will, ini pirt, eflect
their own cure. When Ahibama sill have inl
creased her private banks, mid thus supply the
mieneved want of tiher owi people, the necessity
for wiiich she now feels and i?- iin0iining to
remedy, .\ti,sissippi, and Floirida wii follo v. imh
example. -i that event. i
For tie b:mnks of-'
those ehanntiels, '
abundance oft e
There is alotI
c : ile S".
the tuttrv iaw.,. inl order to bring private and
toieigii capital into Competition with the b:l;ks.
Provided lawh do not make investments iisvetire,
tie deticielicy oft tnoievy ill one pLee! is Cer'taini
to be .upplied from another. whIt re.as i. beomes
abunidanL, the rates of iiteremt. are iceu~narily
There his always e.i!td a prejiulie ag:ainst
usury ; and it certainly was to be csiOdenid
where the coin of a eountry was the only ciru
I ting medium, aid imoney was boared for loan
at exorbitant rates of iiterest, thereby placing
it in the power of scn iindividuals as possessed
it, to a certain extent, to hold his neighbors,
properly at his ierey. But stice that period,
now that the cominm -ee of the wirld is carried
ot by the credit sy :m, and bills if exchange,
and promises to pay, to a large extett, are the
circulating medium, Money becomes valittable in
proportion as the exigeticies or prosperity of
trade make it so. iiney, like everythinig ekse,
ought to have a relative, tnt a ixedl Val urn.
In this State lie usury laws are rarely en
forced iand ini numbeirless inis'taes are il to
ethier disregarded. Laurge sit ts oh miom-ye are
coi:staindy beiig invested at exorbitant. rates of1
iterest. In N\ew YN , i, the ppr nif ei~i;zens of
thme State is freiteni ly purchi...-.d at a very aig
di-ountt. I1t e-n h.:ppiens thtat the hest itus
forc-ed oihf byv the itnmisibil;ity of prourinu tiiu
F eiy at bhone, with tihte xece.,it ol obinung~ it
ithier to uliet, stringent presseit, enitragenleits',
or to opetrate ~ inioitble intvi:tienit.
The diiscu5siin of thits meatstire is niot a tiem'
onie. Its adioptioin is arged with great force ini
many of' thle States of' thle Union~.anid thet chianige
is d '.tiined evenituailly it be imade. It it be et'
feeted in iieighbtiinai States, wve camntot av..id it
here. EnighIi md, timt ioe nito i m dtt e-~peri.dyI3
wi-e in her cotumercial pol icy, lhas a lreadyv a bid
islhed her uismry l.nys grad tuhdly, to be so re-iin
the fir.,t inistaiice oiily altectihen coniitiereial
transact Iins ;buit the etiange is now ccopiete,
and is appli.:dl to al lie her bsiness.
Wit houtt uipposit ion to an ioft thei~ inttitutions
or vesled .iture.4ts of the State, I have piced
this subject lbefore vou for cotisidernatinm. I
have no desire to turye it beyoii thaut poinit, tind
leave thte quiestioni to be decided by your intelli
gentece and judgmtent.
I heorewith sublt. to volt a report from n lie
Cmproller Genern.h ttchinig .the stat~e olf tihe
records of his ohlice, whlichm ii wvorthy of your
cotiJerationt. Tihe cinitti n of~i thi e papsera nid
docttmiets referred to seemit to req inre somte at.
tenitioti and ikbtr for their mre cotniflete lire.
servatiot. and the trms ipni whichm lie propo
esto have thieim prop~lerly arranmge. idexed antd
cied, wuiere it h, ntecessariy ;.npear to, be uiudy..
rate anid jit-t.
Lpiot ret'erring lii the revuihitisonrty anduu colo
nitii recoirds, I hi~ual severail ebha'-imS thiebl shotultd
be lihled up. ii ..rderm to mttie them perfect. I
tlinmk it adtiisuble, therefore, ti ;tn:hoize hie
Govenorto pocue s eop;ies if the iutig
pplers as cani duues us ie otainued fromi the
I beg leaVe to lay befonre you thn reports and
aceopi.iyit lpaiseris ioin ithu subjecit of the
new Suole. G.a;noh. T1hey uiil b.e founti to be
full atmd explicit.
In m, laist annual: mtessage~ I had thle honor to
state tio theu Lii.tuat re thast tie new State Ctipi
tol wvus in propelr prgree of coniitruction ; that
the aiuspiciecs untde r wich Lthe wotii< was citried
on0 werue sti:-actory : thiat the work; itself' was
excnted in a unmtiieri once elegmnt antd sut>.
stuntiai; an 'mthif:it., biiui~ in oiuld be erec'ted
-uponi the ftoatiion, ibenu tia n'iui oniu ie
leet. ecd ip' :p; te S~e. und~ be in every' wvay,
worthyi or tin dizusi'v. Sine I'-t titue, hiuwev
er, I hive causev to u 'boz.: a iradie.di ebtage of
myi~ oipinioni uoi ibs .,ijte!.
