Newspaper Page Text
"We will cling to the Pillars of the Temple of o ar Liberties, and if it must fall, we will Perish amidst the Ruins."
SIIKINS, DURISOE & CO., Proprietors. EDGEFIELD, S. C., MARCH 25, 1857. -.1--.
In all the varied scenes of life
Its noise, confusion, turmoil strife
These little words if borne in mind,
Would suit right well all human kind
The fast young man who cuts a dash,
Upon his " Gov'nor's" hard earned cash,
Will think, when all his money's fled,
This motto should have filled his head
The flirt with lovers at her feet,
Her cheeks so fine-her heart deceite.
When years shall steal her charms away,
Will weep she did not in youth's May
Go Slow !"
The man of money, he who spends,
His thousands on his horses-friends
May sit him down in after years,
To con this lesson through his tears
"Go Slow !"
The husband who to see more life,
Deserts his children, lom and wife,
When sunk beneath the hand of fate,
Will mourn he (lid not-ere too late
The wife who always shopping gces.
Leaving her children out at toes,
Should keep this matter in her heart
And learn to act a mother's part
The Banker counting cent per cent
The landlord angry for his rent
The Clerk behind his master's till
'Twill suit you all-this lessonill
" Go Slow !"
The widow, wife, the maiden, amiss.
The husband, father-think of this
In whatever path you go,
'Tis always best to travel slow
"Go Slow !"
- tL S~Ticd1llu.
A correspondent of Brother .onathan, dating
New Orleans, Dec. 3d, 18;. gives the following
good story :
Going up to St. Louis last month, I noticed
as soon as the Loat had got fairly started, a
green-looking customer, who was scrutinizing
the bell, as if he had never sewn one before. Ile
soon attracted the attention of the Captain and
a great many of the passengers.
"Keep still and look at that Yankee," said
the Captain; "we shall have fine sport present
ly," and at the same time walking up to him,
he added: " Well, sir, what do you thing of
the bell ?"
"It is a very pooty one,-how much did it
"Three hundred and fifty dollar.;."
" Why, du tell ! That would iy a farm upi
in our country. INow do you go to work to
ring the critter?"
" Why, by pulling the rope, to le sure."
I)oe's it ring very hard. Capten ?"
" Not very ; wouldn't you like to try it ?"
"I don't. know but I would ; how much
would you ask to let a feller ring it a little
"Human nater ! you ought to let a feller ring
it as long as he pleases at that priice."
The Captain thought to have some fine sport
out ot him, and toldi him he could (10 so. The
Yankee pmuieud out a ten dollar piece, and call
ing on some of the passengers to witness it, that
there might be no backing out on either side,
commenced ringing the hell. It was fine fim
for them all at first, but they very soon grrew
tiredl and anntoved with the noise, tfor .Jonaithanu
kept at it as if'it were the last work he ever in
tended to do. The Captain as wel. as the rest
began to get very much annoyed, for more thtan
once lhe had been asked to have it stopiped. So
lhe went up to him and asked how much longer
he intended to r~ng that di-lishi bell ?
"[t's a fair bargain, Captain, that I should
ring it as long as I pleased, anmd I can proove it
SWell if you wvill only stop. you can have
your umoney'biack again."
aNo, sir-:ee," was the reply.
" Well, howv much will vou ask to stopm it ?"
"Well, seein' its you, Cappenm, I don't know
b~ut if you will give ime fifty dollars and a free
ticket to St. Louis, I will let you off!"
T he Captain hesitated a nmomnent, anid told
him to come. into ihe office. After he lad paid
him he ausked, " iow long did you intend to ring~
that bel ?" ~
'IWll I reckonm I in.tenided to ring it till you
wouldl p:ty me poety well to .stop tt.
l Iut su.-Le I would not have giveni vou
antiihinig' to stop it, whlat thlen would you have
', Well. I reck''n [.40huidl have run:g it till I
had wrm:ig the nie'k ofl the tar mnal cri tter."'
Mr. Amnidown~i was- a eitizenf of eredit andi
renowni.' I ut his credit was chiefly amt thle
tavern ; and his renown was thait iil'a nmi.erabl'e
and Lloa.tedi rumn drinker. (One niight. as usual,
1 e had been att the village grosg-shop, and mi an
advanmced state oft hoozin~ess, --et ui,. towards
S morning, to go heonme, to th!e bo som of i thum
1y. lie had oiften at that Ihour obser'ved recu
liar phenoimna in nature, not predictedl in any
pop larananace; but creation had nevei- ap
pearedl to him so very queer as on that memo'
ruble occasioni. There wer'e three or fou~r mine
-rable lookinig moons ; the stars had a loose autI
shakenup.fppara~c-there were doublIe-stars.
triple-stars~, shtooting-stairs, no fixed st ars. bit
$iu~ddenly, any quantity of newly-created .atars
which appeared to be in neither heaven nfor
earth but ini a vast region openedl .list beha
Mr. Amidowvn's left eyebrow.. In fact, his ';ead
had comec ineviolenit conitact with the side of thme
road-anothter unaccoutntable phlenomenoii~n. 1Re
ing a good deatl discouramged, lie eoncluded to
lie there until the universe en.irte righit-.side-up
agin, and stopped wvhirling; anmd was found in
this state by a farmer who had set out thu~s
early to carry a load of produce to ma~rket.
" What are you down here for ? What's your
name ?"' says the farmer.
" Amidown !" drawled the poor fellow.
" D~own ? yes, flat enough !" exclaimed the far
mier. " Who are you? What's your name ?"
"Am-i-down !" articulated the victim withI
" Of course you are ! Flat as a pancake. Tell
me what your nme is, if you want mae to help
" A-I-Dowe, I say !"
" I say yes, you are ! Don't ask that again !
If y-ou can't tell me your name, I shall go on
and leave you."
" Antenow !" roared the toper.
"Well done !" said the farmer, losing patience,
"a man that's so drunk he can't tell his name,
and don't know whether he's down or up, don't 1
deserve any help !"4
" A y -i-down," spluttered the man who had
fallen by the wayside.
You'll find out whether you are down or
not, before I help you.-if you can't tell your
name;" and so saying, the 'ood Samaritan
mounted his wagon and drove on. Arrived at
the village, he told his story, which created
great amusement, and which Mr. Amidown
never heard the last of, until lie was down in
earnest, not on the roadside, bunt in the paupers'
burying-ground, to which hard drinking and
lying out of nights had soon brough. him.
