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1 Dem xtratic 3vurnAl, Ierntev to tIj 9ull An Soutfjern aigytsz,Catcst Neus, Citrrature, i*otality, Enmerance, %griuture &
"We will cling to the Pillars Of the Temple of 0 ,erties, and if it must fall, we will Pcrish amidst the Ruing."
SMES, DUIRISOE & CO-, Proprletors. . EDGEFIELD, S. '4MAY26, 1858. --A.N *
For the Edgefield Advertiser.
THE LAST VIgIT.
(Suggested by an engraving in an old magazine)
DY JENNY WOODBNE.
'Twas eve, and o'er the western hills,
The sun had cast his latest ray;
The calm, and hush of that still hour
Told-plainly of departing day.
The mutmur of the evening breeze,
Moaned plaintively o'er land and lea,
The Bower had closed its tender leaves
Hushed was the wild bird's minstrelsy.
Upon an oak tree's broken trunk
Reclined a maiden and her sire
Her eyes beamed with the hopes of youth,
His only showed departed fire.
Nature seemed joining in their grief,
For withered leaves bestrew'd the ground
The grashopper had hushed his song
And melancholy reigned around.
And here, and there, were mounds of earth,
Without a stone-without a name;
And yet beneath them slept the brave,
Unchronicled their deeds of fame.
While o'er their graves walked night and day
Pale strangers from far distant lands;
The hunting grounds they loved so well
Ilad passed away to other hands
Yes! here the red men slumbered well,
Their war song stilled-their war-whoop
ADlA by their graves unconsciously,
A river's mighty waters rushed.
And he, the last of that proud race,
. Sat by those lonely mounds, and wept
If Indian chieftain ever weeps
For thcre his rude forefathers slept.
The darlk-eyed maiden at his side!
* Her heartis crushed with untold woe;
For there he makes the vow anew,
She ae'er shall wed his warrior-foe.
Ah! well may sighs escape her breast,
And well may shadows veil her face;
For he, to whom her heart is given,
Has e'er been foe to all her race.
Ah! tell me why sweet blossoms fade,
And tell m, Poet, why does Love,
Unto to the heart that takes it in
A bane as well as blessing prove ?
Tell me why skies so soon grow .dark;
And tell me why 'tis woman's lot,
To treasuro up sweet hopes in vain,
And love alas! where she shoidd not.
That Indian maid! so young !n years,
.How dark~and mournful. seemed her fate;
For she had learned to love too well
The object of her father's hate.
Well may her dusky cheek grow pa1.,
- And shadows steal athwart her brow;
As in this dark and solemn place
She hears once more that bitter vow.
One other heard-a dark-browed chief
With, form as stately as the pine
Close to these watchers he had crept,
Half hidden by a clustering vine.
His eyes with deeper malice gleamed,
More savage grew his burning hate,
And low he muttered-" Die ho must,
He-stands between me and my fate."
Then stealthily he crept away,
And reached again his light canoe
Still planning o'er his deep, dark scheme,
As gliding down the waters blue.
And while the boat with rapid strokes
Was'lying o'er the purple waves,
The unconscious victim and the maid
Still lingered by those lonely graves,
One day the old mnar. came alone,
To where his brother warriors rest
Above his head the bright steel shone,
And then twas buried in his breast!
No quiver told his dying gasp,
He covered o'er his face with pride
No shriek betrayed the pain he felt,
Warrior he lived, and war'rior died !
Alas ! you need not words to tell,
What treacherous hand had dealt the blow,
The one, that maiden loved too woelL,
Had laid the mighty chieftain low.
Too week my verse to tell what men
Inspired by love, and hate, can do
For from that scene of blood, and death,
The savage heart goes forth to woo,
And while her cheek is pale with grief,
And while she breathes the orphan's wail,
She turns an all too willing ear
To list Lhe oft, repented tale.
The maiden listens, and believes,
To her he seems all true and good ;
She knows not that the hand she clasps
Is stained igith her dead father's blo'od !
She knows not-or her trusting love
Would quickly turn to bitter scorn ;
At what a price her hand is bought
And trustingly she loves him on.
Too soon those gentle, downcast eyes
Beam once again with wanted fire
The bride will nrerer knote that she
Had wed the murderer of her sire !
And ha ? where sleeps that warrior brave ?
Some kindly hand has formed a grave
Deep in the unfrequented wood
Where friendly willow branches wave.
His resting place is now unknown,
His fame-his deeds-ais glory past
Tfhat visit to those lonely grates
Proud chieftain, was indeed thy last!?
MY GIMDFTIIEK'S SUNDAY SCHOOL,
Some twenty years before the commencement
of the revolutionary war, my grandfather lived
in Charlotte county, Virginia, as he did during
jhe whole war. Ha~was deeply and fervently
~ions, and yet his greatest besetting sin, if not
his only one, was a most violent and ungovern
able temper. This was the one weak point of
his character-the one perilous infirmit of his
nature. It is not to be wondered at, then, tha&
his infirmity of temper foi-med the subject of
...ny a heartfelt prayer. le prayed that it
might be blotted out, and never again mar the
beauty of his otherwise calm and tranquil life.
le prayed deeply, fervently, with what effect
the sequil will show.