Soi titter ime adjiouinnet of' the. L~e-.;hh:
ture', the bamstemit ut tihe tiriti in g was so
fun comle~ted ::s tI wairranit. an orider irom tie
fist the' retmov:u 'f till the p r- In !tu;:ii:: t
thei uutileers~ of the s':ur.i dtepar:iuntsu of! the
S"n;;tu G'venou''it into the inOw ;ip.u'!ii'its
eeted ftr theu . . ..t pirtiu it of t buth:~.
I dleemied 'ubis '.ee ''ury fin i1:.': r'so'ction
oil the r'ecord'ls a ' archive~s lfrom du::er of' liie
entA ou e-s..it . iv.. t...i..ts.lit:..- tie reoma~l
ot-Ehe old a pitOl terwenwt war
Iiiiievent, and. daroign4te past s;ngh.4oi.
missioners apgointe.by the Legis ature. to kp
perintend tile. qn5rzL LIe.On of .the pew .l:ajj
legi.-iation ieitnt eoncerned abntit .:erinn nii
u 0on ofI tltiuj)4V hyvrk in teii hee. r
iqiries Were Cist iuled ''Pie services f ;n
irebil't of -i a ted ifdvni lairge' pro.
liaioipal pait..hie %r .alled ~int log hi-itt in
At first. ilhe iltpdftioils af tlie vork w ere noit
thought to be-of a.o16-u Ofirntmact er, :nrd I that iy
Iti: down eiind-econstructing an inconsidera
bie portion of -itt M deli-ets woud be remedied,
withont loss to the State. Ii tie neaimine tle
originaiiarchilee- wIs' Super-seded ill Ihi.-; eiiploy
of uonst rueio, aud by engaging, the sevices of
Mr. Jolfn-R Nierinsee. of Bahinire, a the. Con.
of these gentlelt .ii deemed .v tI conuii..
ion a fort u nate event, ris, in adniitn to their
vaIluiaille servIc('s, use rate of CiiPelnlsalii, in
hem pe.r iti imni tagef ler witjI thie salary pri.t
tif Mr. M eKay, teire 4iiI trlitteet. woinil tint
(Vevd -t1t- sum ri lnii tih hr ieftjiket ( Id
lave received hii nlio vnsite octurred- to retard
th prodress ari work.
Scarcelv had te stpbL'rintendnice of the build.
oinrheen reorgniijzed, when oilir delets of a
more seriouicharacter were di-etvered, not only
in the wallk butit .tlO very .ountdalbtion. Com.i
meneig wiih thyi aying of the -.rierstone
iti -'r; aind a -reasonable doubt exi,!ed in. the
minds bolth ofrt.l ommis.ionersaud arechitects.
if the detect injh'egroiued ::rches aid the walls
of th. basemen(tr coid be imvlitn, wheth.
er the foundaionwould hear t!e great weblbt
w 1h-i Ytie w.ouldlC. requiiriel to suiail. The
commliiissiilt'ersb *jigved thatno ditit uUth Lis
subieetimud bu.aufltred to exist, and .they ie
corl hngly, atier matUre delibera ion a:nd iosul.
tviion with the arrd:.eets.gave th e order for ta
kin. up all the wbrk whiei ,t tlat period bit
beecn done tu!o'nt1fie ediie'e. T1s oIrdei hs
eliven cired iiht'ofc. The natriA wIhich is
i ailable in the'construction ot another Iillding
I has been caruftljremoved, aind place ' where it
ican be used for t!itt purpose, as the legi I tl:
may here::fter diret.
The loss which the State will far tie present
smutain by thii failstre in the ereetion or- the new
hials of tr gislatimi ohas bien clearly a-cvrtained,
and will ilppear inthbe following sitatemient. The
Iparticular iiemm4-arcon:.ained ini t[le acconpany
ing report of Mr. alker,. the construeting ar
!Chneeta . . . ---' .. 1 !. ," - , - ,
The sums adva 'Ad from tiO to time by tp.
State for the erce 'o, of fire , proofuluig
tand subbequently r a new State.
