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2 Demterafic 3otuna, Deteh to flyt Souft anbV $Sumlyrn tdig3)ts, ~ tis, Catest leuvs, Citerature, fttrlitj, !Eiuptrance, ar tue &
"4We will cling to time Pillars of the Temiple of-our Libertics. and If It nmuot fall. we will Peish anidst time Rue." --
SHlKINS, DUJRISOE & CO., Propritors. -EDGEFIELD, S. C., DECEMBER 15, 1858. " -
PUBLIBRED EVER WEDNESDAY MORNING.
. MHIS, D. R, DIRISOE & ELIJAH IEESE,
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Announcing a Candidate (not inserted until paid
for,) Five Dollars.
For Advertising Estrays Tolled, Two.Dollars, to be
paid by the Magistrate advertising.
- F'Or BherrLUT
W. W. SALE,
. WM. QUATTLEBUM,
ROBERT D. BRYAN,
F. . NICHOLAS,
WILLIAM L. STEVENS,
'Or Tam ColleotOr.
M. W. LYLES,
C. A. HORN,
.T. J. WHITAKER,
CHAS. M. MAY.
FoWr Oc11-e "M *.
W. F. DURISOE,
J. P. ABNEY,
D. L. TURNER.
S. B. GRIFFIN,
ATTORNEY AT LAW AND SOLICITOR IN EqUITY,
Will attend promptly to all business entrusted
to his care. Office No. 2, Law Range.
Edgefield C. H., Dec 8, 1S58. tf 48
J. L. ADDISVN,
ATTO 2i-3ir a XiA'Wr
Will atteind properly to nil business entrusted to
WOffice, over B. C. Bryan's Store.
Edgefield, S. C., Dec. 1 ly 47
M. C. B UT LE R,
A T T OR NEY A T L AW,
Offico in Law Range,
EDGEFIELD C. TI., S. C.
May 15 Uf _ 2
T EUndersigned having formed a partnership
in the PRACTICE of LAW and EQUITY
for Edgefield District, will give p~rom)pt and dili
atninto all business entrusted to their
The residence of Mr. OwENs is at Barnwell C.
H-that of Mr. SEIBEL~s at Edgefield, 8. C.
W. A. OWENS.
May 26 tf 20
E. II. YOUNOBLOOD,
Atorn.eY at Isaw,
WILL attend promptly to all business iplaced
VTin his bands.
370ffee at Edgefield C. 1H., S. C.
May 19 tf 10
T HE Subscriber having furnished himself with
.5a liense to use thisaNEW PROCESS of
IgggRjING AETI]!ICIAL TEETH,
ls now ready to serve all who may need such, with
an assurance of a more perfect adaptation, and a
closer resemblance to the natural organ., than can
be realized by any other method. Its perfect pu
rity, cleanliness, freedom from all taste, or galvanic
sensation, durability, comfort and security, are
among the advantageseclaimed fur this SUPE~R1OR
mode of setting Artificial Teeth.
June 24, tf 24
T n s. .3. a C. U. MO I SE,
SUCCESSORS TO LEE A MOISE,
No. 7, Hayne Street,
CHARLESTON, S. C.
Jan 27 _ _ly 3
A. J. PELLETIER & Co.,
Paints, Oils, Perfumery, &c.,
AT WHOLESALE AND RETAIL.
Hamburg, Oct 6, 3m 39
Boot and Shoe Notice.
rpIxE Subscriber continues to have
A.made, on 4he shortest notice, and in l
the best mnanner, thi finest andI most sub
stantlal ROOTS and SHOES.
All orders loft at his Shop will be promptly at.
tended to. C. M. GR AY or my-self will lbe found
at all times in the Village to attend to all orders.
No woik to leave the shop without the knowledge
ofthe3-ubscriber or my A gent, C. M. GRlA Y.
Icr Shop oppssite B. J. Ryan's Livery Stable.
Written for the Edgefield Advertiser.
THE MARTYR'S GRAVE.
DY EDWIN BIBSIOT.
He has gone to his rest, with his armor on,
A Martyr on Truth's battle field,
With the sword of the spirit triumphantly armed,
And the Helmet of Grace, as his shield.
He has gono to his home, in the far off sky,
Where the angels their anthems raise,
And the holy army of Martyrs sing
Hymns of joy to their makers praise.
He has gone to his God-he is happier now,
With Him who is able to save,
While the tears of many a sorrowing heart
Are bedewing the Martyr's grave.
He has gone to his rest-and now reaps the reward
Of a life to his Maker given,
And that voice so oft heard in the Temple on earth,
Is now heard in the choirs of Heaven.
TO MY ABSENT FATHER.
Come to thy home, my father dear,
Where every-thing's so sad
But where thy welcome presence will
Soon make all bright and glad.
Father, come! we miss thee mub,
Thy beaming eyes of blue,
How oft in fancy, do we think
We see them;-Oh, If true!
And when around the table board,
We see thy vacant chair,
Our voices mingle as we breathe
" I wish he could be there."
Father, come! Oh, come again,
Let's see if we can traeo,
A thought of sorrow that has passed
Across thy handsome face.