" FATHER S DRUNK ALL TIE TI3E."
Such was the expression of a little child who
came to our door a few days ago, l.egging for
bread and clothing. "Father is drunk all the
time." Poor child ! what a volume of misery
and woe are expressed in those six words. t
Ilome, where comolit should have an abiding
place, amid where happiness should dwell as a t
oinistering angel, is transformed into a hell up
on earth by " Father being drunk all the lime."
Starvation, rags, and all the hideous lorns of
poverly gather round the houe of that father
who "is drunk all the time." Mother broken
hearted, children growing ui in ignorance and
disgrace, unfited to perform that part on the
stage of life which the creator designed for t
them, are the result of" Father being drunk all
" Father is drunk all the time." This little
one knew the fact, could appreciate the cli'ct,
felt the pinching of hunger, had experienced
the horrors of the past, and with enotions of
grief, which no pen can describe, looks at the
black gathering cloud which hangs of er t he
future, tromt which no gleam of sim1:ihiine is vi-i
ble, and fron which he has no reasonableantici
pation of better days.
Poor child ! a beggar from - door to door a
dependent upon the cold charities of a htartless
world, ,t it Ii words of truth and frankness pro- 1
claiming the sad news of his own destitution,
misery and disgrace, in order to get bread to
snatain life, and clothes to protect himt from the
chilling winds of autumn and winter-and re
turning to his home, if, indeed. a homie it iiny ,
be called-his eyes meet the form of him wi i
should be a protector, supportor, and friend
but the vigor of his manhood is gone-hi. in
telleet is imnpaired, his form i. haggard and de
jeced, nll the whole apjpeaname of' the victim t
again reminds the sufferinmg child that " Father
is drunk all the tm" /iance Ti. .
W rii:x Deacon P. got into a bad position, lie
was very expert at erawhng out of it. Though t
too quick teipered, he was one of the be.it dea- n
cons in the world. He would not, in a sober S
moment, utter an oath, or anything like one, h
Gir his weight in eider. At the clo-e of a rainy it
day, he was milking upon a knoll in his bartiI
yard, on one side of which was a dirty" plo:gh.
and on the other was an old buck, that, in ci- o
sid!era ion of hi- usually quiet dis osition, was- z
allowed to run with thecows. The Deacon was a
p:ously huuuiumn -- hl. IIundred," md hiu l jut i:
finished the line ending with "exalted high," t
when the raui, obieingi: a soulden iimi.ul-e to lbe
agressive, gave himi : blow from behind thatb
seit him up a short distance. only to lidl direct
Ity in tl- sl.ughi where the dirty water was deep t
enough to give iiiim a thiooighl imiuers.ing. As
ie craw Ied tal, aiiid iefuire he r'Me fr'omi his
ihnds and' knees, he Loked over his .ioilbler at
thei main, a:w C.1en vociferated--" You devilish
oli ctis- Iiit I i looking round ad .ceein: one 6
of his neig:lo.< at the bars looking at him. he t
alde.l inl t he s-un reatIi-" IfI may be allUowed a
to ute the expres -kin"
.\ ('i.i:.tN Su:i.i...--\A shire wd coiun try man wi-s
in New York the other day. gawky, unconth, i
and innlocenit enough ini appearance, lbut in ireali
ty. with his eve-t eeth emit. Passig up1 Chant hain
shieet, throiughi the clothles quarter. lie was con
tiiiially enicounte ired withI imiportuinites to buy. y
Fruoim almost everyi store some oiie rushed out,.i
in atccordancee with the aninoyiing custom of that
street, to seizeL upoin and try to force him to purl
chae. A t last one dirty-looking fellow caught a
him by th~e arm, and' clamorously urged him to ai
become a ellstoiiier.
"IHave von got any shirk<?" iimpiiied thet
countryman, wit hi at very innoceiit look.
"A'splendid assortmtient. sir. Step in, 5ir'. C
Every price, sir', and every style. The chieape-t
in the street, simr."
" Are thmer cein"
O To lbe si're. sir. Step in, sir."
" Thien," resuiiedl thle count ryiman, withi per
feet gravity, " put on one, for- you need it."'
T1he ra.-e of t lie shop keeper nimy be imnaginiedl
as the 'ounitr'yi.it) t uingii up1on1 his heel, quiiet
Iiv pursued his warii. i
Tuinoxa- ('orroi Tia-:iine tat ourl Ala-e
ba man oeh~ua-e seemi to lbe very' fhvor'ably im
prssd v thuis inewlv inventid inethod of' 'hold
ing~ coompressedl cott'on in haihks. It is stattedl
that thirty thouii:imd Ibags of' citton of' hiw last
copif, whi'ehi ha~ve' beeni i're'eie at New O rleans.mi
have i i-en' s'cured-' lhv the " ir'on co'tt on tie
The advantiagein i~ ei ni for' this tie. ar:
!. It wdiil save' to plante'rs. 'omp~:n-inig its ex'
penise with the' avierage pric'e of ropep fori live
ha:leis: tr ov'er luhf': aiiin of' do~llars upimi ani
2. Jr will give to piinteris. whien enttoin is wor't hi
ight and ma hi~i'eenti~s, a profit uipian its cot, inwI
ii at prsent lres this profit will :oiunit. toi 9I.
twoii ini -ve-ry one huindr'ed thoins:mid bali-s.
:Ii prio'tei-ts thn'eoii fnkhls h'rimi fi'e
I. hi irednees. hv uuni'-thirdl, the hulk tat the I
tha'es of' i-ion un'd thu- lessen'i, the e'xpe'iise if
.5. It will nio1 irt. ori breac~k, air strtchi. andl is
priot'ited fi'aim ruist, by a ciivinig aof coial tar'
T'hea .wini' iof thie riht, it is said, can:iii umkr.
when'i i'ottoan is ais hilia s 'ighit amid a hall tcents j
saim al I .''."-.\ tguta ('isristituitinialst.