.Cupiioa, a -niun - . - $313,0000
'(: l mut z dd. ou huijld
in., - -1 - 2:2,213 12
Vaiue of.propertyiiad materilon
iaind ready for V(Ituru-L - 150.945 37
inires'~ by cottracetors under iti er stipul in with~ v
the coiiioneraeach of whii. rave biund,
Sith aimple secnrity, for the Iiil perforiaice
of' work. The bod.i were drawn in proper le.
-:d form, d.tinctlv defining tile mainer in whieb
aih I:itnd of work hould be excented, and no4
diiit e.:i exist that tile contiraets are cle'arly
violated. To what extend tle State can recover
d:ages by a procss of law, is yet to be deter.
mined. Tie solicitor of the eonnission, .loni.
Mr. DeSaimsure, has -been ins-rutred to take
snch st eps in the pireies as wi'll proitect the
State from loss.
The cu:nissioner commened, and for some
timo continued werk under the contract sy.'tem,
by which of course eiisiderable prolits acerned
to contraetors, although the rates paid for work
were not larger than are utiually admitted for
buildings of that character;.but recently, under
a complete reorgaiization of theuwhole systei
for conlstrutlion, ciontraet.s h.ive been terintated,
:td the work is now Barried-o ay bfday labor,
under the imme diate aiuspiees ahtd surpiervis-on
of a rchiltactssamd foremen, by' wic ah ill parofit s
accruie diractly3 to thle Sinte, :,m.niniaig tji at
:east twmemi v-livep et.wis ttes eim
aur is noi pryenhit. i-i i "Ie ani w" irta
ume aihfll .sctei. iy thi ait Jwi b
sent ibi:a ll losses haiilxrto. a. hinig will biieaom
plt h acv--i befaore th~e biilding ii mue!. mrae
ihnliaihlf emiinpleted; :mid wmhetiinmph-ted, ta-.
kiig it foar gr.mttd t hat a inuillhitn wvill be exn-~~
tied up~on i1 a lag in actally ill be
saved to the State.
As a straanla iesiCCaty is app::renit for the con-i
st rcltin of nwhile1:1Is of hegriit at Ii fom the
ientrity and dcay of the huai'd ini now iCeen
pied by yon. it is to be pre-ined t hait yoaair orig
ii inct etins will tie carried int, effect. Ini
tht. evet I reconnaund ~a ch:imiraI of positiaon faor
te new edilice. Jiy loa:tin g iL ati the. intersee
tion of Seniate anid Rticardsont st reets, wmii ti orth-i
erii andi soiithcrii exposaures, it call be seent ii ith
out obst ruel iai fromt theC tour poiints oft tile COlii
pass5, anid wilt p reenit iii appeau~rancie intre diignii
ie and iimpoiisieig. Should this sugigeionjai be
adopted, it would lbe niecessairy to iincreaise still
inwrei tihe area of ground about it. If the ebanrge
of lie::Ci-, he~ mi.idle. in the-end~ perhaps it im.iy
iiot bie :a subject mneih to be rere~; nd th:at damblty
: d disa-:ar ;tt~aeh dhe lirst eiforts Lio cion
Mrnet a iewv tcapital for the Canhiaon .'mahhmi.
I hi:ive thu' ~ti libefoire you a plaini anud I:-tIftil
jiI. Donii~lea-. greait di<.-:atielaet un exists as to
t act- hin of- he commnnistoniers mf the premnises.
Y aau wiltl ind-41- tiin-m with caoanes- andt eqiuity.
They hiadmny di tihiinitila to eaneaunuter. Quu::r
r ii mpal w-i :-r; ;?""u ia aanhew budneiass ima
hti',Sta~.. :md coaipILietet, cotaca,'. i :.0 a
ca lies. amre d"iie: L t t roenre. ?No llnbli.i
ie' ofi t .iuiind oila f tid.; hasiz evI.r y.~ iaaeni
otre;i-ed. hieuae. Tea o :iaa-ioner . ha lon
tell i hieemb~iarr'assmihent andia respan'abailiv!y'fthh
pI-tin They ave ra:dy been.~ sius::ia-d in
thir t..aort' by'a sentimt~ia ofI dte'iion io t
i::ean a siie~a daaaire tamoa be u'! to :
To themil taie labaor has beein one oh' laove. They
ntliber expealied naor deair.-dl ea:.n.ens:inf..
thieii' :.1ixieiv, teal., a:Mi exp"i'-e aid ihe' Ir me
ti ire~ manw is, i.t. thiri ef'forta. hithough fria.-a
ihai be : egaided by' thieir iepo 'Oaii. izens ais hai
ing beii direted by' zeal andli iia sraet interity.
