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flemocrti 3purrd, eus to l Siu t $ t1 atU outl$ )Utern fligljts, Vdi w, Caitst lewuv %iterature,
"We will cling to the Pillars of the Temple of our Lilerties, and if it must fall, we will Perish amidst the Ruins."
. J. DURISOE & SON, Proprietors. EDGEFIELD, . C., JULY 4, 1855. - *
NOS EPISCOPOS, Editor.
"HONOR TO WHO HONOR IS DUE."
THE famous " STEPRHEx' letter," as well as
other documents ofa similar character, havi
been allowed the widest circulation whic
this paper could give them, whilst nothinf
in the way of a reply has been publishec
that we are aware of. On the principle o
fair play -then,, we submit for the cousidera
tion of :our readers, the following letter fron
the Augusta Chronicle 4' Sentinel. In doinl
this our object is not to excite controversy, of
to' detract from the just rights of others, but
simply to let the people see where " the honoi
lies," and thus, enable them to bestow il
'shere it.is due.
RELIGIOUS .LIBERTY-LORD BALTIMORE.
To THE Hov. A. H. STPHEnss-De
Sir:-In a speech recently made by you ir
the' city of Augusta, I perceive that you
refer to Lord Baltimore, the Catholic foun
der of Maryland, as having been the first to
establish a government on the principle of
religions freedom, on this continent.
1 beg leave, respectfully, to join issue witi
you on, this statement, and that for two rea,
sons: First; because it gires credit to oni
who does not deserve it. Second, becaus
it takes away that credit from one who doe,
deserve it. Loel Baltimore was not onlj
not the first to found-a free government, buh
he never founded such. a one at all, nor di(
any of his successors who inheritedlhis titles
The pioneer in the cause of religious liber
ty, was not a Catholic, but a Baptist; no
Lord Baltimore, but Roger Williams, the
founder of Rhode Island.
"Whatever might have been the inten
tions of Lord Baltimore - or the favorablh
disposition of the King, there was no guar
antee in the charter, nor indeed the least kin
of any toleration in. religion not authorizer
by the law of England."-Hildreth's U. S.
vol. 1., p. 208. Nor was the earliest legis
lation of Maryland at all more creditable
,The " vaunted clause" for liberty, extendei
only to professed christians, and was intro
duced by the proviso, " that whatsoever per
son shall blaspheme God, or shall deny of
reproach the Holy Trinity, or any of the
three persons thereof, shall be punished-witi
death."-Bancroft's U. S., vol. 1., p. 256.
'Frogm see tve-i~s-sews, - Twr a
numerous and respectable portion of our
population, and Unitarians, who constitute
perhaps the controlling element in New
England Society, to say nothing of our
Chinese citizens, of whom there are now
some thousands, were all liable, under this
boasted free government, to the penalty 01
the axe, or of the halter. Says the histori.
an first quoted, "The first four sections of
this celebrated act (the so-called Toleration
Act) exhibit but little of a tolerant spirit.
Death, with forfeiture of land and goods, is
denounced against all who shall * * * *
* * * deny our Saviour Jesus Christ to be
the Son of God; or shall deny the Trinity.
Fine, whipping and banishment, for the third
offence are denounced against all who shall
utter any reproachful words or speeches
concerning-the blersed Virgin Mary, or the
H oly Apostles or Esangetists"-Hildreth
vol. 1.,p. 847. This is contasined in ani act
"derived in substance if not in very jwords
from Lord Baltimore's drafts," ditto supra.
This act "did,.indeed, but carry out a policy
co-eval with the settlement of the colony'
Hlildreth vol. 1., p. 347, and was confirmed
by the oath administered to the first governor,
which provided for the religious protectiori
of none but those who believed in Jesus
Christ. Bancroft vol. 1., p. 248. This wai
in 1649. A few years later, their legisla
tion was even more intolerant; in 166E
those who refused to have their. childrer
baptized, were subjected to a fine of 200(
pounds of Tobacco. Hildreth vol. 1., p
519. And even as late as. 1714 person!
expressing certain religious opinions, weri
liable to have, their tongues. bored througl
and be fined ?20.-Hildrethi vol. 1I., p. 824
True, the examples last quoted' are mattern
with which the first Lord Baltimore hat
nothing to do, for he died very early in the
history of the country; but they serve t<
illustrate the spirit of Maryland institution!