\ pi~nsos:m is rner'r.ri.-.A y'oungt par'am
lst his wayi in a flirest. and it being v'ehemient- 1
l' c'old anid rainy, lie haippened upon n poor tot
t~iaaer. andii desired Ia lo~dginmg or hay loft tai stay
in, and ronu:e fire to warmi hiim. Theii nm tohd
hiim thait he anal his wife land buit onelt 1bed, and 1
if lie please to lay with thieii he should lbe we'l
camie. ~Thme pars'on thaimnked him and kiindly ac- 1
ceted it. In the morning the mian rose to go
to mai'ket, and meeting sonie of his neigl.bors I
he fell a laughing. The" asked him what~m nmade<
himi .o merry about the mouth. " Why," says
he. "I can't but thiink how shameid the paritSonf 1
wtill be when lie awvaker' to find hinmself in bed r
withi niy wife."-P'ittsbui'g (Pa.) Post.
yg-' lHem.inais.-Thec Cleveland Iherald ad- ' 1
dri'esse's this to, the old hacehelor's:
" If' our' Maker thoughit it wrong for Adami fo I
live siingle when there was not a woman on earth,''
how crimiinally ruilty are old bachelors, with ;
the.. orol u ni etty girls I" ~
!IE DRED SCOTT CASE-OPINMON OF CHEF
Chief Justice Taney, in delivering the opin
on of the Court, said that this case, after argu
nent at the last term, was directed to be re-ar
rubd at the present term, owing to difference of
pinion existing among members of the Court,
nd in order to give the subject more mature
There were two leading questions: first, bad
he Circuit Court of the United States for the
)istrict of Missouri, jurisdiction in the case ;
id if it has jurisdiction, was its decision er:o
icous or not?
The defendant denied, by plea in abatement,
he jurisdiction of the Circuit Court of the
rlited States on the ground that 'the plaintiff
is a negro of African descent, his ancestors
'ere of pure African blood, and were brought
ito this country and sold as'slaves," an ere
>re the plaintiff' " is not a citizen of tlid ate
if Missouri." To this plea the plaintiff dt r
ed, and the court sustained the demurrer.
iherenuon the defendant pleaded ever, and
nstilied the trespass on the ground that the
laintill and his family were his negro slaves;
nd ' statement of facts argued to by both par
ics, was real in evidence.
The Chief Justice having .tated the facts in
lie case, proceeded to say, in substance, that
he question first to be decided was, whether
lain.iff was entitled to sue in a Court of the
:iited States. This was a peculiar question,
nid for the first time brought before the court
mier such circumstances; but it had been
rouglt here, and it was the duty of the court to
ncet and decide it. The 11uestion' was simply
his, can a Ieg'o, whose ancestors were import
d and sold as slaves, become a member of the
olitical connunity formed and brought into
xistenec by the Coustitution of the United
states, and, as sitch, become entitled to all the
ights and i:immities of a citizen. one of which
ights is sceing in the courts of the United
tatei in cases therein specified. In discussing
lis ;uestion we must not confound the rights
t' a citizen which a State may confer wit lii
is own limit.;. with a citizen of the Unitel
tates. No one can be a citizen of the United
lates uiless under the provisions of the Con
titution ; but it dioes not follow tflat a man.
ing a citizen of one Stat(. mntt be recogiizedI
such hy every State in tlhe Union. lie un v
ea citizin in one State and not re-ognized as
ciei in another. Previous to the ad.option of
ie Constitution, every State might confer the
blanter of a citizen, and endow a man with
l the rights pertaining to it. This was confin
J to the boiniiaries ot a State, and gave them
o rights beyond its liimits. Nor have the rev
ral States surrendered this :owcr by the aiip
oni of the Con.,tittuti m. Every State :nay
nfer the right upon 11 alient or on any oth
lass or descriptions of persons, who would. to
I intents and pulpo es, the a citizen of tht'
tate, but not a citizen in the2 sense u-e'l in the
'onstitution of the United States, he would
at thereby bece't a citizen of the United
taes, and, therefore could not sue in any court
the United State., inor could le enjoy the
umutietic. of' a. citizen in tlie other States.
is rights would be con!inel strictly to his own
tate. The 'on-tituttion give ('ongre-s the
wei' to e.'tatli-li 'a litiif'orcii ri'e of at tiirali
Lti'in ;"c.'i.jliet'ilt ll no State, Iy natualizing
a alien, ca eId collier I11' hiin the rigilts ald
minities of' all the States. imditer the 1 eneral
overmnent. It i-< ver'y Clear, therefore, that
u State ec.tt, by any iit. initrouiice a new intmi
ir into the il'oliti'al I'tinul, created Il tet
onustitution. Tthe ijp:e.ti:l then ari.es. Wh'et her
:e pr1 i.,ins of the 'en -t itutuin 1' the iteis
later. in relation to pe&rsonal rights. to whieb a
!!rzel of a State i. e;;tithld erltraed nloese
[ the . Airlean t"::te. at th;:.t time inl the cumtry.
r afterw1ard-, i:k;:'r"led,'i 11- 111t.ad .e e :1 f .111an
tate: aInt wi.e icr it ii i: tie Lower of any.
tate to mca::ke stca.: a on" : eiizeil of t her t. "
i en:Iw.ti hin wit! itl! (itiLzen-hip in aly
..- tlituitin of ihe t niiie Staltes e lf inl hii
id eth e himi withI all the righ ts of' a itize'n!