I ectilllmeild ti yoUi the appIntmehn.at of .i
sertinty iaho the report s. sm:tueet s. m 1 'IC
couitis hiere'witho suii! md, a,9d pp:.ai to to I:
bd': aplanl f'or yolur future n:etuen upoil1 tiins
hlv bestowe d soi m111h atostingI eca :and th'e.e
ticetce. somi hnnes to dcenrce au r Ifi ar ad pira.
e tiin. Utaider th'e .igiaa a it' pe en t a
midua distigni-a heal it hii 'an -i stiendily in-.
c re laiar iii pmptlar i iai uti ttiir. T'e Ia
bo .niu- 'eiris, both ofI11 h iseieessor rudi him-'
self,0 ao ielite tile -,0tardi min-characteran
nhaobmirshaip hia. beai aittendedm by sigtat uce
and iihe repo:ui ai ofa . tm nsi al ina thi r
gai h-is been-i haiii ex;ail:edandi e:t~.d it
c maiim.'nih ni alln ha~a' the hie-i i:ira's iof
the State at heart, I carin.Ily,'e!a ha e ay
bhigh office. Talents and qualitientions such as
Ahis ielong-to no party or sect. They are the
properv, of .he State, which they have benefit.
ted andadorned I their exercise ; and she looks
.foiramd with conidence to his continued super
vis ipn of in institution which was intended to
.he, anI is. tile nursery of her caracter, genius,
Puring tie past year the college has been
be''itted by two no0ble e(dilowileits, and inl
aft'er y::rs inany a youth, ardent in his search
after kiowldge.1 and ii the pursuit of fame, will
pour froin hisIeart blessings upon the namnes of
Aliston and Unteiihinson.
A hilf ceniury has expired since the establi,h
mient of flit college, and after the various for
tunlesand vieisitudes of life, the alumni are
about to assemble to renew their reverence for
their Alma 31ater, and for a brief perioi to fresh.
en the memories of early years. For a day at
least all of her children are to assemble under
the niaternal rjooft and, whilst she embraces and
b6esses her living sons, she will also weave
wreatihs of imwriciles for those who died in
ftir eary prime. Th e scne will be one full
of.f interest, ad I hope of' usefulness, and I re
comn'.ni'iid you to lake sucli steps as will give in
ereased efieet and digniV to the oee:ion.
Each year convinces us of the wisdom which
dictatedithe establishmlient of the Arsenal and
Citadel Aealenies. They h:ive afforded a prie
tical education to the youti who have been plac
ed there, the efl'ects of which are more sensitly
fe'lt each day throughout the State. Their
knowledg"e of tactiets acqiired during fihe acaide
ie term is plainfully perceptible in improve
ment in the drill of' a large portion of the militia,
and their aLtainments inl engineering and survey
ing i. fast supplying, and will soon :upply alto
trether, the deiand fur that kind of knowledge
in the State. I have no hesitation in expressing
the opinion -that more benefit, has ari.en from
ie f'ew' thousand dollars expended annual!y
ipii these !cliools for ten years past thin has
acerued to the State from the application of tle
free school approipriations for thirty years ire
I cannot omit to bring to your notice the effi
cient, liborious, and disiniterested siervices of' the
chairman of tie Board cf Visitors. Nothing
can he more prompt, uiiform. and systeiatie
than his adininistratimn ofr affairs anid as long
as lie contiies in hiii present pozition, I feel
sure tiat inereased success % ill anend his ell'-ris.
I coimand these accideies to your especial care
The State mnakes provision annually for the
education, at the South Carolina College, of one
youth friom the Charleston Orphan House, to.be
'elected by the comimiiissioners. The choice is
ii-u'illy miade as a reward for merit, and lie
lirivili Ias resulted in making many uscful
and d(itinitii.,hed citizens. Through me the
Coilni--iners now a.k i- -itaible arraire.
cieaig.tieir imeans to suchi an c.%tcm as to en
iable themi to open their building, and make it
sbsetre the purposes for which it was original
ly iitendeId. Thie imeans at their dispos:df are
too limited at preseitt to carry this objeet into
ellbet, and during the prevalence of the epidem
ie of t he past season, they were forced to depend
; upion private liberality to render it available for
a temparary period as a hospital for the sick.
Citizens from all parts of the State contributed
I to this ob-ject, but of course these recources
were withdrawn after the violence of the disease
had subsided. With the establishment of the
hospital, having as adjunets the benevolent as
I sociations4 (f thme city, the horrors of these fa.
tai epidemics can be materially mitigated. I re
fer the papers ]or your consideration and the
exercise u your judgement.