Let's ice if time with rapid wing
ILas furrowed deep thy brow,
And if it has, why never mind,
You'll be the dearer now.
Then, Father, come ! why longer stay?
The friends we have are few ;
Come, and our love shall cherished be
By heaven's perpetual dew.
Sister Springs, S. C.,
DRESDEN, Oct. 26th 1858.
The Saxon Capital is a city gifted as but few
cities are! Nature and art seem to have ri
valled and tobe still rivalling each other in prodi
gality to the lovely "Elbe-Florence," as its
iabitants delig.&Aa nleitire
plenty of money and a good conscience,Dresden
must indeed be an Elysium, and a sojourn in it
like the beginning of the Millennium; for having
these two indispensables. noth insy else is want
ing. Truly one can make a very tolerab!e Par
adise of it without ci.ther, and that is cet tainly
saying the utmost for its charms. So numerous,
so diversified and on such an imperial scale are
its Art-Collections, that they have given to it
the reputation of the Mecca of German Art
and Artists. Strange to say,. the buildings
which contain these treasures are all situated
within a stone's throw of each other; in fact
most of them are connected and form as it were
one edifice; and in an open part of the city,
lying immediately on the Elie, one immense
garden. Here is-the famous I Zwinger," which
is the name given to about an acre of level
ground entirely enclosed on all sides by these
sanctuaries of art, that is, the Picture Gallery,
the Gallery of Sculpture, the Amory, the His
torical and Natural-Historical Museums and the
Geological Collection. This vacant space is
filled during the summer with orange trees in
huge tubs, mnaking an artificial orange grove.
These trees, two hundred in number, and most
of them quite large, are looked upon as one of
the chief prizes of the city, and so soon as the
cold weather approaches, they are removed to
an immense glass conservatory devoted especial
ly to their preservation, and known as the
Orangerie. 'The ornaments of this tastefully
arranged spot, besides the orange trees, are two
fountains and a commanding monument and
statue to the memory of Friedrick August the
Just, the most revered of Saxon kings.
The Zwvinger has four entrances, one towards
each point of the compass, and is surrounded
on three sides by an exquisitely cultivated gar
den. These entrances are formed by-wide and
lofty arched passages which lead through the
first story of the buildings, and each is sur
mounted by a cupola or dome. The garden on
one side; or the surface of the earth rather, rises
into an abrupt hill parallel with the tops Qf the
hiouses, which are flat, and by this means is
formed a promenade where people saunter and
look down upon the orange trees, the fountains,~
the monument and the throng; for during eight
months in the year, the Zwinger is thronged
with sight-seekers, pleasure-seekers and idle,
flaunting, tricked-out promenader's, to say
nothing of unavoidable nursery maids and inev~
itable babies. This promenade is continued al'
most entirely around upon the flat roofs, and
under the hills lies a lake led off fromn the
Elbe, containing an island with a summer house
Fifty yai-dsi perhaps from the Zwinger, stil
nearer the Elbe, and with nothing intervening
but the garden, stands the superb and measure
less Theatre. Fifty yards in another diretion
stand side lby side the far famed and matchlesi
Rtomnan Catholic Cathedral (where the Music is
the sublimnest out of Heaven) and the dihgy ok]
royal castle, their towers rising together liki
twin giants, the one above the house of th<
King of the Universe, the other above th<
house of the King of Saxony.
Opposite the castle, across the river, for Dres
den is built equally on both sides the Elbe
towers the Japan Palace, so called from th<
eastern style of its architecture, and which con
tains the royal library. Around this palace
reaching to the very water's edge, stretch the~
fmost transcendantly beautiful gardens, whiel
are at all times open to the public. Directly i
ront of the Cathedral leads off the-tupendon
Elbe Bridge, the finest and most substantial
work of the kind in Germany. And a little
higher up, the stream is spanned by the Rail
road Bridge, which is scarcely less admirable.
Both these bridges are crowded from morning
until night, as is indeed the whole scene which
I am attempting to describe.
To the right of the Elbe Bridge rises the
Brubisehe Terrace, the enchanted spot of the
Dresdeners. This is a hill or high bluff over-.
hanging the river,- coimanding a view of inde
scribable beauty, and cultivated and adorned to
a degree which renders it a veritable garden of
Eden. Even to leave it late in the evening to
seek one's couch, is a bitter expulsion.
In juxtaposition with the Brulsche Terrace
stands the palace of the quaint looking old
Queen Dowager (she goes to the Opera in a cap
with three stories and at least two dozen apart
ments, and wearing perfectly tight sleeves like
a man,) whose husband, the late king and
brother of the present king, amused himself
some four years ago by being thrown from a
carriage and killed. Very near the Queen Dow
ager's palace stands the Frauen Church (Church
of Women, a most profane name for a Church !)
with its five domes, and in the distance, upon
the banks of the Elbe, glisten the two modern
and magnificent castles of Prince Albrecht of
Prussia. This Prince Albrecht, a brother of the
present king of Prussia, and younger brother
of the Regent, committed the indiscretion of
marrying a lady not of royal birth, one Miss
Rauch, a maid of honor at the Berlin Court.