Having a good many Africans, old and young,
in his possession, his mind became wonderfully
exercised as to his duty, in a Christian point of
view, towards them. Poor ignorant creatures
that they were, he felt the obligations of relig
ion bearing upon him in all their force, to en
lighten the darkness of their understandings;
and thus feeling, he called the whole family of
blaeks up stairs,.in his best room, and regularly
-established a Sunday-school. The first effort
in that way was a failure-arising from the out
bersting of his temper-but on the next Sun
day, he determined to govern his temper better,
and "to sprinkle cool patience upon his hot
and fiery nature. It is of the next Sunday that
I wish to speak.
My grandfather had a great many sons, and
amongst them uncle Sam stood conspicuous for
waggery and all manner of mischief. Ie had
heard of the blow-up of my grandfather's hob
by on the first Sunday, and he resolved to be
near enough, though unseen, to hear all that
took place on the next Sabbath. Accordingly,
he took his position on-the coping of the chim
ney, outside of the house, from which it was
easy to hear all that took place overhead. The end
windows were raised, and then my grand-fath
er's usual tone of voice might rival a young clap
of thunder, and when roused, it mounted to the
majesty of the loudest. By leaning forward a
little, he could easily see all over the room, and
be himself unseen. From this room the stair
way led down into what was called the hall,
and at its foot, the stairway was closed by a
door, near the grand hall door.
Imagine the sable crowd of Africans collected
in the best room, up stairs, and all standing
round the room, and arrayed in their "best
Sunday-go-to-meetings!" My grandfather was
very particular in having them all neatly clothed
on that day, their hair combed, and fdtMes shining
like blacking balls. It was a beautiful study to
look upon the countenance of my grandfather,
as he walked into' the room on that quiet and
holy day. He was just from his beaded knees,
and was confident of a signal and glorious victo
ry over his tormenter. In deeply solemn tones,
he commenced the exercises thus:
"Bosen," said my grandfather, to a venerable
old negro. "I will begin with you again to-day,
as you are the oldest. They all look up to you,
and if you say what I say, right, they will catch
the words, and all say right. Now, Bosen,
don't-don't make me commit sin to-day, as
you did last Sunday. Don't-don't, Bosen, for
the love of Heaven !"
My grandfather, as I have said, had a mortal
dread of his temper, and his language assumed
the tone of entreaty whilst talking to Bosen.
"Here, now," said my grandfather, "I will
put down this silver quarter of a dollar on the
table, and the one that learns the first com
mandment first, shall have it, no matter who it
may bi. It is important, my good people, that
you should know what they are."
"I will proceed at once to learn you the first
commandment, apd put it in such:pliin language
that-you can't- mistale. itr Wow-eseay
after me, word for word-" Thou shalt serve no
other God but me.""
Bosen-" Thou shalt serve no other God but
"Stop! stop! young people," said my grand
father. "Bosen has gone wrong. Dont't say
after him; you'll get the words all wrong."
Then turning to Bosen, he said with a counte
nance deeply pained with mortification, " Bosen,
I didn't say thau. Try it again, Bosen. I don't
mean to get mad to-day, but do try and remem
ber that you made me mad last Sunday, at this
very place. But I won't get mad to-day. You
can't make me mad-:and you needn't try."
All this time my father was reining in his
temper like a high mettled steed. No man
ould have seen the least ruthie on the smooth
ea of his face.
"Now, Bosen, listen to me," said my grand
"Yes, Massa," said Bosen, bowing very low.
" None of your bowing to me--to mne-Boseni,
you good-for-nothing old scoundrel. Bow to
the G.od of Heaven, not to me."
A close observer might have seen a little fire
flash from the old gentleman's eyes, but it soon
went out after this reproof.
" Now, Bosen, try it again;,. " Thou shalt
serve no other God but me," said my grand
father, with emphasis on the word "me."
" Thou shalt serve no other God but yo,,
Massa," said Bosen, with emphasis on "you,
" Take care ! take care !" cried my grand
father, his temper only half restrained ; "take
care what you are about, Bosen. I see what
you are at. You are trying to make me imad
again to-day, but I won't get mad. I will show
you that I will govern my temper. You know
very well that 1 didn't say that, but I will now
make it so plain that you can't mistake it. I
warn you to take care how you repeat it wrong,
for if you do, you will receive as heavy a fist as
ever strdck against a negro's head."
Notwithstanding the great effort made to keep
down his wrath, he was almost boiling over.
The veins in his neck began to swell and to get
black with anger. They were almost as large
as whip-cords. And Bosen too, was nearly
frightened out of his wits.- Poor old fellow, he
was afraid my grandfather would think he
wanted to be sold-and hence his persistence
that he did not want to serve any God but
"iBsen, say after me, word for word," ex
claimed may grandfather, in ill-concealed anger :
" Thou-thou, shalt-shalt, serve-serve, no
other-no other, God-God, but me," said my
grandfather, with a grea't flourish against his
breast, "but roe, massa," said Bosen, with a
great flourish of his hand against his breast.
" Pox take the infernal old scoundrel,"' said
my grandfather ; and suitinig the action to the
word, he struck him in the burr of the ear, and
sent him whirling down the stairs, near -the
head of which they happened to be. In his
course,.he knocked the door off its hinges be
low, and fell sprawling at the hall-door. Ile
gathered himself up in the twinkling of an eye,
and he flew out of the house..
"Clear yourselves," said my grandfather,
"pack and baggage, every one of you," and he
kickud them every one out of the room.
"Here," said he, in a towering passion, "has
that infernal old scoundrel made me commit
ain, when I was trying to do good. I kept
down my temiper as long as I could, but an an
gel could not have borne my trial," and he
strutted round the room in a whirlwind of rage.