and are not incomnpatible with the origina
It is worthy of remark furthermore, tha
whatever of right or wrong there may be ir
the charter or legislation of Maryland, Cath
olics as such, are to be neither applaudet
nor censured for the same; for a vast majori
ty of the population were Protestants, (Ban
troft 1t.454, and Hild. 1. 565,) and theil
charter was granted from a Protestant crown
-The Catholics had the best of all possibli
reasons. for being in favor of toleration,. foi
whether in Maryland or in England,. thej~
were alike liable to persecution from ,th4
.dominant party.. Irideed, they were onci
or twvice disfranchised on the veury soil whith
,er they had fled to escape disfranchisement
'T'here is no reason to suppose that .th<
full conception of "soul-liberty" had evel
occurred to the mind of either the first Lort
Baltimore or of any of his five successors
" It was not toleration, but supremacy, fo
wvhich Catholies and Puritans alike sought
while the'Clhurch of -England- for the main
Lemance of her own supremacy, struggle<
equally against both." Hild. 1. 204. " Poli
cy, it. is evident, had a much greater shari
in the enactmient of. this act, (the Toleratior
Act) than enlighteneti vibu of the rights of
opinion,. of which indeed ~it- evinces but a
very limited and confused. idea. . Now, thal
the Puritans w~re triumphantin.New ng
land, an exclusive Catholic dolony would
not have been tolerated for a hnpoment Thei
-soels chance of ueenring to tha-Catholica~thn
quiet enjoyment of their- fath, -eonsisted ii
bestowing a flke liberty oni the -Protestant
-a policy indeed upon which Loi-d Balti
more had found it necessary~ to act fron
the very first planting of the colony."
Hild. I, 84S. The italjoa 'are iot those c
Such, my dear sir, is the testimony of
history, with regard to the much boasted
freedom of the government. instituted by
the Catholic founder of Maryland. I know
that historians, and even those from whom I
have quoted, catching the popular breath,
sometimes speak of him as, the "first to
-establish religious liberty;" but these very
historians modify these expressions and
indeed cancel them by narrating the facts
above set forth-facts which invalidate his
claims and those -of- all his successors.
Whatever laudations may be indulged in by
those disposed to favor Lord Baltimore their
own evidence when sifted, will show that
there is but little harmony between their ap
plause, and the facts to which they testify.
The following account of Roger Wil
liams on the other hand, will show that he
understood the theory of religious liberty,
in all its plenitude and glory, as well as at
that early period as the most enlightened of
the present day. He protested that " magis
trates are but the agents of the people, or
its trustees, on whom no spiritual power in
matters of worship can ever be conferred;"
"that their power extends only to the bodies
and goods and outward estate of men. --
Banc. 1, 371. " In the capacious recesses
of his mind he had revolved the nature of
intolerance, and he, and he alone, had arrived
at the great principle, which is its sole effec
tual remedy. He announced his discovery
under the simple proposition of the sanctity
of conscience. The civil magistrate should
restrain crime, but never control opinion;
should punish guilt, but nev.er violate the
freedom of the souL The doctrine con
tained within itself an entire reformation of
theological jurisprdence: it ' would blot
from the statute book the felony of noncon
formity; would quench the fires that perse
cution had so long kept burning; would re
peal every law . compelling attendance on
public worship; would abolish tithes and
all forced.contributions to the maintenance
of religion ; would give an equal protection
to every form of religious faith; and never
suffer the authority of the civil government
to be enlisted against the mosque of the
Mussulman, or the alter of the fire-worshiper
against the Jewish Synagogue, or the Ro
man Cathedral. In the unwavering asser
tion of these views, Roger Willams never
changed his position; the sanctity of con
science was the great. inet which with all
its consequences he defended as he first trod
the shores of New England, and in his ex
treme old age it was the last pulsation of
his heart." Bancroft 1., 367-8.
I -" He war the first person Iommodern chris
tendom, to assert in its plenitude the dog.
trine of freedom of conscience, the equality
of opinions before the law; and in its de
fence he was the harbinger of Milton, the
precursor and superior of Jeremy Taylor."
Brancroft I, 376. The voice of Williams
in favor of liberty was heard in New Eng.
land in 1631; which was before Lord Balti
more's patent was~ granted; when Milton
was 23 years of age and Taylor but 18.
Williams' great idea of what he called " soul
liberty" was at that time, says Hildreth,
" wholly novel.'' vol. I. p. 223. Novel indeed
it may have been, outside of the little. Bap
tist world; but there were many of that
.faith and order besides N illiams, who were
imbued with the spirit of liberty. Indeed
it was not Williams who produced the Bap
tists; the Baptists produced him. . They
were not the exponents of his views, but he
of theirs. Said the people of Rhode Island,
in their instructions to him, wvhen he wvent
to England to apply to Charles Ii for a
charter, " plead our case in such sort as we
may not be compelled to .exercise any civil
power over men's consciences; we do judge
it no less than a point of absolute cruelty."