This misdeed so incensed his family that he left
Berlin in disgust and set up his rest in Dresden,
where he built two castles upon opposite hills,
one for himself and one for his wife. Since all
this, lie has himself become tired of his bargain,
and the poor Rauch finds rest neither in Dres
den, Berlin, nor any where else.
I began with the intention of devoting a few
lines to the Art-Collections, but at the bottom
of the fourth page I find myself in the midst of
gardens, palaces and churches, and yielding to a
reprehensible taste for gossip, have strayed off
from my laudable first intention and fallen
among the queer fashions, sud-len deaths and
lamentable misalliances of kings, queens and.
princes. The Arts must await another opportu
nity and a more discreet frame of 'mind.
J. T. B.
ScaNr 1-In front ('a Fashionable Hotel.
Gentleman dismounting from his horse.
"Stabler, attend! refrigerate my beast by al
lowing him twice to circumambulate yonder
fountain ; that acc.nplished, to imbibe a mode
rate quantity of aqueons particles; conduct
him with care to the repository for wearied
beasts, and having clothed in lustre his dirty
skin by a gentle application t' the vegetable
material, commonly called straw, suteir him to
partake of food which shall furnish nourish
ment and gentle repose."
S'abler-(laughing.) "W-h-a-t, sir !"
Gecunteau-" Whmat, sir! Stand you thus
like one with no reason in his soul, while this
poor beast, whose every p~o:e is a fount of gush
ing strength, grows valetudinary 'neath Sol's
oppressive rays. Ye volatile barbarimn."
Slabler-(laughing still more unrestrainedly.)
"I cant understand a word you say, sir ! but [
suppose you wanit y-our horse put tip."
(entlman-" Stupidity uiieq ualled! Land
lord, fulminate your censures against this tardy
burl, who thus manifests oppugination to imy de
sires, and conduct mue to aceluded atpartuments,
and bring restoratives oif the most viviticchairac
tar, to reinstate to their formier the varied eiier
gies of my exhausted frame.".
L'adlrd.-"I wtill, sir."
Genteman-"PIrepost-erous! And you, sir,
unite in the disgraceful merriment of your min
ion ! 1 should surmise myself the first of the
species you ever bebeld."
Landlord-(laughing still more.) "Indeed
you are, sir."
Centlman-" Terminate this prolix scene and
officiate as guard to my apartments. At the
hour of dinner, summon me; if wearisomeness
should have caused me to be recumbent in pos
ture, gently re-animate me with the breath of
Scr.s s 2-Tlhe Dining Room, Gentleman.s#at
ing himselJ at the table, dinner over, and others
standiun: in the room. .I
Gentleman-" I should judge voracity and ig
norance prevailing characteristics of the man. I
see nothing among these reeking ruins worthy
the regard of a gentleman's palate. Waiter, I
desire a female fowl, sufficiently, but not re
dundantly niade edible by fire."
It is brought.
" Waiter, dissect with care the same; do not
violently separate the part, least my joints
should stuffer dislocation from the discordant
It is done.
" Waiter, place a tender portion of the breast
upon my plate, with necessary accompaniments."
It is done, and the gentleman commences his
A wag, who with others had bbserved these
proceedings, seats himself at the table opposimte
Wag-" Vaiter, furnish me with a female
The waiter understands the joke, and does as
he is bid.
"Vaiter, dissever now her component parts."
It is done.
"Vaiter, divide those parts into portions,
suited to lubial capacity."
Opening his mouth and throwing himself
back on the chair.
"Vaiter, place one of them in the orifice be
IOur hero begins to understand the quiz, and
is evidently much disconcerted.
"Vaiter, rag my~/jaws! !"*
Amid roars of laughter, and curses upon his
lips, our hero rushed front the room.
A -GOOD ONE.-Billy F- was making a
journey in a stage conch, (insisting upon sitting
outside with the driver) over the 'hilly roads in
the western part of the State, and amused him
self on the way by frequent resorts to the coma
forts of a mysterious black bottle which he had
with him. Suddenly the coach camne in contact
with a large stone, wvhichi, without doing any
other damage, deprived Billy of his equilibrium,
and down he rolled on the ground. "Wot'n
thunder are yer doing ?" said Billy, "how come
you to tip thie stage over?" The driver informed
him that the stage had not been overturned at
!all; and the passengers assured Billy that John
was right. Billy approached the veicle again
and remounted $lowly to his former seat out.
side. " Didn't upset' d'you say ?" " Not al
all," replied the driver. "Well, if 'd a knowed
that," said Billy, "I wouldn't ha' got ofl'."
DETTEE THAN THEM ALL.
A moderate shareof wealth is good
To cheer us on our way,
For it has oftentimes the power
To make Deeiloer May;
So is beauty, eoeis health,
Or genius it ottr call;
But a happy, enrilees, loving heart,
Is better tha 1hom all.
A heart that gathiais hope and faith
From overy-sp nging flower,
That smiles alikeat winter storm
And gentle sum mer shower;
That blesses God'for very good,
Or whether groat or small;
Oh ! a happy, boteful, loving heart
Is bettecTian fbem all.