iltainied; ail. if' nit. t he phnuiltiffl conlhl t
c a i'itize'n ctf Aissonri wit hin thle mwainig 0:
ie Contstitutiont, not a i'itizeni of th fi.'tniteid
tate-, and coni~sequeiitly inoIti henl to sue in
It is true that everyi la~rson, and evemy clais
ah de--enption f per'tsons' at the timei of t he
!otin of' the 'on-ttitui. regard'ed a-: eii
:ns of the sever'al State-. biecamen citizens of
i5 new pollitic'al L ..ely. and nite other. It
-as ihr iheni amid then' poster'ity. anid for' nobuody'
[se: anwl all the r'igh ts andi intiities were
i ended toI embraeuc only those of State comn
unities. or I hose wihl be'iulcam memberi~iS accord
ig to the pr'uiciples ent which the Constitution
-as adihctedl. It wats a Union of' those who
-erc memubers of the politicail connmunities,
hose poiwer's. t r certain specilled purp'loseS ex
oedl over the whole terriitor'ies of' the unitedi
tites. ande gptve each citizen ightts outside his
tae which lhe did not belb re piossess, and plac
all r'ighits of' persons1 and proper'ty on an
I t ieconme -nece4sar'y, lhere'fiore. Io det'ermie
'ho ere citizens of' the severatl States w~hien
ie Con.-,titut ion was :alo' edc. lIn ot'der' 6 do
ai-:, we must reur toi the Cilonic' when they
'paratedl fi'om (Great Iki tain, fornmed new coin
uiities. awl toolk thleu irilace among the famnily
f ntioml. 'T'e'v, whoe w.ere~ reco.ize.Cd as citi
-ni. of' the State., <h-ehiredl th' independience
f Ireat Biitain. 'anit defended it, by iihrec of
i'ts. Anotheri'ecla:-s oft personsi5 who had been
ipot 'ted as slaives, or' theirI de'ceiemhmis, were
IIIt'Lrecognized or' iitnddl toI be inchl ued in
iit mietmoriablc in stronen c t-I lie 1Dec'lar'ation of
udeendn'ice. I: is iilicutlt. at. tis daye.. toj
alize thle State of peublu'iej pinion, '5 repe't inicr
bat unfo rtunate elasu, wiJ ih thle civilized muah
lihtened porlltion of' thle worlId, at the time
' thle lieelaratio n of' Iudeplenden~ce antd the
lopt ion of Ih tu' ('nistituiioil ;hut hiistory' shuows
ie)' have, fori til ire than: a c'entiiry, becen re
ri.led as bIn~'gs elf an ina-rt~ir or'der' and ut:Iit
ssocates form thle white race. eithler' socially' or'
ilitica!!y); andl 1:1 ha', rights w~hich white mlien
'rcelomll to respe~tct ; atid the black man
iighlt lee recducl Ito shiv ~ery, liought ande sold,
uid tre'at (ed a an or'dinr arl ' :mticle of mterchatn
ise. 'This eopmiion., at thatt timen, was fixed and
nuivesal with the civilized portion of' the white
ice. t was r'egarided as an axiom int imorals,
'chii'f no oene thocughit of disputing, and every
te habitually acted up~on it, withtout doubting
ir a mioment ihe correctness of the opinion.
il in tn meaiin wast. this ohpiiion more fixed
r' nor C generially acted upon than in England,
he subjects of1 which Governument not only'
'izdl themu on the Coast of Africa, but took
le as or'dinarimy merchlandize, to where *tey
ould miake ai profit ton t hem. The opinion thus
tcmt ained, wa~s uiverSally' impressed on the
:olonies this' side of' the Atlantic; accordingly,
eroes of thie Af'rican mace were regarded by
hem as piroperty, and held, and bought, [and(
old, as such inl ever'y oneC of the thirteen Colo
tis which umntedl in the D)eclaration of Inde
lendenc, and afterwardi fornmed time Constitu
ion. he doctr'ine if' which we have spoken
vas strikingly emtfor'ced by the D)ecla'ration of
ndependenice. It begins thus: t" When in the
....s of human events, it becomes necesar
for one people to dissolve the political bonds
which have connected,,them with another, and
to assume among the powers of the earth, the
separate and equal sta 'on to which the laws of
nature and of naturp God entitles them, a!
respect to the opinidns of mankind requires
that they should dellare the causes which
impel them to the separation;" and then pro
ceeds: " W -hold they, truths to be self-evident
-that all men are c equal; that they are
endowed by their.C , ore with certain inaliena
ble rights ; that am6o9 these are life, liberty,
and the pursuit of h ' iness. That to secure
these. rights, Governm ts are instituted among
men, deriving theiry "' powers- from the con
sent of the governed, c." The words before
quoted would seem t embrace the whole hu
man family; and if in asimilar instrument
at this day would'be understood. But it is
too clear for dispute t .t the ensla+et' African
race were not intend to be included, for in
that case the distingu emeii who famned the
Declaration of Indepen ence. would be flagrant
lyrafhst the princip which they asserted.
They who framed the.Pclaration of Indepen
dence were men of t uch honor, education,
and intelligence, to sa -hat they did not be
lieve; and they knew at in no part of the
civilized world were th negro race, by connon
consent, admitted to he rights of freemen.
Tfhey spoke and acted cording to the practices,
and usages of tihe day That unfortunate race
was supposed to.be separate from the whites, 1
and was never thought pr spoken of except as <
property. These opinis underwent no change
when the Constitution was adopted. The pre- 1
amble sets forth for whatdurpose, and fir whose i
benefit it was formed.-G1lt was formedl by the
tpeople--such as hadhion members of the ongri
nal states--and the grekt object to "secure the
blessings of libierty to selves and our posteri
ty." It speaks in geneed terms of citizens and 1
people of the United StAtes when providing for
the powers granted, without defining what te- <
ecription of persons should be included, or who
should be regarded as ,tizens. But two eau- i
s<. of the Constitution point to the I;egro rae
as eparate, an-d not .regarded as citizens, for
wh.m the tonstitutioo was adopted. One t
clau-e reserves the right; to import slaves until I
l80, and in the second the States pledge them- I
-elve<. one to another, to pre erv the r ights of
the miaster, and to deliver tip shaves e-caping to I
their i-espective terr-itories. Jy the fir-st clhuse
the right to purebase and hold this property is
directly sanctioned and anthorized by the per- I
conls who fraini.d the Coutitntion, for twenty I
vea:rs; and the State.;pledged thenselves to i
nphold the right of the master as loig as tle I
gterinment, t hen farined;shoubl endn e. Ani
this shows conclusively thiat atnother description t
of per wiere ecett id in the other luro- 1
i~n '- te ConstbitutLiiions The- e tWo etnio.'
were not intended to confer upon them or their I
pu~sterity the bles--intgs of liberty. .so c.arefully
tonferied upon the ikac4. Nitn'e of this class
ever emiigrated to the United States voluntaiily.
They were all articles 'Of merehaudi-e. The
muber emancipated wuseiw a; compared with t
tho.e vho were held ir i" r, and not sulib
:1 sepaiite eliss. and were regarded as a part of
the shave poptilatioli, rait'he tilai free.