There appears to bit sonic objection on the
part of our people to the operations of the
Militia system of thii State; aid, doubtless,
efforts will he iade during the session essen
tially-to alter or abolish it. To say that it is
without defect, would be to elaimi for it a merit
which no institution possesses. But with my
titlicil expierienice, and f'ionm the observation of'
those who have taken an iterest in it for the
fast thirn tyvears. 1 aii di.sp'-e'd to thiink it inidis
pn.ble~ tor the pr'e-eirvatiuon of' lie ma rtial
sph it iof our pe.'ple. Not one is wise einugh to
fores'e thle niecs.ityV whieb'I iiay arise f'or the
ex'iei.-e of' the.,e quialitienionsii of' the citizen
which the oiliairy orgaiaion:iii is i'itended to
cu Iivate. lksnes aire pend.ig bearinig;.;reat con
seifuecs aloig with itheni, ud e'very~ one wihmo
e.'ainiies the course of' events niost f'el that, at
any mioiieit miay ari-e quest ions which w~ill de
imaiid :ii exhiibii ion of' thojse quialities whlichi haive
hithtot giveni ani enviatble pi'ecedeince to the citi
zen soldiery of' this Commnonw~ealh. I recoin
mend thai~t all mat fera coinniect ed with the militia
s',stemn be referred to a board of' compiletent urll
eers, whose duty shall be, withI aimple time for
dleliberate inetg tocrefully to revise it,
aind submit the result of ftheir hibors to y.ou at
y'our next sessioni. Accompanying iliis doctn
iet is the report of the elficieit, Adjutant and
isfpector General upon this subject.
Th'le que~iioni of' refourm in the Free Schoo!
systeim has largerly eiigaged the attenitioiiofthie
peopile duriing the fpast year. It has evei'y where
beeii dis-'ed, :ntd the coiiviction is genierally
ea:tabilibed tha:t radical c h:iiges are necessary in
our pre'se'nt phmn of' public it eeion.
ii n my labt i:imu at limes-age, I expressed fhie
opno that it would be prmtire to adopt, at
yor approval. Q!o reonst rtel, bten syted ;Jbu
.idt is'ed ihe .ippoiint.mient of' a Miiiister of' Public
hiitructio'n, ni'1 subseqieintly a tJoard, to act in
conceit withI him, by whiose unii td labors au planI
ei. ij 'ete andii adequate cani be digested f'or y'our
imiiate adopft ioni. I emmni't give the reasons
for this recoin iendatioii in a imannet' strotiger
or* mnon- forc'i tie thain iiby uising thei languagre of'
one iihose abilityv all ac'kntowledg~e:
"AJ, therefore, that. I wvould iiow. press upon
yoiu is. to have pubilic iinsirueliin erected iinto at
Jepartmeicnt of' tie Site Giovei'nmieiit. Thant is
the tfir't an~d an inidispensable stepjI; aind, until
hat is dune, t here iever can be a plani, adequate.
- Wha wIi'e first ineed is a coillection of the
facts fre':t whichi tic ud.ita of' a piripet' systemi
mat'. be drawni. WVe must k now the niuimber of
children in :he State, of' the ages at whlich chit
dreni ar i'utsuatlh'. sent to schlool, the kind and
degree of' edne:itin dem:mded. the relative dis
tances of~ the reidencee of' parents, thle poinits at
'hichl school houi-es may. be most coiiveniiently
ceet' ed. the -iumb~er lit haiilding;s requiired, thie
nimfer of' ie;eers, and the sataries which dif.
ieeit ht.ialitiies iialo~ niec'ssay'to comnpetent
stuppport. net' of thssrL iiiiit constitute the
theni pro~ceed iito opare diQ~eet "ystemus, atdopt
in fr'' among themi lk tha.iihi seinis to be
he i alp ed to our own eiretimiliwes, or origi
ir:nia new onie, it' all shiould pri'ovi unsatisfac
t ry.Xll, therefo.re, that ini myi jodgmenit the
It.. nieshul undtAmahe at preseit, is to
:en ire' :his. nreliminarv ittormaitiiin, inclutding
- i ...n'~0tl a Iin of' ~rct-: thet comparison of'
digest' of a pl Aisuied to'ifie WAsiitti* otAh
people." Thi-i chbedone'by the rnppotitftet
of a Minister of Public Instruelion,- who'ihall
be regarded as an olieer or the. government,
compensated by a large salary, and whoi shall
give himself unreservedlyto this great interest.