'Tis well to hold the wand of power,
Or wear an honored name,
And blush to lia the mighty world
Re-eeho with qur fame;
'Tis well if on-out path the smiles
Of Kings and-Nobles fall;
But to have a blipy, trusting heart,
Is better than. hom all.
A heart that with the magle notes
Of muslo is boulled;
A heart that lovi; the pleasant ihoo
Of overy littlibhild;
That aldeth w" ness In distress,
And hoareth dbty'a call;
Oh ! sueb a lovig, humun heart,
Is better than them all,
g-" in the middle ages of France, a person
convicted of being a dl umniator was condemnod
to place himself on 'll fours, and bark like a
dog, for a quarter ofan hour. Tf this custom
were adopted at the ipresent day, there would
be considerable l,. 'wavowing.
g- The Natche*z Pree Trader places the
name of Hon. Albert Gallatin Brown, of Missis.
sippi, at the- head of.its columns as the Demo
cratic candidate for the Presidency in 1860.
E, MRs. PAaRi-CTON lately remarked to
a legal frien, "Ifl towes a man a debt, and
makes him the lawless tenant of a blank bill,
and he infuses to inbept it, but swears out an
execration, and lev*s it upon my body, if I
wouldn't make a phbdlowog of him, drown me
in the nuxwino ses "
r JANE, wit letter in the alphabet do
you like tho bes-t( "Well, I don't like to
say, Mr. Snooks." ooh, nonsense ! tell right
out, Jane ; which: d ou like best'?" " Well,
(blushing and d her. eyes,) I like you
Z A beautiful thought this, that we find
in one of cur exchanges: " If there is a man
who can eat hii bread in peace with God and
miian, it is the ium who has brought that bread
out of the earth. It is cankered by no fraud,
it is wet by nu tears, it is stained with no
r Wuy- are chicken's necks like door
hells'? Because they are often rung for compiany.
- A letter was put into the box, the ap
pearance of which denoted that the writer was
unaccustomed to the use of stanps, ani had
failed to make one stick at all. He hadi tried
nd vainly tried.;-'but -the inveterate portrait of
Washington-would curl up. At last, in dep:'ir,
lie pinned it to the envelope, anti wrote under
it. I Paid, procidig the pin doiesn't conim ott!
nr Why is a retired carpenter like a lec
turer ? Because he is an ex-planer.
gr A Quatker. and a'Blaptist traveling to
gether in a stagre coach, t he latter took every
opporutniity' of ridieuling thle for, mier tan atcount
of. his religious profession. At length they
came to a heath, where the hodly of amaec
tor, lately executted, was hanging in chains upwn
the gibbet. " . wonder now," saisl the Baptist,.
" what religion lie was oft?" " Perha;s,"t re
plied the Quker coolly, "hle was a Baptist nd
they hiumg him up to dry."
'K A woman out We. in I~escribing hei
runaway husband, says: "' Daniel mtay be known
by a scar on the nose-where I scratched huin.'
ECATO said, "The best wa.y to keei:
good acts in memory, is to refresh them will
?T Pass-ri~cI wishes tihat the individala
who invented what was called the "pIaying nu
machinery" for the Niagara andi Agamemnon
would get uip a little macline of the sort to ht
used ini the case of every newspaper subscriber,
KK Cov.ns'T IIli.P IT.-A fter a mnarriagi
ceremony had been .performed in one of the
churches in Adrian, Michigan, the bride, when
receiving the congratulations of her friends
shed tears, according to the established ridicu
lus custom; at the sight of which the grooni
followed suit with a copious flowv of the briny
finid. After his friends succeeded in calmin:
him, he said he couldn't help it, for he felt a=
bad about it as she did.
W THE PRoPEa WAY TO MANAGE THosi
TINs.-Persons in England who leave rail
road cars while trains are in motion, are subject
to legal penalties. A lady was fined 5s. and 53
costs, a few weeks ago, for having stepped oi
of a train on the Crystal Palace line before th.
cars had stopped.
W In Indiana the crickets have in some in
stances destroyed whole fields of lately sows
wheat, and the farmers have been compelled ti
repow and sow over again.
& To MAKE BLUE IN.-Dissolve a smnal
quantity of indigo in a little oil of vitrol and ad'
a suflielent quantity of water, in which is dis
solved some gum arabie.
NEwsPAPER BoRaowiNG.-This is a very preya
lent failing, which in some people, amounts to
positive vice. Of the large multitude of peopl
who never buy papers, because they read then
free in the coffee-houses and barber-shops, we han
nothing to say, for the coffee-house keepers ani
barbers take the papers expressly for the accom
modation of their customers. But of a groea
many, who, on the strenagth of their famnilian
acquaintance with those wh do take and pa
for the paper, make a regular habit of going allen
or sending after the papers, we feel a conistan
complaint, ifwe do notoftenexpress it. Economny
of course is a commendable thing, but that ecom
may which leads mna to sponge-no, pilfer
the word-their commercial and other importam
daily intelligence from their friends, who arc a
better able to pay for a pa per than themselves,1
beneath economy; it is down-right meanness ;
species of small mneanness which is so very snm
that liberal people, though they have a prope
secret contempt for it, forbear noticing. it openl,
It is this feelinig of the liberal which has pe
mitted the small meanness of newspaper be
row.int spread so irg.=-NE 0. Creen
ll TRENl11OW'S BE1.1I(S
Before the Commilee of Ways and Means of the
House, in 8port of Ike 'memwrial of the Blue
Ridge Railroad Cumypany, delwer-ed ou 7Tes
day, Nocenher 30, 185.