It Cattin: be upo) ed $i ;i that the State onler
el citizen hit nion them ; for all tho.=e State.; 1
at that time c-In lished piolice re-ulatinns for
tile security of them -elves an:I fnilies, as well
:ts ut 1ol erty. 1:1 sule litor ca-es. there
we:-e dilerent too ies of tr:al, mtt11 it conId noti
be ilpIo-e.l that tho. e Stalce. wold have ormii
- 1I or co:ehnteri 11 a tiverinmi:nut whieh abol.she I
thi- rigtt, a1 i thk fromi t he:n the sti;.ariid'
- . jinial to their own irotet-t io. They hai .
inot the right to le::r aios. mal appe:hr a pit.lic I
oIceti.-:rs to dicu- pu!itical 1ine--tion.-I, or 1r;:e i
mncasnres of reform which! they iit deem ail
isable. They caiinit vote at vicetiotn-. 1r it
erve Its piri'. norti stppenl' awitSitie.'es~ vi're ]
thi tulu' 111';hi'asesi'-: weeai are conce1.rned. T hese ri'ght are see;nred' 1
in everv state to wh-ite icmte. Ii i., iuii>.ible i
o14 believe that, the tmen of the sliviehlding t
tate.' who took so herg-e a h:re in the hior:ina
in of the Consttitutio'n, -amblh ihe so re,-gar.lk-.-- t
t t htemtielve< and tlih-:tfety of1 those who trut
e-d andh c-4:dideud ini thtem.u
l-ver-y htuw of !tritur-iizattioni confhin" citizem -
iip totnhiklei. ens. This- is a marttke I sepa- n
tion ri-om the black.. Ender thae Conftdriittin
very State htm! a:-ig ht to decjid- for it1.-elf. andi
te termi It-ree inLIabittt." thle forinity ofh
em. eer-taitili exwhied the Mrian i-;a-. Isr -
ete framiedl ih .t-he. lat ter- e ;2eeialhIy. linder I
le ('uncstit utitn the word -t eitn is u-ti- ti
tuteT it-r " fr-eiilhab'iitnt." Afteri furtherelabo- i,
rttion ont this point. the Chie.- -iec --it
iomt the best coideN'hiratio n. we have c-ome to
the -onebltsioni tt the A fmrican race wiho camte
to this coutryi- whtetheri free or slave. were nt
itenled toiII b'iniclutde ini the Constiittion fori
he enijoymient of anly personail righits or~ bene
hits ; anid the two provisins which point to
hei, retthem as proiperty , anid nt-k. i' the
dty of the Govetrnmnit, to protect them ai
such. 1llenc, t he Court is of opinin, fromi the
luets sttLed in the pleat in abatemient, that 1)redi
Scot't is lnt at citiu:en of Mhissori, :und isu not.
theefore, etitled to sue in the Uitied Statesu
Tiih fllowing tets appear- on thte record:
in the y-ear 13:1., the i~lainjti If was at negroi
slave biehmi~ging to Dir. hEm-er-on, who wast- a
sreoni in the army of the United States. in
that year (1834) saidl Dr. Emerson took the
ph~iitiff fromi the State of Missouri to the miii- I
tary poat at lhek Isand, in the Stamte of Illi
nis, and held him thiere as a slav-e until the
iiimnh oif April, 1 s:30. A t the time last mieni
ied , said lh-. Emiersonl remnovetd the plaitl
fi-m said m'ilitary- post at Rock Island, to te
miii ary lptst aLi Fort y-nellinig, situated ont thle
west hank of the Missi'i~~pi r-iver, in the teri
tor-5 known as Upper Loutisianaf, acqutired lby
the United States of Friance, and situiatedl ont
e norith of lie lattitumde of ::t; dogs. 30 min<.
n rth, and- northi of te State of Missourti. Saidl
I). Emterson held te pllaintiill in slavery at
Fort Snelling unt il thte year I1838.I
"i tu lie y-eart I M, 1lharriet, (who is named
i the .eceonid count of the pihiintif f's declaration)
was the slave of Major Taliaferr-o, who belonged
to the army of the United States, in thiatvyear
(.1 835) said Major Taliaferro took said Harriet
to said iotrt Snelling, a milhitary po.st situatedt
as her-ein before statted, andI kept hiei thereens a1
slave until the y-ear I1836, anud t lien s'old and de
liveidiher as ai slave att For-t Snellidg unto saitd
Dr. E-merson, herecin befor-e named ; andI said
Dr. Emerson held said llarriet in slavery at said
Fort Snelling until the year 1838.
" In the year 1836, the plaintiff and said Hiar-i
ret, at saidi Fort Snelling, with the consent of
said Dr. Emerson, who them) claimed to be their1
master and ownler, intermarrie~d and took each
other- for hiusbanud and wife. Eliza and Lizzie,
named in time third count of the phnantif's~ de
claration, am-e the fruits of that nmrriage. Eliza1
is about four-teen years old, and was born on
boat-d the steamtboat Gipsey, north of the north
line of the State of Missouri, andl upon the Mis
sissippi river ; Lizzie is about seven years old,
and was born in time State of Missouri, at the
nmihtry post called Jefferson Barrzacks.
" In the y-ear 1838, said D~r. E.merson re
moved thie plaintilf and said Ilaiiiet, and their
said daughter Eliza, from said Fort Snielhing to
the State of Missouri, where they have ever
"Before the commencement of this suit, said
Dr. Emerson sold and conveyed the plaintiff,
said Harriet, Eliza and Lizzie, to the defendant
as slaves, and the defendant claimed to hold
each of them as slaves.
"At the time mentioned in the plaintiff's de
claration, the defendant claiming to be owner as
aforesaid, laid his hands upon said plaintiff, Har
riet, Eliza and Lizzie, and imprisoned them;
doing in this respect, however, no more than
what he might lawfully do if they were of
right hit slaves at such times."
The Chief Justice proceeded to examine the
statement, assuming that this part of the con
troversy presented two questions.
Firstly. Was he (Scott) and all his family
free in Missouri; and
Secondly. if not, were they free by reason
Df their removal to Rock Island, Illinois.
The act of Congress as which the plaintiff re
lies contains the clause, that slavery and invol
untary servitude, except for crime, shall be for
ever prohibited in that part of the Territory ac
quired by treaty from Louisiana, and not inclu
cled within the limits of the State of Louisiana.