Let him i)e...required4_p.traverse timttte,tp
inspect the condition of egry neitrborhood,
and from personal obserftlon andv4tidti ic tes
timony let him - become -n'quaint dd th the
number, the extent and the circumstinces of the
chiidren. Let him. be. prepared- to say where
school houses can b' most, conveniently erected,
the distances at which they should be removed
from cach other, the kind or teaelers.njecded in
each neighborhood, and let him indieat "what
sections of the State are unprepared for schools
in consequence of therdispersion of their inhabi
tants. Let him be able to give some prob~ble
estimate of 'the expense incident to-the success
fIl operation of an ndequate scheme. In the
next place, it should .berhis-duty to master the
existing systems, whether in thisdcuntry or Eu
rope, and to lay before' the -Legislakurerna uV
cinct account: of their funidamentakprovitio"s.
Let him propose the scheme which he .thoin
ought to be adopted here, and let his report be
referred to an able and learned commission,
charged with the final.-jreparation of such a
scheme as we may.be-ready to onact..into law."
The expense of carrying into effect the fore
going suggestions should be defrayed out of a
reserved per enitage upon the present Free
School appropriation; thus saving. additional
drafts of money from the Treasury, and making
the Free School fund correct ultimately the
abuses and delects of the present system.
I had the honor at your last session 'to stib_
mit to you a statement of the conditioa 'of the
Blue Ridge Railroad enterprise, and Als6"certain
suggestions with regard to improvements in
the State Asylum for the insatie. Upon these
two subjects my opinions, then expressed, re
tf3main utichatge4; but I forbear to pres. them
upon your consideration for reasons which are
otbv*ious to you, and which you will not. fail to
Upm the subject of the Asylum I herewith
subliit for your perusal nd carefil considera
tion an claborate statement frotm the able ptysi.
dian of the institut ion, whose long experience
and thorough investiga tion of the subject enti
ties his opitnions to tihe highest respect and
credit. It presents such a variety of facts atid
nrguments, as cannot be .embraced, evei were
it de..irable, in the limited - space: of an, annual
message. I entreatyour examination of trem
as authority at some future day for .youe netion
upon this subject.- One fact appearsito me to
be indi:pu.able: thit it would be. erroneono
policy on the part of the State to. expend any
further sutms upon the present premises and
location, beyond. the ustial-annual appropriation,
bitt reserve its meais for a future occaion; vhien
int their amalgation into one, . .
in a separation; and if so, whether or not there
is a probability of their being ever again.united,
so as to affoird the same advantages to thi 4 State
in the m-itter of Western trade and commerce.
Secondly, whether, in the- event -f( failure
in the Blue Ridge Hailroad enterprise, there is ii
reasonable hope that North Carolina will-allow
;ny road in this State, uniting with one inthat,
to connect with her great road leading across
the Alleghanies to the West, except with such
a change of gauge, or the substitution of other
diMliculties, as will forever prevent the people of
this State from availing themselves of the ad
vanttges of trade with the valleys of the West
through that ebannel. These are serious con
iderations, and are worthy of your gravest in.
ruiry. My own conviction is, that the advunta
ges which we now pos.-ess, under present char
ers, once lost are lost forever.
I have the honor to lay before you aletter from
Bis Excellency the Govertor of Georgiaacconi_
panied by the report of a-special joint cornrit
lee of the Legialuture of 'that State upon the
<ubject of the "memorial of -the City Council
of Augustam, in relation to the bridge across the
S'avannoah river" at that place. with the request
that I would submuit the sanme to your consid
At your last session I was instructed, in con
iunction with the Attorney General, to tauke
such steps as were necessary on thme patrt of this
Staute to subtmit thme questions at issue betiveen
lierself anid the State of Georgia, tupon the'sub
ceL of boundary orn the Savannah river, to the
1idjudiention of the Snpreme Court of the Unti
led States. In conformity with this injunction,
addressed a comamunication to His Excellency
the Governor of that State, itnviting his co-opera
Lion in this measure. I have not yet received a
reply, but earnestly hope that thte propriety of
tue., a step will be concededi as the easiest and
most equitable mode of adjusting this lotng
In April last a very large and harmonious
:ommuercial cotnvenition was held in the City of
Charleston, which took certain initiatory steps,
Itmong various other measure9, towards te.
Formation or thme Southern Pacific Railroad
Company. The committees appointed by the
conivention have submitted the form or an act
of inceorporation of the said roatd, to be adopted
by the Southern States. I herewith submit it,
tog'ether with other pnpers conineeted therewith
to your inspection antd considerationi.
I also transtmit to vr~u eertain resolutions from
the Legi..latures of Connecticut and Rhode
Island; also certain decrees, regulations, and
instructions by Ihis Majesty thme Emperor of
the French. in relation to tthe Univer.sal Exh~ibi
Lion to be held itn Paris in 1855. This Itatter
paper was otlicially forwarded to tne through
the Secretary of State of thte United States,
mnd I have accordinigly appointted three commis
sioners to ta'ke charge of such products and
other articles frotm this State as may be intend
ed for exhibitiont.