The object of the present application is the
removal of the condition imposed on the grant
of $1,000.000 of the State guarantee by the
Act of 1854. The Legislature, by that act,
engaged to contibute in aid of this undertaking
$1,000,000 by subscription to the capital stock,
and $1,000,00 by endorsement of the Compa
ny's bonds. Besides the conditions attached to
the subscription, it was made a condi'.ion of the
proposed guarantee that the Company should
exhibit satisfactory proof of its ability to com
plete the road. This was a wise and prudent
precaution, and the Company apprehended no
embarrassment from it, because they had a con
tract for the construction of the wholo road, in
which it was agreed that the contractors should
furnish half the necessary capital. Butr these
contractors have failed, and the Company are
deprived of the capital they expected from this
source. It is true, there were those who pre
dicted their failure from the beginning; but it is
easy to predict disappointment in human aflkirs,
for nothing unhappily is more common. This cir
cumstance implies, however, no neglect on the
part of the Company; fora careful examination
into the facts will show that the Company ac
corded their confidence to these contractors, on
proofs that it would have been unreasonable to
discredit. Neither does the fulfillment of this
prediction imply any rashness on the part of the
State in embarking in the enterprise, notwith
standing this danger. She was resolved to have
a railroad to the West, and this was not only
the best opportunity that had ever presented it
self of accomplishing this great design, but the
only one, perhaps, she would ever again have in
her power. She acted wisely, therefore, in em
bracing it, with its attending dangers, and there
is no reason to regret this ootirse I but, on tho
contrary, every motive to encourage us to per,
severe. The route had been pronounced utter
ly impracticable, and if begun, would have to be
abandoned, it was s-id, on account of natural
difliculties that no engineering skill could sur
mount. The progress of the work has dissipa
ted this objection. The most formidable diffi
culties on the line have been encountered, and
yield readily to the ordinary appliances of en
gineering science. The President's report fur
nishes the completest proof of the entire practi
cability of the work. This objection being
removed, it is proper to inquire how much more
aid the Company will require. The State has
already expended $1,000,000, and the city of
CharlestonS1,000,00. Beforeanother $1,000,
000 is embarked, it is proper to ask how much
more will be necassary, and if the resources of
the State are adequate to the proposed expen
The estimated cost of the road is, in
Of this amount, there has al
ready been expended on
the work........... 2,126,00
T&ieinaining cash resour
ces are................ 945,000
The State aid from Tennes
see is................. 040,000
Tle guarantee now asked
from South Carolina is.. 1,000,000 4,711,000
Leaving a deficiency ofr............$:1,014,000
It must be frankly admitted that there is no
l.opc of obtaining any part of this sum from any
other source than from the State. The Compa
ny entertain the hope that with '-,000,0X0
niore of State subscription, reducing the deli
ciency to $2,000,0(0, they will be enabled to
procure the reaining .42,000,0 on their mort
gage bounds without the State's endorsement. It
would be contrary totihe experience of the whole
country that. Ilhey should fail in such an effort.
B1ut, suppose they did ? Suplose they had to
return to the State for- its enduorsement ? The
State would then acipire the rond for $2,(H),
000 of stock and $3,000,W0 of endorsement.
Would this lbe too much to pay11 I br this great
work '? If a company p~resenuted iteelf here to
day, offering to construct this great highway of
coimmerce anid bonn of political union, t ho giand
de.iaeratmin of' the State for thme last thirty
years, at a cost of~ $7,00 000, and trainsfer' it to
the State for the sum of $5,000),000, could this
Legislature hieitate a moment in closing with
such a proposa~:l ! For, if it is insisted, contra
ry to thme experienu.e of' Georgia, that this road
will not be profitable, that it will pay no divi
dends to the stockholers, then it follows that
it will fall into the hands of the State, in satis
faction of thme mortgage. Nobody can doubt
tha~t, in this case, it would certainly pay the in
terest oni the $3,640,000 adianced by South
Carolina and TIenines'see, and the cost to this
State would siimply be the annual interest on
thme $2,000,000. oh' subscrib~ed capital.
If~ we examine into the ability of thme State to
as..ume this chource, we cannot fail of be.itng
fully' eomvinced .1f the~ ampliU nde of~ hlai rresoures.
If (vu' exclude for a mmuent, t he bondus recent Iy
issued fur the ilne liidge Roiad andl the new
State Ilouse, it will be seen lby the Comuptroil
Ier's report that the entire remaining debt will
Iamount to .$1,33i0,000. T1hie chief' part of this
debt consists of thme fire loani bonds, anid the
people have never paid one single dollar of taxes
Ifor the principal or interest. On the contrary,
the money has been long employed as a part of
the capital of the Bank of the State, and lhas
yielded a large profit, in addition to the annual
interest. To meet this debt of $1,330,000, the
State possesses in the sinking funmg and capital
of thu bank united, $4,140,000--so that, after
the payment of this debt, she .till have still re
malming $2,800,000 of bauk capital, which is
the clear accumulated profit of thme bank during
the long period of its existence. Not one dollar
has conme out of the pockets of the people.