The difficulty which meets us at the threshold
is, whether Congress is authorized to pass such
t law under the powers granted to it by the
Uonstitution? The plaintiff dwells much on
the clause which gives Congress power " to
make all needful rules and regulations respect
ing the Territory or other property of the Uni
ted States." But this provision has no bearing
>n the present controversy. The power there
;ivenm is confined to the Territory which then
belonged to the United States, and can have no
ntluence on Territory which was acquired from
oreign Governments. The .Justice then referred
to the accessions of land by Virginia and other
St.ate=, saying the only object was to put an end
to existing controversies, and toenable Congress
to dispose of the lands for the common benefit.
L'udoubtedly the power of sovereignty and
nminent domain was ceded in the act. This
mas proper to make it essential. There was then
ogoverniment in existence with enumerated
owers. What was called the States were thir
een indepemdent colonies, which entered into
!oideration for mutual protection. It was a
ittle more than a Congress of ambassadors, in
hieh all had a continon concern. It was this
!ongress which accepted the cession from Vir
inia. They had no right to do .,o under the
tic;e4 of the confederation, but they had a
-ight. as independent powers, to a.cept the land
or the common benefit ; and it is equally clear,
mtving no superior to control them, they had a
-iglt to excreise absolute dominion, subject on
y to the re.trictions which Virginia imposed.
Mhe orlinanc of 177 was adopted, by which
:he territor" should lie governed, and among
,t her provi-ins was one that slaverv or invol
mtarV .servitwioe .,Lould be prohibited, except
This was the state of things when the Con
;tittion was formed. The territory ceded by
irginia belonged to the several confederate
states as common property. The States were
,bout to dissolve the confederation and surren
ler a portion of their power for the formation
1 a'nei' goveismeit intT The languageussd
inited ail specilied the objects to be accom
ihi~ied. It was obviouns that some provision
.as 114.w ne essary to give the new government
Ie i'vcr to carry i:tto etfeet every ob ject for
,vhicl the territory w"a. ceded. It was neces
arv t hat the hands h.,ould be sold to pay the
va d.ht, acnd that power should be given to
irotVet the citizens who might emigrate there,
vith their right< of prop.erty, arms, military
tores, (a< well as snitS of war,) were the
commloon property' ft the .tates existing in
he indetpeiident Ch.araeter, a:il they had a right
o take thir property to the territory, without
he authority of the :tates." The object was to
lace these t hings niuler the tguardiatiShip of a I
Jew governttmiet wicih gives Countess the 1
,wer 4: to make ail needful rules and regula
is re-pecting the territory or other ptopetrty
,f the Uinited States." It appliedh only to prop- t
rty held inl comtinuiont at the tine, anid not with
-ek'-rence to anyi propmertv which the sovereign
i umighit subcjequet ly :;etirei . It appil ied to
lw territourv theni in existerat e, andti knuown as
h~e territorY of th~e Eniite-f~tates-hel in tI-e
nindl of the trnuners of thle Con.,titution. It
-eters to the sale er raising of itotney. 'I h'< is
tl r,-t fromi thbe p' wer tii legi-late oiver the
eii oe. WithI thle wordls to maike all nieid
ml e- an' 1 regulation. ire-pjecting the territo
-*." coupledi! t lie wiord~s "um/ oft'r J.r.2;t rly ol
lie, Unitedi States." .\ndi the concltudintg wvords
'inder :hi- con.,tiructiont irrei.t iblde; andu nothI
nein ihi.- ConstIitutionu shall be so constrtued as
'o prejitidice atny chiis of thie Uitel States.
,, I- uIntl t4r;iU-i.r il c
It is ob:iu m. thbat thle Cuing ress, undler the
wwi goverimiient. regairded thle above cause as
ieeary to carry intti clee t the priniciples and
i,,vsiis of t lie t iirinanice oif 1787, which they
-garned as an act of the States it, the exercise
f their po lit ia piowver at the time ; and these
-epreentatives oft the satme States undtier the
tw tiovermoetint, iuil not thinmk proper to de
tart from any e..setital pintciple, anid did not
inttempt to uiodo anything that was done.
As to territo ry acquired without the limtits
,f thle Uniited States. it reitmais territory until
Lhnit ted into thle Uniont. No powter~ is given in
he Constitution to aicquire territory to he held
md1 govterne ini that ebaracter ; anid, conse
uently, there cannot be fotud m the Conistitu-1
ion anv delinitioni of power whiceh Conigress
nay lawvfully exereise bielbire it becontes a State.
L'he pwiier to acqluireC territory tinitil it is ini a
-ondition to beeitne a State on an eqnal footing
vithm the other States, must necessarily- rest on
otiti diseretion, and it becomes thle duty of
he ( iovermtnent to adiniiister thle laws of the
nited States for the protectioni of personal
ights antd property t herein.
What ever~ territory is acquired is for the corn
tin benietit of the people of the United States,
hich is but a tr-ustec. At the titme territory
vas o~t.dned from Franice, it contained no poptu
ationi to be admiitted as a State, and it there
bro became necessary to hold poussession of it
intil settled and i'hthbitedi by a civilized com
nunity, capable of self-guovernent antd for ad
nissioi to the Union. Btt as we before said,
t was acquired by time Federal Governnment as
lie representative and tru.,tee of the people of
he United States, aini must be held for their
>mmhifon and eqtial benefit, for it was thme aicqum
uition of thme peole of the United States, acting
hirough their agents, and governiment holds it
or te commonm benefit until it should becomie
issociated as a miember of the Union. Until
hat tinmc arrived it was undoubtedly necessary
that some government be establishted to protect
the inhabitants in thmeir persons and pr'operty.
l'he power to acquire carries with it the powier
to preserve. The forum of government necessa
rily rests on the discretion of Congress. It is
their duty to establish the best suitedi for the
United States, anid that must depend oin thme
umber of its inhatbtants, and the character
md situation of time territory. What govern
mcnt is the best must depend on the condition
f the territory at the tinme, to be continued
until it shall f:,ecome a State. But there can
never be a umore discretioniary powver over per
sns anti property-. These arc plainly defined
by the Constitution. The Coinstitution pro
vides thait "Congress shall make no law res
ptng an establishment of religion, or prohibi
ting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the
freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right
of the people peaceably to assemble, and to pe
tition the government for a redress ofgrievances,"
&c. Thus the rights of property are united
with the personal rights, and this extends to the
Territories as well as States. Congress cannot
authorize the Territories to do what it cannot
do itself; it cannot cosnfer on the Territories
power to violate the provisions of the Constitu
It seems, however, that there is supposed to
be a difference between slaves and other prop
erty. The people, in the formation of the Con
stitution, delegated to the general government
certain enumerated powers and forbade the ex
ercise of others. It has no powers over' persons
and property of citizens except those enunera
ted in the Constitution. If the Constitution
recognizes the right of master and slave, and
makes no difference between slave and other
property, no tribunal action under the authori
ty of the United States can draw such a dis
tinction and deny the provisions and guarantees
secured against the encroachment of the gov
nrnment. As we have already said the right of
property in a slave is expressly conferred in the
onstitution, and guaranteed to every State.