Bosen's nose got to bleeding from the fall, and
as he-ran towards the kitchen, uncle Sam heard
him grumble to himself: "If I got to serve no
other God but you, Massa, I radder be to hell!"
Mr A gentleman once conversing in the com
pany of ladies, and criticising rather severely
the want of personal beauty in other ladies of
their acquaintance, remarked, " They~ are the
ugliest women 1 know ;" and then, with extra
ordinary politeness, added, " present company
always excepted ?"
zg" To SeuAaa; A CIRcLE.-Settle up your
wifie's lbill for hoops at the dry goods store or
ANECDOTE OF WM. C. FRESTN.
Savannah is the Southern city from which
the same correspondent who sends the follow
ing sketch has often dated, but he has never
furnished anything more graphic than this capi
tal incident in the experience of the accom
plished Preston. Those who knew that splen
did orator and gentleman can appreciate the
scene. Our correspondent says:
"M Many of your readers remember the stately
presence, the dignified bearing and'imposing
manner of Colonel William C. Preston, of
South Carolina. It was when all these quali
ties were in their prime, and Preston represen
ted his State in the Senate of the United States,
that business or pleasure called him to the
West, and to take passage down the Mississippi
river. In those 'flush times' the steamers
swarmed with hoosiers, greenhorns and gam
blers, the latter politely designated 'sporting
gentlemen,' the teen 'gambler' or 'black leg'
entailing on the speaker a pistol shot or a wipe
from a bowie-knife.
" The boat was on the eve of departure, and
our Senator, standing on deck and holding a
small mahogany box, was observing with great
interest and pleasure the busy scene on the
wharf, when an individual, luxuriating in a
rather ornate style of dress, approached hin,
and in subdued tones demanded:
" I say, old feller, when are you agoing to
" Commence what, sir ?" asked the astonished
"Pshaw, none of that gammon with me. The
fact is, a few of us boys on board want a little
fun, and we won't pile it on too strong fo' you;
so come and open at once."
" Really, si:," replied Preston, "I am totally
at a loss to guess your meaning. Open what ?"
"Open what? 'Why, the banlg of course!
May-be you think our pile isn't large enough
to make it an objqct. But we're not so poor
as all that, anyhow !"
The Senator meditated gloomily, but all was
dark to him; he was plunged in a sea of doubt,
and he had never met any problem, not even a
political one, so hard to solve. *
" Perhaps," broke in his pertinacious friend
again, after a considerable pause, "perhaps you
will, say directly that you're not a sporting
"I certainly am nothing of the kind, sir,"
rejoined Preston, rather angrily; .Nand I can't
imagine what put such an idea into, your head."
" Not a sporting man ? Whew-w ! I never
heard of such a piece of impudence! Well, if
you're-not a sporting man, will you please tell
me why you carry the tools about with -you ?'
and he pointed to the mahogany box which the
Colonel still carried.
A light broke on Preston's mind. " The ma
hogany box !" he cried. " Ah, yes! ha, ha !
Very natural mistake, indeed, my good air;
very natural, indeed! Well, I will show you
the contents of the box." Ad, laughing hear
tily, he opened the box in question, which was
in fact his dressing-case, and displayed the-usual
parade of brushes, combs,- i-azors, soap; etc.,
which usually fill that article of travellig com
Our Mriend looke iaiM ease; tliaiiif Pres
ton ; then at the case, and then at Preston
again. Then he heaved a long sigh, and then
" Well," he broke out at length, "I did take
you for a sporting gentleman-I did;,but now
I see you are nothing but a barber, and if I'd
known it, hang me if I'd spoke to you!" and
so saying. he "vamnosed."
Fancy the feelings of our honorable Senator
as lie assumed these various characters in the
eyes of an anxious stranger.-larper's MAaga
How RE.ILY A Faix'iuxx cxi AnArT HIM1
SELF TO A NEw GovEIYNMEN.-There is a sto
ry of Pierri's arrest iii Paris that, if not.'true is
very well invented. He was seized only a few
minutes before the attempt, and they la'd hardly
done searching hiini when the explosiuns were
heard, upon which the prisoner exelaimed:
" There ! your Emperor has ceased to exist: you
neednt trublle yourself about mec." Whereup
on one of the sergeants, struck with the idea that
in this case Pierri might form part of the -next
Provisional Government, addressed him with,
"Well, sir, whatever happens remneimber that I
treated you like a gentleman."
How -rO Coor. Wcram.-I( it is desired to cool
water for drinkiug in warm weather, and ic can
not be obtaiued for this purpose, let it be kept
in an unglazed earthenware pitcher, wrapt around
with two or three folds atf course' cotton cloth
kept constantly wet. The theory of cooling wa
ter in this manner, is the absorption of heat
from it, by the evaporation of the moisture in
in the cotton cloth-expansion produces cold,
CusANCET His Mix.--" Madlam'' said a polite
traveller to a testy land lady "if I see proper to
help myself to this milk, is there any imnproprie
ty ini it." "I don't understand you, but one thinig
is sure, if you mean to insinuate that there is
anything bad in the nmilk, I'll give you to
understand that you are at the wrong house.
There aint a first hiare in the milk, for as soon as
Dorathv Ann told me thme cat was drowned in it,
I went" and strained it over." Thme horrified
young man declined partaking of the eat-flavored
TRsTIFo TO Pnovrn'ssE.-One of those stif'
necked puritanical missionaries, who sometimes
wander away " down South" and take sly chan
es of endeavoring to enlighten the benighted
darkies of that region, was riding along one
Sunday morning in the neighborhood of a weal
thy planter's negro quarters, when to his horror,
ho spied Cudjo hoeing a small potato patch.