In addition to this large sum, the State pos
esses $1,342,000 in railroad shamres. I excludo
from this, also, tho shares held in the Blue Ridge
Iload. This stock may be of small value, but
Ithis money did not comle out of the pockets of
the people either ; nearly the whole umn was
derived from the surplus revenue. It is said,
however, that no profit is derived from the in
vestment ; and this is sometimes used as an ar.
gument agaitnst the present application. But is
Sit an evil that the State derives no revenue
from these spares? Is it not proof that these
comipanies are doing the transportation and
Stravel of the country at rates so low as only to
Ipay the expenses of management ? Suppose it
was proposed to raise the ratesso high as to pay
the State 8 per cent, dividend on its shares ; all
rthe other stockholders would, of course, get a
similar dividend, and the public would be alarge
rloser by tlie arranmecnt. If, on the contrary,
twhen those companies applied for the aid they
have received, the State could have made it a
condition that no dividends should ever be doe
sclared, but the transportatIon of the country be
effected at rates adequate simply to defray thec
oexpenses, it would have been regarded as the
Smost beneficial arrangement for the public. The
seeming unproductiveness of thuis capital, there.
Ifore, is not an argument against such contribu'
tions on the parts of the State.
1 have shown that the State commenced this
enterprise wvitli a clear surplus capital of $2,.
800,000. Is $2,000,000 too much for a State
thus situated to contribute towards a greag
work like this? It may be supposed that South
Carolina has gone far enough for her means, but
it appears by the last United States census, that
she is yet far behind her sister States in such
work.s. The amount invested in railroads, in
proportion to the aggregate wealh is in each of
the enumerated States, as follows: Georgia,
1-20tlh;Maryland,1-9th; Mssachusetts, 1-11th;
New York, 1.11th; Pennsylvania 1-12th; South
Carolina, 1-25th; and the amount of property
per capila is as follows: Georgia, $370; Mary
land, $376; Massachusetts, $576; New York,
$349; Pennsylvania, $316; South Carolina,
$431; but if in this comparison we class the
negroes as property, and exclude them from the
population, the amount in South Carolina will
be $1,500, against $576 in Massachusetts.
but it will be observed that there are no com
plaints of this undertaking from the district
that has most largely contributed to railroads,
and bears at the same time the largest share of
the public burden. The corporation of Charles
ton has invested in railroads $2,640,000, and it
is estimated that the citizens have the further
sum of $4,000,000 in railroad stocks and bonds,
making an aggregate of near $7,000,000. And
as the real and personal property is estimated
at -$45,000,000, it follows that more than 1-7th
of the entire wealth of the city is invested in
railroads. The total wealth of the State (ex
cluding Charleston) is computed at $280000,
000, and if we suppose $8,000,000 of railroad
stock to be held by the rest of the State, the
proportion would be 1-35th against 1-7th in
Charleston. In the same way, Charleston, it
will be seen by tho Comptroller's report pays
23 per cent. of the entire taxes of the State,
though possessing but 121 per cent of the entire
wealth. It It is supposed probable, therefore,
that in the prosecution of this work, It may be
necessary to defray the interest of 82,000,000
by taxation, Charleston would pay 23} per cent.
on this amount, ($120,000).... .,, . .t9I,200
And 11 the rest of tis State,,,,..., 91,800
On $4,300,000, the estimated value of property
in Charleston, $28,200 would be at the rate of
1-c. on every $100; and for the rest of the
State, $91,800, on $280,000,000, would be at
the rate of 31c. on every $100. A tax so in
considerable, in comparison with the promised
benefits of this great work, as to be entirely
unworthy of consideration.
This subject was largely discussed at the late
Senatouial election in Edgefield District. One
of the candidates placed his opposition to this
enterprise distinctly on the ground of the taxes
to be borne by the large estates of Graniteville,
Kahnia and Vaucluse. But surely this must
have been done without sufficient examination.
This property owes its very existence to rail
roads ; and it would be a small matter to con
tribute a moderate tax to their support. It is
computed, I believe, to be worth $400,000 and
pays, it is said, into the State Treasury, the ex
tremely moderate tax of $20.44, and if it is
supposed that the State might eventually levy a.
tax for the interest of the $2.000,000, the share.
to be contributed by this vast and valuable pro
perty would be about $5.11. One eighth of'
one cent on every $100 ! The rest of the pro
perty in the district pays sixteen times as much
as this, and even then, the taxes are so moder
ate that it would be a reproach to the intelli
gence and loyalty of the people of that wealthy
district; to suppose they would hesitate about a
small addition, if it were necessary to carry out
a great State enterprise. The value of lands in
the district is $5,654,000, and of negroes $13,
400,000; together, nearly $20,000,000, upon
which the taxes paid amount to $16,000, or
about 8 cents on every $100. We ought not to
confound taxation without representation, which
is tyranny, with the self-imposed contributions
of a free people for wise and useful purposes,
and shrink from both with equal abhorrence;
nor suppose that we are always on the side of
the people when we inveigh aguinst taxation.