These instructions are printed in Mass. Hist.,
Coil. XVII. 85. ." The document," says
Bancroft, "is of the highest interest; no
learning nor skill in rhetoric could have
mended it."II. 61. "Freedom of conscience
unlimited freedom of mind, was from the
first the trophy of the Baptists." ditto 11. 66.
" They applied the doctrine of the Reforma
tion, to the social relations of life and
threatened an end to King-craft, spiritual
dominion, tithes and vasalage. The party
w ~as trodden under foot with reproaches and
most arrogant scorn ;- and its history is writ
ten in the blood of myriads of the German
peasantry; but its principles, safe in their
immortality, escaped with Roger Williams
to Providence; and his colony is the wit.
ness that natur-ally the paths of the Baptists
were paths of freedom, pleasantness and
peace." Banc. II. 459. In the government
of Rhode Island, "Freedom of faith and
worship was assured to all,-the first formal
and legal establishment of religious liberty
ever promulgated whether in America or
Europe." Hildreth I. 323. The following
is a quotation from'-the charter itself: "No
person within said colony shall be molested,
punished, disquieted, or- called in question
for any differences of -opinion in matters of
religion who does not actally disturb. the
civil peace;: but that all and every person
and persons may at. all times freely and fully
have and enjoy his and their own judgments
and consciences, in matters of religious con
ernments, they behaving theinselves peacea
bly and quietly, and not using this liberty
to liceniiousness and profaneness, nor to the
civil -injury and .outward disturbance of
others." "-The charter did not limit free
dom to Christian sects alone; it. granted
equal rights to the paynim and the worship
per of Fo." Ban. II. 63.
-In discussing' this question, many seem to
take it for granted, that the governments,
both of Mpryland and Rhode Island, were
really free, and that the point to be decided,
relates only to priority of time. This is-not
the true issue. It is not a question of time,
(as between these two claimants) but a
question of fact. I have 'shown that the
goverment of Lord Baltimore was not free;
and that-of Williains was.
E llow me, Mr., Stephens, to say in con
lusion, that if in'the casual allusion referred
to; you have-errel, I believe . you have not
. one-so intentIonally. I know enough of
your character, .to feel sure, that you would
fin no'ease wilfilly misreprssent, and that if
you have inadvertently done s., -no one wi1l
be more ready to rectify the matter than
yourself. Your speech will probably be
read by tens of thousands, and the wrong
impression made by your remark must be
very general. People confiding in your ha
bitual accuracy, will be the more disposed
to rely pn your statement, and will thus be
the more easily misled. Nor is it a trifling
matter. There.are in the State of Georgia
some seventy or eighty thouband Baptists,
actual communicants, to say nothing of
their friends and adherents, all of whom are,
more or less interested in the point at issue.
I know that you do not wish to do the de
nomination injustice, by denying its lawful
claims to honorable distinction, and to the
gratitude of the world. I confidently believe
therefore, that you will -second the effort
that I have made, so to place this matter
before. the public, as that all mray be able to
"give honor to whom honor is due."
I will only say further, that I express
neither approval or disapproval of any senti
ment or statement in your speech, other
than the one above discussed. Being a
Minister of the Gospel, I deem it incompati
ble with my profession to take any active
part in politics, and hereby utterly' disclaim
any public connexion with the same, in any
.way whatever. The point in question being
purely historical, and one of great interest
to the donomination of Christians to which
I belong, comes quite legitimately within my
With great respect, I am- sir, your ob't.
serv't. H. H. TucKER.
LaGrange, Ga., June 14th, 1855.
THERE ARE N0 TEARS IN HEAVEN.
I met a child-his feet were bare
His weak frame shivered with the cold;
His youthful brow was knit by care,
His flashing eye his sorrow told.
Said I, " Poor boy, why weepest thou ?"
" My parents both are dead," he said ;
"1 have not where to lay my head;
0,1I am lone and friendless now!"
Not friendless, child ; a Friend on high
For you his precious blood has given ;
Cheer up, and bid each tear be dry
"There are no tears in heaven."
I saw a man in life's gay noon,
Stand weeping o'er his young bride's bier;
" And must we part," he cried, " so soon !"
As down his cheek there rolled a tear.
" Heart-stricken one," said I, " weep not ;"
" Weep not!" in accents wild he cried,
" But yesterday my loved one died,
And shall she be s6 soon forgot ?"
-- Forgotten 1-No L still let her love. -- "ti -
Sustain thy heart, with.anguish riven;
Strive thou to meet thy bride above,
And dry your tears in heaven.