Stoppiing his horse at the fence, lie addressed him
"MNy poor unfortunate colored brother, is it
possible that your cruel master compels you* to
labor on the Lord's holy day?"
"Oh, no, massa stranger ; my massas good
man ; lie "ib nigger far chance, gib him gardini
for hisselt' Dis all mine!" looking around with
importance upon his little property.
"Worse and worse I" exclaimed the other rol
ling up his eyes. "The ignorance of Egyptian
bondage. Has he never taught you the sinful
ness of workinig on the Sabbath 7"
" Well, you see, massa stranger, I .nebbev
know fore 'twas sin fur nigger. tp hoe his own
tater-s Sunday," said1. Cudjo, scratching his
" A great sin, nmy coloured brother ; how can
you expect the Lord to bless you,. if you break
his coummuandnmnts ?"
"Whlat nigger ;gwine to do fur 'tatoes, den 1"
asked Cudjo, somewhat puzzled.
" Trust to Providence, my unfortunate friend."
" Dar I dai f you done made mismke dat time
nassa srranger. Dat Providence is the laziest
nigger on dis plantation; he don't eber hoe his
on tater patch. Yaih I yah I yah I Vrovidence,
The missionary rode off' in disgust, the more
promptly, perhaps, as he spied some gentleman,
coiig down the road.
"I shouldni't care muich about thme bugs,"
said a thin, pale boarder to his landlady, " but
the fact is, ma'am, T haint got tbe blood to
s.-you see that yourself."
From the Sout.rlinian.
REVIVAL OF THE FRIh SLAVE TRADE.
We have remaineesien-upon this question
hoping that it wouldpass y without further
discussion. The inoppo.rte moment for its
Ciscussion, the element of traction which it
carried with it, coming lik .bomb-shell in the
midst of our united Sout .rn. camp, were con
siderations in themselver 'ftiient, we thought,
to have stopped agitatiii n this we were
mistaken. Another Convention has been held
in Montgomery, andagainfe see the same sub
ject being agitated. IfH itwere a proposition
that would promote the ini retsof South Caro
lina, this dissension and thtl4-agitation would in
no manner deter gg. We ould boldly advo
cate it, and let consequen ctake care of them
selves. Or again, if we 'i. y regarded it as a
proposition which would to unite the South
and bring about a whol 6 pro slavery senti
ment, without injuring Carolina, if we
could not approve it, we ould, not oppose it.
Such is not the conclust we come to upon
consideration. When. tb position was first
submitted, several years nce, through the
columns of the Charleston ndard, we confess
that, upon first presenta in, it momentarily
captivated us. It came the aspect of a
bold, decided measure. - rewas a defiance
about it, that prompted an. 'pulse to sustain it.
But when its results upo. "uth Carolina were
considered, deliberately; 'i t convicted to its
oppo-ition. Viewed as a' eat movement for
the extension of slavery, itrtainly appeals in
some degree for support. :ut in our devotion
to the institution generall' o one is justified
in over-looking its effects n South Carolina.
Judge Butler, when he deel9 that he regarded
the Union only through Carolina, mean
ing that when any federal re was proposed,
lie first regarded its infl ce upon - his. own
State, uttered a sentiment t met with a warm
approval from every South'. olinian. So, too,
in regard to this questi ..'No Carolinian is
justified in advocating any; e of policy in ref
erence to slavery in genesas hich may weaken
slavery in his own State. Athis spirit, then,
we approach this propositi for a re-opening of
the African slave' trade. naidered in refer
ence to South Carolina,. 1 uas see what will
probably be the effects of i revival.
We take the position . ibly demonstrated
by Mr. Fifzhughi, that inv ntary servitude is
unavoidable in every- socis . There must ne
cessarily be wealth, there ,must be poverty.
Between these two extrem there will be a gra
dation of classes.. .f the be the same, dis
content must exist in the- est class; but if
the menials are of an inferi' race, there will be
contentment, provided tb uling. or superior
race possess the power to ree service and
prevent idleness, the pri cause of social
discontent. Our menials ig of an inferior
race are excluded from' .ballot-box., Our
Government thus represe ehighg._racew J
class, and must be of a h pi-der. Thee is
every inducement, loth y'md politicalj..
for very South. arolmnf ,guard with zeal
ous care our institution ry. Its strength
and contiduation sho be primarycon.
oideratu d Cttgaptens it
sioudel ''TO . f strengtlins te
institution elsewhere, but it ,ens it in South
Carolina, he who would advocate it, with that
conviction, would be guilty '.of'high treason to
the best interests of his State. Such is our con
viction in regard to this' question. We would
not question the sincerity or honesty of its ad
vocates. Their convictions and ours are diff'r
ent-and their reason for zealous advocacy is
ours for zealous oppositiou,
Slaves like'every kind of property are only
valuable for what they produce. A slave who
cultivates cotton when it sells at 12c. is worth
more than twice as much ai when it commands
but Ga. or one when cotton sells at 12c. is
worth more than two when. it sells at Gc. Be
cause, in the latter case, you would expend dou-'
ble the aipount to support labor that would not
yield any more gross than in the first instance.