The advocates of thi.s road are fir more devoted
to their interests, than those who oppose it from
fear of debt or taxation; for the benefits of
railroads are of universal dliffusion-thle most
humble travel with the same speed and comfort
as the most exalted ; the feeblest efforts of in
dustry arc rewarded by means of a cheap and
ready tranmspo'rtationu to market. The bacon and
other bulky commiodities, that constitute the
humble fare of the poor man, is brought to his
dour at a reduced cost, that will comlpensate
him ten times over for the pittance of tax he
contributes. The white population of Edlgelield,
tmnder the centus of 1850, wvas 16.252. The tax
paid by the district lem.t year was $20,000; so
that, if equally distributed, it would amnount to
$1.25 to everv individual. If we admit, there
fore, that the interest on $2,000,000 must be
provided by taxatio~n, it would increase this tax
one-fourth, and every per.oni in Edgefield wov.d
piay an average of 31 cents-it he rich more, the
[suir less. Is t here one true friend of the pen
late, who will deny that t he advnnmt age to be dle
rivead from t his raoad, will abundantly repay this
rillinig tax ? Can any one~ .suppao that the
ple~l would prefer to see thais noible work daes
troyedI, andall1 hopes of such a commnunication
inally exming:.uished, rnther than umke this fee
ble contribution to its support ?
There are those, again, who look with appre
hension upon the creation of a public debt.
This is certainly a eunmendable prudence ; but
comunti ties, like inadi viduals, shoulad also avoid
the opposite extreme, and shun with equal ab
horrenace the avaricious passion that considers
the possession of money as the sum of human
happiness, and rogards no object sufficiently ne
blo to be put in competition with it. The peo
ple of South Carolina possess a noble inheritance,
valued at a moderate computation at .$360,000,
000, and yielding an annual income of not less
than $20,000,000. This splendid estate will
soon pass from our ha'nds Into those of a pos
terity, who in the course of nature will have
contributed nothing to its present value; why
should it be deenmed uni-casonablc to incumber
it with a moderate. dlebt for the purpse of
more completely developing its resources'. But
if it were possible for the State, in the consid
eration of this questionm, to' be'governed by sel
fish and sordhid motives, ahe ought even then to
avail herself of the present proposal, for the
worst consequences that can result to her will
be the acquisition of this noble and productive
work, under the mortgage she holds, for a sum
far less than the cost of constructing it. It
may be supposed that Charleston will derive the
chief benefit, but it 'is easy to prove that this
is an error.
The first report we have of the valud of lands
throughout the State, was in 1810, when they
were set down at $10,180,000; in 1850 they
were returnedl, under the United States Census,
at $82,431,00-being 'an increase of 700 per
cent. In 1810. the value of real estate in
Charleston was $6,600,000; in 1850, it was re
turned at $22,500,000-an increase of about
250 per cent. only.
If an augmentation of $70,000,000 in the
value of !and shall appear to be extravaganxt or
impossible, our doubts will be dissipated by the
fact that there has been an equal accession of
wealth from Lhe increase .in the number and
value of negroes; for if we. go back to 1831
only, we shall find the nunmber .to have been
290,000 then, and now it is 390,000, an increase
of 100.000 in number and $00,000,000 in value,
the first 290,000. And the superior: prosperity
of the upper districts, is clearly seen, -sad4
effect of the railroads in stimulating 'ihat prp
perity as clearly deduced,. from tbefollowr
statement: S S.
umer of Slaces i South adroUa.
Lower Division.... 129,672 12713 371
Upper Division...161),719 188;697 2470q
290,951 315,880 390 433
The increase from 1831 to 1857, beingin tli
Lower Division 11 per centum, and in the
per Division 60 per centum. 0,nly apart, how'''
ever, of the benefits derived from railroads ist
exhibitcd when the increased value of prrpertycre
is alone considered. 'The transportationd-.!
freight on the South Carolina Railroadisat the:
rate of 3 68-100c. per ton per mile, andthe i
come being $1,500,000, it followgi that the sei
vice rendered to the public for this sum ise A
to the transportation of 42,000,000 tong carrc:
one mile. Tile transportation by wagon, bef
the establishment of railroads, was-about:
cents per ton per mile, and if an- ample'dedn
tion is made for river carriage, and-the averag-z
rate be reduced to 10 dents per ton,. the6-tran-e
portation of 42,000,000 .tons at that rate wouldo-w
have cost $4,200,000. It now costs $i-,500.000,.
exhibiting a clear annual saving of $7O0,000.*
And if we suppose that so large a preppr ona..a.
two-thirds of the whole income gf the reiad.s 1i
derived from beyond the limits of the ste.,.
there is still a saving td our dwn 4peql4
?900,000 per annum on the tradsporta on on
this mngle road. A result that 'would " I '
Incredible If it were not corroborated iythe
result of similar investigations elsewhcre,- bstk
In this and In other countries, - When.- %WIs
urged, therefore, that the stock of the,3Wa-1 ,
Itidge Railroad will not be pronftabl&.thogg
we differ on the most substantial groundsn fo
those who hold this opinion, the adinlsion -
would, by no means, be conclusive ' tl
prosecution of the work; for it 'is cyisefti
that the direct profits are the leat part of the
benefits to be derived. If this were not the
ease, the perseverance exhibited by the wholq,
country in the construction of these wirts
would be wholly unaccountable. Tn 1880, tlas
number-of miles of railroad in the United Ste rz
was 7,350. In 1858, it is 26,210. - .