I saw a gentle mother weep,
As to her throbbing heart she prest
An infant, seemingly asleep,
On its kind mother's shelt'ring breast.
" Fair one,"-said I, " pray weep no more ;"
Sobbed she, " The idol of my hope
I now am called to render up;
My babe has reached death's gloomy shore."
Young mother yield no more to grief,
Nor be by passion's tempest driven,
But find in those sweet words relief,
"There are no tears in heaven."
Poor trav'ler o'er life's troubled wave
Cast down by gi.eef, o'erwhelmed by care
There is an arm above can save,
Then yield not thou to fell despair..
Look upward, mourners, look above !
What though the thunders echo loud;
The sun shines bright beyond the cloud
Then trust in thy Redeemer's love.
Where'cr thy lot in life be cast, .
What'er of toil or v oc be aiven
Be firm--remember to the last,
" There are no tears in heaven."?
O0:' READ and rejoice, all ye who live in
hopeful expectation of the' " coming of the
kingdom," over the account given below by
Mr. MasoN, of the progress *of the gospel
amongst a people who, thirty. years ago bad
never heard the name of Christ. Verily
" the wilderness and the solitary place has
been made glad, and the- desert to rejoice
and blossom -as the rose."
TwENTY-FIVE YEARS MISSIONARY WORKa.
-Rev. Mr. Mason, who is now in this coun
try an invalid, thus alludes to lbs wonderful
results of missionary labor'among the Ka
rens : " Twenty-five years ago, 1 was sent
out to Burmah at the birth of a new mis
sion, to foster- it in its infancy. I have re
turned when it has reached the confines of
maturity. When I left America it was not
known .that thani one Karen, Ko-Thab-yu,
had been baptized. It is now known tliat
more than ten thousand have received the
ordinance. Theni the people had no written
language-now they have the irhole - Bible
in their own tongue, a large hymnbook, nu
merous tracts,. catechisms, and scientific
treatises ; a periodical edited by one of their
own number, together with pastors and
teachers among themselves. It was advan
ing when I went out-it has continued to
advance each - successive year that I have
been abroad, without once pausing, and it is
now advancing wvith accelerated rapidity be
yond anything that has been heretofore wit
nessed.. It will continue to advance."
A WRITER has compared worldly friend
ships to our shadows. A better comparison
never wvas made, for if we walk in the sun
shine it sticks to us, but the moment we en
ter the shade it deserts us..
" THERE Is no -country in the world,"
says a contempor'ary, " where the people are
so addicted to the medicine eating propensi
ty as the United States. It has .growa to
be a perfect mania-a disease of itself. -
Tihe fact is, Nature never ' designed the hu
man body to be such a receptacle* of medi
cine. If men would but study the laws of
nature, diet properly instead of excessively,
be regular in their habits, instead of regular
Iin their doses,, use common sense and cold
water freely, and the doctor as little as pos
sible, they would live longer, suifer less, and
na little for the privilege."
AN Irishman who "is i.'. proprietor of a
boarding shanty on thie)innatti R. Road,
recently purchased a o0*, which, being
rather wild, he had to halter and lead home.
When he arrived at the dor of the shanty,
his better half opened theonversation thus:
"Well, Pat, where :id -you get that
" Sure I got her of-Mr. H."
" What!" said she, "did you buy a cow
from a Protestant I But as you have done
so, it won't be any harm to put a little holy
water upon her., F. id
Faith, that's well thought of,- said Pat.
So without relinquishing his hold of the
brute, he held out his hand to receive the
holy water, and- rubbed -it' on the animals
back, making also the sigif the cross, at
the time of performing the: peration.
It so happened that the4n woman handed
him, by mistake, a bottle &vitrol, and Pat,
being unaware of the act; felt astonished
that the cow should windaelo under the ope
ration, but on rubbing onthe supposed holy
water a second time, the.: infuriated animal
kicked up her heels and -broke loose from
Pat, to the astonishment of Molly, who ex
. " Howly Mither of Moses. ! Isn't the Pro
testant strong in her yet?
The truth of the story .is vouched for by
a boarder in the shanty.-Ohio exchange.
A DoMEsTIC DRAMa.-" Henry aost'thou
love me dearestI" - "
" Why askest thou, Helenora I"
"Not that I fear thy answer, dearest
Henry, but because Ilove to hear thee speak
-say dearest Henry, -dosi. thou love me I"
"' Ask the stars if they live to twinkle, or
the flowers if they love toasmell, or the rose
to bloom. Love you! Aye, as the birds to
warble, or the'breeze to waet its balmy in
fluence-why askest thou' me, flannel of my
" Because my soul is grieved; care has
o'ercast the joy which once spread sunshine
o'er thy face; anguish sitsiupon thy brow,
and yet your Helenora knoweth not the
cause. Tell me, my aching heart, -why
droops my soul-hasmutton riz 1"
"No, my Helenora-think the gods, No!
but my credit's fell. Watson from this day
forth, sells meat for cash.'