When cottoi is at 6c. and a prime negro fellow
is selling at $400, if' prices should go up to 12
cents, his value would be more thana $80O0. For
if,..with cotton atf6 cents, his gross earnings were
$100, and at 12 cents were $200, the cost of
supporting him being the same in both instances,
say $50O, in the first, he wuoulud realize only $50;
in the latter $150. So it will appear that while
the price of cotton has only doubled, the value
of' the negro has trebled. Reverse it and let cot
ton fall in price one-half, and the value of the
negro would fall two-thirds. This shows the
delicate sensitiveness of negro property. For
several years the price of negroes has been high,
because the crops were short and cotton com
manded a good pi ice. Nor will their pirice ever
fall until the price of cottlon is reduced ; until
the planter realizes less to the hand than lhe
It will thus be seen that under the delusion
of making negroes cheaper, we will be doing it
at the expense of their value--and they will
never become cheaper unless their value be de
preciated. Cheapness 'cannot be obtained but
by depreciation. Are our planters prepared to.
obtain it at this sacrifice ? WAe have shown that
one negro, at the present prices, is worth actu
ally moure than two at half the price, with the
price of cotton reduced one half. There are
really greater inducements at this time, and at
present prices, to invest in negro property, than
have ever before existed. This is strongly illus
trated by the eagerness with which they are
bought, and the reluctance with which they are
sold. And this state of things is owing to the
price which our cotton commands. The high
price is evidlence of high value, and high value
is the main pillar of strength upon which the
institution rests. The basis of that pillar is the
price . of cotton. As that falls, the pillar is
weakened ; as it rises, so the pillar is strength
ened. We hold that, so long as cotton coin
mandls a goods price, the institution of slavery
In South Carolina is on an impregnable basis.
If that be.tr'ue, then any measure calculated to
reduce the price of cotton is a deadly blow
at the institution in the State--it strikes at the
very pIllar of Its support. Of such a character
Is this proposition to re-open the African slave
tradc, although strangely coining from South
Carolina-the very last State from which it
should have emanated.
We have shown above, the intimat'd connec
tion betweenthe price vf negroes and the price
of cotton, and that the former can only be af
fected through the latter. To affect this, the
supply of cotton must be increased. This every
one must admit. It is a simple -proposition of
supply and demand regulating prices. This,
then, is the policy of the advocate for re-open
ing the African slave trade. Hie wishes to re
duce the price of labor. To. do this, we have
shown that he must reduce the price of cotton.
We concede the effectiveness of the measure
proposed to accomplish th~e endl ,jmed at. lut
we contend further, that In effectIng his purpose
he will destroy the cotton culture in South
Carolina. In demonstrating this, it wvill be no
cessary to review the cotton culture generally.
It will appear that already the competition in
its production has .been so great that it s
stopped its culture in some countries, and re
tarded it in others ; that its supply hias gained
so much upon the demand, that the competition
from.the Southern Statess has checked th~e stup
n ly from other countrips:
In 1791, the entire amount of cotton pro
duced in all other parts of the world was 488,
000,000 pounds; Southern States produced
000,000. In 1811, the amount in other contries
had.fallen to 475,000,000; in the Southern
States it amounted to 80,000,000. In 1831, in
all other countries it had tallen to 450,000,000;
in the Southern States it had risen to 180,000,
000. In 1834, in all other parts of the world,
it had fAllen to 444,000,000. In 1855, the latest
comparative statistics we have, all other coun
tries imported to England near 146,000,000, the
Southern States, 1008,424,000. It will be.seen
by these figures that, while the amount in the
Southern States has gone on steadily increasing,
that produced in other parts of the world has
steadily decreased. The competition has been
too great for them. Our climate is better
adapted to the growth of it. We produce a
finer quality and can make it cheaper than else
where. By referring to the Report of the Patent
Office for 1855, in an article on the climatology
of the different cotton-growing countries, it will
be seen that our Southern climate is better
adapted to the cotton plant than any other.
And moreover, that the South-western States
and Territories enjoy advantages over the east
ern Southern States. This is apparent too from
the higher prices which Orleans cotton com-'
mands in the market. But in addition to the
advantages of climate, the W6st enjoys that of
soil also. Give it the labor and it would soon
supply the entire demand for cotton. So great
are the advantages which it -enjoys that cotton
can be grown there three cents less than it can
be in the Southeastern States. We see, then,
that the supply of cotton has been so great that
it has greatly limited its production in other
countries. It will also be admitted that the
West enjoys advantages over the East both in
soil and climate, which would soon decide the
contest in favor of the West, should the two
sections be brought into competition, and the
result would be the abandonment of the cotton
cultivation in the Southeastern States. The
Southern planter has no reason to fear competi
tion from abroad. Iis danger is from over-pro
duction at home.
We have seen how the production has in
creased from the natural increase of our slaves.
That increase has not only kept up with the
demand, but has frequently exceeded it, and
thus put prices down to an unremunerating
standard; as for instance, in 1845 to below six
cents, and in 1840 to six and a half cenmts. Cot
ton has not averaged, in any year, twelve cents
since 1839. In 1841 it was at ten cents, but a
large crop in 1842 put it down to eight cents; a
still larger one in 1843 put it down to six cents.
In 1844 a short crop put it up to eight cents. In
1845 a large oiop put it below six cents. So it
has continued to vary down to the present time.
Two successive large crops would put it down,
we have no doubt, to seven or eight cents. For
tunately for the planters, unforeseen causes act
ing upon the cotton crop- have kept the supply
Within demand, and they I-ave re'lized good
ptrices. The fi;ures we have above given, show
th4.delicate sensitiveness-of the pri.eq of cotton.