This is language too plain to be misunderstood ;
md no words can be found in the Constitution
iving Congress greater power over slaves than
ver any other description of property.
It is, therefore, the opinion of this Court that
the act of Congress which prohibits citizens
rom holding property of this character north
)f a certain line, is not warranted by the Con
ititution, and is, therefore, void; and neither
Dred Scott, nor any one of his family, is, or
were made free by their residence in Illinois.
"he plaintiff is not a citizen of Missouri, but
was still a slave, and, therefore, had no right to
sue in a Court of the United States.
The Court having examined the case as it
;tands under tl.e Constitution, proceeded to
)ther points, saying, as Scott was a slave when
ie was brought back to Missouri from Illinois,
i was under the law of the former and not of
he latter. It has been settled by the highest
:ribunals that an individual does not acquire his
'reedom under such circumstances. As it ap
)ears to the Court that the plaintiff is not a
:itizen of Missouri, nor a citizen of the United
states who could sue in the United States
rourts, this Court could give no judgment, and
fence the suit must be dismissed for want of
Associate Justice 3Nelson stated the grounds
mn which he had arrived at the conclusion that
he argument of the Court below must be of
cred. having stated the case, substantially, as
tbove, lie proceeded to examine it on its merits.
fhe question was, whether the removal of the
)Iaintitt, with his master, to Illinois, with a
siew to a temporary residence, and after his re
urn to Missouri, was such a residence in a free
state as worked emancipation. He maintained
hat it did not. Such questions belonged to the
states to decide for themselves. As to whether
lissouri will recognize or give effect to the
utws of Illinois on the.subject f S~l~yj
Wt ies , o
onstitutional power rightfully to control her.
Every State or nation possesses exclusive sov
reignty and jurisdiction within her own terri
;ory. and her laws affect and bind all property
vithin her limits. No State or nation can af
ect or bina persons or property outside of her
erritory. The question is fuily established that
t belongs to the sovereign State of Missouri to
letermine the question of slavery within her
)wn jurisdiction, subject only to such limitations
is may be found im the Constitution. This is
he result of the independent and sovereign
:haracter of the State. It is equally applicable
:n the 'ther States belonging to the Contedracy.
.t must be admitted that Congress possesses no
Jwer to create or abolish slavery in a State,
1pl if Congress possesses power under the Con
;titutiol to abolisi slavery in the Territories,
t must neessarily posses the power to estab
i'h it. This he denied, and then proceeded to
:how that the question involved in the case
iow before the Coutrt., was one depending sole
y on the law of Missouri, coiicludinig with the
emaiurk that the judgment of the Court below
hould be. allir med.
Assocciate Justice Catron also stated the his
ory of the case, and' said that if the Court has
io power to decide the question further thani
o tii.,miss it, it had iio rigt to discuss its mner
ts; b::t lie held that the Court has jurisdiction
.o decide the merits of the case, which he pro
:eded to examine. It was now too. late to
jietion' the powner to governi the Territories as
neipi..nt States, and fit themi for admission.
tile only question was, how fair the power of
~'onogress is limited as to the North-west Terri
:ory. Virginia had the right to abolish slavery
.here and did so, by anu agreement, in 1787,
,ti the other States ; but this did not prevent
iew States being admitted with or without
lavery Suosequently North Carolina and
eorgmia ceded their hind for the common bene
it. and Congress had no more ine to legis
ate slaLvery out of those Cewions5 than it had to
egislate slavery in the territory north of the
)liio. There was no power to legislate on sla
,ery in either case. The inihabitaints stood pro
.eted after as they did before the cessions were
niade. In Louisiana slavery was not only law
blh, but was mio.t valuable. At the date of the
reaty the inhabitants were left free to enjoy
.heir prop)erty, freedom and liberty, and were
nle protected therein until they caine into the
.~ionui as a State. The Missouri line of 36.30
vaus an1 act of aggression. Congress cannot do
adsirecly what it cainnot performi directly. If
SSothern man cannot go to the Territories
vith his shaves it follows that a Northierni far
ner or mechanic cannot bring with hun lis im
,lements of toil. If Congress could prohlibit
niy sp~ecies of lawfutl property throughout Lou
sinna w!;en it was acquired, so it could exclude
il discriptions of prop-.rty. The right to leg
slate in the Territories depends on the contract
f cession. Ihis opinion wvas that the third ar
ele of' the treauty by which Louisianma was ac
1uiroil staunds protected by the Constitution,
ud cannlot be repealed by Congress, and that
ho act of 1820, kniown as the Missouri Comn
n-oimise, violates the leading features of the
lonstitution, on which the Union depends, andI
rhich secures to all citizens common rights.
Ie therefore held that the act wvas void, and
:oncurred with his brother judges that the plain
ill, Dred Scott, is a slave, and wvas one when
.his suit was brought.
W~ASIiNGToN, March 7I.-Judge McLean de
ivered his views in the Dred Scott case to-day,
irguing that slavery is limited to the range of
hie state where it is established by municipal
aw. If Congress deemr slaves or free colored
iersons injurious to a territory, they have the
oweir to prohibit *lhem from becoming settlers
~hereon. The power to acquire territory car
-les the powver to govern it. The master does
iot carry with him to the territory the law of
hie state from which he removes; hence the
Ioissouri Compromise was constitutional, and
~he presumption is in favor of freedom. Dred
scott and his family were free under the deci
ions of the last twenty-eight years.