I would ag~aini call your atlentiotn to thme con
dition of our enacttmnts with regard to the
introduction of free personts of color employed
as miariners or otherwise on boamrd of vessels
trading with our seaports.
You are, of course, aware that some of these
provisions have long proved a source of dissatis
fuetionm, and have ever been regarded by friendly
powers as to some extcent inconisistenit with our.
int ernational obligations. The efieiency, too,
of the present regulation for' the 'purp'sesde
signed has becn dontred by many- who -liuanI
given sonie attention to thme subject. Vaius
eiremntstancees. to which it is now- unnecessary
in. alhale, senmed for a timte to render atny altera
tiotn intoppoertun~e. I would, howver. recoin
mand it as a subject wvorthty of consideration on
youtr part, n hether somte judicious mnoditientions
mtay not at thle present, tiumo besadopted-and
whether, while providing sutlieiently.agmaistany
attempt at mnischievous ititerferenee onutihe part
of~ such personis, aind vesting power in the mu
niiclpal authorities to etnforce all proper police
regulation~s, the object in view may not bte ef
fected in a tumde less offensive to other govern
nments. Other States which had adopted simi
lar nirm-isus haen nmodfid their eactments,
.1.While *b e~onld-aver conseu& I .19 prrend~
.PriniRir 01.right torent the- subet. .
view. exlusively, to .our-* oWyanse OM
and gp gn, st~ yat the s'me time In
pecpmr tomake conelrn,
t't wih thi.i;to what many -b"tiy' arir5d
as only a ttitifde of -friendly imongtrance.- ,'
At your last -essidniyou passedraYey:iMpOri
tant act relative -to the. registration-, of -births.
deaths, and marriages.j: .4 the appintmefpo
Registrars .took place. after: many of the Tag
dolleetors had commenced *their other dntte.,
and'tlie books nd :t,'rdlA sciuired 'titne ff
tlheii lirepration.'the 'ietuin has bbentannimpedL
fectnoilei [ herewith setid onz.,Ahe 1repo-t of
the:Regmtraran and invitev-,nY atteWMnato: the
stiggestias f~~ks~ah~imeitin1 4.Jelh4iW M
wil.l we:#;pe-efficieney ,qL and. e slults.
Ip a 'i-Jjviog;b en inod 1r earry
but t "sne e n ess rMe to. in
t:IO'WA C d nvi . ' e rg
SAs ai-bdi'ntar'Oth. 'et'm o
federate ! Republid;thdtnexiuting :aspvet oli 6of
foreign- relati6ns: is, * nd3ttrof deep iqne ,
andi requires from you. watchfulness and4 soil
tude.. The.pYs o cortpeiy whjch regulate thg
intercourse of nations, a iereet a'nd sound pioh
cytounrds ouriielves;i and te good faiih. t bn
obscried in ndint ainingthd 'terrni of trentIes
should make 'this "nation -eaefAlly avoid .bollt.
the. reality and 'appinriance. of itemptingidi
reetly or indireetfyl to Wmp uany -portion of for
gign detainion. 4hleeraib fecA a
is desirle f to p . y open
treyed ar .power, a
no objectio ; but: beyoud This twe.Governnfeiit
hrs no rilit'f6.jo; whether tlirou'gi inO'elef
of: unlanwful eterpfises at lidme,:udr. -ihdieret
and anomaldusi ministerid inte'rferpnee -end
vents are, trnspiriig in: portions.f thi.
Confederniey whieh are ell calulaed t.arest
the attention- and 'excite the vigilance .of tile
Southern people."' he results of the late, '4' - 4
lar elections in fertain 'geetibs' af'the Utii6dr
threaten yet'more seri6&ly to disfurb the 'tih0p
which for a brief perio'd- has exititd. Thib :
who maintained ;jnat .and, oonstitutional rrews
of goternment polief havi obcoirvlyArown
aside,,and polijiciaus rensrju4 ,pt ' lp :
tertaingeta dtr y 9
thiRs Ur41 .ra I1 (i h int m
tide(Wenin 1i.d n t
the hardih cdd to elee- i "CoWAmitiiW
suh)honi%bwe604;their 4wtl d."gbus.
and-dioigUanisingtAieA anSI dreject otharavto
which thqr are opposed -roduetawhM,. flw,
carried out, woul createlhemnworP4 go, of des.