The exportations of 1839, amounting to 413,
000 sold at a little over fourteen cents, and
1840, aniounting tu743,00,O00 pounds, at eight
and a half realized $03,000,000-but two mil
lions more than that of the preceding year. The
history of the cotton market shows a close
struggle between the demand and the consump
tion-somnetimnes causing a large crop to roalise
less than 4 small crop. This was illustrated by
the crops of 1841 and 1842. The crop of 1841,
amounting to 530,000,000, realized $54,000,000,
while that of 1842, amounting to 584,000,000,
realized but $47,000,000. This increase may
have been produced by the addition of but 14,
000 slaves to the productive resources of the
West. When we remember that in Texas
alone the increase of slaves from 1856 to 1857
was considerably upwards of 12,000, and that
the annual average increase in the Gulf States
fr the two last decades has been eighteen por
cent., we must believe that, with the natural
increase of slaves and a uniforinity of seasons,
the production of cotton would be so great that
its price would be kept down to below eight
cents. As it is, for the seventeen' years from
1839 to 1850, the price has not averaged nine
cents. It has been too-low from the supply
caused by the natural -increase of our slaves.
Hence the immense immigration to the more
fertile soils of the West. Hence, too, the con
stant system of land clearing, which our plan
ters have been obliged to resort to, to sustain
themselves against Western comytition. It is
not that negroes have been highi, but because
after deducting plantation expenses the receipts
from the crop nrc nearly all consumed. When
negroes are high, it is evidence that cotton is
commanding a good price and that the receipts
are large. We have illustrated this above.
With this knowledge of the close struggle be
tweeni production and consumption, with the
evidences before us that the latter has so ex
ceeded the former that it has produced a grad
ual decrease in the production in other parts of
the world, and that the planter of Carolina has
had to stretch every nerve to keep up with the
competition, wo are now advised to seal our des
tiny by bringinig in a new supply of labor. We
are to challenge the West to competition-for
it wvill amount to this. Let it not be supposed
that, when the supply of cotton hams been in
creased, and the price reduced to a point it will
no longer pay to cultivate it at in the South
eastern States, that the West will then be wil
ling to stop the trade. Ihow could it be stopmped?
With what grace could we ask for such a thing?
The advocates say it is a legitimate trade; let
it be free. If we called for its cessation, they
would not heed us. They would throw our
own arguments in our faces. With all the en
ergy and desperate exertions which excited
competition generates, they would press for
ward in the race of production. They would
stimulate war with Mexico for fresh land, and
war ini Africa for negroes, The price of his
staple reduced below the price of remuneration,
the planter of Carolina would seek the more fer
tile lauits of the WYest, So far from reclaiming
his worn-out land, ho would find his virgin soil
uable to give him support. On him it would
weigh with fatal disaster. If ne turned his at
tention to the grains he would find himself un
able ta compete with the Middle and North
western farmers. Neither hemp nor tobacco
would hold out sufficient inducement.. His
alternatives would be, either emigration, which
would doubtless be preferred by the great body
of planters, or lie might sell his slaves and em
bark in manufactures. Which, ever alternative
were choien, the result would be a dleadly blow
to the institution of slavery in the lilastern
slaves States. If, however, the supply be al
lowed to grow with the imncreasing demand,
piees may neyei'. fallI, as a genmeril thing too low
for cultivation here, The history of all compe
tionr.sshows that while consumers are benefitted
by the reduced prices, " they never derive as
much benefit as the competitors suffer." More
over, as political economy teaches us and as was
the case in 1842, not only in competitions is the
surplus a loss, but it serves to depress the entire
amount brought in market, and is actually more
injurious than a deficient cropg
Such are the conseqmqpnces whiph yill ine
tably resq1e, ye beliemve, from this efoire at
ehapening labO[. We throw -a surplus in the
market As soon a that occurs, the mannfa.
turer, who is always thoroughly informed, stands
aloof. A fall in price of cotton, and then in
negroes, would ensue. And as the effects of
the surplus would be disastrously multiplied
upon the sensitive price of cotton, so the el:ts
of the latter would be disastrously multiplied
upon the sensitive value of negro property.
It will not do to talk lightly of the danger
of over-production. There is danger. The plan,
ter feels it from the promptness with which he
takes advantage of a good market: So does
the speculator, from the carefulness with which
he weighs every little accident to the crop, and
accurately notes the shipment from eaeh port.
At any time during the last season, if it had
been made known that the last crop would at
tain 3,500,000, the market would instantly have
been depressed. It has often; been said that
the Southern planter is the most independent
man in the world. So he is, if the demand for
cotton exceeds the supply. But when the sup
ply exceeds the demand, he is a slave to the
British manufacturer. There is no estimating
the loss the South would have sustained in the
last monetary crisis, had it occurred with a crop
of 3,500,000 bales--which would be the amount
of a good crop. Nothing gave them the cour
age to withstand it but the security 'they felt
from a small crop. Increase the cotton supply,
and create a surplus in the market, and you
make the planter a mere operative of the Brit
ish manufacturer. You rob him of his inde
Who, then, should call for this re-opening of
the slave trade? The consumer and the manu
facturer of cotton, not the producer. If self
interest were consulted, the whole world would
be calling for'the re-opening of the slave trade,
while the Southern States should be opposing
it. Strange to say, the reverse is the case. It
is a matter of doubtful policy whether even
Texas should call for the re-opening. But
whether it be policy for Texas or not, that is
not our business. We are to look to ourselves.
South Carolina is under no obligation to Texas.
If there be any obligation, it is the reverse.