.Judge Curtis dissented from the opinion of
the majority of the Court as delivered by Chief
Justice Taney, and gave his reasons for the dis
sene lia maintained that native born colored
persons can be citizens of Stapes and of the
United States; that Dred Scott and his family
were free when they retured to Missouri; that
the power of Congress to make all needful rules
and regulations respecting the territory waa
iot, as the majority of the Court exp
limited to Territory belonging to the Unit
States at the time of the adoption of the Con
stitution, but has been applied to five subsequent
acquisitions of land ; that Congress has power
to exclude slavery from the Territories, having
established eight Territorial Governments with
out, and recognised slavery in six, from the days
of Washington to John Quincy Adams.
The opinion occupied five hours -in delivery.
Judges Wayne, Grier, Campbell, and Daniel
had papers expressing their views on certain
points of opinion of the Court, but did not read
Adjourned till the time fixed by law.
THE KING OF HANOVER AND THE MASONS.
A letter from Franklin says that the King of
Hanover, on being lately received as a member
of a Masonic Lodge, accepted the title of Pro
tector and Grand Master of all the Lodges of
his kingdom. But on the occasion a modifica
tion was made in the statutes of the order, to
the effect that as the order is exclusively Chris
tian, no person professing the Jewish religion
can henceforth be admitted into a Hanoverian
This decision has excited great opposition in
most of the lodges in Germany, andit is said
that the Great Orient will shortly make an en
ergetic protest against it.
, No EAR FOR MuSIc.-" Do you hear
that music-that heavenly music ?" said an en.
tliusiactic fox hunter to a rather green compan
ion, who rode beside him, as the pack opened in
"No, I hear nothing," said verdant, inclining
his ear, "I cannot hear anything, for the cus
sed noise made by those dogs."
It may be readily supposed that after this Old
Sport and Young Sport soon parted company.
& HEAVY TAxATIox.-The taxes paid on
each one thousand dollars by a property holder
in Nashville is as follows: For Corporation pur
loses, eight dollars; for City Schools, two dol
lars ; for'l ailroads, five dollars and twenty cents;
for County purposes, one dollar and thirty cents;
for new Court House, one dollar and fifty cents;
for State purposes, one dollar; for State Public
Schools, twenty-five cents; for Lunatic Asylum,
fifteen cents-in all, nineteen dollars and forty
cents! Don't this rather beat Memphis-whose
people so often complain of their taxes ?-Mem
phis Eagle, March 14.
.lbi" MOTHER, mayn't I have the big Bible
in your room ?"
' Yes my son, I am glad to see you desirous
of perusing that Book. What do you most
want to see in it ?"
" , 0-A WEALTHY DARKEy.-There is a negro
in Memphis who is said to possess an estate
worth $50,000. This negro belongs to his wife,
a free colored woman, in whose name the pro
pertv is held.-Exchange.
There are a good many wealthy whites in
chese part, whose property is held in the same
i THE CABINE'.-It is a noticeable fact
that five of the seven members of Mr. Buchan
an's Cabinet have been honored with the position
of Governor, viz:
General Cuss, Ex-Goveruor of North-western
Territory; Mr. Floyd, Ex-Governor of Virginia;
-\r. Brown, Ex-Governor of Tennessee; Mr.
Toucey, Ex-Governor of Connecticut; and Mr.
Cobb, Ex-Governor of Georgia.
lig PcNISIIENT OF Sr..tvs.-The Mississip
pi Legislature has just passed a bill prohibiting
any owner of slaves from punishing them wits
imore than " nine and thirty lashes" at any one
time or for any offence, under penalty of fine
and imprisonment. All other unnecessary cruelty
to slaves is also made indietable and punishable
by fine and imprisonment.
gi Hocus Poc-s.-How th get a fine white
house out of an empty whiskey barrel. Put the
barrel in a secure place, 'near a spring of good
water, on the road to the grog-shop: When you
want a drain take the price of it in your hand
and start to the grog-shop-go as far as the
spring, drop the money through the bunghole,
take a good drink of water and return home.
Repeat this operation till the barrel is full, knock.
out the head, and you have the price of a splen
did brick building. Fact.
rdy MADAMuE OCEA N., the largest-limbed wo
man in the world, is in the museum at New
Orleans. She weighs 515 pounds, is 9 feet two
inehes in cireumnferenice, measures 29 inches
around her arim and 38 around the calf of her
leg. and wears No. 13 shoes. She hails from
gi Coi.oiwn PERsoSs IN PE'NNaYnnNI.
The citizens of Philadelphia and Bucks counties,
to the number of one hundred and twenty, re
eently sent to the Legislature a petition praying
fo'r a law to prevent colored persons from other
Statesi acquiring a residence in Pennsylvania.
gir A FAIRa INFERENeE-L-An old lady, observ
ing a sign over a tailoring establishment, bear.
ing the inscription " Fountain of Fashion," ex
elaimed, "Ah! that miust be the place where
the spo~ir/s conic from."
on MAtNKIND have a great aversion to intel
leetnai labor; but even supposing knowledge to
be easily attainable, more people would be con
tent to be ignorant than would take even a little
trouble to acquire it.-Johnson.
Sil " Coxscr E~cE IF said Mrs. Hopkins in
dignantly, "do you suppose that nobody has
got any conscience but yourself? My consci
ence is as good as yours-ay, and better, too;
for it has never been used in the course of nmy
life, while yours must be nearly worn out I"
ljr" Ltnms and gentlemen," said an auc
tioneer, " these articles are no sham--they are
genuine tapestry cappets, made by Mr. Tapestry
gig TuE Turks have a very simple method of
making pantaloons. They fasten two coffee
bags to a vest, and the thing is done. The bags
answer for legs, and the vest for the waistbanda.
si RucH SCENis.-The closing scenes of the
Nebraska Legislature were exciting. The Gov
ernor vetoed six bank charters because it was
alleged that they were corruptly passed. 'A
crowd of the indignant people pursued the mem-.
hers charged with corruption, into the office of
the Territoral Secretary, to infiet personal chas
tisement. A member pulled gut his revolver,
and the Secretary drove the whole crowd'into
the street, when the meinbers made their escape.
OREGON TO BE A SI.AVE STAT.-The New
York Tribune of the 4th instant says: "Wehave
a number of letters from Oregon, by thme last
mail, containing the startling information that
this Territory, hitherto set down as curtain for
Freedom, will, in all probability, present herself
to the next Congress for admission' -intq'the.
Union with a Constitution legalisingSlavery.e