Helenora faints, sazeei& and falls into
her husband's arms, who,.. in t iaguish 'of
the moment, seizes a knife and stabs himself
-over the left.
PRovING CHARACTER.-" Do you know
the prisoner, Mr. Jones ?"
"Yes, to the bone."
"What is his character 1"
" Don't know that he has any."
"Does he live near you ?"
"So near that he has spent only five shil
lings for fire wood in eight years."
"From what you know of him would you
believe him under oath1"
" That depends upon circumstances. If
be was so much intoxicated that he did not
know what he was doing, I would. If not
THE celebrated Dr. Hunter, when he
:ould not find the seat of a patient's disease,
used to say, "* We'll try this remedy-let us
shoot into the tree, and if anything fall well
ad good." Guess many a patient found
his waiy to kingdom-come by those random
shots of the good old doctor. Some people
assert that the learned faculty 'practice this
jueer way of shooting very extensively.
Don't believe it.
A4 GRAHAMITE suggests the following for
the millon in these hard times. He says it
san, at the option of the consumer, be taken
as a bread or a pudding:
" Cut-up four laths in a peck of saw-dust.
When well ixed, bake it by placing a nap
kin containing it, in the sun for half an hour.
Serve-up with sauce made by soaking a cedar
shingle in a pail of water."
WI~ow GnIzzI.E's husband lately died of
Cholera. In the midst of his most acute
bodily pain after the hand of death had
touched him, and while writhing in agony,
his gentle wire said to him:
" Well, Mr. Grizzle, you needn't kick
around so and wear the sheet out, if you are
She must have been an affectionate wife.
A TRUE PHILosoFHIE.-A well 'known
tavern-keeper in New Orleans, was speaking
about his brother Ben, who is also his part
er. "Now," said ho, "Ben can't stand
anything at all-he has been used to the way
they do .things up North, and if a fellow
als for a drink, and says to him, ' charge
that,' Ben gets mad and feels like wading
right into him. Well, that's not the way
with me-I merely sigh very faintly, and
then pour another pint of. water into the
" IT's very sickly here," said one son of
the Emerald Isle, the other day, to-another.
' Yes," replied his companion, "a great
mny have died this year that never died
rTE Dutchman who refused to take -a
one dollar bill because it might be altered
from a ten, prefers stage travelling to rail
roads. The former, he says, rides him eight
hours for'-a dollar, while the latter only rides
him one. " Dee- beeples can't sheat me !
-ANOTHER COEPLIMENT TO AMERICAN
MCAIzCs.-yames H. Burton, late mas
ter armorer in the National Armony at Har
per's Ferry, Virginia, but for soine months
past a resident of this city, has received from
the British government the appointment of
engineer of the British national armony at
Egeld, near London. Although that ar
mony is under the command of Capt. Dixon,
of the Royal Artillery,- Mr. Burton will have
the entire direction of the manufa~turing
operations of tho .establishment.-Spr infield
KY OLD GUITAR.
Another may tell of the music
That lurks in. the summer breeze,.
Of murmuring lay in a flowing rill,
Of the warbling of the trees;
But there is a sweeter music,
A sound that's dearer far,
In the hallowed melodies that break
From thee, my Old Guitar !
They call to mind a mother's smile,'
A sister's childish tear,
A father's manly greeting,
And the laugh of brothers dear;
Of hope that then was beaming,
Like a beauteous evening star,
When merrily I sang by thee,
. My cherished Old Guitar !
Of a fair and modest maiden,
'With a bonny eye of blue,
A smile would steal a sul away,.
A trusting heart and true:
To whom, in music's whispers,
My joy to make or mar,
A tale of love was told by thee,
My faithful Old Guitar !
Of bold and jovial spirits,
Who ciroled round the board,
And quaffed a health-to friends they loved,
And maids that they adored:
Whose songs were lays of olden times,
Of love, of wine, of war,
All mellowed by thy silver tones,
- My merry Old Guitar !
Thou hast brightened many a passing hour
In manhood's early day,
And many a cherished memory
Is mingled with thy lay ;
. And faces which acioss life's path
Have flashed like a shooting star,
Come peeping back through the misty past,
At thy sound, my Old.Guitar !
So once again, sweet warbler,
Thy music let me hear,
And on thy melodies I'll float
Back-back through many a year :
To a day and hour long vanished,
To a time that seemeth far,
To the home so often brightened
With thy song, my Old Guitar !