South Carolina has given her population and
wealth with a bountiful hand. Let Texas repay
the debt by opposing a measure which would
deal such a blow to her prosperity.
To the up-country of the State, in particular
does this matter present itself with most solemn
significance. The lower country can produce
rice and long staple cotton-they are articles of
general consumption. and require natural advan
tages of a peculiar nature. While the re-open
ing of the slave trade would furnish them with
cheap labor, it would not greatly increase the
supply of their staple products. Far different
would it be with the up-country. Let the up
country take care, then, that South Carolina,
be not committed to a policy that would be so
disastrous to her interests. If we were told
that an army would pass through our State
that it would depopulate the country-that a
plague would pass over that would blast it with
unproductiveness, the State would be up in
arms to meet the invading foe. while prayers
would be offered up forthe'averslon of the ter
rible calamity 'These -are the donsequences
which this measure- will bring upon us. 'We
it would result in the inevitable destruction of
our agriculture, and with that of course our
commercial and mechanical interests. These
revolutions in commerce' and agriculture are
constantly taking place. Sometimes the causes
areinavoidable; sometimes they are brought
by recklessness from supposed security or the
pursuit of a fatal delusion. It is natural that
a people should be alarmed under the prospects
of adversity, and that they should try to avert
it ; it is n1atural that producers should be alarm
ed at the prospects of a glutted marke and low
prices; but it has been reserved to our age of
wild and visionary schUies, with its restless
spirit of agitation, for a people to take alarm 'at
remuuerating prices for their produce and to
try to build up competition against themselves
and depreciate their own property. Veuice
once comianded the commerce of the world.
Asia and Africa are almost rugged with the re
mains of cities that have crumbled to ruin from
a departure of commercial influence. Compe
tition in agriculture, as in commerce, builds up
one empire with the trade of another. If this
trade be re-opened our agriculture would-be
revolutionalized ; our industrial elements would
be transferred to the West ; our cotton culture
would be destroyed. .Destroy that and you
strike a blow at the very pillar of the institu
tion of slavery in South Carolina. With our
railroads running into the great grain-growing
Middle States to pour upon us the contents of
their plethoric granaries, can we hiope to be
come great by competing with.them ? Can we
hope to grow great competing with Virginia in
producing tobacco? If it be said that it will
give the South moure pdlitical power--we reply,
South Carolina cannot pay so dearly for it. if
it be said it will bring more land into cultiva
tion-we reply, it will~have the contrary effect
to cause more to be thi'own out and abandoned
until taken possession of by freesqg. colonies.
There is no aspect of the question whichi woyld
compen'sate for the injury it would inflict on
South Carolina. As a South Carolinian we
cannot, therefore, give it our approval.
There never existed a people with such ad
vantages as we of the Southern States. God
has blessed us with a country abounding in re
sources, favored with health, and beautified
with scenery. It produces rice, sugar, tobacco
and the cereals. In addition, we possess the
monopoly of the cotton culture. By a wise
provision, he adjusted our supply of labor so
nicely to the demand for its produce, that they
have increased pari passu with the slightest
variations. But for this providential adjust
ment, we have shown that we would have been
strangled in com'petition. It is a staple that
will always furnish subslatence to the Southern
States, and in addition so amply has it protect
ed us, that with the whole world combined in
one overwhelming majority against our institu
tion, yet this simiple, fibrous staple has been a
greater defence than armies and navies could
have been. Let u~s remember that so far as
power from numbers is concerned, thie South
can never have it. She has no cause for fear of
numbers opposed to her, so long as she has cot
ton for a protection. T he population of the
North-west may grow to 100,000,000. That
will only strengthen the South by creating next
door to us a most consumptive market, If the
people of these States would only appreoiate the
blessings which as a poplo they possess, they
would smile at outside opposition, and enjoy
within theseiselves a most perfect reign of peace,
prospeity and happiness.
Cualous SPRING IN AmLABAA.-The Tallade
ga Watohtower, in an interesting review of
Professor Tuomey's last report on the Geology
of Alabama, states that near the line between
Hancock and Lawrence, there is a spring of
liquid bitumen or mineral tar, which is said to
be somewhat remarkable for ita esive pro
perties and is said to b* a Man ure for scro
fula, cancerons notes, rbheuram and other dis
se in Whigh. ajteratives are required. The
water egns uut from a soam or creviee in the
lige stone and the tar' of bitumen floats on the
surface, a black foam, very cohesive and insolu-,
ble in water. The tar can be collected in pa
tients visiting the springs frequently take it in
the form of pills.
DmEcT TRADL-The New Orleans Ceseant'
speaking of the subjects prominently before the
Convention in session at Montgomery, laughs at
the Dudley Mann project and proceedatoremark:
"But if the Montgomery Convention wishes
to inaugurate anything useful on the subject of
direct trade, let the members thereof reconimend
the construction of lines of moderately sized
propellers, to the Southern people, to sail from
the more important Southern ports to proper
European ports, and enlist the sympathies and
pecuniary aid of our citizens in behalf of, the
enterprise, and a great end will be accomplished.
Charleston could easily support a line. Socould
Savannah. So could Mobile; and New Orlea*
could easily support three lines, if matters were
arranged in a practical, business like meliner;
and more lines would be demandedby thewants
of commerce as soon as the lines referred to had
demonstrated their usefulness and permanence:;
by their success."