In 1830, the amount invested inrailroadsvwi.is
$260,000,000-in 1858, it is $917,000,000,:anm4
yet the nett earning during this whole peti&d:1
had never exceeded 5 per .cent. This provewm
conclusively that dividends arenot the incentiie'
to the extension of railroads, and coniis'theIr
obvious fact that they have now beconie' an o'
ject of indispensable' necessity, and the 'dnireg
profits to be derived, of mert secondaryeorsid- '
eration. They are now, not only the commeir
highway of traffic and travel, but the cheapel
method of transportation. .
The people of:the cotton-growing-States re*
the last.that should refuse to, contribute their,.,
share.to the extension of these work*.. Whewae,
the Liverpool and .Manchester Railroad a
projected in 1830, the entire exports of Ameri
can cotton-to Europ ifa.t.
annum; and yet it was fouid 'imposible 10'
effect the transportation between 'these tbns.
It was represented to Parliament that the rlves
Irwell and Mersey and the Bridgewater Cadial,
were wholly incompetent for the . traffic, and',
that it required less time to transport a cargo.-w
of cotton from America to England, than from--,
Liverpool to Manchester.
Now the crop exceeds 3,000,000 of baleq, and
the foreign exports 2,500,000 bales. - What-:
would have been the price.of cotton, undersuch.
circumstances, had railroads not been brought
into existence? Since 18.0, sixty millions of.
bales have been produced; if we allow nothing
for the influence on the price, and only estimqte
the saving in tho expense or transportation be
tween the plantation and the mill, at one cent
per pound, it amounts to the enormous sum'o
two hundred and forty millins or dollars. Aid'
if to this he added the saving on other prodnts?
of the South, and on the merchandise importedY4
in return, and the augmentation in the valueof
lands and negroes caused by the increased con-.e
sumption andl value of cotton, I am persuaded
-we should have an aggregate sum far exceeding.
the $800,000,000 which the Southern and e
South-western States have invested in railroads.
Their influence on the prosperity of the country
may be clearly traced in our foreign exports.4
Thme exports of the United States, from -1816
to 1823J, twelve years, averaged $80,000,000 per
annum; 1828 to 1842, fourteen years, averagede
$100,000,000 per annum ; 1842 to 1857, fifteemv'.
years, averaged $200,000,000 per annum.' Nos
comment is necessary on 'this statement., In-s
these benefits it has been shown that -South
Carolina fully participates; and though collat
eral and perhaps uns.een, they are not the -lesa
real and substantial. lint becauso they are no&
diirect and immediate, and do not ennire to the
separate and exclusive advantage of the stacio
holder, but are thu. universally and isnpercep
tibily diffused, there is continually an obvious..
comilict between the desire to procure railroads.
andl the disinclination to contribuee private capiw
tal form their construction. Everybody reonss
their value, and i.. in favor of buidgnthe
but'nobody is willing to contiute his money.
What is the remedy ? Is any one prepared t4
say that the proper alternative is to dispesife
with the use of railroads. Nobody, I am sure,
will assent to such a conclusion. Ritherto,
States have but partially and imperfectly rcg
nised the duty to interpose and solve the dif-4
oulty by' throwing the burthen on the pubil,ak
who enjoy all the benefits. In Georgia; how.
ever, this has been done, and with. compe
success. In Soutih~arolina, the presitun
taking presents the highest claims on the tt,
as a measure In strict accordance with herds.
clared policy, political and commercial. 2,00.
300 have already been expended, and-great pit.
gress made, and the refusal to ,eontinue the.
work now, will not only be attended -with the-r
disastrous loss of all that has already been aes.
pended, but forever close the doors agamnst' s
direct communication between South Carolina-r
and the Western States.
STRAanG.-A very singujar circumstance -
pened to a young lady in Cincinnt~ ' -.~
nights since. . The evening, or rather alh
previoas, she had been complainIng oft isvj
pain in the head and eyes, mnore ar i1rly 4 )
latter. Judge of her astonishnfent and ta
her friends, to find the following mormia'S4iet'
du'ing the night she- had become* ~mieli
cross-eyed. The transformation ocain~aa-e
no additional pain,, and has- been since, saastien
of much speculation. - a ..
CURE FOR CoNSUMrrr o The followi
for the cure df' consu:Aption, colds,.
handed us for publication by Jlev. Thi
of this p lace, who is informed tlsti
It is at least worth a tiial:- -
Take one quart of pure Schidaet Aehaapse
one gill of fresh' Turpentints, justuaminesu
from the tree; ;minrwell anddetistwo4Awoea
four hours. Then add half apinLo(
and shake well. Take one table-pon~
timesa day, and a er
Reporter. - . -1~
ggWhen 'out a a
is hadso6f you.' -A