This officer, who has been recently inves.
ted with the command of the army of France
before Sevastopol, earned his claim to that
distinction about ten years since, in Africa,
by an exploit which will forever cover his
name with infamy. He suffocated some 300
men women and children of one of the Arab
tribes, in a cave, because he was unable to
make them surrender to his arms. The fol.
lowing rather apologetic account of this af
fair is copied from the Pantheon Populaire,
" The cave had only twvo entrances, one
above the other, to whbich an inclosed foot.
path led. A company of grenadiers re
eived orders to follow this difficult route,
and to arrive as soon as possible at the re
treat of the Kabyles; but the latter bad the
advantage of firing with. certainty of killing
the mon engaged in this species of ravine.
t was found necessary to abandon the at
ack in front.
"An investment of the place was then
hought' of. Famine would probably haye
ompelled the Outed Rhias to submit ; -but
Col. Pellissier was in a hurry to join his cot
eague. On the other hand, there were not
roops suficeient to take up a permanent en
ampment on these mountains, where an in
srrection might annihilate the column; in
hort a siege was not in conformity (vithi the
olonel's instructions. He had directions,
t any price, to destroy the prestige attach
d to the retreats of the Kantara.
" An infernal idea, borrowed, unfortunate
y, either from our civil wars or from .the
ars of the Spaniards in America, had been
ndicated as an extreme - measure by the
overnor General. It was to terrify the
Kabyles by threatening to suf'ocate them ini
heir caves by fire. It was thought that in
resence of such a menace, all resistance
would cease. After succeeding-athough
nt without a good deal of difficulty-in
lacing himself in 'communication with the
efenders of the cavern, Col. Pellissier threw
ut thethreat suggested by Marshal Bugeaud.
he Arabs laughed at it, and one of the
French flags of truce was even killed by
" A commenceinent of the project was
ade, in the idea that their indif'erence only
rose from the certainty which they enter
ained that the threat would not be put in
xecution. -Heaps of dry . wood and straw
were thrown from the tops of the Kantara
n front of the caves. The Kabyles remov
d them, accordingly as they were flung
own, but the-fire of the French having dri
en them back into the caves, these combus,
ibles after a while made a vast heap, to
which it now only remained to apply fire. No
signs of surrender on the part of the Arabs
aving been made, fire at length was thrown
into the pile. As If it did not wish to asso
iate itself with the horrors'of this human
butchery, it long refused to communicate
itself to the combustible masses piled by the
French at the entrance of the caves.
" A few Arabs escaped, and went to a
shot distance to obtain water. It was ex
peted that others would foillow them, and
that the whole body would then subalit.
This was. a vain hope. Just as the sun be
gan to quit its zenith a breeze arose, which
blew directly in the directldn of-the entrance
to the Dhar. The* smoke began to whirl
and were drawn by the current into the ca
verns. Many thought that the Arabs had
fled by some secret issue, or at least that
they had found a retreat where the fire could
not reach them. This state of uncertainty
lasted all night.
"At .daybreak a company, composed
partly of artillery and partly of engineers,
received orders to penetrate the caves.. A
melancholy silence, broken by distant moans,
prevailed there. At the entrance, the ani
mals, whose heads had been covered over to
prevent them from seeing or making a noise,
lay half reduced to cinders. Then were be
held fearful groups which death had seized
upon. Here a mother had been suffocated
just as she was defending her children against
the fury of a bull, whose horns she still held,
and whom the fire had stifled at the same
" To add to the horror of the scene, the
naked corpses poured forth their blood by
the mouth, and by their attitudes attested
the dreadful character of the death struggle.
Here two spouses, or two lovers, were lock.
ed in each other's arms. New born chil.
dren lay amongst the chests and the . provi
sions, and in other places were concealed in
the garments of the mothers. In fine, scat
tered in every direction, were to be seen mu
tilated masses of human flesh, trampled un-.
der foot during the struggle of the night."
GROWTH OF THE UNITED STATES.