THE TEXAs FaEs NEGRo Ltw.-:-The last-Leg
islature of Texas having passed an act allowing
free persons of color in that State, of their own
free will, to select masters and become slates,
some of the free blacks are availing themselves
of its beneficent provisions. A Bastrop co-es
pondent of the New Orleans Delta reports the
case of "William, a free man of African deseet,'
who filed his petition, and was, on the 'th idat.
allowed to choose his master. The- applicant
was an intelligent man, who had been North and
seen the true condition of the free negroes of
that region; his age is about thirty years, and
he has a good character for honesty and industry.
The presiding Judgye was careful to institute a
searching examination to ascertain- whether any,
undue influence had beeb used to induce the pe
titioner to make his application, and finding that
it was his voluntary and deliberate act, bound
him over for life to a good master. In the lan
guage of the Delta's; correspondent, William
"preferred a Southern entleman for a master
to a Northern Abolitionist for a companion."
"THE Cay is STILL THEY Come 1"-$65,000
Daiwx.-But afew days since we mentioned.
the large prizes sold ii S. Swan &Co.'s Lottery,
to persons in Charleston and Savannah. We
now have to chronicle another of Sixty-five Thou
sand Dollars, sold-by them on a whole ticket,
Nos. 4, 20, 39, in..ir Three Number Lottery,
Class 393 drawn utday, April 24th. The for.
tunate holder is a wealthy merchant of Philadel.
phia, and though we ar" not at liberty to men
tion his name, we knoiw who he is, and his place
of business. For ridschemes, honoribly deal
ing, and prompt payment of prizes, Swini& Co.'s
Georgia Lottery takes the lead in this country;
and their immense lkusiness is the result of close
application and upright conduct in the manage
ment of it.-Augusta (Ga) Consttutional' it.
How iT wAs DoxE.-Mr. Garnett and others
who voted for' the Conferejiee eort on the'
Kansas Bill, did not o so unU', tley. lh 'sm
rance that the Bill would ,s th'
made's pneral la for- -
,they should:no..e entitd
until,' Air, a 'Alu 1W
ths h ti
Mu. Boyu.-Our Abpresentatice lb. coipli
meuted in the following mann'er by a Waaising
ton correspondent of the. Samtr Wakhaana.
Mr. Boyce is a sound-thinker; and not the least
of his efforts is that which we published the oth
er day, in defence of the Conference' bill:
" dur immediate Representative, Col. Boyce,
occupies a high and enviable position here, re
Ilecting honor on his State, and, ably represen
ting a constituency which so warmly supports
and zealously cherishes him. He is regarded
as one of the most practical and sound men in
the House, and his project of direct taxation, a
vital principle of $uuthera polities, will gailt for
him a wide-spread reputation if it passes,' and
none are more able to carry it through than Col.
Boyce. Old Sumpter should, as she ever has,
warmly endorse him."
Ol Sn.s is SE'LrTOPol, BwwII 1UP.T
A correspondent writing from Sebastopol says:
" The bomnbshells strewn about the city' du
ring the siege are still doing the work of death..
No less than eight deaths, I think, have been
caused by explosions of these missiles since my
arrival, hardly a year since. Only a few days
ago, two seambn belonging to the English steam
er Beyrout, came on shore near our ship-yard,
and for a few moments were conversing with
Mr. Gowen. They then started for a walk to
the Redan, quite near our residlence, and on
reaching the breastwork, one of them picked up
an unexplored detonating shell, intending to
keep~it as a relic, but finding it rather heavy,
threw it down, when it instantly explorded, and
killed him, ahnost'severing the head from the
body, and completely cutting of his right leg.
The remains were brought to the yard, whence
they were buried. His companion escaped with
a slight scratch upon the lip. On the following.
day two Russians were killed in a similar man
ner, while picking out the stopper of a shell"
SMA.:. Besna.-For making three gallons of*
beer, or one pailful; take one quart of West
India molasses, one ounce essence of spruce,
one ounce essence of winter-green, half an
ounce essence~ of sassairas; fill the pail witki
hot water, mix it well, let it stand till'it has be
come blood warm then add one pint of yeast;
let it remain ten or twelve hours, bottle, and in
three hours it will be fit for use, and first rate.
A man, tobe wise and healthy, should always
carry two good digestbrs,' a good brain and a
good stomch-the first to digest his knowl~dge,
the second his victuals.
Ax American ship captain, recently from the
coast of Africa, says that while lying at an'ehor
in a small bay on the Guinea coast, his vessel
was visited by many of the natives. Among
others, a fine-looking, intelligent chief flrom the
interior, with his wife and mother, one day
came on board. On returning to the land, their
canoe was upset, and the chief; finding that he
could not save both of his companions, rescued'
his mother. Afterwards, on being asked why
h~ did not save his wife instead, he replied:
"Me can get another wife, but me could never
get another mother."
There is an old gentleman living in the town
of Munroe, Conn., who voted for Wash' nto
both tinm he was a candidate for the ' ui e
ey, and for every President since-having,
strangely enough, happened to vote the-se
ful ticket at every presidential election inude-the
formation of the United States Government.
A N UPaKGHT JUo.--" I do'think," -says a
late English writer on law, " that there ik not
in nature a more glorious, heavenly sgtthan
ain upright, patient, knowing judge stini
judgment. If God ever made man af~ is
own image, I think he must h'ave maderhm in.
UTwo centuries ago not on. Ia a han d ee *
stockings. Pifty years ago, not earn boy Ia& theuiad
was allowed to run at large -night Er d. cilft
years ago not ens girl In atlwsnd dsl'isdSS
watt on her as a lired sertant. -WiM~uneW
ats. - '