potism. ,'esa,ipdicatio ingo t be
ed bj (he.Sobtheri pepe, :nd nre, of, th'dee ,
est inte'rest to 'tho wlA-' -. T
in g rovetimeiti. AV af T6ndAmt'tit prps
4itor, thesoe-Stateshad:beore thwe.-adupion oE
the Federal Constitotion,. haive noa, eu0
all the .functions of independei.gopp usmt
riidhiave the power,.jdera cordisil'ndersf:ai
ing, not only to pr6tif tlieml'rrevefefetlly,
but, by a concert of adtio'n,Io preseri-e the Psd
eml Government hiso-; andAit would be a nobte
exerciseof. it, by exliibitimger perfect union-4if
feeling, sentiment, andrinterest, to arrest its rapid
march towards the lioentionsness and nnarcby
which otherwise surely awaitit.*
Discsiding all State and political jenlousy
lot the rulers and public Iimer of the South uire
upon this great principle of coiservatim afmd
preservation, and the Constitution-and the Union.
are safe; without such union, all is lost.
1: dvoutly, commend you, -gentlenbw; Jo:the
protection of that ipower:who bind:tho*;mwa
'fue loves by thi'..-elosest boods or affectiqj, n4
disperses those. wihom Ife conidemns 'becatisp
they forget him, OIL
Colunmbia, Novembe'r 27, 1854. '
IIAVING A T r.\DE.-By all means have a4 ljrdo,.
Do not go up nind dowin in the world and find,
nothing you enmn put your hand to. Yon iihay
not always be as prosperous as you are nuow,.
Thank heaven we live in-no lanid of primg-di
ture, hereditary succession. Ench mani is mrM-~l
ly bound to labor. Have sonmethming you can
turn your energies. to whentimes ' pinch; have
a trade we repeat. Educate you,bainds;. it mil.
be an everlasting resourse... What .ihougly u,
are going to college, or into a,profe'ssio&V
ease is not altered-you 'Weed 'it just 'ait i.~
Itzwill-'come in play every daiv-in 'f'f%
Discipline 'of -the hand-slrould ntwnvs be'ftmre
that of the head. We.:never knewy a eullegb
boy that was not, better fom's asubstantiakradei'
He always graduates.. wiitlethe highesjnors
He is sure to be a sucholatr. The .iagt le asL
knows how .to work4-to eongqsr. NIo btnt
transfers himiself fromt the. shop to theistud -.
Young man, decide at one to leirn riia. J
apply yourself -with all your mind and' lieart,
and be-its master, and if you are otoigedto'
work at it, you' have laid by so - much, and- such
a kind of wenith can never .-be taken -from vou.
-Soil of the South.
.FLORIDA CoT~oN CaoP'..-A letter from (hu
neighborhood of Tallmtahasee, dated November
2, containus the following, remarks ini.reJaroo-&o
the cttonucrop: . -' . .ms,.
"QOur erops are not what sh4 prqonisemi Ao,
some time smnee. Thec rot 'tins, bteen n
dentedly destructive to~dWon ~idrn m
six week<s. - doubt if we if. not Ihorto eis
year's product." ' - - -s
WVaT's xx Tur. WVisn ?--We hae -nlr.eady
stated, says (he Baltimrore Sun, th~at ord..rs 65Jii
been issued to fit out immnediatwly the U 5.~lo
of war 'Jamestown,- at" Phid@phin,i'd- tini
ships Cyane and Saratogam, at the Uairlestai
(Mars ) Nauvy Yard. We - now k-arn i sit-elrrs
have been. received at Portsnmuth,.-Van-,toms~
for sea, as soon as possible, tiiree Jmailed Sit.
frigates, amnd to hgasten: thme .comapetig1oI the
two now in the 'ourseofconmstrmcttoi-ihiere.
Similar order.i; if'iWunis akiruio' h'dde rods~ly
been received iti11 PolifehaN..
handred anhd ifily -nrmechuaimsacumtnasitl~ps
forsea wigj.gii.possible despach.li ' 9
is also..being litted for sea, at the,syme -..d
BMr Strows.-We todio"cesion' iifrnir
ago to express our opinioft codCerning shi'niid
era mnonstrypity,. otf brutaliing ybung human
innocence, we are glad tosee,thaae.geop1 f
Obio,have beconme quite excited ulipjthe se
jet.,The mnatter has Ft*L'n carrmeri to sumchi a
mtlejiY as to cali forh ffolOvi u:7kf li
the Clevelhmd Iheralkt: - '
" The thing is gettinir 4o be disgusting, when
the contents of the erud ll'and - theimg penget'
jndged by the saime standard, when -the babien
are cstimaated by the pound, )ige..Jatalges in
the shambles.'' . .. '