The rapid growth of these United States
since they became really a nation; in other
words, since the adoption of the federal con
stitution, is not always realized, even by our
own citizens. We say, since they become
a nation, for, prior to 1789, they were but
a congeries of States, often on th'e point of
civil war, never acting heartily together, and
suffering consequently in commerce, manu
factures, agriculture, and prosperity in gen
A few statistics will give some notion of
this growth. The population in 1790 was
3,929,772; in 1850 it had swelled to 23,
191,876; and it is now twenty-nine millions,
if it has increased in its' usual ratio. In
1790 the population of New.York was 33,
131; in 1850 it was 545,547; in 1790 that
of Philadelphia was 42,520; in 1850 it was
408,762; in 1790 Cincinnati did not exist;
in 1850 it had 115,436 inhabitants. When
the federal constitution was abopted, the
whole population of the 'United States ex
ceeded but little that of Pennsylvania at
the present time: while the inhabitants of
all the principal cities were not over one
third the number of those of Philadelphia
In 1790 the public debt of the nation was
-about seventy-five millions, and it was con
sidered so great, that, on the adoption of
the constitution, many persons had seriously.
proposed repudiating it. At present, the
debt is less than forty-five millions, which
is looked upon as a mere bagatelle. The
annual revenue at first averaged only two
millions; it now averages about fifty mil
lions; and of those two millions, a tenth
was raised by direct taxation, while not a
cent is thus raised now. In 1791 our ton
nage was 502,146; in.1853 .it was 4,407,
010. At the former epoch, we exported
about twenty-five millions; we now export
about -two hundred and twenty-five millions:
then we imported about thirty-five mil
lions, or forty per cent,. more than our
exports now, on an average of five
years, the exports and imports balance
each other. In every way, therefore, we are
prospering. Never before, in a period of
but two generations, did any nation increase
so fast in material wealth.
Moreover, the progress of the people in
education, general intelligence, -and social
ivilization, has fully kept peace in the mate.
rial advance. In 1790, the whole extent of
post routes in the United States was only
1,875 miles; in 1853 it was already 21'7,
743. At the adoption of the Constitution,
there was comparatively no school fund
anywhere; at present the school fund of
twenty States amounts to 626,505,820. In
1790, there wvere no steamboats, railroads,
or magnetic telegraph, no coal mines work
ed, few newspapers, no lyceums, and not a
tithe of the existing number of colleges and
other higherolass - academies. All writers
agree in stating that wealth was more un
equally distributed, edutzation more exclu
sive, the prejudice of caste more prevalent.
In 1791, there were thousalnds who doubted
the capacity of even the American people
to. govern themselves; but wvho questions it.
in 1855? Verily, this nation has thriven,
and without- a parallel.-Philadelphia Led
BONELRI, an Italian engineer, it is stated,
has succeeded in inventing a "locomotive'
telegraph," An engine in motion at the rate
of a mile in two minutes, and during a pour
ing rain, communicated, intelligibly and
readily,. by means of the apparatus of whicb
Mr. Bonelli is the- inventor, -'with. -another
engine in 'motion, and with three stations on
the Turin roatl. Thus,, a train may not ori
ly announce its coming or its position along
the whole line, -but messages may be sent
by the passengers themselves.
As AuottrIoNIs'T CHASED AND Dxowx
ED.-A man named Pullam, in Garrard
county, (Ky.,) who was suspected of being'
concerned in running off slaves, was arrest
ed a fewv days ago by several citizens, but'
broke loose, and while running was fired on,
which cauked him to fall; before his pursu
ers came up, however, he sprang to his feet,
made for the Kentucky river, and precipita
ted himself from a cliff forty-seven feet in
height. As nothing was seen of hile after
wards, it is supposed he was drowned.
?dAYew-Dow " SoL."-It is stated that
the stock of liquors purchased by the Mayor
of Portland. and about which there has been
so much trouble, instead of being imported,
as represented, was manufactured at Wil
lamburg, New York. In other ,words, the
Mayor,. it is alleged, has been' victimized by
a sharper, who has r'mposed upon him, for a
pure article, for "sick" persons, a quantity
of common Nme York whiskey and brandv.
UiNCOm 1I PACE!
THE Southern Patriot 'makes the folrov,:
ing rather startling announcement:
"Exrmsvr Fonmniss.-We were$ioek
ed to hear, whilst at Spartanburg Conit,
last week, of forgeries to the amonit of
seventy or eighty thousand dollars; and
moneys drawn on them from the banks.of
Hamburg, Chester,. Charlotte, State Bank'
and Commercial Bank ! There is nothing
in our State' which has equalled.this grand
fraud for years past; and the most melada
cholly feature in it is, that it is like the.for
gery of Dr. Dodd on the Earle of :Chester
field,by a man of high position on his friends.
And no doubt the act was committednde-r
the same mistaken notion, that if discovered
his friends would save him exposure: Bat -
the amount is too large, and would brldg
utter ruin and bankruptcy on those-friends.
The tanks will have to lose these large
sums, which will be charged - to loss. ate -
We have a curiosity, to know the name'
of this man of "high position," and-regret
that the Patriot did not give -it. - When as
itinerant humbugger of the public leaves a
place none the emptier for hotel-and ader.
tising bills, he is generally followed by. his.
name in full and an accurate personal-des
cription; and we are green enougto be.
lieve that when-a' man of "high position"
perpetrates a "grand fraud,"'he; too, should.
be unveiled to the public gaze. Positious'
may perchince prevent legal 'nvestigation.,.
or procure an exercise of execdtiveclemen
cy, but let it never intercept the.arraignmest
of a rascal at the bar of public adjudication.
Let honest men know, as far as possible;
wbQ are our brethren. If the President of the
United States commits a fraud, let his'namb
accompany the story of his treachery. Bt
we do not believe the Patriot withho'da
names simply, because they are too bg for
utterance; perhaps 'that false maxim (which
we believe the law accepts) that the greater
the truth; the more libellions the report, sup
presses it. That principle may do in some
cases, but it should not be of application in
such cases. as referred to.-lndependent
ONE HAPPY MaX.-The' happiest'man I
have ever known is gone far enough from
being rich in money, and who will never bd
very much nearer to it. His calling fits hiin,
and he likes it, rejoices, in its process as
much as. in its results.- 'He has -an active
mind, well filled. He reads and he thinksi
He tends! his garden before sunrise- every
mo-ning,-then rides sundry miles by the
rail--does ten hours' work in town-Whence
he returns, happy and cheerful.' With hiy
own smile he catches the - earliest smile of
the morning, plucks the first rose of his gar
den and goes to his work with the little flow
er in his hand and a great -one blossoming
out of -his heart.* He runs- with charity,'as
a cloud with rain; and it is with him as
with.the cloud-what rain coning from the
cloud is to ,the meadows, is rainbow of glo.
ries to the cloud that pours. it 'out.. The
happiness of the affections fills the good
man, and he runs over with friendship and
love-connubial, parental, -filial, friendly,
too, and philanthropic besides., His life is
a perpetual " trap to catch a sunbeam,". and
it always "springs" and takes it in. I know
no man who gets more out. of. life; and the .
secret of it in that he does his duty to him.
self, to his brother and .to his God: I know
rich men, and learned men-men of great
social position ; 'and if there is no genius in
America I know that-but a happier .man
I have never. known.-Theodore Parker.
ITE31s FOR THE LAIEs.-Lady readers
will the following hints be useful? Brit'an
nia should be first rubbed gently with a
woolen cloth and sweet oil, then washed in
warm suds and rubbed with soft leather and
whiting. Thus treated, it will retain its
beauty to the last.
New iron should be gradually heated a4.
first; after it has- becomie inured with thu
beat it is not likely to crack.
It is a good plan to put new earthenware
into water, and let it heat gradually until it
boils then 'cool again. Brown earthenware,
particularly, may be toughened in thiis way.
A handful of wheat or rye bran, thro.~wn i
w~hile boiling, will preserve the glazing, so
that it will not be destroyed by acid or sail
-'Clean a brass kettle, before using it fqr
cooking, with salt and .vinegar. -
The oftener carpets are shaken,' the longer
they will wear; .dirt that collectsnund'er thent.
grinds out'the threa:is.
If you wish to preserve fine teeth, always
clean them thoroughly after you have eaten
your last meal at night.
Woolen should be washed in very hot.
suds and not rinsed. Lukewarm water shrinks
Never allow ashes to be taken uip in wood,
or put into wo'od. Always have your matchg.
es and lamp ready for use in case of a sudden
alarm. ~ Have important papers all together,
where you can lay your hands oh them-4
once in case of fire. . -~
Old bread may be made almost-asgod
as new by dipping the loaf in- cold wtu
then patting it into the oven after hb '
is drawn, *or in a stove, and letth'
Isinglass is a most deli~ate sarc re fui
muslins. When boiling commo'n. atareb, ~
sprinkle in it a little fine salt;1it wil1l prevent
its sticking. Some use sugar. - -
OLD *AcunarraNC.Jdge Holt, be
ing once on the bench at the Old Baltey,
convicted a. mnan of robbery, whom he'-re
menmbered to have been one of his old coin
panions. Moved by curiosity, he inquired
what was become of certain individuals who
belonged'-to the party. Upon whichk-the
'fellow replied, with a sigh, and a low bow.
" h!m lord, they are all hangedeet
your lo shipand Il
Excz~szo.-A certain Von-Raue~h
married a natural. .dau teof p1%~
of Austria, may pierhaps ecs ete.aaOt
this beard culvating generatione s, rn
are infoi-nied th'at his beardr extended rde
his chin to the earti,"at'- froum tirence wp5
turned up agan'j heiqle..~